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Elagabalus  218-222 A.D. Denarius RSC182 RIC38.JPG
47 viewsOBV: IMP.ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
REV: P.M.TR.P.IIII.COS.III.P.P.
Sol radiate naked except for cloak over left arm standing half-left looking back right raising right hand and holding whip in left; star in field left
nigel nicholson
Litra.jpg
36 viewsAnonymous AE Litra. 241-235 BC. (Grueber, half-litra: 312/290 BC)
Romano-Campanian
Obv.:Helmeted, beardless head of Mars right
Rev.:Head of horse right with bridle. A sickle behind, ROMA below.
Gs. 3,4 mm. 15,2
Crawford 25/3, Sear RCV 594, BMRRC II 64



Maxentius
CONSTNS-3.jpg
65 viewsConstans - AE3 Half Centenionalis. 348-350 AD.
Obv.: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, phoenix, radiate, standing right on rocky mound,
ASIS V in ex.
Gs. 2,7 mm. 19,6
Cohen 22, RIC 247

Maxentius
MAXIMIAN-5.jpg
74 viewsMAXIMIAN AE3 (Half-follis). 317-318 AD- Posthumous issue struck under Constantine I. - Mint of Siscia
Obv.: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate veiled bust right
Rev.: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand & holding scepter, SIS in ex.
Gs. 1,7 mm. 17,1
RIC 41 (R3), Cohen 495

1 commentsMaxentius
coin633.jpg
26 viewsIt is a copper lion of Mary Queen of Scots.
It is also known as a "hardhead", they were issued
1555-1560. It contains about 10% silver. they
were valued at three halfpence Scots, and were
equal in value to the french denier. The coin carries
the monogram FM, which appeared on her coinage
after her husband, the Dauphin, became Francis II
of France, on 10th July 1559. Francis died in 1560,
so this was issued within that period. Coin #633

cars100
philip_I_temple_new.jpg
58 viewsPHILIP I. 244-249 AD. AR Antoninianus, Rome, struck 248 AD. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Statue standing half-left within hexastyle temple. RIC IV 25b; RSC 198.
Ex. S. Beagle collection; Ex. Dorchester Hoard

This is a fairly common coin but difficult to find with both the obverse and reverse of good quality as well as having such good metal quality.
1 commentspaul1888
hadrian_denarius_clementia.jpg
118 viewsHadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.
Silver denarius, BMCRE III 536, RIC II 206, RSC 218, EF, 3.046g, 19.9mm, 180o, Rome mint, 132 - 134 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, bare head right; reverse CLEMENTIA AVG COS III P P, Clementia standing half left, patera in right, long vertical scepter in left
Coin and photo ex. Forum
3 commentspaul1888
B_068_Isaac_II__Angelus_(1185-1195_A_D_),_SB_2005,_AE-Half-Tetarteron,_Thessalonica,_Q-001_6h_20x20mm_5,69g-1-2-s.jpg
65 viewsquadrans
Sear-2429.jpg
12 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus, with Michael IX. 1282-1328. Æ Assarion (19mm, 1.70 g, 6h). Class III. Constantinople mint. Struck 1295-1320. Winged seraph / Half-length facing figures of Andronicus and Michael, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 638-46; SB 2429. VF, green and brown patina.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2365.jpg
9 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus. 1282-1328. Æ Trachy (23.5mm, 1.09 g, 6h). Class VIII. Thessalonica mint. Six-petaled flower / Half-length facing figures of Michael, holding [cruciform scepter], and St. Demetrius, holding spear, holding between them a staff surmounted by cross within ring. DOC 736-9; SB 2365. VF, dark green and brown patina.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2374.jpg
13 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus. 1282-1328. Æ Trachy (23.5mm, 1.61 g, 6h). Class IV. Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of St. Demetrius, holding spear and shield / Half-length winged facing figure of Andronicus, holding sword and akakia, above crenelated wall with archways. DOC 730-1; SB 2374. VF, dark green patina, minor areas of weak strike, struck on irregular flan.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2217.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (20mm, 1.67 g, 6h). Type R, Variety A. Thessalonica mint. Outstretched wing to left / Facing half-length bust John, holding banner decorated with two cross-in-rings. DOC 31; SB 2217. VF, dark green and brown patina, hint of roughness, small flan split.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Herrli-01_31.jpg
11 viewsSIKH EMPIRE: AE ¼ anna (7.35g), Amritsar, VS(18)96, KM-5var, Herrli-01.31, small cross in obverse field, pa anna nanakshahi on reverse, lovely strike, gorgeous EF, R, ex Paul Stevens Collection. Herrli divided these into a paisa (=¼ anna) and half paisa (11-12g, and 5.5g, respectively), but all coins are inscribed "pa anna" for ¼ anna, and all weigh in the range of 7.0g to 8.5g; thus there is only one denomination for this type.
Quant.Geek
MALWA_SULTANATE-GIYATH_AL_SHAH-HALF_TANKAH-.jpg
15 viewsAntonivs Protti
MUGHALS-AURANGZEB-HALF_RUPEE-AH1096-SURAT_MINT-RAREST_SILVER_COIN-53.jpg
9 viewsAntonivs Protti
Sear-366.jpg
6 viewsJustin II, with Sophia. 565-578. Æ Half Follis (20mm, 6.62 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 8 (572/3). Nimbate figures of Justin and Sophia seated facing on double throne, holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter, respectively / Large K; cross above, date across field; TЄS. DOC 73; MIBE 70a; SB 366. Quant.Geek
normal_Galba_Alex_Tet~0.jpg
7 Galba 38 viewsGalba
Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria.
Year 1 = 68 AD.
ΛΟΥΚ ΛΙΒ ΣΟΥΛΠ ΓΑΛΒΑ ΚΑΙΣ ΣΕΒ, laureate head right, LA before / ΕΛΕΥ-ΘΕΡΙΑ, Eleutheria standing half-left, holding wreath and sceptre, and leaning on column.
Köln 220, milne 311
Ex Nilus Coins
RE0001
1 commentsSosius
Constantius_I_Siscia_42.jpg
3 Constantius I (Posthumous)28 viewsCONSTANTIUS I
Half Follis, Siscia Mint
By Constantine I, 317-318 AD

DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI, Veiled laureate bust r. / REQVIES OPTIMOR-VM MERITORVM, Constantius seated, raising right hand and holding scepter, SIS in ex.

Siscia RIC VII Siscia 42 (R3); F/VF
Sosius
Max_Thrax_Sestertius.jpg
31 Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D.38 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 43, Cohen 10, VF, 23.158g, 32.3mm, 30o, Rome mint, 235 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FIDES MILITVM S C, Fides standing half-left, military standard in each hand; well centered, nice patina, flan crack, typical squared flan

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
rjb_2009_12_01.jpg
35247 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "VIRTVS CARAVSI"
Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed half length bust left holding spear and shield
Rev "PROVID AVG"
Providentia standing left holding baton with globe at feet and cornucopia
Camulodunum mint
-/-//C
RIC 352
1 commentsmauseus
Maurice_Tiberius_SB_587.jpg
8. Maurice Tiberius26 viewsMAURICE TIBERIUS
Half Follis, Rome Mint, 582-602 AD

DN MAVRICI TIb PP AV, Bust facing holding cross on globe / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 587, DOC 283
Sosius
Antiochus_IX.jpg
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C.24 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C. Ae 18. Weight 5.2g. Obv: Diademed head rt. Rev: Pallas Athena rt. holding shield and spear ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. BMC 93.23
Antiochus IX Eusebes, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname. He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria. He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes in 96 BC.
ddwau
18d1.jpg
Aurelian RIC 192 Siscia19 viewsAugust or September 270 - October or November 275 CE
Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 192, Siscia mint, 3.9g, 21.1mm, 271 CE.
Obverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILI, Concordia standing half left, holding two standards, Q (=4th officina) right.
NORMAN K
GB-HalfSov-1901-029500.jpg
Great Britain: gold half-sovereign of Queen Victoria, 1901, from the Terner Collection28 viewslordmarcovan
DSC01795.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-42gm 15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01834.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-6gm 13 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- The Basilaca315 viewsBASILICA
Forum of Pompeii c. 120 B.C. These more massive columns are from the basilica, the most important public building in Pompeii. Constructed prior to the Roman period, the basilica had three aisles and five entrance doors onto the forum. In the rear we see a two-tiered colonnade which has columns in the Doric style on the bottom and slender Ionic columns on top of a cross beam. In Pompeii many columns were made of brick and covered with stucco.

BASILICA (VIII,1,1)
Built in the second half of the 2nd cent. BC, as part of the plan to create monuments throughout the city. It has a rectangular layout, with three naves, with a ceiling sloping straight down in both directions from the central columns and half columns at the top of the walls, where there are still remains of decorations in ‘first style’: at the back is the tribunal, where the magistrates sat, reached by a wooden staircase. The building was dedicated to administering justice and for business negotiations.




John Schou
Jan.PNG
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC), Æ Half Prutah21 viewsObv. anchor. Rev. star.
References: TJC group L.
13mm and 1.06 grams
This coin is typically referred to as the Biblical Widow's mite.
Canaan
sear_1981.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus AE half tetarteron 37 viewsReverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOTH or similar Manuel bearded facing wearing crown and miltary attire and holding cruciform sceotre and gl. cr.
Mint: Unk greek mint
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1981 H. 18.5-6 (as Sear 1978 but smaller)
14mm 1.86
wileyc
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
Dolphindidrachm.jpg
Punic occupation half shekel78 viewsNude youth on horseback to left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ to right, ΣΩΓENHΣ below

Taras astride dolphin to left, holding cornucopiae and Nike who crowns him with wreath; TAPAΣ below.

Calabria, Tarentum ; Punic occupation, circa 212-209 BC

AR Reduced didrachm or Half-Shekel.

2.69g chipped otherwise VF+

Vlasto 975-7; HN Italy 1079.

Ex-ANE

Rare!

The climax of the Carthaginian invasion of Italy was reached when Tarentum changed sides in 212 BC. The takeover of the city was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city's democratic faction who opened the gates to Hannibal's army. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this enemy stronghold enabled the city to remain under Punic control. Hannibal installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
8 commentsJay GT4
caes Tera.bmp
Trajan. 98-117 CE.271 views Caesarea Maritima. Trajan. 98-117 CE. Æ 32mm
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder / Statue of the Tyche of Caesarea within semi-circular tetrastyle shrine with Corinthian columns; half figure of river-god to right of statue, altar with horns
Ros-19
2 commentsamibosam
Sklavengeld_Karneol.jpg
'Slave money', carnelian66 views25,4x13.60x11.90mm, 7.87g

This so-called 'slave money', part of a chain, was made in the first half of the 19th century in Idar-Oberstein/Germany for London. From London it was shipped to West Africa to buy black slaves.
Jochen
047n.jpg
Δ in circular punch274 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Civic. Æ 24. First half of 3rd century A.D. Obv: .TE-IOC. Diademed and draped bust of Teos right; countermark on neck. Rev: TIAN-ΩN. Dionysus standing facing, head left, emptying contents of cantharus, holding thyrsus. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 928ff (obverse).Axis: 30°. Weight: 5.72 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 789 (34 pcs). Note: The latest coin bearing this countermark was issued for Hostilian. Collection Automan.Automan
00003x00~5.jpg
37 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. Alexander.
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.95 g, 4h)
Artemis kneeling right, bathing, within grotto surmounted by half-length figure of Aktaion, wearing antlers and raising arms
Hippocampus right, AΛЄ Ξ around
Gülbay & Kireç –; Gorny & Mosch 212 (5 March 2013), lot 3333 (same dies); Vossen 35 (this coin)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection, 35
2 commentsArdatirion
00004x00~3.jpg
89 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (28.5mm, 8.53 g, 12h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Struck 1837-1842.
· (rosette) · I TAKE THE · (rosette) ·/ RESPONSIBILITY, half length bust of Jackson emerging from chest, holding saber and money bag
· THE CONSTITUTION ·/ AS I UNDERSTAND IT. Mule standing left, LL.D on flank; above, ROMAN/ FIRMNESS; below, VETO
Rulau HT 72; Low 53

Ex Steve Hayden (20 July 2014), lot 429; Don Miller Collection; William Dunham Collection (B. Max Mehl, 3 August 1941), lot 2627
1 commentsArdatirion
00091x00.jpg
94 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837.
CU Penny Token (34.5 mm, 14.27 g, 6 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835.
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-4A2; Breton 870

Canadian catalogs traditionally give this issue to an illicit mint in Montreal. Wayne Jacobs1 argues that these were struck in Belleville. While his methodology is somewhat questionable - most of his theory is based off a unreliable editorial in an 1893 edition of the Newark Sunday Call - his reasoning regarding this series is sound. He is able to clearly demonstrate that the halfpenny and penny tokens in question are a product of a single, cohesive establishment which could not have been located in Lower Canada. Finally, Jacobs' claim can be supported by documentary evidence from the Belleville mint's primary competitor, the Scoville Company of Waterbury, Connecticut. A letter from J.M.L. to W.H. Scoville, dated April 4 1839, states that, "a competitor was stamping Canada Nova Scotia and Southern coins at 35 cents a pound."

1. Jacobs, Wayne. 1996. “The Shadowy Issues of the Belleville Mint.” Canadian Numismatic Journal 41 1: 13–26.
1 commentsArdatirion
QXk0g1k.jpg
27 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A1; Corteau 277; Breton 871

The first obverse die for the series. This obverse would be extensively reused, eventually rusting, being polished and re-engraved, and develop the diagnostic die break before the nose.
Ardatirion
NS_3A2.jpg
39 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A2; Corteau 278, tentative die state 6; Breton 871

“Old residents state that these counterfeits were brought, in large quantities to St. John, N.B., and from thence distributed through fishing vessels to Nova Scotian out ports. And informant tells of having seen a fisherman from Yarmouth paid for his catch in this coin.” R.W. McLachlan (Annals of the Nova Scotian Coinage, p. 37)
1 commentsArdatirion
0IEu73C.jpg
17 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 (over 1382) below
Charlton NS-3C; Corteau 281; Breton 871

This reverse die was initially engraved with the anachronistic date 1382, but was quickly caught and corrected, leaving only a handful of that extremely rare variety known today.
Ardatirion
NOwh23l.jpg
24 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3D1; Corteau 282; Breton 871
Ardatirion
00090x00.jpg
74 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token (28mm, 8.47 g, 6 h)
John Walker & Company's mint. Dated 1832
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of George IV right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-1D1; Breton 871
1 commentsArdatirion
00057x00.jpg
32 viewsPHILIPPINES, Insular Government. 1901-1935.
Proof CU Half Centavo (18mm, 2.63 g, 6h)
Philadelphia mint. Dated 1903.
· UNITED STATES OF AMERICA · 1903
Eagle standing facing atop shield, head left, with wings spread, clutching a palm branch and bundle of arrows
HALF CENTAVO FILIPINAS
Male figure seated against anvil, resting hammer; in distance, Mt. Mayon
Allen 1.01; cf. Basso 110 (for business strike)

Ex Cookie Jar Collectibles MBS X (31 July 2007), lot 270
1 commentsArdatirion
00087x00.jpg
20 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966
AL Twenty-five Cent Token (24mm, 1.48 g, 11h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 25¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00086x00.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Ten Cent Token (22.5mm, 1.28 g, 2h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 10¢/ IN TRADE
Lipscomb WO 8051; TC 226639

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00085x00.jpg
16 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Five Cent Token (21.5mm, 1.16 g, 8h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 5¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
DSC_2712.jpg
55 viewsBRITISH TRADE TOKENS, Middlesex. London & Middlesex. Robert Reynolds & Co.
CU Halfpenny Token (31mm, 12.42 g, 6 h)
Dated 1799
LONDON & MIDDLESEX, draped bust of William Shakespeare left
HALFPENNY, Abundatia seated left on bale of cotton, extending hand and holding cornucopia; ship to left; 1799 in exergue
D&H 928
Ardatirion
louis1-obole-melle-lin.JPG
D.613var Louis the Pious (obol, Melle, class 2)34 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 0.74 g, 17 mm diameter, die axis 9 h

O/ LVDO / VVIC
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

As the value of a denier was quite important (a sheep typically cost 10 deniers during Charles the Great's reign), a smaller coin was needed. Clearly speaking, an obol is a half-denier. The carolingian coinage is typically one of silver deniers and obols. Obols and deniers were usually produced by pairs of the same kind.

Contrary to the related denier, the name of the ruler is here in the field and the mint name surrounds a cross pattée.
The absence of the imperial title made think that the coin had been struck when Louis was king of Aquitaine (before the death of Charles the Great). However there are similar obols with out of Aquitain mints. The absence of the imperial title (as well as an abbreviated name Lvdovvic instead of Hlvdovvicvs) may be due to a lack of space.
Droger
saint-martin-tours-denier.JPG
Saint Martin abbey: denier (Tours)9 viewsSaint Martin of Tours abbey
Denier (second half of the XII th century, Tours)

Billon, 0.67 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 10 h
O/ +SCS MARTINVS ; châtel tournois
R/ +TVRONVS CIVI ; cross pattée

Philip II has been inspired by this coin to create the denier tournois.
Droger
w14412.jpg
"4 Zhu" Ban Liang of Emperor Wen Di (Western Han Dynasty)42 viewsEmperor Wen Di (minted 175-119 BCE)

Two normal-sized Chinese characters – Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), large characters (lower part of liang is M shaped), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims.

24mm, 2.28 grams. BM Chinese coins (Poole) #256ff; Hartill #7.16.
Belisarius
w14240.jpg
"8 Zhu" Ban Liang of Qin Kingdom (Eastern Zhou Dynasty)24 viewsMinted 300-220 BCE.

Two huge Chinese characters - Ban Liang ("Half an ounce"), no rims or other marks / Blank, no rims. Unfiled edges.

This very large thin coins of variable weight were made under the very late Zhou dynasty - they are local issues, and might belong either to the late "Warring States" period or the early Qin period.

