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coin622.jpg
74 viewsGREEK; Antiochus III, King of Syria, 223-187 BC;
AE 12, Antioch mint; Obv: Laureated head of
Apollo right. Rev: Apollo standing left, holds
arrow and leans on bow. Houghton 70
Spaer 583 Coin #622
cars100
Tacitus- Dikaiosyne.jpg
505 viewsTacitus, 25 September 275 - 12 April 276 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

AK K Λ TAKITOC CEB

AK: AVTOKRATOR is the equivalent of the Latin Imperator, 'emperor'.
K Λ is an abbreviation for K AV IOC, 'Claudius' transliterated into Greek.
TOK: TAKITOC= Tacitus
CEB: SEBASTOS (greek indication for augustus).

With the pellet between TOC . CEB

Reverse:
ETOVC A (year 1)

Dikaiosyne standing left holding scales in right hand and cornucopia in left. Diakaiosyne is the Greek equivalent of Aequitas ('Equity, Fair Dealing' to quote Sear).

Domination: Billon TETRAdrachm (4 drachms): size 21 mm

Mint: Alexandria, provincial.

Comment:
These Egyptian issues are not in RIC, but the old standard catalogue for these is Milne, where yours is no. 4492, with the pellet between TOC . CEB. They are also listed in the new Sear vol.III (though in not as much detail), where the nearest is 11831, which doesn't have the pellets in the obverse legend (Milne 4489). Other references : Curtis 1832, BMC 2403v ; Geissen 3115.
1 commentsJohn Schou
2.jpg
22 viewsGordian II Tranquillina
AUT K MANT GORDIANOS AUG SAB
TRANKUL LINA
OULPIANON AEXIALEON

Upper coin is Anchialos of Gordian III and Tranquillina. I'll go look it up, if someone else hasn't done so already. P.L.
It is AMNG II, 1, p. 289, no. 676. Obv. Gordian facing Tranquillina, AVT K M ANT GORDIANOS AVG SAB and below TRANKVL / LINA. In her name the NK are ligate. Rev. Tyche to l. with kalathos, rudder, and cornucopiae. OVLPIANÔN | AGXIALEÔN (I used Roman letters for Greek). There Strack cites 17 specimens
+Alexios
Troas1.jpg
80 viewsTROAS, ALEXANDREIA, Third Century AD, AE 21
Turreted bust of Tyche right; behind, vexillum/Horse grazing right. 21 mm. Cf. SNG Cop 109 (obv. legend variant); cf. Grose 7763 (obv. legend variant); cf. Lindgren I, 326 (obv. legend variant).
Collecting Ancient Greek Coins 25b (this coin pictured).

Ex: Dr. Paul Rynearson
1 commentspaul1888
greek.jpg
48 views1 commentsareich
Troas_D.jpg
62 viewsTROAS, ALEXANDREIA, Third Century AD, AE 21
Turreted bust of Tyche right; behind, vexillum/Horse grazing right. 21 mm. Cf. SNG Cop 109 (obv. legend variant); cf. Grose 7763 (obv. legend variant); cf. Lindgren I, 326 (obv. legend variant).
Collecting Ancient Greek Coins 25b (this coin pictured).
1 commentspaul1888
bizantina_1,0_gr__11_mm.JPG
41 viewsManuel I, Comnenus. 1143-1180 AD. AE 1/2 Tetarteron, Greek Mint, 1.2 grams. AE14. (As SB1975 but much smaller). P-over-w GIOC to left of bust facing of St. George, unbearded, nimbate, wearing tunic, cuirass and cloak, holding spear and shield / MANVHL DECPOTH (or MANOVHL DEC), crowned, unbearded bust facing of Manuel, wearing loros, holding labarum and cross on globe. SB 1980, BMC 78.
1.0 gr. 11mm.
Antonivs Protti
argolis_wolf_weber.jpg
57 viewsPeloponnesos. Argolis, Argos. Triobol. Wolf. Weber Plate Coin.

Date: c. 90-50 B.C.
Denomination: AR Triobol.
Diameter: 15 mm.
Weight: 2.29 grams.
Obverse: Forepart of wolf at bay left.
Reverse: Large A; below, eagle standing right; within shallow incuse.
Reference: Weber 4192 (this coin). BCD Peloponnesos 1177. BMC 114.