31mm, 3.52 grams. Hartill #7.4.
Belisarius
domna_felix_b.jpg
(0194) JULIA DOMNA17 views(wife of Septimius Severus)
194-217 AD
Fouree denarius, 19.5 mm, 3.74 g
O:IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right, hair in chignon in back
R: FEL—IC—ITAS, veiled Felicitas standing half-left, holding caduceus and long scepter
(Mule--obverse of RIC 375, RSC 49; with reverse of RIC 551, RSC 47)
laney
elagal_snake_cista~0.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS24 views218 - 222 AD
AE ASSARION 15.5mm 2.81g
O: AVT KM AV P ANTWNINOC
LAUR BUST R
R: MARKIANOPOLITWN
SNAKE EMERGING FROM HALF-OPENED CISTA
Hristova/Jekov No.6.26.5.8
MARKIANOPOLIS
laney
gordian_bery_copy.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III34 views238-244 AD
Struck 241-244 AD
Æ 28 X 30 mm, 16.11 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: Tetrastyle temple of Astarte, half-length bust of Astarte facing, flanked by standards within; lion walking right below.
PHOENICIA, Berytus
Sawaya 2177 (D382/R830); BMC 228-9; SNG Copenhagen 123
laney
phil_2_moes.jpg
(0247) PHILIP II24 views247-248 AD
AE Dupondius 22 mm 5.32 g
O: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG radiate bust right, from behind
R: P M S COL VIM, ANVIIII in exe (year 9) Moesia standing half left with bull and lion at feet
Moesia Superior, Viminacium Mint; c.f. SNG/H.366 AMNG. 1/121 Varbonov159 (R3)
laney
CONSTANTIUS_II_SEC_RES.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II25 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
337 - 361 AD
AE 14 mm 1.00 g
O: D N FL CONST-ANTIVS AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRI-TAS REIP, Securitas standing half-right, legs crossed, leaning on column, scepter in right, R leaf S in ex
Rome mint RIC VIII 9(c); VM75 Rare


laney
theod_concor_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I24 views379 - 395 AD.
AE 17 mm, 1.77 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right,
R: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, turret on head, looking half right, holding sceptre, left hand on knee;
BSISC in exe.
Siscia mint
laney
half_follis_4.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I41 views527-565 AD
Æ Half Follis 24 mm 7.30 g
O: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r.
R: Large K; long cross at left;officina mark to right; stars above and below.
Constantinople
Sear 164
laney
half_follis_2_7.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I38 views527-565 AD
Æ Half Follis 20.5 mm 7.20 g
O: [DN IV]STINIANVS PP AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r.
R: Large K; long cross at left;officina mark to right; stars above and below.
Constantinople
Sear 164
laney
half_follis_1_7.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I39 views527-565 AD
Æ Half Follis 26 mm 7.25 g
O: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r.
R: Large K; long cross at left;officina mark to right; stars above and below.
Constantinople
Sear 164
laney
BYZ.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I49 views527-565 AD
Æ Half Follis
O: Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger and shield; cross to right
R: Large K, ANNO to left, cross above, XX/VI to right, NI below
Nicomedia
laney
half_follis_6_7.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I45 views527-565 AD
AE HALF FOLLIS 23 mm 5.73 g
O: Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Justinian facing, holding globus cruciger and shield, cross in right field
R: Large K, cross above; A/N/N/O at left; regnal year at right; officina letter below

laney
justinian_i_half_follis_b.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I24 views527-565 AD
Æ Half Follis
O: Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger and shield; cross to right
R: Large K, ANNO to left, cross above, XX/VI to right, NI below
Nicomedia
laney
justinian_k_blk.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I14 views527-565 AD
Æ Half Follis 24 mm 7.30 g
O: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r.
R: Large K; long cross at left;officina mark to right; stars above and below.
Constantinople
Sear 164
laney
justinian_half_follis_8.jpg
(0527)JUSTINIAN I26 views527 - 565 AD
AE Half Follis 23.5 mm 7.16 g
O: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: Long cross dividing N/I to left OF LARGE K, B TO RIGHT
SEAR SB 202, Nicomedia
laney
half_follis_3_7.jpg
(0565) JUSTIN II43 views565-578 AD
AE HALF FOLLIS 20 mm 5.37 g
O: D N IVSTN-VS P P AVI, Justin and Sophia, side by side, facing
R: Large K with ANNO to left, cross above, DELTA TO R
TES IN EXE
THESSALONIKA
Sear Byz 366
laney
half_follis_5_7.jpg
(0565) JUSTIN II39 views565-578 AD
AE Half-Follis 21 mm max. 5.96 g
O: [DN IVSTI]NVS PP AVG. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globe cross and shield.
R: Large K; cross above; A/N/N/O to l; year to r
laney
justin_ii_sophia_2_blk.jpg
(0565) JUSTIN II AND SOPHIA13 views565-578 AD
AE HALF FOLLIS 21.5 mm max, 5.70 g
O: D N IVSTN-VS P P AVI, Justin and Sophia, side by side, facing forward
R: Large K with ANNO to left, cross above, DELTA TO R
TES IN EXE
THESSALONIKA
Sear Byz 366
laney
byz_one_bkk.jpg
(0602) PHOCAS14 views602-610.
Struck 603-610, 5th officina
Æ Half Follis 25 mm, 5.63 g
O: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross
R: Large XX; star above; CONЄ
Constantinople mint DOC 37e; SB 644.
laney
phocas_half_follis_with_leontia.jpg
(0602) PHOCAS with Leontia12 views 602-610 AD.
Æ Half Follis 21.5 mm, 4.52 g
Dated RY 1 (602/3 AD).
O: ON FOCA NEPE AV, Phocas holding globus cruciger, and Leontia holding cross sceptre, standing facing; cross above
R: Large X•X; cross above; mint monogram below.
Antioch mint; cf DOC II 91; MIB II 85; SB 673
laney
constans_ii_res.jpg
(0641) CONSTANS II41 views641-668 AD
AE Half Follis 18 mm; 4.10 g
O: Beardedbbust facing; wearing consular robes and crown with trefoil ornament, holding mappa and globus cruciger
R: Large cross dividing C-T and X-X; above cross, star between two pellets
CARTHAGE mint
laney
manuel_I_tetarteron.jpg
(1143) MANUEL I, COMNENUS34 views8 April 1143 - 24 September 1180 A.D.
AE TETRATERON 20 mm 3.19 g
O: CROSS WITH X AT CENTER STANDING ON 3 STEPS, IC TO L, XC TO R
R: MANMHΛ ΔεCΠOTH (or similar)
HALF LENGTH FIGURE OF MANUEL I FACING, WEARING LOROS AND CROWN AND HODING LABARUM AND BLOBUS CRUCIGER
THESSALONICA
SBCV 1976?
laney
andronicus_ii.jpg
(1282) ANDRONICUS II & MICHAEL IX17 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX
1282 - 1328 AD
AE Assarion 21mm, 1.99 grams
O: Nimbate and facing bust of Archangel St. Michael holding scepter and globus cruciger.
R: Facing half length figure of Christ blessing the two emperors who kneel before him.
Constantinople mint; Sear2435 // DOC677-80
laney
072~0.JPG
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 871]8 viewsAR Half Siliqua, 0.70 gm. Carthage mint. Struck 617-641 AD. Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Heraclius right / no legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Martina on right, wearing crown with long pendilia, and robes; cross between their heads, sometimes with four dots between their shoulders. DOC 233; MIB 149; SB 871.Ségusiaves
Agrippa_2_RCV_1731.jpg
(Augustus &) Agrippa AE 'half dupondius,' A.D. 10-14 RIC 159-160, RCV 1731, Cohen 8, RPC 525 39 viewsIMP DIVI F P-P, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate / COL NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right. Gaul, Nemausus.
Maximum Diameter: 25.2 mm
Weight: 7.01 g

Cut in half for fractional change.
1 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
nurnberg_1_kreuzer_1773.jpg
*SOLD*20 views Nürnberg - 1 Kreuzer

Attribution: KM #367; 'Stadtansichtskreuzer von Nürnberg' (city-view Kreuzer of Nuremberg) is the specific type
Date: AD 1773
Obverse: View of Nuremberg in Bavaria/Germany, Providence of God above, 1773 below
Reverse: Three Coat of Arms of Nuremberg – 1) Top is 'Freie und Reichsstadt' ('Free city and city of the German Empire), the meaning is that Nuremberg has no other ruler above it than
the Emperor himself; 2) right is a half eagle, black on golden field, in the l. half, and six red and six silver oblique stripes in the r. field; 3) left shows a golden harpyia (mythic bird) on a blue field, has a female head and is crowned.
Noah
Licinius.jpg
*SOLD*19 viewsLicinius I Bronze follis

Attribution: RIC VI 60, Thessalonica
Date: AD 312-313
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing half l., nude, Victory on globe in r., long scepter vertical in l., eagle with wreath in beak l., •TS•• in exergue
Size: 24.3 mm
Weight: 4.42 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
RI_001f_img.jpg
001 - Augustus and Agrippa Broken Half Dupondius34 viewsObv:– Heads of [Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath,] and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, [IM]P [DIV]I F.
Rev:– COL [NEM], Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
RI_001g_img.jpg
001 - Augustus and Agrippa Broken Half Dupondius33 viewsObv:– Heads of [Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath,] and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, [IM]P [DIV]I F.
Rev:– COL [NEM], Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
RI_001i_img.jpg
001 - Augustus and Agrippa Broken Half Dupondius20 viewsBroken Half Dupondius
Obv:– Heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, [IMP D]IVI F.
Rev:– [COL] NEM, Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
0011.jpg
0011 - Denarius Trajan 101-2 AC23 viewsObv/IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Trajan laureate head r., togate l. shoulder.
Rev/(PM TR P) COS IIII PP, Victory standing to front, head turned l., half-draped, holding wreath and palm.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.32g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/58 [C] - BMCRE 115 - RSC 240
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils
dafnis
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.88 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
Maximiano.jpg
005 - Maximian (second regin 306-308 AD), half follis - RIC 91b44 viewsObv: DN MAXIMIANO FELICISS, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, right hand rised.
Rev: PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, holding branch in right hand and leaning on sceptre left.
Minted in Alexandria (gamma in mid field. ALE in exe), officina 3, earlier to mid 308 AD (that is before his second abdication at the conference in Carnuntum). Scarce according to RIC.

The coin type is supposed to honor the senior emperors Diocletian and Maximian after their abdication in 305 AD.
pierre_p77
Claudgoth0530.jpg
006 - Claudius II Gothicus (268-270 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 9135 viewsObv: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. PROVIDENT AVG, Providentia standing half left, leaning on column, holding cornucopia and rod over globe.
Minted in Rome.
pierre_p77
Medio Follis Anastasio I SB0025.jpg
01-10 - Anastasio I (11/04/491 - 01/07/518 D.C.) 29 viewsAE Medio Follis (Módulo grande) 28 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N.ANASTASIVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " K ", con " +" a izquierda y "Γ" (Letra de Officina) a derecha.

Acuñada 491 - 518 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #25 Pag. 39 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #24 - B.M.C. #30-33 - Tolstoi M.B. #38-42 - Ratto M.B. #356/8 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #86/8 - Hahn M.I.B. #33
mdelvalle
0122.jpg
0122 - Denarius Gordian III 241 AC19 viewsObv/ IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of G. r.
Rev/ VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing half-l., leaning on shield, holding helmet and transverse scepter.

Ag, 19.9 mm, 3.45 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC VI/131 [R]
ex-Roma Numismatics, jul 2011 – art. #12264
dafnis
Augustus_RIC_I_4(a).jpg
02 03 Augustus RIC I 4(a)40 viewsAugustus. 27B.C. -14A.D. AR Denarius. Emerita Mint, c. 25-23 A.D. (3.21g, 19.4mm, 0h). Obv: IMP CAESAR AVGVST, bare head right. Rev: P CARISIVS LEG PRO PR, trophy of helmet cuirass, shield, and javelins, on heap of shields and lances. RIC 4(a), RSC 403(a).

Augustus established the colony of Emerita Augusta in Lusitania to settle emeriti- retiring soldiers- as he downsized the Roman army. P. Carisius, legatus pro praetore, effected the foundation on Augustus’s behalf. Emerita served as a strongpoint for the Empire in the west of Spain.
1 commentsLucas H
Medio Follis Justino I SB0068.jpg
02-10 - Justino I (10/07/518 - 01/08/527 D.C.) 22 viewsAE Medio Follis 25 x 21 mm 8.1 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " K ", con larga " + " a izquierda y " A " (Letra de Officina) a derecha.

Acuñada 518 - 527 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.1ra.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #68 Pag. 46 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #14 - B.M.C. #33-35 - Tolstoi M.B. #55-58 - Ratto M.B. #403, 404, 406 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. p.42 - Hahn M.I.B. #18
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino I SB0069.jpg
02-11 - Justino I (10/07/518 - 01/08/527 D.C.) 24 viewsAE Medio Follis 18 x 19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " K ", con larga " + " a izquierda, " * " arriba y abajo y " Δ " (Letra de Officina) a derecha.

Acuñada 518 - 527 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #69 Pag. 46 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #15 - B.M.C. #34 - Tolstoi M.B. #56-58 - Ratto M.B. #403, 405 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. p.42 - Hahn M.I.B. #19
mdelvalle
02-Claudius-II-The-26.jpg
02. Claudius II: Thessalonica fractional.19 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP / Veiled bust of Claudius II, Gothicus.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark:: . TS . Γ .
1.35 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #906; Sear #16399.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
Troas,_Ilion,_020_Vespasian,_AE-,_Vespasian,_Titus,_Domitian_,_Athena,_RPC_II_893,_Bellinger_T197,_69-79_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19,5-21mm,_8,25g-s.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), Troas, Ilion, RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #188 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), Troas, Ilion, RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #1
avers: (AYTOK K CEBAC) OYECPACIANOC, Laureate head of Vespasian right
reverse: TITω KAICAP I ΔOMITIANΩ KA IΛI, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left. Between them, cult image of Athena, standing on a low base, turned half left, brandishing spear and resting a hand on the shield.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-21,0mm, weight: 8,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Troas, Ilion, date: 69-79 A.D.,
ref: RPC II 0893, Bellinger T197,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Anonymous-AE-QuadransHelmeted-Cuirassed-Minerva_right_Owl-left_S-C_RIC-II-8-p-216_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
024d Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC II(1962) 008, Anonymus AE-Quadrans, Rome, Owl standing half left, S/C//--, #175 views024d Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC II(1962) 008, Anonymus AE-Quadrans, Rome, Owl standing half left, S/C//--, #1
Anonymous AE Quadrans. Time of Domitian to Antoninus Pius.
avers: Draped, cuirassed bust of Minerva right, wearing Corinthian helmet.
revers: Owl standing hal left.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: mm, weight: , axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 84-85 A.D., ref: RIC II(1962) 008, p-216,
Q-001
quadrans
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Æ Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP_COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_RIC-129_Q-001_7h_17,5-18,5mm_3,01g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0129, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left on shields, 147 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0129, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left on shields,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Victory standing left on shields, half draped and holding wreath and palm.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight:3,01g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 106 A.D., ref: RIC-II-129-p-, BMCRE-, RSC-76,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
V633.jpg
02a Domitian as Caesar RIC 79149 viewsAR Quinarius (Broken), 1.04g
Rome mint, 75 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVSTI; Victory std. l., with wreath and palm
RIC 791 (C). BMC 158. RSC 634. BNC 136.
Acquired from GB Collection, June 2016

Quinarii were struck under Vespasian for Domitian Caesar from 73 onwards. This common piece dates to 75 when the largest quinarius issue of the reign was produced.

Broken, but enough of the major devices remain to identify it properly. I think I got the better half.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
Medio Follis Justiniano I SB00165.jpg
03-10 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 28 x 30 mm 7.1 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente. A su Izquierda " + " .
Rev: Gran " K ", " + " arriba, " A/N/N/O " a izquierda, " XII " (Año de reinado) a derecha y " Δ " (Letra de Officina) debajo.

Acuñada Año=12, 538/9 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #165 Pag. 61 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #62-75 - B.M.C. #107/12, 115/19 - Tolstoi M.B. #318/36 - Ratto M.B. #539/42, 547 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #82-91 - Hahn M.I.B. #96 (H.Weller)
mdelvalle
03-Constantius-The-25.jpg
03. Constantius I: Thessalonica fractional.21 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI / Veiled bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: . T . SB .
1.78 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #25; PBCC #908; Sear unlisted.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
Hadrian_AE-Dupondius_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_TRANQVILLITAS-AVG-COS-III-P-P_S-C_RIC-II-730_C-_134-138-AD_Q-001_6h_26mm_9,46ga-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0730, Rome, AE-As, TRANQVILLITAS-AVG-COS-III-P-P, S/C//--, Tranquilitas standing half left, Scarce!80 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0730, Rome, AE-As, TRANQVILLITAS-AVG-COS-III-P-P, S/C//--, Tranquilitas standing half left, Scarce!
avers:- HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS, Bare headed and draped bust left.
revers:- TRANQVILLITAS-AVG-COS-III-P-P, Tranquilitas standing half left, holding short sceptre or baton and leaning on column.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 26mm, weight:9,46g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 134-138 A.D., ref: RIC-II-730, p-, C-1443var, Sear-, Scarce!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
032p_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Lycaonia,_Iconium,_BMC_4,_AE-16,_Q-001_5h_17,5-18,0mm_3,42g-s.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Lycaonia, Iconium (Eikonion as Klaudeikonion), BMC 4, AE-16, C - A / E - T /N - H, Winged caduceus,148 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Lycaonia, Iconium (Eikonion as Klaudeikonion), BMC 4, AE-16, C - A / E - T /N - H, Winged caduceus,
avers: - AΔΡIANOC KAICAΡ, bare head left .
revers: - KΛAYΔ EIKONIEΩN, Perseus standing half-right, naked, holding harpa and head of Gorgon.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter:17,5-18,0mm, weight:3,42g, axis:5h,
mint: Lycaonia, Iconium (Eikonion as Klaudeikonion), date:117-138 A.D., ref: BMC 4, Aulock, Lykaonien 290-292; Imhoof KM 5; Waddington 4767; SNG France III, 2286.
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
037_Marcus_Aurelius_(139-161_A_D__as_Caesar,_161-180_A_D__as_Augustus),_AE-As,_RIC_III_1106,_Rome,_MARTI_VICTORI_IMP_VI_COS_III,_axis-h_mm_21,xxg-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1107, Rome, AE-As, MARTI VICTORI IMP VI COS III, Mars standing right,314 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1107, Rome, AE-As, MARTI VICTORI IMP VI COS III, Mars standing right,
avers:- M-ANTONINVS-AVG-TR-P-XXVIII, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- MARTI-VICTORI-IMP-VI-COS-III, Mars standing right, helmeted & half draped, resting upon head of a captive left a shield inscribed S C, spear in right hand.
exerg: -/-//S-C, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 8,96g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date:173-74 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1107, p-301, Cohen 433, Sear-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RI_038b_img.jpg
038 - Nerva denarius - RIC II 857 viewsObv:– IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right
Rev:– IVSTITIA AVGVST, Justitia seated half-right, holding sceptre and branch
Minted in Rome, A.D. 97
Reference:– BMC 44. RIC II 18. RSC 101.

Good style. Decent surfaces.
5 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_038b_img~0.jpg
038 - Nerva denarius - RIC II 827 viewsObv:– IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right
Rev:– IVSTITIA AVGVST, Justitia seated half-right, holding sceptre and branch
Minted in Rome, A.D. 97
Reference:– BMC 44. RIC II 18. RSC 101.

Good style. Decent surfaces.

Updated image.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Verus_AR-Den_L-VERVS-AVG-ARM-PARTH-MAX_TR-P-VI-IMP-IIII-COS-II_VIC-PAR_RIC-III-566-p259_Rome_166-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_17-18mm_2,68g-s.jpg
039 Lucius Verus (161-169 A.D.), RIC III 566 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P VI IMP IIII COS II, VIC/PAR, Victory standing right,85 views039 Lucius Verus (161-169 A.D.), RIC III 566 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P VI IMP IIII COS II, VIC/PAR, Victory standing right,
avers:- L-VERVS-AVG-ARM-PARTH-MAX, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-VI-IMP-IIII-COS-II/VIC-PAR, Victory, half-draped, standing right, holds palm and places on palm-tree a shield inscribed VIC PAR.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,68g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 166-67 A.D., ref: RIC-III-566 (Marc.Aur.), p-259, C-279,
Q-001
quadrans
Medio Follis Justino II SB00361D.jpg
04-10 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 28 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 25 mm 7.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, "Signo=5" (Año reinal) a derecha y " Δ" (Letra de Officina) debajo.

Acuñada Año=5 - 569/70 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #361 Pag. 92 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #44-58 - B.M.C. #82-100 - Tolstoi M.B. #217-234 - Ratto M.B. #825-833 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #45-51 - Hahn M.I.B. #44a-c
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00365.jpg
04-14 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 24 mm 5.2 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira" ó "globus cruciger" u "Ordis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, " I " (Año reinal) a derecha y " TES " debajo.

Acuñada Año=1 - 565/6 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #365 Pag. 93 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #61/4 - B.M.C. #101/4 - Tolstoi M.B. #38-40 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-5 - Hahn M.I.B. #68a-b
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00366.jpg
04-15 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 24 mm 5.2 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " Ilegible " arriba, " ε " (Año reinal) a derecha y " TES " debajo.

Acuñada Año=5 - 569/70 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #366 Pag. 93 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #65-85 - B.M.C. #105/24 - Tolstoi M.B. #173-188 - Ratto M.B. #835-842 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #6-15 - Hahn M.I.B. #70a-f
mdelvalle
04-Maximianus-Sis-41.jpg
04. Maximian: Siscia fractional.43 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP / Veiled bust of Maximian.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: SIS
1.61 gm., 15mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #838; Sear #16412.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
Ana_Unk.jpg
0491-0518 AD - Anastasius I - Half Follis (large module)50 viewsEmperor: Anastasius I (r. 491-518 AD)
Date: c. 498-518 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: Half Follis (large module)

Obverse: D N ANASTASIVS PP AVG (or similar)
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Large "K"; cross to left; "A" to right
Exergue: unknown (unknown mint, first officina)

7.35g; 27.4mm; 210°
Pep
Byz_Rome_Decanum.jpg
05. JUSTIN II AND SOPHIA28 viewsJUSTIN II AND SOPHIA
Half follis, Rome Mint , 565-578 AD

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, Justin on l. and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne / Large XX, cross above, ROM below.

SB 404, DOC 206
Sosius
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG_PONTIF-TR-P-XII-COS_III_RIC-IV-I-112-p-_C-464_Rome_209-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_19,5mm_3,22ga-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 112, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF TR P XII COS III, Virtus standing76 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 112, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF TR P XII COS III, Virtus standing
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- PONTIF-TR-P-XII-COS-III, Virtus standing half-right with foot on helmet, spear and parazonium.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5 mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 209 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-112, p-, C-464, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-260b_Roma_215-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_23mm_4,69g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #1180 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #1
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter seated left holding Victory and sceptre at his feet eagle.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,69g, axis:- 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-260v, p-249,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC_IV_260b(v)_Hill_1519__RSC_277_Roma_215-AD_Q-002_h_mm_g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #276 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #2
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter seated left holding Victory and sceptre at his feet eagle.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,53g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-260v, p-249, Hill-1519, RSC-277b
Q-002
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC_261c,_RSC_299a,_BMC_124_Roma_216-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 261c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis/Pluto seated left, #177 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 261c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis/Pluto seated left, #1
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Serapis/Pluto seated left wearing polos, holding scepter, and reaching toward three-headed dog Cerberus seated to left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,33g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-261c, RSC-299a, BMC-124
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-264c_Roma_215-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #01148 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #01
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axis:- 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-264c_Q-004_24mm_4_02g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #0475 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #04
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 4,02g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-004
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIIII-COS-IIII-P-P_216_Roma-RIC-275b_Q-001_23mm_4_22g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 275b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter Standing, Scarce!,91 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 275b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter Standing, Scarce!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,22g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215-216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-275b, p-252,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P_217_Roma-RIC-289d_Q-001_23mm_5_08g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 289d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing left, Scarce!,83 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 289d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing left, Scarce!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P, Serapis, wearing polos on head, standing left, holding corn-ears, in wreath and sceptre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 5,08g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-289d, p-255,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P_217_Roma-RIC-xxxx_Q-001_23mm_4_79g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #0187 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #01
avers:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from the back.
revers:- P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left, raising right hand and holding the whip.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,79g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-293e, p-256, RSC-390,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_293e_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_P_M_TR_P_XX_COS_IIII_P_P,_RSC_390,_Roma,_217_AD,_Q-003,_6h,_21,5-23,0mm,_4_74g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #03135 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #03
avers:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from the back.
revers:- P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left, raising right hand and holding the whip.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21,5-23,0mm, weight: 4,74g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-293e, p-256, RSC-390,
Q-003
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P_217_Roma-RIC-xxxx_Q-002_23-24mm_4_79g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol with whip, #0271 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol with whip, #02
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol radiate, standing left, raising right .
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23-24mm, weight: 4,79g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-293e, p-256, C-390,
Q-002
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_310,_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_VENERI_VICTRICI_,_Rome_215,_AD__Q-001,_0h,_mm,_g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 310, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, Scarce! #186 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 310, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, Scarce! #1
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, and cuirassed bust right seen half from the back.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding Victory and sceptre, leaning on shield set on helmet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,8-23,0mm, weight: 5,64g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 310, RSC
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_311d,_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_VENVS_VICTRIX,_RSC_608c,_BMC_80cf,_Rome_213-17-AD_Q-001_6h_22,5-25,0mm_5,75g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,144 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate and draped bust right, seen half from back.
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter, leaning on shield set on helmet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-25,0mm, weight: 5,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-317 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-311d, RSC 608c, BMC 80cf,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla,_RIC_IV-I_311v(bust-not_in),_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_VENVS_VICTRIX,_312-17_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_22,8-23mm,_5,64g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,164 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, and cuirassed bust right seen half from the back.
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter, leaning on shield set on helmet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,8-23,0mm, weight: 5,64g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-317 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 311v, RSC 608a-c, var.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_VENVS-VICTRIX_216_Roma-RIC-312c_Q-001_23mm_5_02g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 312c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,86 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 312c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- VENVS-VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding helmet and scepter with shield; seated captive on either side.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 5,02g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-312c, p-259,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
JustISB69.jpg
0518-0527 AD - Justin I - Sear 69 - Half Follis32 viewsEmperor: Justin I (r. 518-527 AD)
Date: 518-527 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AVG
Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, with cross rising from front of diadem.

Reverse: Large K; to left, long cross; to right, "B"; stars above and below.

Constantinople mint, second officina
Sear 69
7.99g; 24.4mm; 180°
Pep
051p_Caracalla,_Syria,_Antioch,_AR-Tetradrachm,_Eagle,_Prieur_217,_McAlee_677,_Bellinger_18,_214-217-AD,_Q-001_5h_25,5mm_13,01g-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, Antioch, Prieur 217, AR-Tetradrachm, ΔHMAPX•EX•YPA•TO•Δ, Eagle standing half left, #1122 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, Antioch, Prieur 217, AR-Tetradrachm, ΔHMAPX•EX•YPA•TO•Δ, Eagle standing half left, #1
avers: AYT K•M•A• ANTΩNEINOC C EB, Laureate head right.
revers: ΔHMAPX•EX•YPA•TO•Δ, Eagle standing half left on the leg and thigh of sacrificial animal, head right, tail right, wreath in beak.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5 mm, weight: 13,01g, axis: 5h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: 214-217 A.D., ref: Prieur 217, McAlee 677, Bellinger 18,
Q-001
quadrans
051p_Caracalla_(196-198_Cae,198-217_A_D__Aug),_Thrace,_Pautalia,_Varbanov_II__5129v_(EEa)_,_AE-29,_Q-001_7h_29-29,5mm_15,67g-s.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Thrace, Pautalia, Varbanov II. 5129var., AE-29, OYΛΠIAC ΠAYTAΛIAC, Hermes standing half left, #191 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Thrace, Pautalia, Varbanov II. 5129var., AE-29, OYΛΠIAC ΠAYTAΛIAC, Hermes standing half left, #1
avers:- AYT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, Laureate head right (EEa).
revers:- OYΛΠIAC ΠAYTAΛIAC, Hermes standing half left, holding purse and caduceus, with chlamys in left hand.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 29,0-29,5mm, weight: 15,67g, axis:7h,
mint: Thrace, Pautalia, date: A.D., ref: Varbanov(Engl.,2005) II. 5129var., (Not in this legend and bust variation, EEa).
Q-001
quadrans
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
JustIISB366.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis62 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 569-570 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, cross; to left, A/N/N/O; to right, E
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
4.76g; 23.5mm; 150°
Pep
JustIISB366_2.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 2nd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 574-575 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, X
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.07g; 22.3mm; 165°
Pep
JustIISB366_3.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 3rd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 577-578 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, XI/II
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.05g; 22.1mm; 165°
Pep
6-Gordian-III-Caes-RIC-1.jpg
06. Gordian III as Caesar / RIC 1.39 viewsDenarius, April - July 238 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M ANT GORDIANVS CAES / Bust of Gordian.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG / Sacrificial implements: lituus, knife, vase, simpulum, and sprinkler.
2.64 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC #1 (Balbinus & Pupienus); Sear #8557.

This denarius was minted near the beginning of the 99 day reign of Balbinus and Pupienus. Denarii of Gordian III as Caesar are quite rare, so it is likely they were minted only to commemorate the occasion of his proclamation as Caesar. When the antoninianus was re-introduced about half way through the reign, none were issued in Gordian's name.

The AVGG in reverse legend refers to Balbinus and Pupienus.
2 commentsCallimachus
064.jpg
060a LICINIUS I10 viewsEMPEROR: Licinius I
DENOMINATION: AE3 Radiate
OBVERSE: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing half left, holding Victory on globe and eagle tipped staff, eagle at foot left with a wreath in its beak, captive seated to right with head left, X over III in field.
EXERGUE: SMHГ
DATE: 321-324 AD
MINT: Heraclea
WEIGHT: 2.42 g
RIC: VII Heraclea 52
Barnaba6
RI 063d img.jpg
063 - Clodius Albinus Denarius - RIC - 91 viewsObv:- D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, Bare head right
Rev: FECILITAS COS II, Felicitas standing half left, caduceus in right and scepter in left
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
RIC -. Same devices and legends as RIC 4 but with the disctinctive Alexadrian style.
Rare
maridvnvm
LarryW1918.jpg
0635 Focas, 602-61038 viewsGold half tremissis (1/6 solidus), 14.34mm, 0.72g, aEF
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
dN FOCAS PER AV, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, beardless / VICTORI FOCAS AV, cross potent, CONOB beneath.
Extremely rare with three known specimens; the smallest gold denomination in the Byzantine series.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Frank Kovacs
Sear 635; cf. DOC 20; cf. MIB 29
Lawrence Woolslayer
RI 064br img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 03242 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERO PATRI, Bacchus (Liber) standing half-left, holding oenochoe and thyrsos; on left, panther standing left, head turned back to catch drips from jug
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE 64. RIC 32 (Scarce). RSC 301
maridvnvm
Iulia-Mamaea_AR-Den_IVLIA-MA-MAEA-AVG_VESTA_RIC_360,_RSC_81,_BMC_381_Q-001_7h_18,5-21mm_2,82ga-s.jpg
064 Iulia Mamaea (190-235 A.D.), RIC IV-II 360, Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, #171 views064 Iulia Mamaea (190-235 A.D.), RIC IV-II 360, Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, #1
avers: IVLIA-MA-MAEA-AVG, Diademed bust right, draped.
revers: VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium and scepter.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-21mm, weight: 2,82g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 223 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-360, p-99, RSC-81, BMC-381
Q-001
quadrans
LarryW1908.jpg
0654A Focas, 602-61041 viewsÆ half follis, 22.1mm, 6.25g, Nice F
Struck 603-604 at Thessalonica
D N FOCAS PERP AVG (or similar), crowned bust facing, wearing consular robes, holding globus cruciger / X•X, cross above, regnal year I right, TES in exg, scarce
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 654Av; DO -
Lawrence Woolslayer
RI 066bc img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Antoninianus - RIC 313 var (unlisted, probably in error)68 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, cuirassed bust right, seen half from the back
Rev:– VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear, shield at side
Minted in Rome circa A.D. 215
Reference:– RIC 311 var (Unlisted in RIC with Cuirassed bust, probably in error)
A nice example of one of the earliest of the Ants. produced by Caracalla.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 066ai img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 025b41 viewsObv:– IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P, Laureate bust right
Rev:– MINER VICTRIX, Minerva standing half-left, holding Victory and spear, shield at his feet, trophy behind
Minted in Rome. A.D. 198
Reference:– Van Meter 49. RIC 25b. RCV02 6820. RSC 159.
maridvnvm
RI 066v img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 080b39 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PONTIF TR P VIIII COS II, Mars, naked apart except for cloak from shoulder, standing half-left, foot on helmet
Reference:– RIC 80b. RSC 420
maridvnvm
RI 066ae img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 18727 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Virtus standing half-right, foot on helmet, holding spear and parazonim
Minted in Rome
Reference:– RIC 187. RSC 186.
Harshly cleaned by the look of it but nice details on Virtus.
maridvnvm
RI 066i img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 24035 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Jupiter, naked, but for cloak on shoulder, standing half left holding thunderbolt and long sceptre, eagle at feet
Minted in Rome. A.D. 214.
Reference:– RIC 240. RCV02 6832. RSC 239.
maridvnvm
RI 066bd img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 330 13 viewsObv:– M AVR ANTON CAES PONTIF, Young, bare headed, draped and cuirassed, seen half from the back
Rev:– SECVRITAS PERPETVA, Minerva standing left, aegis on chest, resting right hand on shield and holding spear
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference:– RIC 330 (Scarce). RSC 566.
maridvnvm
RI 066m img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 344b80 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P MAX TR P IIII COS, Caracalla, veiled, standing half-left, sacrificing out of a patera over a lighted tripod and holding a scroll.
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 201
References:– RIC 344b (Scarce), RSC 183
maridvnvm
LarryW1910.jpg
0661 Focas, 602-61034 viewsÆ half follis, 23.4mm, 5.18g, Fair
Struck 602-603 at Nicomedia
Phocas and Leontia standing facing, with Phocas holding globus cruciger and Leontia, nimbate, holding cruciform sceptre, a cross between their heads / XX, cross above and NIKO B in exg. Scarce early issue, dark brown patina. Polished.
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 661; MIB 71
Lawrence Woolslayer
RI_068ap_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 09243 viewsObv:- P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate, bearded head right
Rev:- VICTORIAE BRIT, Victory, half-naked, standing left, holding wreath & palm.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 210-212
Reference:- RIC 92, RSC 219, BMC 68
4 commentsmaridvnvm
437Hadrian_RIC680.jpg
0680 Hadrian half AS Roma 124-28 AD Tyche of Antioch60 viewsReference. Rare.
RPC III, 3756; RIC II 680; BMCRE 1350; cf. Cohen 401; McAlee 544; Strack 622

Issue
Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from rear, r.

Rev. COS III in field S-C
Tyche of Antioch seated on rocks, l., holding in her r. hand ears of wheat and poppy-head; at her feet, river-god Orontes swimming l., looking r.; In field, l. And r., S C

7.61 gr
24 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
1221Hadrian_RIC681.jpg
0681 Hadrian half AS Roma 124-28 AD Griffin right34 viewsReverence.
RIC 681; BMC -; Strack 624; van Heesch 150/9b; CRS 30; McAlee 549; C. 433; RPC III, 3759

Issue Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from rear, r.

Rev. COS III
Griffin flying r.; below, S C

7.02 gr
23 mm
12h
4 commentsokidoki
VHC07-coin.JPG
07- CANADA, 10 CENTS, KM3.14 viewsSize: 21.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.0691 oz. Mintage: 1,200,000.
Grade: ICG MS62 (Cert.# 2748922901).
Comments: Purchased at a show on my behalf by Don Rupp, who let me swap him some other coins for it, 11/2009.
lordmarcovan
RI_071ab_img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus denarius - RIC 14621 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing half-left, sacraficing over a patera over an altar and holds a branch. Star in left field
Minted in Rome. A.D. 222 onwards
Reference– BMC 232. RIC 146. RSC III 276.

Remanants of star in right field. The die having been re-engraved to place the star correctly in front of the emperor.
maridvnvm
VIM_Gordianus-III_AE-30_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_PMS_C_O_L-VIM_AN-IIII_Vexillum_241_Pick-080_PM-1-38-1_Mus-31_Q-001_19,30g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-38-01, AE-Sestertius, Vexillum, Rare!, #01 61 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-38-01, AE-Sestertius, Vexillum, Rare!, #01
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back .
revers:- PMS_C_O_L-VIM, Moesia standing half left, between bull to left and lion to right, holding vexillum marked IIII in left hand and vexillum marked VII in right hand, date AN IIII in exergo.
exergo: AN IIII, diameter: 30mm, weight: 19,30g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 242-243 A.D., regnal year IIII., ref: Pick-085, PM-1-38-1, Mus-31,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Gordianus-III_AE-30_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_PMS_C_O_L-VIM_AN-IIII_Vexillum_241_Pick-080_PM-1-38-1_Mus-31_Q-002_20,02g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-38-01, AE-Sestertius, Vexillum, Rare!, #0272 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-38-01, AE-Sestertius, Vexillum, Rare!, #02
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back.
revers:- PMS_C_O_L-VIM, Moesia standing half left, between bull to left and lion to right, holding vexillum marked IIII in left hand and vexillum marked VII in right hand, date AN IIII in exergo.
exergo: AN IIII, diameter: 30mm, weight: 19,30g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 242-243 A.D., regnal year IIII., ref: Pick-085, PM-1-38-1, Mus-31,
Q-002
quadrans
VIM_Gordianus-III_AE-21-Dup_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_PMS_C_O_L-VIM_AN-IIII_Vexillum_Pick-86_PM-1-39-1_Mus-xx_242-43-AD_Q-001_h_21mm_x0,0g-s.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-39-01, AE-Dupondius, Vexillum, Rare!, #0176 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-39-01, AE-Dupondius, Vexillum, Rare!, #01
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back .
revers:- PMS_C_O_L-VIM, Moesia standing half left, between bull to left and lion to right, holding vexillum marked IIII in left hand and vexillum marked VII in right hand, date AN IIII in exergo.
exergo: AN IIII, diameter: mm, weight: ,g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 242-243 AD. regnal year IIII., ref: Pick-, PM-1-39-1, Mus-,
Q-001
quadrans
VIM_Gordianus-III_AE-21-Dup_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_PMS_C_O_L-VIM_AN-IIII_Vexillum_Pick-86_PM-1-39-1_Mus-xx_242-43-AD_Q-003_axis-h_mm_x0,0g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-39-01, AE-Dupondius, Vexillum, Rare!, #0263 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-39-01, AE-Dupondius, Vexillum, Rare!, #02
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back .
revers:- PMS_C_O_L-VIM, Moesia standing half left, between bull to left and lion to right, holding vexillum marked IIII in left hand and vexillum marked VII in right hand, date AN IIII in exergo.
exergo: AN IIII, diameter: mm, weight: ,g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 242-243 AD. regnal year IIII., ref: Pick-, PM-1-39-1, Mus-,
Q-002
quadrans
VIM_Gordianus-III_AE-21-Dup_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_PMS_C_O_L-VIM_AN-IIII_Vexillum_Pick-86_PM-1-39-1_Mus-xx_242-43-AD_Q-002_axis-h_mm_x0,0g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-39-01, AE-Dupondius, Vexillum, Rare!, #0365 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-39-01, AE-Dupondius, Vexillum, Rare!, #03
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back .
revers:- PMS_C_O_L-VIM, Moesia standing half left, between bull to left and lion to right, holding vexillum marked IIII in left hand and vexillum marked VII in right hand, date AN IIII in exergo.
exergo: AN IIII, diameter: mm, weight: ,g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 242-243 AD. regnal year IIII., ref: Pick-, PM-1-39-1, Mus-,
Q-003
quadrans
193Hadrian__RIC_730_var.jpg
0730 Hadrian AS Roma 132-34 AD Tranquillitas standing 20 viewsReference.
RIC 730var; C. 1441 var. Hill 451.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Bare head, draped bust left, seen from back.