Ex: Sir Hermann Weber Collection, Ex: Spink 1888

Published: Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Greek Coins formed by Sir Hermann Weber MD, 1823-1918, Described Volume II, page 476, pictured on plate 154, #4192

Link to Plate 154: http://people.virginia.edu/~jdk3t/WeberPlates/Weber154.html

1 commentspaul1888
Greek1~0.jpg
26 viewsareich
Greek~0.jpg
25 viewsareich
greek_(2).jpg
9 viewsareich
greek4.jpg
28 viewsareich
greek4_(2).jpg
28 views1 commentsareich
Greek3~0.jpg
8 viewsareich
greek2~0.jpg
39 viewsareich
greek2_(2).jpg
13 viewsareich
greek6.jpg
9 viewsareich
GREEKUncleaned.jpg
17 viewsAntonivs Protti
Greek_Q-022_axis-0h_16mm_5,64g-s.jpg
71 viewsavers:-,
revers:-,
exerg: , diameter:16 mm, weight: 5,64g, axes: 0h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Greek_Q-016_axis-7h_17,5-18mm_4,71g-s.jpg
67 viewsavers:-,
revers:-,
exerg: , diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 4,71g, axes:7 h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Greek_Q-041_axis-1h_18,5mm_7,71g-s.jpg
75 viewsavers:-,
revers:-,
exerg: , diameter: 18,5mm, weight:7,71 g, axes:1 h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
1170076l.jpg
60 viewsGREEK COIN. MACEDON. Neapolis. AR Hemidrachm, circa 424-350 BC.
Obv: Facing Gorgoneion with protruding tongue.
Rev: Head of Nymph right within circular incuse.
Silver. 1.97 grams.
SNG ANS.430
2 commentspaul1888
001.JPG
25 viewsGreek statuette
Hollow moulded
c. 3rd-4th cent BC
mauseus
LOT_OF_43_ROMAN_-_GREEK_BRONZE_COINS_-_high_modulust.jpg
31 viewsAntonivs Protti
Elis_Olympia_drachm.jpg
25 viewsELIS, Olympia. AR Drachm (4.63g), c. 245-210 BC.

Eagle flying with hare in talons / Thunderbolt, F A in field. BCD 250. good Very Fine, old toning.

Ex: Dr. Paul Rynearson, with his handwritten tag.
Collecting Ancient Greek Coins (Paul Rynearson) 16d (this coin pictured).
paul1888
Eion.jpg
73 viewsMacedon, Eion, trihemiobol, 5th century BC, goose standing right, head looking back; above, lizard, rev., quadripartite incuse square, 0.77g

Boston 610; K. Regling, Die Griechischen Munzen der Sammlung Warren, Berlin, 1906, 569 ; SNG ANS 274ff.

Provenance:
Ex: Morton and Eden Ltd, In association with Sotheby’s; A Collection of Exceptional Greek Coins, Catalog 51, Monday, October 24, 2011, lot 85
Ex: Numismatic Fine Arts VIII, 6 June 1980, lot 97
Ex: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Collection (accession number 04.667). Published: Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1955; 610 (this coin),
Ex: Edward Perry Warren collection; Published: Die Griechischen Munzen der Sammlung Warren, Berlin, 1906, 569 (this coin).
Ex: Canon Greenwell Collection


Note: Cannon Greenwell, a well-known Durham antiquarian, sold for Ł11.000 |$55.000) his fine collection of Greek coins to Edward Perry Warren in 1901.
Source: Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXVIII, Number 323, 19 August 1901, Page 7
4 commentspaul1888
Album-3517_2.jpg
8 viewsARAB-BYZANTINE: Standing Emperor, ca. 680s, AE fals, Dimashq, A-3517.2, bird on T left, mint name in Greek to right / anchor above and downward crescent below M, Arabic duriba / dimashq / ja'iz around
Dim: 4.35g, 6 h
Quant.Geek
Bolskan_denarius.jpg
15 viewsAncient Greek
SPAIN
Bolskan. Circa 150-100 BC
AR denarius
Bearded male head right / Horseman riding right, holding spear
4.05 g, 17-18 mm, silver
ACIP 1417; SNG BM Spain 710
[Ex Kallman Collection, purchased from Malter Galleries, March 1971]
paul1888
unknown~0.jpg
11 viewsPhrygia, Apameia Ć20. 133-148 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Cult statue of Artemis Anaďtis facing; AΠAMEΩN downwards to right, AΠOΛΛ downwards to left. SNG Copenhagen -, cf. BMC 63 (unlisted magistrate). 7.78g, 20mm, 12h.Pericles J2
Augustus_REX_PTOL.jpg
2 Augustus and Ptolemy, King of Mauretania 27 viewsĆ Semis, Carthago Nova, Spain
C. Laetilius Apalus and Ptolemy, duoviri.