Rev. TRANQVILLITA - S - AVG COS III P P / S - C. in field
Tranquillitas standing half-left, holding scepter and resting elbow on column

12.77 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
074-Philippus-I_AR-Ant_IMP-M-IVL-PHILIPPVS-AVG_PAX-AETERN_RIC-IV-III-40b_Rome_244-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0040b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PAX AETERN, Pax (Peace) standing half-left, #172 views074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0040b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PAX AETERN, Pax (Peace) standing half-left, #1
avers:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- PAX AETERN, Pax (Peace) standing half-left, holding branch and scepter.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 4,38g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 244 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-040b, p-, RSC 103, Sear 2563,
Q-001
"This reverse was issued to recognize the peace achieved in Persia and promises that it will endure forever."
quadrans
075-Otacila-Severa_fouree-Ant_MARCIA-OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_IVNO-REGINA_RIC-_Local-issue_after-249-AD_Q-001_h_20mm_3,81g-s~0.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Local issue, IVNO-REGINA, Iuno, standing half-left, #192 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Local issue, IVNO-REGINA, Iuno, standing half-left, #1
avers:- MARCIA-OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG, Diademedand draped bust right, on crescent.
revers:- IVNO-REGINA, Iuno ( the consort of Jupiter) standing half-left,, holding patera and scepter.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter:20mm, weight:3,81g, axis:h,
mint: Local issue ???, date:after 249A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-???, p-, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
075-Otacila-Severa_fouree-Ant_MARCIA-OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_IVNO-REGINA_RIC-_Local-issue_after-249-AD_Q-001_5h_20,2-21,2mm_3,82g-s.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III ---, Local issue, AR-Antoninianus, IVNO REGINA, Iuno, standing half-left, #172 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III ---, Local issue, AR-Antoninianus, IVNO REGINA, Iuno, standing half-left, #1
avers:- MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademedand draped bust right, on crescent.
revers:- IVNO REGINA, Iuno ( the consort of Jupiter) standing half-left,, holding patera and scepter.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 20,2-21,2 mm, weight:3,82g, axis:5h,
mint: Local issue ???, date:after 249A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III---, p-, C-, Rare !
Q-001
quadrans
075-Otac-Severa_AR-Ant_OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_PIETAS-AVGVSTAE_RIC-130_Roma-248-49_AD_Q-001_6h_22,5-23,5mm_3,93g-s.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 130, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing half-left, #0165 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 130, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing half-left, #01
avers:- OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademedand draped bust right, on crescent.
revers:- PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas (Piety, Duitfulness) standing half-left, holding box of perfume and rising right hand.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight:3,93g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date:248-249A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-130, p-, RSC 43b, Sear 2631,
Q-001
quadrans
075-Otac-Severa_AR-Ant_OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_PIETAS-AVGVSTAE_RIC-130_Roma-248-49_AD_Q-002_h_mm_4,45ga-s.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 130var., Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing half-left, #0168 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 130var., Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing half-left, #01
avers:- OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademedand draped bust right, on crescent.
revers:- PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas (Piety, Duitfulness) standing half-left, holding box of perfume and rising right hand (high!).
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-23mm, weight:4,45g, axis:h,
mint: Rome, date: 248-249 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-130var., p-, RSC 43a, Sear 2631var.,
Q-001
quadrans
075-Otac-Severa_AR-Ant_OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_PIETAS-AVGVSTAE_Roma-248-49-RIC-130_Q-003_axis-0h_21-23mm_4,07ga-s.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 130var., Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing half-left, #0267 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 130var., Rome, AR-Antoninianus, PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas standing half-left, #02
avers:- OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademedand draped bust right, on crescent.
revers:- PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas (Piety, Duitfulness) standing half-left, holding box of perfume and rising right hand (high!).
exergo: -/-//--, diameter:21,0-23,0mm, weight:4,07g, axis:0h,
mint: Rome, date: 248-249 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-130var., p-, RSC 43a, Sear 2631var.,
Q-002
quadrans
076-Philippus-II_AR-Ant_IMP-M-IVL-PHILIPPVS-AVG_P-M-TR-P-VI-COS-P-P_RIC-235_Antioch_247-48AD_Rare_Q-001_0h_21-22,5mm_3,29g-s.jpg
076b Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III 235, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P VI COS P P, Felicitas standing half-left, Rare!,65 views076b Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III 235, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P VI COS P P, Felicitas standing half-left, Rare!,
avers:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- P M TR P VI COS P P, Felicitas standing half-left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22,5 mm, weight: 3,29 g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Antioch, date: 249 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-235, RSC 38, Rare!,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 077af img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 28654 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas, standing half-left, holding pileus and long sceptre, * in left field
Minted in Antioch
References:– VM 24, RIC 286, RSC 147
maridvnvm
RI 079c img.jpg
079 - Julia Mamaea denarius - RIC 34329 viewsObv:– IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– IVNO CONSERVATRIX, Juno, diademed, veiled, standing half-left, with patera & scepter & peacock at feet
References:– RIC 343, RSC 35
maridvnvm
RI_079h_img.jpg
079 - Julia Mamaea denarius - RIC 36021 viewsIVLIA MAMAEA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right
Rev:– VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 360, RSC 81, BMC 381
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 087q img.jpg
087 - Gordian III Antoninianus - RIC 00455 viewsObv:– IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing half left, holding globe and transverse sceptre
Minted in Rome. First Issue. End July A.D. 238 – End July A.D. 239
Reference:– Van Meter 47/1, RIC 4, RSC 302
Weight 4.34 gms
Dimensions 23.37mm
maridvnvm
RI 087i img.jpg
087 - Gordian III Antoninianus - RIC 00650 viewsObv:– IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Virtus, in military dress, standing half left, holding spear and resting hand on shield
Minted in Rome. First Issue. End July A.D. 238 – End July A.D. 239
Reference:– Van Meter 63, RIC 6, RSC 381
Weight 4.51 gms
Dimensions 22.28mm
maridvnvm
RI 087r img.jpg
087 - Gordian III Antoninianus - RIC 00647 viewsObv:– IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Virtus, in military dress, standing half left, holding spear and resting hand on shield
Minted in Rome. First Issue. End July A.D. 238 – End July A.D. 239
Reference:– Van Meter 63, RIC 6, RSC 381
Weight 4.56 gms
Dimensions 21.71mm
maridvnvm
RI 087x img.jpg
087 - Gordian III Antoninianus - RIC 03946 viewsObv:– IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Virtus, in military dress, standing half left, holding branch and spear, shield rests on right foot
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 39, RSC 383
Weight 4.51 gms
Dimensions 22.59mm
maridvnvm
RI_089l_img.jpg
089 - Phillip I Antoninianus - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Felicitas standing half-left, holding caduceus with right hand and cornucopia in left arm
Minted in Antioch (2nd Issue). mid 247 to end of 247 AD
Reference– Ovari 28A, Bland 30, Cohen 136. RIC -. RSC -.

Not listed from Antioch.
Martin Griffiths
Elagabalus-RIC-52.jpg
09. Elagabalus year V.11 views Denarius, Jan. 1 - Mar. 11, 222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: PM TR P V COS IIII P P / Elagabalus standing, sacrificing over an altar, holding a patera and club. Star in field.
3.49 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #52.

This coin is from the last two and a half months of Elagabalus' reign. The reverse die shows damage due to "die clashing." An outline of the back of Elagabalus' head can be seen under COS IIII.
Callimachus
RI 096e img~0.jpg
096 - Trajan Decius Antoninianus - RIC 021b44 viewsObv:– IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PANNONIAE, The two Pannoniae, each holding a standard, standing half left but looking in opposite directions
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 21b. RSC 86
maridvnvm
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
M_53_half_p.jpg
1 Innocent XI undated Half Piastre M5336 viewsAn interesting obverse type featuring a completely unsymmetrical 3/4 view of the pope's arms. The lion and eagle are remarkably lifelike, quite unusual for elements of coats of arms, and both appear to be ready to leave the coin. The eagle seems particularly interested in testing his wings, perhaps having noticed the lion is watching him with a lean and hungry look.

The reverse translates to "to the greedy it shall not be given." A number of the reformed coins of this pope featured legends encouraging charity.
stlnats
avanti_together.jpg
1..Avantivarman 857-883 AD18 viewsAvantivarman 857-883 AD (1st ruler of Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18/19mm (4.70gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Aadi' at right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend 'Deva' at right
Paul R3
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
image~1.jpg
108. Didius Julianus59 views193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome.


SH67895. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC VI 14, BMCRE V 20, Cohen 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, aF, weight 19.437 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT, S - C, Concordia Militum standing half left, flanked by legionary eagle before in right and standard behind in left.

Ex-FORVM


1 commentsecoli
JohnIISB1954.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
1.67g; 15.7mm; 180°
Pep
JohnIISB1954_2.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron - 2nd Example29 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
2.14g; 16.3mm; 210°
Pep
RIC_817_A_097_No_015_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-CM-AVR-PROBVS-PF-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_Gamma_XXI_RIC-817_p-106_NotinRIC-Gamma-Siscia_277-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5-23mm_3,01g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0097.0000 Not in !!!, Γ//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II Not in this officina Γ, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding right, Rare!!!98 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0097.0000 Not in !!!, Γ//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II Not in this officina Γ, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding right, Rare!!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: VIRTVS P ROBI AVG, Emperor galloping right with spear and shield, spearing half-kneeling enemy warding off the attack.
exergue: Γ//XXI, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 3,64g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II Not in RIC, Alföldi 0097.0000 Not in Alföldi !!!,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_818_A_098_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_VIRTVS-P-ROBI-AVG_T_XXI_RIC-(not-in)-818var_Alfoldi-98-no-x_Siscia-2nd_-emission_277_Q-001_h_22mm_x_xxg-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0054var. (without shield beneath horse!), T//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818var., AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Rare!89 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0054var. (without shield beneath horse!), T//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818var., AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Rare!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: VIRTVS P ROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, spearing an half-prostrate enemy warding off an attack, not (!!!) shield underneath Emperor's horse.
exergue: T//XXI, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 3,64g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, 7th. emission of Siscia, date: 280(?) A.D., ref: RIC V-II 818var., p-106, Alföldi 0098.0054var. (without shield beneath horse!),
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-CM-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_XXIT_RIC-818_p-106_Alf-98_no-56_277-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0056, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Scarce!72 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0056, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Scarce!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: VIRTVS P ROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, spearing Half-prostrate enemy warding off an attack, his shield underneath Emperor's horse.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission of Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 818, p-106, Alföldi 0098.0056,
Q-001
quadrans
ManISB1980.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I - Sear 1980 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: Manuel I (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: to left, /Γ/E; to right, /ΓI/O/S (or similar)
Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear and shield.

Reverse: MANHΛ ΔECΠOT (or similar)
Bust facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Uncertain Greek mint
Sear 1980; DOC 23
2.32g, 16.1mm; 180°
Pep
Heraclius_SB_890.jpg
12. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine12 viewsHERACLIUS & HERACLIUS CONSTANTINE
Half follis, Rome, 610-641

DD NN ERACLIORVN Facing busts of Heraclius, no beard, on l., Heraclius Constantine, no beard, on r. / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 890, DOC 262 aF/F
Sosius
LatinByzSB2047.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2047 - AE Trachy58 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre/Fair
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ seated.

Reverse: no legend
Half-length figure of emperor.

Sear 2047
1.12g; 19.4mm; 180°
Pep
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)94 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.59 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
RI 132rz img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 401 - Bust Type C (Ticinum) (VIXXT)26 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from the back
Rev:– RESTITVT SEC, Emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre, crowned by Victory holding palm.
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT in exe) Emission 2, Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 401 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI 132ts img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 401 - Bust Type C (Ticinum) (VIXXT)15 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from the back
Rev:– RESTITVT SAEC, Emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre, crowned by Victory holding palm.
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT in exe) Emission 2, Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 401 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI 132by img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 401 var - Bust Type C (Ticinum) (VIXXT)50 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from the back
Rev:– RESTITVTOR SAEC, Emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre, crowned by Victory holding palm.
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT in exe) Early Emission 2, Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 401 var Bust type C (Unlisted obverse legend with this type)
It is a variant of RIC 401, with unlisted full spelling of RESTITVTOR.
This is a coin from the very beginning of the second emission of Ticinum (276 CE), before the portrait transitions to Probus proper. Coins from the later part of the emission and already much less Tacitus/Florian in likeness, while not quite 100% Probus himself.
The style is typical for that period, but these coins are scarce, so you do not see them often.
maridvnvm
RI_136j_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC 397 Bust Type F (C | _)9 viewsObv:– IMP NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right, holding patera over altar
Minted in Lugdunum (C in left field) Emission 8 Officina 3. First half A.D. 284
Reference:– Cohen 61. Bastien 598. RIC 397 Bust Type F
Martin Griffiths
RI_136i_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC 397 Bust Type F (_ | C)16 viewsObv:– IMP NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PIETAS AVGG, Pietas standing right, holding patera over altar
Minted in Lugdunum (C in right field) Emission 8 Officina 3. First half A.D. 284
Reference:– Cohen 61. Bastien 600 (9 examples). RIC 397 Bust Type F
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
Constantinus-I_RIC-VII-14-6h_22mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 014, AR-Miliarense, -/-//SIRM, CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Cripus and Costantinus-II, Bare head right.150 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 014, AR-Miliarense, -/-//SIRM, CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Cripus and Costantinus II., Bare head right.
avers:- CONSTANTI(NVS MAX AVG),
revers:- CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Busts of Crispus (left) and Constantine II. (right) facing each other.
exe: -/-//SI(RM), diameter: 22mm, weight: 2,74g(half), axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 14, p-469, C-3, Gnecchi-8,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AR-Argenteus_IMP-CONSTANTI-NVS-AVG_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-VOT_PR_PTR_RIC-not_C-not_Trier_318-319-AD__Q-001_19mm_2,73g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!161 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!
avers:- IMP CONSTANTI NVS AVG, bust l., high-crested helmet, cuir., dr., spear across r. shoulder..
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories stg. facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar. PTR in exergue.
"UNLISTED ISSUE. This issue is listed erroneously in RIC VII as regular follis (TRIER 208A, p. 181), but in fact it is "billon argenteus" (c. 25% of silver) and belongs to the group of TREVERI 825-826 in RIC VI. Note that only PTR mark is correct, because of only one officina working at that time at Treveri. Note also that the bust type is similar to H11 from RIC VII, but there are also a few differences: bust is usually larger, half-length, and could be described as cuirassed and draped. Coin should be listed after TREVERI 826. See: Bastien, P., "L’émission de monnaies de billon de Treves au début de 313", Quaderni Ticinesi (Numismatica e Antichità Classiche) 1982, XI, p. 271-278. See: CORRIGENDA, VOL. VII, p. 181, CORRIGENDA, VOL. VI, p. 224" by Lech Stepniewski, in "Not in RIC" , thank you Lech Stepniewski,
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/6tre-826.html
exergo: -/-//PTR, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: h,
mint: Trier, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VI Trier 825-6?, RIC VI, "TREVERI [after 826], CONSTANTINE I, UNLISTED ISSUE" by Lech Stepniewski,
Q-001
quadrans
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England8 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
LarryW1833.jpg
140 Marcian, AD 450-45764 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, brilliant, gEF
Struck at Constantinople
D N MARCIA-NVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy / VICTORI-A AVCCC Z, Victory standing half left holding a long jeweled cross resting on ground, star in right field, CON OB in exergue
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
DOC 481; RIC 510; Sear 4322v
Lawrence Woolslayer
Constantius_Gallus.jpg
1408a, Constantius Gallus, Caesar 28 September 351 - winter 354 A.D. (Cyzicus)62 viewsBronze half centenionalis, RIC 106, F, Cyzicus mint, 2.603g, 18.8mm, 0o, 351-354 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman, SMKE in exergue.

Constantius Gallus was a cousin of Constantius II and was made Caesar in 351 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces while Constantius II was in the West. His rule was so harsh and cruel that Constantius recalled him to Milan, and then had him arrested and executed before he reached Italy.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI 141bo img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 93 Bust Type C16 viewsObv:– IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from the rear
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGG, Jupiter standing right holding thunderbolt & scepter facing Hercules standing left holding lion’s skin and club
Minted in Lugdunum (A/SML). Emission 4, Officina 1. Start to Summer A.D. 287
Reference:– Cohen 507. Bastien VII 108 (5 examples cited). RIC V Pt 2 93 Bust Type C
maridvnvm
RI_141ck_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI - Alexandria 093a24 viewsAE Half Follis
Obv:– DN DIOCLETIANO FELICIS, Laureate and mantled bust right, holding olive-branch and mappa
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, In field: Gamma; In ex: ALE, Providentia standing right, extending hand to Quies standing light, holding branch and leaning on scepter
Minted in Alexandria (Gamma //ALE). A.D. 308
Reference:– RIC VI 93a
Size:- 21.01 mm

A scarcer half follis.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France30 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
1034_P_Hadrian_RPC1441.jpg
1441 Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Hadrian standing31 viewsReference.
RPC III 1441; Metcalf Type 92, 35; RIC 532.

Obv. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS
Head of Augustus right

Rev. HADRIANVS AVG P P REN
Hadrian togate standing half-l. holding grain stalk in r. and wrapping l. in toga.

10.31 gr
26 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
954_P_Hadrian_RPC1441.jpg
1441A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 128 AD Hadrian standing35 viewsReference.
unpublished; RPC III, 1441var. on reverse legend; RIC 532 var.; C. 576 var. (Augustus); Metcalf, Cistophori of Hadrian 92 var.

Person Augustus (under Hadrian) (Divus)

Obv. IMP CAESAR AVGVSTVS
Head of Augustus r.

Rev. HADRIANVS AVGGVSTVS REN (sic)
Hadrian togate standing half-left, holding grain stalk in right and roll in left in toga.

9.89 gr
27 mm
6h

Note.
Peus auction 420 lot 305
Sammlung Dr. Neussel Nr. 385
3 commentsokidoki
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM_VOT-dot-X-_B-SIS-halfcirc_rad__RIC-VII-182,p446_c2-7B1_Siscia_321-4-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_18mm_2,72g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 182, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISsemicircle-with-beams, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X, C3!88 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 182, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISsemicircle-with-beams, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X, C3!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C, 7, B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath.
exergo: -/-//BSISsemicirclewithbeams, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,72g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 321-324 AD., ref: RIC-VII-182-p446, C3 !
Q-001
quadrans
RI_146dn_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - Half Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 91a10 viewsHalf follis
Obv:– DN MAXIMIANO FELICIS, Laureate and mantled bust right, holding olive-branch and mappa
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing right, extending hand to Quies standing light, holding branch and leaning on scepter
Minted in Alexandria (Delta //ALE). A.D. 308
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 91a
maridvnvm
RI_146ci_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - Half Follis - RIC VII Rome 11015 viewsObv:– DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, veiled and laureate head right
Rev:– MEMORIAE AETERNAE, eagle standing right, looking left, wings spread
Minted in Rome (// RT). A.D. 317-318
Reference:– RIC VII Rome110 (R3)

Divo Maximianus half follis issued by Constantine I A.D. 317-318
maridvnvm
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland9 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
LarryW1802.jpg
150 Leo I the Great, AD 457-474105 viewsGold solidus, 21.7mm, 4.50g, Mint State
Struck c. AD 462 or 466 at Constantinople
D N LEO PE—RPET AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / VICTORI—A AVCCC Θ, Victory standing half left holding long jeweled cross; star to right, CON OB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC 605; DOC 528; MIRB 3b
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)70 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)79 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1526_-_1530_Henry_VIII_AR_Halfgroat.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
RI_160ft_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 897 (Half Follis)18 viewsHalf Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERV, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (// PTR). A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 897 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_160fw_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Trier 897 (Half Follis)17 viewsHalf Follis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI CONSERV, Mars helmeted, in military dress, spread cloak, standing, right, holding reversed spear, left hand leaning on shield
Minted in Trier (// PTR). A.D. 310 - 311
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 897 (S)
maridvnvm
1601_Half_Lion_Daalder_Holland.jpg
1601 Lion Half Daalder14 viewsNetherlands: Holland
1601 ½ Lion Daalder
Obv: Knight facing, looking to his left, above shield w/ lion rampant; MO.NO.ARG.1601.ORDIN.HOL
Rev: Rampant lion facing left; CONFIDENS.DNO.NON.MOVETVR; mintmark: rosette
13.55 grams; 33.57 mm
Davenport: n/a
Delmonte: 870
cmcdon0923
MAurel RIC1058.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172-173 AD37 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III (trophy of arms, German {Marcomann} woman seated left below, in attitude of mourning, on two shields; German standing to right, his head turned and his hands bound behind him), SC in ex.
ref: RIC III 1058 (S), Cohen 227 (15frcs)
22.46gms, 30mm,
Very rare
History: In the second half of the second century was the most important and dangerous invasion of the Marcomanni. Their leader, Ballomar, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes, they crossed the Danube and achieved a smashing victory over 20,000 Romans near Carnuntum. Ballomar then led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, while the remainder ravaged Noricum. The Marcomanni razed Opitergium (Oderzo) and besieged Aquileia. The army of praetorian prefect Furius Victorinus tried to relieve the city, but was defeated and its general slain.
In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
1616_Half_Lion_Daalder_Zeeland.jpg
1616 Half Daalder5 viewsNetherlands: Zeeland
1616 Lion Half Daalder
Obv: Knight facing, looking to his left, above shield w/ lion rampant; MO.ARG.PRO.CON / FOE.BELG.ZEL
Rev: Rampant lion facing left; CONFIDENS.DNO.NON.MOVETVR; mintmark: rosette. 1616
12.98 grams; 34.21 mm
Davenport: n/a
Delmonte:
cmcdon0923
COMMONWEALTH_HALFGROAT.JPG
1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
1673_Charles_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1673 CHARLES II AE HALFPENNY12 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1673 in exergue.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3393

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.

On May 17th this year, Louis Joliet, a trader, and Jaques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, began exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes in America. A month later, on June 17th, they reached the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descended to Arkansas.
On August 8th a Dutch fleet of 23 ships under the command of Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge demanded the surrender of New York and on the following day captured it from the British (the city was recaptured by the British though in 1674).
*Alex
JAMES-2_TIN_HALFPENNY_1687.JPG
1687 JAMES II TIN HALFPENNY10 viewsObverse: IACOBVS • SECVNDVS. Laureate and draped bust of James II facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear.
Edge: NVMMORVM * FAMVLVS * 1687 * in raised letters.
Diameter: 29mm | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3419

This portrait of James II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700). In 1684, the production of farthings was changed from copper to tin with a copper centre plug. This was done to not only alleviate the critical state of the Cornish tin mining industry, but also to recoup the King's losses by giving the Crown an even greater profit margin. As there was great concern about the potential for forgery, in addition to the copper plug as a security feature, the tin coins were also produced with a lettered edge inscription which translates as "The servant of the coinage", presumably meaning that it also serves to protect the coinage from forgery. In 1685, under James II, tin halfpennies, also with a copper centre plug, were introduced. The reverse designs were identical to the previous ones of Charles II.

These tin coins had an alarming rate of wear from circulation, and furthermore, because tin was far too reactive a metal to be used for coins, the tin coinage has readily corroded when exposed to the elements. The values of extremely rare high grade examples are thus at a premium.
*Alex
1694_WILLIAM___MARY_HALFPENNY.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE HALFPENNY16 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 11.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3452

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
1 comments*Alex
1696_WILLIAM_III_HALFPENNY.JPG
1696 WILLIAM III AE HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1696.
Centre of reverse weakly struck.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3554
*Alex
RI_170dj_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE3 - RIC VIII Siscia 243 23 viewsAE3 (Half-Centeionalis)
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing left, head turned right in a galley; Phoenix on a globe in right hand and holding labarum in left hand; Victory at the tiller of the galley right.
Minted in Siscia (DSIS Sym4), A.D. 348-350
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Siscia 243 (C2)

Ex Kunker 288, Collection Pudill
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
1724_George_I_Halfpenny.JPG
1724 GEORGE I AE Halfpenny8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1724.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 8.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3660

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1734_George_II_AE_Halfpenny.JPG
1734 GEORGE II "Young Head" AE Halfpenny12 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1734.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.2gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3717

This portrait of George II was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1747_GEORGE_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1747 GEORGE II "Old Head" AE Halfpenny9 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1747.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.8gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3719

This portrait of George II was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775). Tanner started engraving the designs for the copper coinage in 1740 and became Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint on the death of John Croker in 1741.
*Alex
George-3_halfpenny_1771.JPG
1771 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny11 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.III.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, shield at her side, and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1771.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3774

This portrait of George III was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775).
*Alex
MOD_up_to_1899-USA-Vermont-3.jpg
1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
1789_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY_CYPHER.JPG
1789 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.120 viewsObverse: MACCLESFIELD. Ornamental cypher of “R & Co” (Roe & Company), surmounted by a beehive and six bees.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and an eight spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1789.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 13
RARE

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
Banda_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
1790 Large Gold Banda Koran Leaf Blue Border Medallion 23 viewsA magnificent leaf from a Koran fragment, probably Banda, before AH 1208/1790-1 AD, on paper (387 x 230 mm.). There are eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red, final folio with commentary dated 1205.. Verso: eleven lines of strong black natkh script within gold clouds, gold roundels between verses, illuminated marginal medallions, marking every tenth verse, red Persian interlinear translation, sura headings in red, margins with Tafsir written in black and red. The opening flyleaf is inscribed with a note reading: this copy of the Koran, formally the property of the Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda was delivered after the great victory obtained over Rebels and Mutineers by Major General Whitlocks Troops on the 19th of April 1858 to the Reverend A Kinloch, the Chaplain of the Horse and present to him as a slight token of affectionate remembrance to the Reverend George Gleed the Vicar of Chalfont St. Peters, Bucks Branda Palace. April 29th 1858. A further note on the final flyleaf reads: This Copy of the Koran was taken from the apartments of Ali Bahadoor, Nawab of Banda after the occupation of his City and Palace by the Madras Column under Major General Whitlock.SpongeBob
1791_HULL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.40 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS TERTIUS REX •. Equestrian statue of King William III facing right; in exergue, MDCLXXXIX.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between sprigs of oak, 1791 above.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IONATHAN GARTON & Co • X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
There is slight die damage, a common feature of 18th century tokens, visible at the horse's breast on the obverse.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
The equestrian statue of William III depicted on this token is one of Hull's key landmarks, it has been standing in the centre of the city square since 1734.
*Alex
1791_Hull_Halfpenny_Ship.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: No legend. A ship sailing right, two laurel branches below.
Reverse: HULL HALFPENNY / 1791. Coat of Arms of Hull (a shield bearing three crowns vertically) between two sprigs of oak with eight acorns on each branch.
Edge: PAYABLE IN HULL AND IN LONDON • X X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 7
Dalton & Hamer: 22

This token was issued by Jonathan Garton who was a linen draper with a business in the market place in Hull.
The dies for this token were engraved by John Gregory Hancock who was also probably responsible for manufacturing it.

The “three crowns” have been used as Hull’s coat of arms since the early 1400s. The College of Arms, the institution which regulates heraldry in England, confirmed the right of the Borough (now City) of Hull to use the crowns in the 1600s. Since then, virtually every public building in the City has been decorated with the coat of arms.
A depiction of the shield in stained glass in St Mary’s Church Lowgate dates from the reign of Richard III (1483-85) and is among the earliest versions to survive.
*Alex
1791_Leeds_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Leeds, Yorkshire.36 viewsObverse: ARTIS NOSTRÆ CONDITOR •. Standing figure of Bishop Blaize (patron saint of woolcombers) holding a wool comb in his raised right hand and a book and crosier in his left; at his feet, to right, a lamb facing right with it's head turned to left.
Reverse: LEEDS HALFPENNY 1791. Coat of arms of the City of Leeds consisting of a shield containing three stars and a hanging fleece, crested by an owl. The date, 17 - 91, bisected by the base of the shield.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF RICHARD PALEY •XX•".
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 6
Dalton & Hamer: 45 | Conder: 20 (Yorkshire)

This token was issued by Richard Paley, a freeholder, maltster, soap-boiler and chandler with a business in a locality known as the “Calls” in Leeds. The token was manufactured by Matthew Bolton at his SOHO Mint in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by Henry Brownbill.

Bishop Blaise, also known as Saint Blasius, was a well-known martyr from Armenia, who as the price of his faith, back in the 4th century, had been put to death by being raked with red-hot rakes. Later he was adopted as the Patron Saint of Woolcombers and, appropriately, his effigy is usually shown holding a rake. On this token, however, Bishop Blaise is shown holding the traditional bishop's crosier.
*Alex
1791_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.74 viewsObverse: CHARLES ROE ESTABLISHED THE COPPER WORKS 1758 • Bust of Charles Roe, facing right.
Reverse: MACCLESFIELD HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and a six spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1791.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 55

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
1791_Rochdale_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.27 viewsObverse: ROCHDALE / 1791. Sheep facing left, being weighed suspended in a sling round it's waist.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Detailed view from behind of a weaver, sitting half-right, working at a loom.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 140

This token was engraved and manufactured by J.G.Hancock in Birmingham.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen mill in the town.

Rochdale's recorded history begins with an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086 under Recedham Manor. The ancient parish of Rochdale was a division of the hundred of Salford and one of the largest ecclesiastical parishes in England comprising several townships. By 1251, Rochdale had become important enough to have been granted a Royal charter. Subsequently, the town flourished into a centre of northern England's woollen trade, and by the early 18th century was described as being "remarkable for many wealthy merchants".
During the 19th century, Rochdale rose to prominence as a major mill town and centre for textile manufacture. It was amongst the first ever industrialised towns during the Industrial Revolution and the Rochdale Canal was a highway of commerce during this time, being used for the haulage of cotton, wool and coal.
*Alex
1792_NORFOLK___NORWICH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Norwich, Norfolk.21 viewsObverse: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH •. The arms of Norwich consisting of a three turreted gateway over a lion with raised paw; PRO BONO PUBLICO in smaller letters below.
Reverse: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY•. The Duke of Norfolk’s coat of arms; below shield, 1792.
Edge: PAYABLE AT N • BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER & C • NORWICH • X •.
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was issued by Nathaniel Bolingbroke, a haberdasher and silversmith with a business in the market place in Norwich, the manufacturer and diesinker are uncertain.

Norwich, a city in England, is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1792_ROCHDALE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.37 viewsObverse: No legend. View of a male weaver, seated facing right, working in his loom.
Reverse: ROCHDALE HALFPENNY. Coat of Arms of the Clothworker's Company with a Ram Crest above and 1792 below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 143

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen factory in the town.

The Clothworkers' arms were granted in 1530 by Thomas Benolt, Clarenceux King of Arms, two years after the foundation of the Company. It consists of a shield with a chevron containing five teasel heads between two habicks above and a teasel plant beneath. The habicks and the teasel represent essential tools for the clothworkers' craft. The habicks were the hooks used to attach the fabric to the forms on which it was stretched for teaselling. The teasels were used to raise the nap of the fabric prior to shearing.
*Alex
1792_YARMOUTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Yarmouth, Norfolk.24 viewsObverse: LET YARMOUTH FLOURISH :. Coat of Arms of Yarmouth over crossed sprigs of oak. Small incuse rosette countermark in field to right of shield. The Coat of Arms combines three lion's heads from the Royal Arms with the tails of three silver herrings, believed to come from the original arms of Yarmouth.
Reverse: YARMOUTH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; 1792, in panel below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE GLASS WAREHOUSE OF W. ABSOLON • X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 52

This token was issued by William Absolon (1751 – 1815), a British ceramist who, from 1784, sold English and foreign china and glass but also later offered gilding, enameling and painting services at his shop, No 4, at the lower end of Market Row in Yarmouth.
Absolon bought in wares from the Wedgewood, Davenport, Turner and Staffordshire factories, which he then decorated. He painted dessert services with botanical subjects with the Latin name of the plant inscribed on the plate or dish and also his mark; Absolon Yarm and No 25. He also decorated Turner Ware and Cream Ware Jugs adding mottoes, such as; a Trifle from Yarmouth, or Success to the Trade. Absolon died in 1815 and although his business continued, the quality declined. Today, his work attracts high prices at auction.
*Alex
1793_Leek_Halfpenny.JPG
1793 AE Halfpenny Token. Leek, Staffordshire.21 viewsObverse: ARTE FAVENTE NIL DESPERANDUM. Two clasped hands with olive branch behind and rosette below.
Reverse: LEEK COMMERCIAL HALFPENNY • 1793. Caduceus leaning against a large wool bale and a tea chest.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LEEK • STAFFORDSHIRE + +".
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 11

This token was probably issued by Messrs Ford and Phillips, about whom little is known, it was manufactured by Peter Kempson and the dies were engraved by Allan Wyon. Allan Wyon was a member of the “Wyon” family of medallists and die engravers, and was the youngest of three brothers to succeed their father as chief engraver of the seals.
*Alex
1797_EMSWORTH_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1793 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: PEACE AND PLENTY. Dove carrying olive-branch flying above cornucopia spilling out the fruits of the earth.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 11

Issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer from Hampshire, this token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. This token is a mule of the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 10 (Hampshire), here used as the obverse and the reverse of Dalton & Hamer 11. It may have originally been intended that these mules would be sold to collectors, but as a large number exist it seems that they must have been sold to merchants and entered general circulation.
*Alex
JOHN_OF_GAUNT_1794-circa__LANCASTER_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 (?) Undated AE Halfpenny. Lancaster, Lancashire.41 viewsObverse: IOHN OF GAUNT DUKE OF LANCASTER ★. Bust of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, facing left.
Reverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 54
RARE

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713

JOHN OF GAUNT
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Plantagenet, he was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then anglicised as Gaunt.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399, the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor, were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398. When John of Gaunt died at the age of 58 on 3rd February, 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown because King Richard II named Henry Bolingbroke a traitor and sentenced him to exile for life, but Henry returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Henry Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.
John of Gaunt, due to his land grants, was one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived, his estates are estimated to have been worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion.
*Alex
1794_Chichester___Portsmouth_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester and Portsmouth, Sussex.29 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S PHILANTHROPIST•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: CHICHESTER AND PORTSMOUTH • / HALFPENNY; Arms of the town of Portsmouth; the sun and moon over a triple-towered castle, with the arms of Chichester above the gateway below the central tower, 1794 in exergue.
Edge: PAYABLE AT SHARPS PORTSMOUTH AND CHALDECOTTS CHICHESTER.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. The issuers of this token were John Chaldecott, a silversmith and cutler in Chichester and Thomas Sharp, a mercer in Portsmouth. Chaldecott was also a partner in the Chichester Old Bank and the Portsmouth, Portsea and Hampshire Bank. The two men were probably relations or close friends and they issued joint tokens in both Portsmouth and Chichester in the 18th century.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard who was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex17 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left £200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1794_LACKINGTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. J. Lackington, London, Middlesex.36 viewsObverse: J. LACKINGTON ✤. Three-quarter facing bust of J.Lackington left, 1794 below.
Reverse: HALFPENNY OF LACKINGTON • ALLEN & Co ★ / CHEAPEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD • in a double line of text around Fame, portrayed as a winged female figure facing right, head left, holding a laurel-wreath and blowing a trumpet.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE TEMPLE OF THE MUSES ★ / ★ / ★.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 353

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Roger Dixon.
It was issued by James Lackington who was a bookseller with a large business at his premises known as “The Temple of the Muses”, No 32 Finsbury Place South, Finsbury Square, London. This token marked the sale of a 25% interest in his company to Robert Allen.
*Alex
1794_Whale_Fishery_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. London Middlesex.24 viewsObverse: HALFPENNY•. Bust of Neptune, with trident across his right shoulder, facing right.
Reverse: PAYABLE AT I:FOWLER’s LONDON•. Whale fishing scene consisting of four men in a small boat harpooning a whale; below, WHALE FISHERY / 1794 in two lines.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 306

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was manufactured by Thomas Mynd in Birmingham.
The token was issued by J. Fowler who was an oil merchant and tin-plate worker with a business at 78, Long Acre, at the West End of London.
*Alex
1794_Spalding_Halfpenny_.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Spalding, Lincolnshire.47 viewsObverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Reverse: SPALDING HALFPENNY. A shield edged with sprays containing the initials TJ (for Thomas Jennings) in the form of a cypher; above shield, a couped lion rampant crest; below shield, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT T. JENNING'S SPALDING & HOLBEACH - X -.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 6
RARE

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock or Thomas Wyon.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713.
*Alex
1794_EARL_HOWE.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.86 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Youthful" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair in long pigtail tied with a ribbon, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LONDON LIVERPOOL OR BRISTOL •.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 13

During the 18th and 19th centuries Emsworth was a busy little port, known for shipbuilding, boat building and rope making. Grain from the area was ground into flour by tidal mills at Emsworth and the flour was then transported by ship to places like London and Portsmouth. Timber from the area was also exported from Emsworth in the 18th and 19th centuries.