Bare head of Augustus right / Name and titles of the duoviri around diadem, REX PTOL inside

RPC 172; SNG Copenhagen 494

Ptolemy of Mauretania (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος, Latin: Ptolemaeus, 1 BC-40) was the son of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene and the grandson of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony. He was the last Roman client King of Mauretania, and the last of the Ptolemy line.
1 commentsSosius
57314q00~0.jpg
15 Hadrian69 viewsHADRIAN
BI tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 11.1g, 25.1mm
29 Aug 125 - 28 Aug 126 A.D.
ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ Α∆ΡΙΑ CΕΒ, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, wearing aegis, from behind / L ∆Ε KATOV (year 10), Canopus jar of Osiris, ornamented with figures, wearing crown of horns, uraei disk, and plumes
Kampmann-Ganschow 32.351; Geissen 903; Dattari 1326; Milne 1154; BMC Alexandria p. 75, 630; Emmett 827
Choice gVF
Purchased from FORVM

Note that at some point in this coin's history, it seems to have been used a host for very poor quality fakes. After discussion on the FORVM board, I am comfortable that this coin is indeed the original. Shame on the former owner that used it for copies!

During the mummification process, large organs, such as the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines were extracted and placed in four jars. In the Ptolemaic period, the Greeks called these jars "canopic jars," relating them to the deity of the old city Canop (now a village in Abu Kyr). The heart was left in the body because it held the spirit, understanding and senses and would be needed on the Day of Judgment in the underworld. -- FORVM
RI0073
3 commentsSosius
Antiochus_IX.jpg
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C.21 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C. Ae 18. Weight 5.2g. Obv: Diademed head rt. Rev: Pallas Athena rt. holding shield and spear ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. BMC 93.23
Antiochus IX Eusebes, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname. He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria. He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes in 96 BC.
ddwau
Intaglio.jpg
Asclepius Intaglio47 viewsMale figure Asclepius? holding two snakes.

Asclepius was the god of healing though he, like Heracles, was born as a mortal. Athena gave Asclepius two types of blood to help with his healing work, both from the gorgon, Medusa. One took life quickly but the other restored life. When Asclepius used this life restoring blood he encroached on the preserve of the gods and Zeus struck him down with a thunderbolt. One of the most famous centres for Asclepius worship was at Epidaurus on the Peloponnese. Snakes were sacred to the god and when the Romans embraced him as one of theirs his cult was supposedly taken to Rome in the body of a snake. He was preserved in the heavens as the constellation Ophiuchus, the serpent holder. The Romanised version of his name is Aesculapius.

0.34g

Greek or more likely Roman Provincial

Ex-Time Machine

Sold Forum Auctions December 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
Asia_Minor.jpg
Asia Minor15 viewsAncient Greek coinage of Asia Minor: Black Sea Area (Bosporos, Kolchis, Pontos, Paphlagonia, & Bithynia), Western Asia Minor (Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia, Lydia, & Caria), & Central & Southern Asia Minor (Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycanonia, Cilicia, Galata, Cappadocia).1 commentsChristian T
greek1.jpg
ATTICA,Athens. AR tetradrachm72 viewsThomson 31b/bmc 445/ 135-134bc
obv: Helmeted head of Athena bust R.
rev: Owl std.r.head facing on amphora. Magistrates name in field
Asklepios std.l. holding serpent. intwined scepter. Z on amphora,delta
I below. all within wreath
4 commentshill132
Baktria.jpg
Baktria16 viewsAlexander the Great's empire split into rival Hellenistic kingdoms ruled by his generals. The most far-flung part was Baktria, his conquests in what is today Afghanistan, western India and Pakistan. Greek settlers ruled over a much larger indigenous population. As centuries went by, this isolated outpost of Greek culture combined elements of both Greek and native traditions, oftentimes reflected in their bilingual coins. The main mints include Aď Khanoum, Bactra, and Pushkalavati.2 commentsChristian T
Baktria,_Diodotos_I,_AR_tetradrachm_-_Holt_A6_4_(this_coin)~0.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos I, ca. 255/250-240 BC, AR Tetradrachm 22 viewsDiademed head of Diodotos I right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY Zeus advancing left hurling thunderbolt, eagle at feet, ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta, Sampi) monogram in inner left field.