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle both fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports. Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both nations as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies.
*Alex
1794_Norwich_halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Norwich, Norfolk.40 viewsObverse: R • CAMPIN • HABERDASHER. Stocking and glove above crossed knife and fork; in exergue, •GOAT•LANE•/NORWICH.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Britannia, portrayed as a helmeted, plumed and draped female figure wearing a breastplate emblazoned with the union flag, seated facing left on tea-chest; her right hand resting on a terrestrial globe and her left arm on an anchor; a crowned lion, it's head turned facing, reclining left at her feet; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 21

Issued by Robert Campin, a haberdasher with a business in Goat Lane, Norwich, this token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies engraved by Thomas Wyon.
*Alex
1794_(UNDATED)_BATH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. Bath, Somerset.25 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S• HALFPENNY•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: REMEMBER THE DEBTORS IN GOAL (sic) ✤. A female figure, the personification of Benevolence, seated facing left, a variety of vessels at her feet and beside her. She is holding a laurel-branch in her left arm and pointing towards a building with a barred window (Ilchester Prison) directing the small figure of a cherub or a child carrying a key to open the prison doors. "GO FORTH" in small letters emanating amid rays from the sky above the small figure.
Edge: PAYABLE AT LONDON OR DUBLIN • + • + • +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 36d

Thomas Wyon engraved the dies for this token and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham. Lutwyche, besides being a major supplier of genuine tokens, is also known to have made large amounts of spurious coin.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard, who was an expert in prisons and published the book "The State of the Prisons in England & Wales" in 1777, but he did not issue it. The token was issued by William Gye, born in 1750, who worked in his father’s printing works at 4 Westgate Buildings, Bath, before opening an establishment at 13 Market Place. He was an active and successful printer and bookseller, and sometime publisher of the “Bath Courant”, he was highly respected for his attempts to improve the conditions of the city’s poor. His greatest philanthropic endeavours were connected with the relief of the prisoners in the county gaol at Ilchester, which he visited every week with food, clothing and money. He issued trade tokens, and when they were redeemed in his shop, it was his custom to point out the inscription on them (“Remember the debtors”) in order to elicit donations. He died of an apoplectic fit in 1802, and was remembered for his ‘strict integrity and unblemished reputation’. His wife Mary, whom he had married in 1774, inherited his printing and stationery business. Mary managed the business herself before it was passed on to the couple's third son, Henry.
*Alex
1795_Petersfield_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny Token. Petersfield, Hampshire.32 viewsObverse: PETERSFIELD. Mounted dragoon presenting sword, on horse trotting to left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 49
RARE

This halfpenny token is one of a series of mules manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham. In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Petersfield is a market town situated on the northern slopes of the South Downs, 17 miles north of Portsmouth, in Hampshire, England. The town is on the crossroads of well-used north–south and east–west routes and it grew in prosperity due to its position as a coach stop as well as it's local sheep farming, and cottage industries of leather and cloth.
The town was founded during the 12th century by William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and confirmed by charter in 1198 by John, Count of Mortain, the later King John.
*Alex
1795_Kilvington.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Brunswick, Middlesex.81 viewsObverse: PAYABLE AT J.KILVINGTONS. Laureate head facing left.
Reverse: BRUNSWICK HALFPENNY • . Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 346

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.

The token was issued by John Kilvington, a grocer and tea dealer at No. 153 Drury Lane, London.

The identity of the bust on the obverse of this token is uncertain, but it may represent a member of the Royal family, even George III himself since the Duke of Brunswick was among his titles.
*Alex
1795_Bee-hive_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Cambridgeshire County.52 viewsObverse: INDUSTRY HAS IT’S SURE REWARD. Thirty-four bees swarming around a beehive set on a table.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “BERSHAM BRADLEY WILLEY SNEDSHILL".
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 14
SCARCE

The diesinker for this token was Thomas Wyon and it was manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham.
1 comments*Alex
1795_CHELSEA_HALFPENNY__.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Chelsea, Middlesex.25 viewsObverse: CHELSEA✶. Sailor with wooden leg standing facing left presenting petition to Britannia facing right, seated on bale and holding spear in her right hand, right arm resting on shield, her left hand extended toward supplicant; in exergue, HALFPENNY.
Reverse: THE SUPPORT OF OUR ENDEAVOUR. Hope facing right, leaning on anchor; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 277

The engraver and diesinker for this token was F. Arnold, and it was manufactured by William Lutwyche at his works in Birmingham.

Although the authority responsible for the issue of this token is unknown, it is possibly associated with the Chelsea Military Hospital, home of the "Chelsea Pensioners". This token may have been issued as a reminder to the Nation of the debt owed to the army and navy, the obverse has been designed to attract attention to their plight, especially since the defeated troops from the disastrous Flanders Campaign of 1794 would have just returned home. The reverse is a reminder that the navy should not be neglected.
*Alex
1795_EARL_HOWE_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth or Portsmouth, Hampshire.51 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Elderly" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair tied with a ribbon at back, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 23b

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle, Howe defied naval convention by ordering his fleet to turn towards the French and for each of his vessels to rake and engage their immediate opponent. This unexpected order was not understood by all of his captains, and as a result his attack, though successful, was more piecemeal than he intended. In the course of the battle the two fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports.
Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both countries as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies. France because, despite losing seven of his ships, Villaret had successfully bought enough time for the grain convoy to reach safety unimpeded by Howe's fleet and Britain because, since the French were forced to withdraw their battle-fleet to port, they were left free to conduct a campaign of blockade for the remainder of the war.
*Alex
1795_GLAMORGAN_HALF-PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.65 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
1795_Glasgow_Mule_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland56 viewsObverse: NUNQUAM ARESCERE. River God reclining facing right, right arm resting on an urn, inscribed CLYDE, from which water flows, left hand holding oar inscribed with St Andrew's cross; in exergue, MDCCXCI (1791).
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Dalton & Hamer: 9
RARE

This is one of a series of mule halfpennies by Lutwyche. In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

The inscription NUNQUAM ARESCERE (Never dries) is taken from a passage in Ovid's Metamorphoses, "Naidas his venam, quae nunquam arescere posset, supposuisse ferunt" (They tell us that the Naiads converted them into a stream which never dries).
*Alex
1795_Glasgow_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland.29 viewsObverse: LET GLASGOW FLOURISH. The arms of Glasgow; Shield containing tree with a bird and a bell in it's branches and a fish across it's trunk.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: Engrailed.
Striking flaw visible next to the “H” in FLOURISH
Diameter: 28mm | Weight: 7.3gms.
Dalton & Hamer: 6a

Manufactured by Matthew Boulton at his SOHO mint in Birmingham, the diesinker was probably Thomas Wyon.
Reputedly issued by Gilbert Shearer & Co. who were, according to Jones's Directory dated 1789, woollen drapers with a shop at No.19 Trongate, Glasgow.
*Alex
1795_NORTH_WALES_HALFPENNY.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, North Wales, Anglesey.17 viewsObverse: No legend. Druid's head wearing cowl facing left, surrounded by oak wreath; engraver's initial "W" (for Wyon) in raised letters at bottom of bust (see inset).
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 429
RARE

The diesinker for this token was Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham.
The Druid's head was a feature of the Parys Mine in Anglesey, North Wales and was used on some of the earliest issues of 18th century Tokens.
This piece was issued for general circulation.
*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.72 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
Clifford_s_Tower-removebg-preview.png
1795 Yorkshire, York, Halfpenny Conder Token, D&H 631 viewsO:View of a cathedral. Ex : YORK . 1795.
R: View of a castle and drawbridge. CLIFFORD'S TOWER A.D. 1100.
E: YORK BUILT A. M . 1223. CATHEDRAL REBUILT A.D. 1075.
Dalton & Hamer as Yorkshire 63
Extremely Fine (Sheldon AU58).
Ancient Aussie
1797_PERTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny Token. Perth, Scotland.24 viewsObverse: PRO REGE LEGE ET GREGE (For King, Law and Flock). Coat of Arms of the City of Perth consisting of double-headed eagle with shield, displaying lamb holding saltire flag.
Reverse: PERTH • HALFPENNY • • • •. A hank of yarn above a package of dressed flax; 17 - 97 across field.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT THE HOUSE OF PAT. K MAXWELL X X".
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 9
SCARCE

This token was issued by Patrick Maxwell, a grocer and spirit dealer on the High Street in Perth. In later years this business became known as Maxwell & Son. The hank of yarn and bale of flax refers to the linen trade in the town which was its main industry at the time of this token’s issue.
This token was engraved and manufactured by Joseph Kendrick at his works in Birmingham, England.
*Alex
leith_halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Leith, Scotland.60 viewsObverse: ✻ LEITH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; laurel branches below.
Reverse: ✻ LEITH HALFPENNY. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LEITH EDINBURGH & GLASGOW ✤ ✤".
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 60

Probably manufactured by Bonham Hammond, a button manufacturer from Birmingham. Bonham Hammond, has been credited with only this single large 18th-century token issue which was likely struck at his factory, then called Hammond, Turner, & Dickenson, located at Snow Hill in Birmingham.
1 comments*Alex
1797_Middlesex_buck_Halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, London, Middlesex.31 viewsObverse: FREEDOM WITH INNOCENCE. Proud stag with large antlers, walking to left.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1042 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Dies engraved by Thomas Willets and manufactured by William Lutwyche or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.
This token, one of the 18th century Political and Social Series of tokens, was likely struck for the use of the “Buck Society” in London.

The Buck Society was made up of eleven united lodges in London and three affiliates in Moorgate, Hatton Garden and Doctor’s Commons. It was one of the many debating societies that emerged in London during the eighteenth century, and were a prominent fixture of society until the end of that century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but, while there were comparable societies in other British cities, London was home to the largest number of them throughout the eighteenth century. The debating societies welcomed participants from both genders and all social backgrounds, making them one of the best examples of the enlarged public sphere of the Age of Enlightenment. However, the increasingly radical political environment, created in large part by the French Revolution in 1789, lead to the tightening of government restrictions and most of the debating societies went inactive when, following the local sedition trials of 1792 and 1793, William Pitt the Younger initiated the 1794 Treason Trials, and the 1795 Seditious Meetings Act.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
1797_NORTH_WALES_HALFPENNY_MULE.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, North Wales and London.48 viewsObverse: NORTH WALES HALFPENNY. Script monogram of "RNG" in centre with 1793 above.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 18
RARE

Possibly engraved by Rambert Dumarest (Britannia) and Thomas Wyon (cypher). Manufactured by William Lutwyche and/or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.

This token, apparently a mule, was issued by, or is in imitation of, the Parys Mine Company from North Wales. In the 18th century the token manufacturers supplied orders for a great variety of tokens. These manufacturers often used the dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, i.e. tokens produced by using the dies of two different tokens, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to “benefit” the collectors of the day.

The undeciphered “RNG” cypher is very similar to the “PMC” cypher used for the Parys Mine Company's first tokens.
*Alex
1797_SIR_BEVOIS_SOUTHAMPTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Southampton, Portsmouth or London.43 viewsObverse: FOR GENERAL CONVENIENCE. Helmeted and armoured bust, possibly of Sir Bevois, facing right.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1019 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Although the die-sinker is uncertain the dies were probably engraved by Rambert Dumarest due to the close similarity between this image and Dumarest's "Sir Bevois" image on Southampton issues. This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham.
*Alex
1797_(Undated)_MAIL_COACH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex28 viewsObverse: Mail Coach, with GR cypher on it's door, drawn by four horses galloping right; above, HALFPENNY PAYA-BLE IN LONDON; below, TO TRADE EXPEDIN & TO PROPERTY PROTECTION.
Reverse: THIS IS INSCRIBED ✤ TO J. PALMER ESQ. around AFH cypher within palm branches.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter 28mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 366

There were several issues of Mail Coach halfpennies, the last dated issue being in 1797. This, the final token in the series is undated, its Mail Coach obverse is similar, but the inscription is different and the reverse has the cypher AFH which has been linked to Anthony Francis Holdinhand, a merchant of 51 St. Mary-Axe in London. St. Mary-Axe is now the site of the well-known "Gherkin" skyscraper which was opened there in 2004.

Though these “Mail Coach” tokens are associated with John Palmer, he did not issue them. Famous in his day the story goes that, on 2nd. August 1784 at 4.00 pm, Palmer began an experimental journey from the "Rummer" Tavern in Bristol. The coach reached the "Three Tuns" in Bath at 5.20 pm and, travelling overnight, arrived at "The Swan with Two Necks" Inn in London at 8.00 am. Palmer, who knew how to operate a fast system of chaises between Bath and Bristol in order to get a quick exchange of actors and properties, had predicted the sixteen hour journey which the Post Office surveyors had said was impossible. The Post Office's mounted 'Post Boys' were taking nearly two days to carry the mail from Bath to London at the time. Palmer's successful experiment led to his appointment as Comptroller-General of the Post Office and, helped by road improvements, a network of routes served by dedicated Mail Coaches spread rapidly.
1 comments*Alex
George_III_HALFPENNY_1799.JPG
1799 GEORGE III AE HALFPENNY6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1799. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 30mm.
SPINK: 3778

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810). Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
spain_1800-MO_charles-IIII.jpg
1800 - Mo - F M - Spanish Empire, Silver half-real - Mexico City Mint62 viewsSpanish Empire, Coins of the Spanish Main.
Silver Half Reale ( 1/2 Real ) coin of the Spanish Main, struck at the Mexico City Mint in 1800.
King Charles IIII of Spain.

obv: . CAROLUS . IIII . DEI. GRATIA. 1800 - Laureate bust of King Charles IIII facing right.

rev: .HISPAN.ET IND.R.Mo.F.M. - Spanish coat of arms surmounted by crown. Pillar on each side with banners wrapped around each one that together read: ' PLUS ' ' ULTRA ' .

Weight: 1.574 Grams
Size: 18-19 mm
2 commentsrexesq
George-3_halfpenny_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 28m | Weight: 9.6gms
SPINK: 3781

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
Walthamstow_Brutus_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "BRUTUS" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.154 viewsObverse: BRUTUS. Bare head of Lucius Junius Brutus facing left.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm
Bowman: 24 | Withers: 621

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830).

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London. The copper was smelted in "Landore" near Swansea in South Wales and brought by barge around the south coast up the Thames and the Lea to the mill. The copper ingots were then rolled into thin sheets which were sent all over the country to be stamped into coins. The main purpose of the BCC would have been to sell its copper, whether in the form of tokens, or sheets of metal. These penny and half penny tokens were not issued exclusively for use in Walthamstow, the halfpennies in particular do not bear the name of a place where they could have been redeemed except the very tiny BCC found on the ground by Britannia's shield. The copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow were converted into a pumping station in the 1860s and were later incorporated, by Thames Water, into a large water treatment works.

Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the first two consuls of Rome, was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins, he thus became a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
Walthamstow_Mercury_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "MERCURY" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.65 viewsObverse: No legend. Head of Mercury wearing Petasus facing left, caduceus behind.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Davis 36 | Coxall type 3

The principal die engraver was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
Walthamstow_VINCIT_Halfpenny.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.38 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Small laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17, Coxall type 10

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1811_Vincit_Large_head.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.32 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Large laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Die damage, a common feature of these tokens, is visible at 10 o'clock on the obverse.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
Norwich_halfpenny_1811.JPG
1811 AE HALFPENNY, Norwich, Norfolk.42 viewsObverse: NORWICH MDCCCXI. The arms of Norwich consisting of a heraldic shield containing a three towered castle above a lion passant.
Reverse: NEWTON SILVERSMTH AND JEWELLER. Britannia standing facing right, holding spear and shield, behind her, at her side, lion walking right.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 27mm
Davis 26 | Withers 923

Issued by Francis Newton, a silversmith and Jeweller in Norwich. This is possibly the same Francis Newton (or a close relative) who, in a circular to bankers, was declared bankrupt by solicitors Messrs Bignold, Pulley and Mawe of New Bridge Street, at a meeting in the Rampant Horse Inn, Norwich on 5th August, 1835.

Norwich is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
1813_Walthamstow_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1813 "LION" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.31 viewsObverse: HALFPENNY. A lion walking left; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, small BCC below shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Withers: 610

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
LouisXVIII1815.JPG
1815. Louis XVIII. The Holy Alliance.98 viewsObv. Bust left LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX, ANDRIEU F on truncation.
Rev. REGNIS EVROPAE CONCORDIA STABILIENDIS, on shield at centre GALLIA AVSTRIA BORVSS (Prussia) ANGLIA RVSSIA, SACRO FOEDERE IVNCTAE, in exergue ACCESSIT GALLIA NOVEMB MDCCCXV, signed F GATTEAUX Allegorical figures of France and ? facing in each in front of shield and a group of standards bearing the arms of the Great Powers involved in the Napoleonic Wars (Britains, interestingly enough, is at the back, half covered) with a unicorn behind the right figure.
AE50.

This is a confusing medal. It depicts the nations of Austria, Great Britain, France, Prussia and Russia as part of the Holy Alliance. Yet many historical sources say Great Britain never joined due to distaste and constitutional incompatibility with the others reactionary policies. But other sources say Britain did join at the same time as France (November 20, 1815). Who is right? If Britain did not join why are they on the medal, but if they did why is there so much written to the contrary?
LordBest
George_IV_Halfpenny_1826.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm | Weight 9.32gms
SPINK: 3824

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
1826_GEORGE_IV_Penny.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE PENNY3 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: . Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3823

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
1826_Half_copy.jpg
1826 Half Dollar, United States of America25 viewsMolinari
George-4_Third_Farthing_1827.JPG
1827 GEORGE IV AE THIRD FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1827 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3827

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings and fractions facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.

This coin was produced in 1827 exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. The grano, a coin dating from before British rule, was valued at a twelfth of a penny so the decision was made to coin the equivalent in a British denomination. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
George-4_farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE FARTHING7 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3825

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquired a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
George_IV_Half-Farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE HALF FARTHING4 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1828. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 18mm | Axis 12
SPINK: 3826

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

The half-farthing was first issued in 1828, a year later than the third farthing, for use exclusively in Ceylon. However, it is usually considered to be part of the British coin series as Ceylon used British currency at that time.
*Alex
1828_Half_Dollar_-BLK-2.jpg
1828 Half Dollar14 viewsBought at a coin show long ago for $45Steve B5
William_IV_Halfpenny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3847

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*Alex
great-britain_one-and-one-half-pence_1839_flip_obv_02_rev_01.JPG
1839 One and One Half Pence47 viewsGreat Britain 1839 One and One Half Pence.
mintage: 760,320

Has prooflike devices... hard to show in the photo, which was taken through a coin flip.
2 commentsrexesq
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex19 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1854 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" HALFPENNY10 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3949

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
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1858 Liberty seated Half-Dollar27 views1 commentsancientone
Victoria_BH_halfpence_1862.JPG
1862 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1862 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING35 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY6 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY10 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1893_Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1893 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1893 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
e003.jpg
1898-1900? Victoria Half Penny150 views2 commentsrandy h2
Victoria_bronze_halfpenny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3962

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
1902_Edward_VII_halfpenny.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AE HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1902.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3991

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*Alex
Edward_7_Farthing_1903.JPG
1903 EDWARD VII AE FARTHING5 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1903.
Diameter 20mm | Die Axis 12
SPINK: 3992

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
All Edward VII farthings were darkened artificially at the mint to avoid confusion with half sovereigns. An acid gas, sodium thiosulphate was used to react with the surface of the farthings after they had been struck, permanently altering their appearance chemically by turning them black. This coin still retains some of it's original black appearance.
*Alex
George_5_H_Penny_1912.JPG
1912 "H" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1912 and small "H" (for Heaton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4052
SCARCE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The Heaton Mint in Birmingham was founded in 1850 by Ralph Heaton Junior using second-hand equipment purchased from Matthew Boulton's old Soho Mint. Ralph Heaton pioneered the modern mill striking of bronze coins, and in 1860 he was contracted by the Royal Mint to assist it in striking Britain's new bronze penny, half-penny and farthing issues. The Birmingham Mint continued striking these bronze issues for the Royal Mint off and on until the 1880s.
In 1912, the Royal Mint once again subcontracted the Birmingham Mint to strike enough British pennies to meet the demand, and those pennies carry a small 'H' (for Heaton) mintmark to the left of the date on the reverse. During the First World War, the Birmingham Mint was employed in other aspects of metalwork, producing brass and copper tubing for bullets and artillery rounds, but was again contracted to strike more Heaton pennies in 1918 and 1919.
*Alex
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1916 ALEXIUS PB Tetarteron S-Unlisted DOC 32 Constantinople mint67 viewsOBV Half length figures of John II beardless on r., and Christ holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Christ wears tunic and kolobion.

REV Half length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 19.29mm

Weight 5.8gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera.
DOC lists 6 examples with sizes from 17mm to 20mm and weights 4.22gm to 4. 74gm
1 commentsSimon
George_5_halfpenny_1920.JPG
1920 GEORGE V "Large head" AE Halfpenny3 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1920 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4056

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*Alex
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1925 Stone Mountian Memorial Half-Dollar26 viewsancientone
jdomna_RIC632.jpg
193-196(?) AD - JULIA DOMNA AR denarius49 viewsobv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG (draped bust right, hair coiled and waved)
rev: VENERI VICTR (Venus half naked standing to r., holding an apple and a palm and leaning on a column)
ref: RIC IVi 632, C.194 (5frcs)
mint: Emesa and Laodicea (or probably Rome)
3.5gms, 18mm
Scarce

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. She was a great support for Severus in serving her family and the empire. A staunch opponent to Severus' praetorian prefect Plautianus, she attempted to turn his influence from the emperor. Her attempts to mitigate in the hatred between her two sons did not succeed. However, she seems to have prevented them from splitting the empire between them, fearing an all-out civil war. Perhaps this was one of the turning points of Roman history. If the empire had been divided at this time, future history may have become wholly different. Her greatest tragedy was probably the death of Geta in her arms from the murderers instigated by Caracalla. Nevertheless she continued serving the empire and Caracalla until, he too, was murdered. After bearing Caracalla's ashes to Rome, she starved herself to death.
2 commentsberserker
1932.jpg
1932 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 21 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.81mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides but the Globus Cruciger is missing due to an imperfect strike. I believe this one by style alone to be minted in Thessalonica.
Simon
s-1932c.jpg
1932A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 15 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 13mm

Weight 2.09gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides , it is a thicker but smaller in size version, I believe this example to be from the Thessalonica mint.
Simon
s-1932-3c.jpg
1932B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 26 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17/15mm

Weight 2.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. Some official, some not. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins.
Simon
s-1932-2c.jpg
1932C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 27 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 1.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

This example I have always admired, the portrait of Alexius is so simple it is beautiful. Reminds me of a Guy Fox mask.
Simon
s-1932-4c.jpg
1932D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 IMITATION 21 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight .6 gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace. Imitation perhaps produced in the 13th century.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Very thin flan light weight, patina makes it an interesting example.
Simon
s-1932-5c.jpg
1932E ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 19 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.5/14

Weight 1.6mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Again the cross on this coin was my main interest for the collection.
Simon
s-1932-6c.jpg
1932F ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 22 views
OBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16/14mm

Weight 1.1gm



DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

This example has the inscription on the cross reversed. Also the design of the cross is a bit more elaborate. I believe this to be a barbarous imitation. Current studies have this style from a Bulgarian mint.
Simon
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1933D ALEXIUS 1/2 TETARTERON ? S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 13 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21/12mm

Weight 1.3gm

Interesting point, these coin sizes in my collection represent 1gm to 5 gm, this coin is the lightest and in the best condition. Even though it is on a small flan the coin I wouldhave to say this is the finest example known.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

I have several examples with weights from 1.3 gm to 5gm, Sommer in his catalog lists this coin as a half tetarteron? and SBCV lists it as a full tetarteron.
Simon
s-1934c.jpg
1934 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 15 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15mm

Weight 1.8gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s-1934-1c.jpg
1934A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.67mm

Weight 2.9gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

I currently have several examples of this coin and this is my favorite, I love the style of coin, it reminds me of the detailed coinage of Isaac Commenus of Cyprus

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm .
Simon
s-1934-2c.jpg
1934B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16/15

Weight 1.7 gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s-1934xc.jpg
1934C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 45 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.34mm

Weight 3.00gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm

This example is a good very fine, my best example.
Simon
sear1934f.jpg
1934D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 42 views OBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15.76mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin has been in my collection the longest and is very different from the other examples , the flan is much thicker It differs from the examples that are showing in the market today, I believe it to be from another mint. The coin was acquired in a group lot I acquired a dozen years ago, I have no idea of the dealers origin.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
George_V_Halfpenny_1935.JPG
1935 GEORGE V "Small head" AE HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1935 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4058

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

In common with the pennies, from 1928, the King's portrait was reduced in size to finally solve the problem of ghosting which had plagued earlier George V issues.
*Alex
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193826 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
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1945C JOHN II METROPOLITIAN ( HALF?)TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 2.18 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
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1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194717 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
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1952 George Wasington memorial half-dollar45 viewsancientone
x4.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation92 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size

Weight

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm
3 commentsSimon
h4~0.jpg
1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation 23 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.17mm

Weight 3.6gm

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

Simon
i6.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h5.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
Republican_Centennial_Medal_1954.JPG
1954 Official Republican Centennial Medal27 viewsObv: REPUBLICAN CENTENNIAL 1854 - 1954, Conjoined busts of Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower facing right.

Rev: Two lighted torches, quotes between: "WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE, WITH CHARITY FOR ALL, WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT, AS GOD GIVES US TO SEE THE RIGHT, LET US STRIVE ON TO FINISH THE WORK WE ARE IN" -Abraham Lincoln. "IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH PEOPLE, BE LIBERAL, BE HUMAN. IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH THE PEOPLE'S MONEY OR THEIR ECONOMY, OR THEIR FORM OF GOVERNMENT, BE CONSERVATIVE." Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Engraver: Gilroy Roberts

Mint: Medallic Art Company, Date: 1954, Bronze, Diameter: 63.6 mm

Note: Gilroy Roberts was already the chief engraver of the United States Mint when he designed this medal. He would go on to design the portrait on the John F. Kennedy half dollar.
Matt Inglima
sear1954.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 54 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.38mm

Weight 1.7mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h6.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.


Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
Sear1954A.jpg
1954B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.553 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.25mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today�s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
i5.jpg
1954CV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
s-1945-2c.jpg
1954DV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 16mm

Weight 1.9gm
This coin even though in poor condition is also an example of the Right arm raised .l. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
ComparisonJohnIIS1945.jpg
1954E JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 and S-1954V65 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Bothe examples are in excellent condition, the top is S-1954 Christ hand is on book. The bottom is the variation with Christ hands raised in benediction.

Size 19mm ( Bottom coin.)

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the l. hand is raised much higher than normal. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
s-1955-1c.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 41 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16.81mm

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
1955.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 19 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-3a.jpg
1955A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 56 views
OBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-4c.jpg
1955B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 14 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 17.22mm

Weight 2.17gm

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
franklin58.JPG
1958 Ben Franklin Half. MS-66 FBL22 viewsecoli
w3.jpg
1976 MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 44 views
OBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23.17mm

Weight 5.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Very nice example on a large flan.
.
DOC lists 24 examples with weights from 18mm to 25mm and weights from 2.55 to 6.54 gm
Simon
DSC08676_DSC08685_PCGS-PR69DCAM.JPG
1976 S - PROOF Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar - PCGS PR 69 DCAM ( Deep Cameo)10 views~~
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USA 1976 S *PROOF* Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar - San Francisco Mint.
Graded/Certified: PCGS PR 69 DCAM ( Deep Cameo)
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rexesq
kennedy-half-dollar_silver_1776-1976-S_BU_rev_06.JPG
1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar9 views~~~
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1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar. Reverse, Beautiful toning, great coin.
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rexesq
kennedy-half-dollar_silver_1776-1976-S_BU_obv_05_rev_01.JPG
1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar24 views~~~
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1976 S - SILVER Bicentennial Kennedy Half-Dollar. Reverse, Beautiful toning, great coin.
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rexesq
e3.jpg
1976A MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 31 viewsOBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17/20mm

Weight 4.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Older coin in my collection, very nice relief on both sides.
.
DOC lists 24 examples with weights from 18mm to 25mm and weights from 2.55 to 6.54 gm.
Simon
s-1976c.jpg
1976b MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 13 viewsOBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22.93mm

Weight 3.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Good example
Simon
a8.jpg
1976B MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 17 views
OBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 24mm

Weight 5.78gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Very nice example on a large flan.
.
DOC lists 24 examples with weights from 18mm to 25mm and weights from 2.55 to 6.54 gm
Simon
k6.jpg
1977 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.714 views
OBV Small neat letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.40mm

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

The rarer of the two monograms of Manuel, this coin is always heavier than the the other monogram coin. This example has a beautiful darkened highlights on a copper base.
Simon
s-1977-2c.jpg
1977A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.7 16 viewsOBV Small neat letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.34mm

Weight 2.7gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

The rarer of the two monograms of Manuel, this coin is always heavier than the the other monogram coin. This example is actually a black patina.
Simon
p5~0.jpg
1977a MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.7 19 viewsOBV Small neat letters Monogram Sear 57

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.88

Weight 2.89gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

Ex forum coin!
Simon
c6~0.jpg
1978 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 30 views
OBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19mm
Weight 3.23gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.

This coin is a choice example Good Very Fine.
1 commentsSimon
c3.jpg
1978A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 32 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.92mm

Weight 2.3 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless.
Simon
s-1978c.jpg
1978c MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 25 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.63mm
Weight 3.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.
Simon
1p.jpg
1979 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 55 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14.5/17mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This coin is in beautiful condition, the centering is off but as you can see a lovely example. Not rare but in this condition they are.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.
Simon
s1979.jpg
1979A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 Imitation ?91 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 12.54mm

Weight 1.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.


1 commentsSimon
3k.jpg
1979B MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 Imitation? 29 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.4gm

This style is very unique, I do not believe it was minted at one of the main mints, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.
Simon
1979.jpg
1979s MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 24 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.33mm

Weight 2.59 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This coin is good Very fine, lightly circulated. I believe this to be a perfect example.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.
Simon
rjb_2016_11_03.jpg
19811 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AR denarius
Obv "ANTONINVS PIVS AVG"
Laureate head right
Rev "PONTIF TRP X COS II"
Caracalla standing half-left, head turned right, holding spear and parazonium; at feet seated female (Armenia) and two reclining river-gods (Euphrates and Tigris) each holding a palm frond or reeds and leaning upon overturned urn from which water flows
Rome mint
RIC 96
mauseus
b3~2.jpg
1980 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 38 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.09 mm

Weight 2.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.
Simon
S1980A.jpg
1980A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 58 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.95mm

Weight 1.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.
Simon
Sear1980B.jpg
1980B MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 50 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.01mm

Weight 1.6 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.

This coin is very similar to Griersons Plate coin.
Simon
a5.jpg
1980d MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 16 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.30 mm

Weight 2.4gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This example is beautiful considering its size. I would grade aEF , rarity 1/5 Common coin , uncommon condition.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.
Simon
c3~3.jpg
1980Y MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 43 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 13.09 mm

Weight 1.7gm

This die size is only 12mm, out of the several examples I have with the smallest die they all come in under 2gm

DOC lists 7 examples of S-1980 with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm
Simon
j6~0.jpg
1981 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 11 views

OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.8mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron.These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Ex Forum Coin.
Simon
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1981A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 BROCKAGE 40 viewsOBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.37 mm

Weight 1.9 gm



DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Nice Brock age example, nice fill shows it off. Rare to find a brockage this nice.
Simon
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1982 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1982 DOC 25 CLBC 4.4.10 12 views

OBV Radiate cross on three steps

REV Half length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 1.26 gm to 2.24 gm with sizes from 16mm to 19mm.

This example is excellent , one of the few tetartera that can be listed as EF The portrait of Manuel on this coin is exceptional, especially considering its size.
Simon
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1982A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1982 DOC 25 CLBC 4.4.10 33 viewsOBV Radiate cross on three steps

REV Half length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/17mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 1.26 gm to 2.24 gm with sizes from 16mm to 19mm.

I am uncertain if this is an official issue, Many of Alexius and Manuel's tetartera were imitated as late as the 1300's , my only reason to suspect this coin is style , the weight seems correct for the issue
Simon
sear1989c.jpg
1989A ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.348 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 15.48

Weight 2.5m

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.

This is my third example of this Very rare coin, it has a chipped patina but detail is a bit better than my other examples.
Simon
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1989a ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.3 27 views
OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 22 mm

Weight 3.4 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size is off on this example but the die size is 12mm making it a half tetartera, it is aEF example, again large flan making it an excellent example.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.
1 commentsSimon
sear1989B.jpg
1989B ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.343 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 15.32

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.

This is my third example of this Very rare coin, well worn but all three examples have a die diameter of 12mm
Simon
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
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CaligulaAE27Caesonia.jpg
1ao2 Caesonia (?)19 viewsAE 27 of Carthago Nova, Spain

Laureate head of Caligula, right, C CAESAR AVG GERMANIS
Draped bust of Caesonia (as Salus) right, DN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q V I N C, SAL AVG across field

Generally held to portray the fourth wife of Caligula.

Sear 624

Caesonia, Milonia, (d41AD) was the fourth and last wife of Caligula. Her younger half-brother was the Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Her niece, Domitia Longina, married Domitian. In 41, Caligula was assassinated and Caesonia and her daughter Julia Drusilla murdered.

Suetonius states: As for Caesonia, who was neither young nor beautiful, had three daughters by another man, and was wildly promiscuous and extravagant, he not only loved her more passionately for it, but also more faithfully, taking her out riding, and showing her to the soldiers, dressed in a cloak with helmet and shield: while he exhibited her to his friends stark naked. He did not honour her with the title of wife until she had given him a child, announcing his paternity and the marriage on the very same day. This child, whom he named Julia Drusilla, he carried round all the temples of the goddesses, before finally entrusting her to Minerva’s lap, calling on that goddess to nurture and educate his daughter. Nothing persuaded him more clearly that she was his own issue than her violent temper, which was so savage the infant would tear at the faces and eyes of her little playmates. . . .

And as [Caligula] kissed the neck of wife or sweetheart, he never failed to say: ‘This lovely thing will be slit whenever I say.’ Now and then he even threatened his dear Caesonia with torture, if that was the only way of discovering why he was so enamoured of her. . . . Some think that Caesonia his wife administered a love potion that had instead the effect of driving him mad.
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
DomitianAsMoneta.jpg
1az Domitian20 views81-96

As

Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
Moneta std, MONETA AVGVSTI S C

RIC 708

Suetonius wrote: Domitian was born on the 24th of October AD51, a month before his father Vespasian took up office as consul. . . . When Vespasian died, Domitian considered granting his soldiers twice the bounty offered by his brother Titus, and had no qualms in claiming that his father’s will had been tampered with, since he had been due a half-share of the Empire. From then on, he plotted continually against his brother, openly and in secret. When Titus was gripped by his fatal illness, Domitian ordered him to be left for dead, before he had actually breathed his last. . . .

He governed inconsistently, displaying a mixture of virtue and vice, but after some time his virtues too gave way to vice, since he seems to have been made avaricious through lack of funds, and cruel through fear, contrary to his natural disposition. . . . Domitian was diligent and conscientiousness in his administration of justice, often holding special sittings on the tribunal in the Forum. . . . [I]n his private life, and even for some time after becoming Emperor, he was considered free of greed and avarice; and indeed often showed proof not only of moderation, but of real generosity. . . . His moderation and clemency however were not destined to last, his predilection to cruelty appearing somewhat sooner than his avarice. . . . In this way he became an object of terror to all, and so hated that he was finally brought down by a conspiracy of his companions and favourite freedmen, which also involved his wife, Domitia Longina.

Domitian was tall, and of a ruddy complexion, with large rather weak eyes, and a modest expression. He was handsome and attractive when young, his whole body well-made except for his feet with their short toes. Later, he lost his hair, and developed a protruding belly, while his legs became thin and spindly after a long illness. . . . He found exercise intolerable, seldom walked when in Rome and while travelling and on campaign rarely rode but used a litter. Weaponry in general held no interest for him, though he was exceptionally keen on archery. There are plenty of witnesses to his killing a hundred wild creatures or more at a time on his Alban estate, bringing them down with successive arrows planted so deftly as to give the effect of horns. . . .

At the beginning of his reign, he had the libraries, which had been damaged by fire, restored at great expense, instituting a search for copies of lost works, and sending scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and edit them. Yet he himself neglected liberal studies, and never bothered to interest himself in history or poetry, or even to acquire a decent writing style.
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ClodAlbDenRoma.jpg
1br Clodius Albinus38 views195-197

Denarius

Bare head, right, D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES
Roma seated on shield holding Palladium and scepter, ROMAE AETERNAE

RIC 11

According to the Historia Augusta, which in the case of Albinus is thought to be of dubious veracity: After the death of Pertinax, who was slain at Albinus' advice, various men were hailed emperor at about one and the same time by the senate Julianus at Rome, and by the armies, Septimius Severus in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East, and Clodius Albinus in Gaul. According to Herodian, Clodius had been named Caesar by Severus. But as time went on, each chafed at the other's rule, and the armies of Gaul and Germany demanded an emperor of their own naming, and so all parts of the empire were thrown into an uproar. . . .

It is an undeniable fact, moreover, and Marius Maximus also relates it, that Severus at first intended to name Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus as his successors, in case aught befell him. Later, as it happened, in the interest of his growing sons, and through envy of the affection in which Albinus was held, and most of all becau-e of his wires entreaties, he changed his purpose and crushed both of them in war. But he did name Albinus consul, and this he never would have done had not Aibinus been a worthy man, since he was ever most careful in his choice of magistrate. . . .

As soon as he came of age he entered military service, and by the aid of Lollius Serenus, Baebius Maecianus and Ceionius Postumianus, all his kinsmen, he gained the notice of the Antonines. In the capacity of a tribune he commanded a troop of Dalmatian horse: he also commanded soldiers of the I and the IV legions. At the time of Avidius' revolt he loyally held the Bithynian army to its allegiance. Next, Commodus transferred him to Gaul; and here he routed the tribes from over the Rhine and made his name illustrious among both Romans and barbarians. This aroused Commodus' interest, and he offered Albinus the name of Caesar and the privilege, too, of giving the soldiers a present and wearing the scarlet cloak. But all these offers Albinus wisely refused, for Commodus, he said, was only looking for a man who would perish with him, or whom he could reasonably put to death. . . .

[A]fter a decisive engagement, where countless of his soldiers fell, and very many fled, and many, too, surrendered, Albinus also fled away and, according to some, stabbed himself, according to others, was stabbed by a slave. At any rate, he was brought to Severus only half alive. . . . Albinus' head was cut off and paraded on a pike, and finally sent to Rome.
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MaximinusDenPax.jpg
1ch Maximinus51 views235-238

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


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FlorianusAntConcordMil.jpg
1dn Florianus26 views276

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP FLORIANVS AVG
Victory & Flor, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 116Q

Half-brother to Tacitus, he reigned only two months before his troops killed him rather than fight an army under Probus. Concordia Militvm did not really work out for him. Zosimus recorded, "An universal civil disturbance now arose, those of the east chusing Probus emperor, and those at Rome Florianus. The former of these governed all Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt; but the latter was in possession of all the countries from Cilicia to Italy; besides which the homage of all the nations beyond the Alps, the Gauls, Spaniards, Britons, and Africans was paid to him. When both therefore were ready for war, Florianus came to Tarsus, resolving to encamp there, leaving his victory over the Scythians at the Bosphorus unfinished, by which he gave them an opportunity of recovering themselves and returning home, though he had cut off their retreat. Probus protracted the time, because he came with less preparation for a battle. By these means it came to pass, that the weather, being exceedingly hot, a pestilential disorder broke out amongst the troops of Florianus, most of whom were Europeans, and consequently unaccustomed to such excessive heat, by which many were taken off. When Probus understood this, he thought it a proper time to attack the enemy. The soldiers of Florianus, attempting what exceeded their strength, fought some slight skirmishes before the city, but nothing being done worthy of notice, some of the troops of Probus deposed Florianus. Having performed this, he was kept in custody for some time, until his own soldiers said, that it was the will of Probus that he should share the empire. Florianus therefore assumed |32 the purple robe again, until the return of those who were sent to know the true resolution of Probus. On their arrival they caused Florianus to be killed by his own soldiers."
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EugeniusSiliquaRoma.jpg
1ex Eugenius26 views392-394

AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
Blindado
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2009-Germany - Regensburg35 viewsWhat remains today is the western half of the originally double arch and the east tower. berserker
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2014 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2014 DOC 4 CLBC 8.4.1 27 views

OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, turned to r. Manus Dei in upper r. field

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand labarum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content unknown for this issue. The entire tetartera of Alexius III are much harder to find due to debasement of trachea virtually rendering the Tetarteron useless. The Metropolitan issues were believed to be produced only for two years 1195-1197.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 2.7gm

DOC lists 1 example with weight of 3.38gm and 19mm

Unlike the one listed in DOC this example has a full family name and was perhaps minted after 1197. The half Tetarteron from the Thessalonica mint has two variations and is listed in Sear as two separate coins, that variation is a short or full version of the family name
Simon
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2015x ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE Half? TETARTERON S-2015/7v DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3v VARIATION UNLISTED44 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword AND shield behind left arm.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger with patriarchal cross.