Holt A6.4 (this coin); Kritt A6 (plate 2 A6 this coin); CSE 1294 (this coin); SNG Lockett 3109 (this coin ID: SNGuk_0300_3109); Pozzi 2945 (this coin); ESM 717α (this coin); SNG ANS 77; SC 631.a; Bopearachchi 2E; Mitchiner 64d; Qunduz 6; HGC 9, 243.
Mint "A" - Ai Khanoum

(26 mm, 15.73 g, 6h).
Herakles Numismatics; ex- Houghton Collection (CSE 1294); ex- Lockett Collection (SNGLockett 3109); ex- Pozzi Collection: Naville Sale I (1921) 2945 (sold for CHF 35).

This coin has a very distinguished provenance and has been published as plate coin in four reference works.

The emission with the ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta Sampi) mint control mark is the most abundant of the Diodotid issues, representing about 13% of known Diodotid precious metal coins. The same control carries over into the early coinage of Euthydemos, although eventually displaced by the PK control monogram after 208/6 BC when Antiochos III captured Ai Khanoum while Euthydemos remained besieged at Baktra, after which it appears that Baktra/Balkh assumed the role of primary royal mint in Baktria. In is notable that the Archaic Greek letter Sampi forms the bottom of the ΙΔΤ monogram. It is an Archaic Greek form of a double Sigma that persisted in Greek dialects of Asia Minor. Many Greek settlers from Asia Minor migrated to Baktria, including the illustrious ruler Euthydemos from Magnesia in either Lydia, or Ionia. The archaic Greek Sampi possibly traveled to Baktria with the earliest Greek settlers from Asia Minor.
n.igma
CABAW_Amulet_BCC_L12.jpg
BCC L1223 viewsLead Amulet
Uncertain Date
2nd-5th Century CE?
Lead Amulet with mirror image Greek inscriptions
Obverse: CΑΒΑW (Lord of Hosts)
Rev: ΡΕΦΑΕΛ (Archangel Raphael)
2.3cm. 2.23 gm. Axis:0
v-drome
greek4.jpg
Corinthia, AR. stater36 viewsPegsi 453 / SNG Cop. 98 / 375-300 BC
obv: Helmeted hd. of Athena l. Delta-I flanking behind Artemis
Pospheres adv. l.
rev: Pegasos flying l.
1 commentshill132
sia_067.JPG
EAGLE, GORDIAN & TRANQUILLINA. ANCHIALUS. AE 26. Eagle. 71 views GORDIAN & TRANQUILLINA. ANCHIALUS. AE 26. Eagle. Choice
ROMAN PROVINCES - THRACE, ANCHIALUS
GORDIAN III, Emperor, AD 238-244
GORDIAN III & TRANQUILLINA
AE27 (Copper, 13.02 grams, 26.50 mm).
Obverse: Greek legend: AVT K M AN GORDIANOC CAV CAB / TPANKVLLI/NA Their two draped busts confronted.
Reverse: Greek legend: OVLPIANWN ANXIALEVN Eagle standing facing on thunderbolt with open wings, head right, holding wreath in its beak. Reference: Sear GIC -, BMC # 21 page 86.