Size 17.94mm

Weight 2.4gm

I purchased this as part of a collection from Europe. The coin was attributed by previous owner as S-2017 a much rarer coin to find. Upon reexamining the coin, it turned out it has a shield and hilt of sword that the left hand is holding. On the reverse the gl.cr. has a patriarchal cross, this is seen on his half Tetartera.

The weight is average for a half Tetarteron and a bit low for a full Tetarteron . the die size is around 15mm, small for a Tetarteron and large for a half.
AKA the Diane Variation
Simon
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2016 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2016 DOC 7 CLBC 8.4.4 22 views
OBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. hand. Scroll or hilt of sword

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger cr. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper right field.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron

Size 16mm

Weight 1.7gm

DOC lists 6 examples with weights from 1.2 to 1.9 gm and sizes 15x11 to 17mm
Simon
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2016 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2016 DOC 7 CLBC 8.4.4 41 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. hand. Scroll or hilt of sword

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger cr. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper right field.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron

Size 19x14mm

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists 6 examples with weights from 1.2 to 1.9 gm and sizes 15x11 to 17mm

Not a great example but the only one I have seen outside the books. Both of my Alexius III half tetartera are very odd shaped flans.
Simon
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2016AV ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2016 DOC 7 CLBC 8.4.4 Unlisted Variation49 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on RIGHT shoulder and in l. hand. Scroll or hilt of sword ( This one with such an exceptional Obv makes it clear it is a hilt of sword, also no others mention spear resting on right shoulder.))

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger cr. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper right field.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron

Size 16/14mm

Weight 2.3gm

DOC lists 6 examples with weights from 1.2 to 1.9 gm and sizes 15x11 to 17mm

Half tetartera are rare for Alexius III, this example has and excellent obv and the reverse is attributable in hand but does not photograph well.

Both of my Alexius III half tetartera are very odd shaped flans.
Simon
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2017 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2017 DOC 8 CLBC 8.4.5.A 25 views
OBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on r. shoulder and in l. hand shield.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger with patriarchal cross.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron.

Size 14/17.5 mm

Weight 1.7gm

Very Rare Coin.

DOC lists 7 examples weights 1.18gm to 2.47gm and sizes from 13mm to 17mm ( DOC com bines S-2017 and S-2018 as one coin.)
Simon
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2058 BYZANTINE, Latin Rule Half Tetarteron S-2058 20 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Leaved patriarchal cross.

17mm 1.59gm


I think this is the most attractive and unique design for any of the Latin issues.
Simon
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205a. Julia Mamaea37 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was a niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana.

She was married to Gessius Marcianus had a son, later emperor Alexander Severus. Unlike her sister, Julia Mamaea was reported to be a virtuous woman, never involved in scandals. As a member of the Imperial Roman family, she watched closely the death of her cousin Caracalla and the ascent to power of her nephew Heliogabalus, the oldest grandson of Julia Maesa and her choice to the throne. But eventually Heliogabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias proved incompetent rulers and favour fell on Alexander, Julia's son. He became emperor in 222, following Heliogabalus's murder by the Praetorian Guard. Julia and her mother became regents in the name of Alexander, then 14 years old. Upon adulthood, Alexander confirmed his esteem for his mother and named her consors imperii (imperial consort). It was in this condition that she accompanied her son in his campaigns: a custom started with Julia Domna (Septimius Severus's wife). Thus she travelled to the East, for the campaign against the Parthian empire, and to the Germania provinces. Julia Mamaea was with Alexander in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), capital of Germania Superior, when he was assassinated by his troops. She suffered the same fate.

Julia Mamaea Denarius. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter. RSC 81.
ecoli
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2117 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron S- 2117 DOC 59 50 views
OBV Cross within crescent-shapeped ornament decorated with pellets.

REV Half length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision , collar-piece and paneled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. a globus surmounted by patriarchal cross

Size 19mm/16mm

Weight 1.8 gm

DOC lists 5 examples with weights from 1.55 gm to 2.54 and sizes 15mm to 20mm All odd shaped in size.

Very Nice example with a nice lights sand filled patina, I would best describe this as a cross in a horseshoe.
Simon
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215 Philip I94 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8932, RIC IV 32b, RSC IV 55, VF, 3.820g, 23.3mm, 45o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse FIDES MILIT, Fides standing half left, standard in each hand; well centered
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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2154 Anonymous1 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2154 DOC IV 6 Type D50 viewsOBV Cross radiate, with lunate ornaments, decorated with pellets , at ends.

REV Half length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans wearing tunic.

Size 21mm

Weight 2.6gm

DOC lists 4 examples. weight vary 1.32gm to 2.52gm and 19 to 22mm
Simon
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2154a Anonymous (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2154 DOC IV 6 Type D 19 viewsOBV Cross radiate, with lunate ornaments, decorated with pellets , at ends.

REV Half length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans wearing tunic.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.61gm

DOC lists 4 examples. weight vary 1.32gm to 2.52gm and 19 to 22mm
Simon
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217-215 BC Roman Republic AE Semi uncia 19 viewsThe semuncia (Latin half-ounce) was an ancient Roman bronze coin valued at one-twenty-fourth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. It was made during the beginning of Roman cast bronze coinage as the lowest valued denomination. The most common obverse types were a bust of Mercury or an acorn (occasionally marked with Σ), and the most common reverse types were a prow or a caduceus. It was issued until ca. 210 BC, at about the time the same time as the denarius was introduced.

Cr. 38/7
217-215 BC
Obverse: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus
Reverse: ROMA above prow right

From Ebay(UK seller - George Clegg)

Check
ecoli
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217-218 AD - Diadumenian as Caesar - Moushmov 0597 - Snake Reverse45 viewsCaesar: Diadumenian as Caesar (Caes: 217-218 AD)
Date: 217-218 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE18

Obverse: K M OΠEΛΛI ANTΩNEINOC (or similar)
Bare head right

Reverse: MAΡKIANOΠOΛEITΩN
Snake emerging from half-opened cista.
Mint: Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior

Moushmov 597
1.73g; 18.3mm; 0°
2 commentsPep
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2170 Theodore Ducas AE Tetarteron SBCV-2170 DOC IV 11 Var. B CLBC 69 viewsOBV- Inscription in 5 lines

REV- Half length figure of emperor on l. and st Demetrius beardless and nimbate. Between them a patriarchal cross-crosslet, on a long shaft decorated with crescent and pellet, the base of the shaft ending in three steps.

Size 23.4mm

Weight 4.8gm

Doc lists 7 examples with weights from 2.63gm to 5.50gm and sized at 23mm with one variation at 17mm
Simon
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218c7 viewsJulia Maesa
Denarius
Obv: IVLIA MAESA AVG
Draped bust right
Rev: PIETAS AVG
Pietas standing half-left extending hand over lit altar and holding incense box
Rome mint
RIC 263
mauseus
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220 Trajan Decius37 viewsTrajan Decius, July 249 - First Half of June 251 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9364, RIC IV 10b, RSC IV 2, VF, 4.268g, 22.5mm, 180o, Rome mint, 250 - 251 A.D.; obverse IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopia held in both hands; scarce;


Abundantia, her Greek name is Euthenia, stands for abundance or plenty. Her attributes are heads of grain and the cornucopia. She can be seated or standing and is sometimes shown emptying a cornucopia.
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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220-222 AD - AQUILIA SEVERA AR denarius28 viewsobv: IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG (draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA (Concord standing half-left sacrificing over lighted altar, and holding double cornucopia, star in left field)
ref: RIC IVii 225 (Elagabalus) (S), RSC 2 (20fr.)
mint: Rome
2.71gms, 18mm
Very rare

Iulia Aquilia Severa was the second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus. She was a Vestal Virgin and her marriage to Elagabalus in 220 was the cause of enormous controversy - traditionally, the punishment for breaking the thirty-year vow of celibacy was death. Elagabalus is believed to have had religious reasons for marrying Severa - he himself was a follower of the eastern sun god El-Gabal, and when marrying himself to Severa, he also conducted a symbolic marriage of his god to Vesta.
berserker
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220-222 AD - AQUILIA SEVERA AR denarius21 viewsobv: IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG (draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA (Concord standing half-left sacrificing over lighted altar, and holding double cornucopia, star in left field)
ref: RIC IVii 225 (Elagabalus) (S), RSC 2 (20fr.)
mint: Rome
2.39gms, 19mm
Very rare

It's interesting her hair style is different than the other coin, but in RIC not select according to different hair styles. Perhaps these very rare coins are too expensive and usually most of collector has only one...
berserker
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22051 Julia Domna/Pietas9 viewsJulia Domna/Pietas
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA
draped bust right
Rev: PIETAS AVGG
Pietas, veiled, standing half-left, dropping incense into lighted altar and holding box,
Mint: Rome 18.9 mm 3.2g
Sear 6600, RSC 150, RIC 572 (Septimius Severus)
Blayne W
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221 AD - ELAGABALUS denarius 14 viewsobv: IMP.ANTONINVS.PIVS.AVG (laureate bust right)
rev: PM.TRP.IIII.COS.III.PP (Elagabalus standing half-left sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar, holding branch upwards in left hand, star in left field)
ref: RIC177, C.196
mint: Antiochia, 2.72g
berserker
jmamaea den-.jpg
226 AD - JULIA MAMAEA denarius 17 viewsobv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: VESTA (Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter)
ref: RIC360(SevAlex), C.81
2.67gms
She was the mother of Severus Alexander
berserker
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227 var. Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Roma standing26 viewsReference.
Strack 218; RIC cf 227; C.cf 94; BMCR cf 584

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev. ADVENTVS AVGVSTI
Roma standing left, holding spear, and parazonium on hip?? and clasping hands with Hadrian standing right, holding a roll.

3.35 gr
18 mm
7h

Note.
Strack saw two similar coins in Vienna and Sofia with same die pair.

This denarius was Rome struck during the latter part of Hadrian’s reign, and which fall into three classes or categories: 1) a series of coins commemorating the visit or arrival (adventus) of the emperor to each province; 2) another series which commemorates the restoration (restitutor) of the province by the emperor; and 3) an additional series which commemorates the military strength (exercitus) of province, for those provinces which had legions stationed within them. In addition to these three categories of commemorative issues that are collectively known as Hadrian’s ‘travel’ series, there are a further two related groups of coins. The first is quite extensive and simply commemorates the various provinces, with the provinces of Egypt, Africa, Hispania and Gallia being the most common. Then there is a much smaller issue which commemorates the emperor’s final return (adventus) to Rome, after his subjugation of the Jewish zealots under Simon Bar Kochba led to the pacification of the province of Judaea, of which this coin is a particularly handsome specimen. After spending more than half his reign on the road, and especially after having just inflicted such a crushing defeat on the recalcitrant Jews, Hadrian’s homecoming was a momentous occasion in the capital which was warmly welcomed by the citizens. The reverse shows the city of Rome personified as the goddess Roma, helmeted and draped in military attire, holding a spear and clasping the hand of the now elderly emperor who is depicted togate and holding a roll in the guise of a citizen, standing before her. The legend which appears on the obverse of this coin was only employed ca. A.D. 134-138. As Hadrian returned to Italy during A.D. 136 and died not two years later, this coin belongs to the very last issue of coinage struck at Rome during his principate.
1 commentsokidoki
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26. Constantine V and Leo IV9 viewsConstantine V and Leo IV.
751-775 AD.
AE Follis. Syracuse mint.

O: K-LEWN to right and left of Constantine V, bearded on left, and Leo IV, beardless on right, standing facing (usually three-quarter length), each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia in arm across their chests; cross between their heads

R: LEON-DECP downwards to left and right, Leo III, bearded, half-length, standing facing, wearing crown and chlamys and holding cross potent.

SB 1569, DOC 19.

Thanks to FORVM member joma-tk for helping to ID.
Sosius
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269 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Salus 21 viewsReference.
RIC 269 (S). RSC 1331. RCV —.

Obv. HADRIANVS — AVG COS III P P
Bare head right.

Rev. SALVS — AVG
Salus standing half-left, feeding from patera snake coiled around cold altar and holding grounded scepter.

3.18 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
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28420 viewsDiocletian 284-305 AD
AE half follis
Obv: DN DIOCLETIANO FELISSIM
Laureate consular bust right
Rev: PROVIDENTIA DEORVM
Providentia and Quies stood facing each other
B//ALE
Alexandria Mint
RIC 87a
mauseus
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3 Innocent XII 1693 Half Piastre M 3437 viewsAn interesting half piastre featuring a pelican as a symbol of self sacrifice. Early church fathers believed the blood on the bird was result of the pelican pecking her own breast to feed her young, as shown on the reverse. Combined with the inspirational legend "not for self, but for others" this was an obvious reference to Christ as model for believers to follow. Lovely and powerful sentiment, but unfortunately the blood is actually the result of captured fish which the pelican had broken up to feed to her chicks. Still, powerful imagery and a great example of the minters art at the end of the 17th century. stlnats
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3. CARACALLA, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 AD24 views AR Denarius, Mint:Rome, Date:216 A.D.
REF: RIC IV 280(c)
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - laureate head right.
Rev:P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P- Serapis, standing half-right, looking left, modius on head, raising right, long vertical scepter in left.
Size: 3.230gm; 18.3mm

4 commentsbrian l
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304. Philip I27 viewsPhilip I

Philip the Arabian remains an enigmatic figure because different authors evaluated his reign with wildly divergent interpretations. Christian authors of late antiquity praised the man they regarded as the first Christian emperor. Pagan historians saw Philip as indecisive, treacherous and weak. Our lack of detailed knowledge about the reign makes any analysis highly speculative. Nonetheless, Philip's provincial and administrative background represents continuity with features of Severan government. His career has its closest parallel with that of Macrinus, an equestrian from the provinces who, a quarter of a century earlier, capped an administrative career by moving from the office of praetorian prefect to that of emperor. Unfotunately, they also shared the same fate - Philip only lasted half a decade.

AR Antoninianus. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopia. RIC 27b, RSC 9
ecoli
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305 Diocletian 52 viewsDiocletian AE Antoninianus. Siscia? mint. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG, Jupiter, half naked, standing right holding sceptre & globe, facing Hercules with lionskin, club & victory on globe, crescent & delta between, XXI in ex. RIC V 323. 3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
ecoli
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31. Constantius II / Phoenix.33 viewsHalf Maiorina (AE 3), 348-350, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constantius.
Reverse: FEL . TEMP . REPARATIO / Radiate phoenix standing on pile of rocks.
Mint mark: ΓSIS.
3.08 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #231; LRBC #1127; Sear #18249.
Callimachus
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312a. Marius28 viewsMarius. AD 269. AE antoninianus.

Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 268.

According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade who rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. After the death of Postumus he seized power, reportedly for two or three days, before being killed by a sword of his own manufacture.

This tradition is probably partially or entirely incorrect. Based upon the number of coins he issued, a more accurate length for his reign would be at least two or three months. Marius is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.

Denomination : Bronze Antoninianus. Mint : Cologne.

Reference : RIC 5, part 2, page 377 #9. Sear-3155

Size : 16.9 x 18.0 mm Weight : 3.12 grams.

Grade : VF slightly off-centre.

Obverse : Radiate bust of Marius right, with IMP C M AVR MARIVS P F AVG around (the first half of the inscription is off the flan, but IVS P F AVG is clear.

Reverse : Felicitas standing left holding a caduceus and cornucopiae, with SAEC FELICITAS around.

At a glance one could confuse this coin with Postumus, as both Postumus and Marius have similar portraits and the part of the obverse inscription visible could be MVS P F AVG with the first part of the M off the flan. However, Postumus never issued this reverse type, so the coin can only be a Marius. (Description/Coin - Ex- Calgary Coins)
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318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
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319. Probus59 viewsAt an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the emperors Valerian, Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by the emperor Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers. Florianus, who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops, and the Senate eagerly ratified the choice of the army. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers, the most important of these operations being directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders.

Probus had also put down three usurpers, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts. This increase of duties was naturally unpopular, and while the emperor was urging on the draining of the marshes of his native place he was attacked and slain by his own soldiers. Scarcely any emperor has left behind him so good a reputation; his death was mourned alike by senate and people, and even the soldiers repented and raised a monument in his honour.

Obv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVT ORBIS, Female standing right, presenting wreath to emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (* in centre field, XXIQ in exe) Emission 5 Officina 4. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 733 Bust type F
3 commentsecoli
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32. Constans / Phoenix.49 viewsHalf Maiorina (AE 3), 348-350, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constans.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO / Radiate phoenix standing on pile of rocks.
Mint mark: ESISF
2.12 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #242; LRBC #1134; Sear #18718.
1 commentsCallimachus
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3260 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm 117-18 AD Tyche55 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3260/14; Prieur --; SNG France 1404; SNG Levante –.

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC CΕ
Laureate bust right, slight drapery

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding palm frond and cornucopia; at feet, half-length figure of river-god Cydnus swimming left; all within wreath.

10.38 gr
25 mm
12 h

From the Olav E. Klingenberg Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 88 (14 September 2011), lot 1004.
Note from CNG
Most of the references do not distinguish the silver issues of Hadrian from Tarsus, but it is clear there are two distinct denominations. The heavier, at about 14 grams, is the traditional tetradrachm. The lighter, at slightly over 10 grams, is most likely a tridrachm.
1 commentsokidoki
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3267 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm Sandan standing69 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3267; Levante 996; Prieur 768

Issue Second group

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r. with balteus and drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Sandan, wearing tall headdress and long cloak, standing, r., on horned lion; he wears on his l. side bow-case and sword crossing the bow-case; his r. hand is raised and he holds bipennis and wreath in left.

9.94 gr
26 mm
12h

Note.
Sandan (or Sandon or Sandas) was an ancient Anatolian god associated with both war and the weather, and was known in the area of Tarsos from Hittite times (the second half of the 2nd millenium BC). The figure of Sandan on a lion first appears on the coinage of Tarsus in the 2nd century BC, but it was certainly much older. The shrine to Sandan in Tarsus existed at least until the 3rd century AD
6 commentsokidoki