6500
2 commentsAntonio Protti
Greek_Italy.jpg
Greek Italy, Magna Grecia.17 viewsApulia, Bruttium, Calabria, Campania, Lucania & Samnium.Christian T
greek6.jpg
Kings of Syria,Seleukos II. AE 16 (4.6gm)16 viewsNewell,wsm 1661 / 246-226 BC
obv: bust of Athena helmeted
rev: nude Apollo std. l. holding arrows and bow
(glossy black and green patina)
hill132
greek9.jpg
Macedon,Alexander III. AR tetradrachm32 viewsprice 1679 / Themnos mint /188-170BC
obv: head of Herakles r. wearing lion-skin
rev: Zeus Aetophoros seated l. M l. in field. monograms
above oinoche withen vine tendril,eagle and sceptre
1 commentshill132
greek3.jpg
Macedonia, Alexander III, Ar drachm29 viewsPrice 1382 / 310-301 BC
obv: Head of young Heraclea r. wearing lion-skin headdress
rev: ALEXANDROU Zues enthrond l. holding eagle and scepter forpart of
Pegasus l. monogram NO below throne
hill132
sear_1981.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus AE half tetarteron 37 viewsReverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOTH or similar Manuel bearded facing wearing crown and miltary attire and holding cruciform sceotre and gl. cr.
Mint: Unk greek mint
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1981 H. 18.5-6 (as Sear 1978 but smaller)
14mm 1.86
wileyc
greek5.jpg
Parthian empire. AR drachm33 viewsSellwood 28.3 Ekbatana mint. 122-91 BC
obv:Mithradates II dia. bust l. wearing tiara
rev: BASILEWS BASI-LEWN MEGALOU ARSAKOU EPIFANDS
Arsakes seated R.on throne holding bow
1 commentshill132
phraatesIV.jpg
Phraates IV (38 -2 BC) AR Tetradrachm 286 SE /26 BC46 viewsObv: Phraates diademed and cuirassed bust left with long pointed beard - no royal wart on forehead.
Rev: The king enthroned r. being presented with a palm branch by Tyche, standing l. before him holding cornucopiae with pellet above arm. Seleucid date 286 (C Pi Sigma) above palm. Greek inscription in 7 lines BASILEOS/BASILEON; on r. ARSAKOY/EUERGETOY' below [DIKAOY]; on l. EPIPHANOUS/PHILELLANOS; month off flan below
Wt 14.1 gm, 26.3 mm, Sellwood type 55

The coin could be that of Tiridates I who also ruled for a few months in 26 BC. The features of the king on this coin are much closer to that of Phraates than of much rarer Tiridates I according to a reclassification of Sellwood types by deCallatay and this is the most believable. The lower lines of the inscription would also settle the issue but are lost on this coin.
Early coins of the Parthian empire showed strong Greek empahasis on classical Greek forms and humanism which is gradually lost as the empire matured and finally decayed. The coins become schematic and emphasize suface ornament rather than sculptural quality. One senses from the portrait of Phraates that brutality was a prerequisite for Parthian kings who routinely bumped off fathers and brothers in their rise to power. Like the Spartans, they had a powerful empire in their time but its contribution to civilization was limited in the long term.
1 commentsdaverino
greek8.jpg
Sardes,Lydia Ae 1510 viewsBMC Lydia p.248,85 / 117-192AD
obv: dia.drp.bust of Zeus Lydios r.
obv: young Herakles std. front head l. resting r.
on club. lion skin on l. arm
hill132
Sicily_Gallery_h.jpg
Sicily19 viewsGreek colonies dotted the island of Sicily from about the mid-8th C. BC onward, sometimes conflicting with the native tribes (Sikels to the east, Sikanians in central Sicily, and Elymians to the west) and several Phoenician colonies. The largest issuance of coinage by the city-states often came amidst conflict among themselves and later arrivals, the Carthaginians and Romans. While Greek coin types and denominations predominated, the local litra and its fractions of onkiai survived down to the Roman conquest in 212 BC, when local striking withered. Major mints include Akragas, Gela, Himera, Kamarina, Katane, Leontini, Messene, Naxos, Segesta, Selinos, Syracuse, and the siculo-punic mints of Entella and Lilybaion.
2 commentsAnaximander
greek7.jpg
Thermai Himerensis,Sicily. AE 1614 viewsGross 2311 / SNG ANS 190 / 407-406 BC
obv: bust of Hera r. wearing stephane drp.r.
rev: bust of Herakles r. with lion-skin headdress
hill132
greek2.jpg
Uranopolis,Macedon. AE 1613 viewsSear 1475 / SNG ANS 7. 914 / 300BC
obv: urania seated on globe holding long scepter
rev: SUN
city founded by Alexar Chos brother of
Kassander
hill132
00010x00.jpg
19 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 6.62 g, 12h)
Galley
TAP/COC
Rostovtsev, “ΔΩPEA CITOY TAPCΩ,” in NC 1900, p. 103; Rostovtsev –

Despite the Greek legend naming Tarsus, the fabric of this piece confirms that it is from the city of Rome.
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_1.jpg
32 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (16mm, 4.01 g)
Boar at bay right
Hound standing right

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330a
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_3.jpg
25 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (14mm, 3.65 g)
Bull standing right
Pitchfork

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330c
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_4.jpg
21 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera(15mm, 3.98 g)
Female standing left, holding two grain ears
Male(?) reclining left, holding pitchfork

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330d
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_2.jpg
30 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.96 g)
Goat standing right
Bunch of grapes hanging from vine

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330b
Ardatirion
00033x00~1.jpg
61 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.41 g)
Oleiculture scene: male figure standing right, holding stick and knocking olives from tree to right; star and crescent between; behind, stag(?) standing left; [...]POV above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –

Scenes of the olive harvest are entirely unknown on coinage, but some mosaics and Greek vases illustrate the practice. See in particular an Attic black figure neck amphora in the British Museum (ABV, 273, 116) depicting two men using sticks to knock olives from a tree.
1 commentsArdatirion
louis1-denier-temple.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)49 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.56 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

The XPISTIANA should be read "χρISTIANA", nice mix of greek and latin letters.

This is the most common carolingian coin (Class 3 of Louis' coinage).
The obverse is the same as Class 2. However, the reverse is a signature of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Roman Church, which began with Louis' father (Charles the Great) and the systematic introduction of a cross on coins. Louis carried on...

There is no indication of the mint name on this coinage. This fact is generally interpreted as a reinforcement of the imperial autority. Many people tried to localize the precise location of mints. Simon Coupland proposed an attribution, using stylistic similarities to other coins of well known mints. Some cases are easy to attribute but not this one (maybe Quentovic or Verdun ?)...

Droger
louis9-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.190C Louis IX (Saint Louis): Gros tournois57 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Gros tournois (1266-1270)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.94 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

The full transcription of the obverse is: benedictvm sit nomen domini nostri dei Jesu Christi, which means ``blessed is the name of our Lord Jesus Christ'' (XPI is in fact a mix of greek and latin letters: χρI[STI]). This choice of religious legend is not surprising for a king as pious as Louis IX.

The value of the denier had become too small for use in commerce. So Louis IX introduced the Gros Tournois in 1266, with a value of 12 deniers tournois (12 is the number of lis, and also of letters of the obverse and reverse legends !). Gros means ``big'' or``thick'', and tournois ``of Tours'' (Tours is a french city). The inner part of a Gros tournois is similar to a denier tournois. An outer circle has been added with the christian legend on the obverse and 12 fleur-de-lis (symbol of French kingship) on the reverse.

Gros tournois were struck in France and entire Europe during one century.
Droger
marseille-obole-droite.JPG
LT abs, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 385-310 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.67 g, 10 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, right, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A in two quarters

Marseille was founded by the Phocean Greeks circa 600 BC. This obol has obviously more greek than celtic origins.
Droger
hadrian_eagle_tet_res.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN34 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 119 - 120 AD
Billon Tetracrachm 23.5 mm, 12.59 g
O: Laureate head right, Greek legend around
R: L/D (year), either side of eagle standing right
Alexandria, Egypt mint
1 commentslaney
titus_spes_blk_res.jpg
(11) TITUS29 views79-81 AD
AE Sestertius 34 mm, 21.85 g
O: laureate head right
R: S-C, Greek archaic statue of Spes (Elpis) walking left
Cohen 221.
laney
coin641.jpg
*DS*Antiochus III, AE 1217 viewsSNGIs 583 *DS*Antiochus III, AE 12, Apollo standing rev GREEK; Antiochus III, King of Syria, 223-187 BC; AE 12, Antioch mint; Obv: Laureated head of Apollo right. Rev: Apollo standing left, holds arrow and leans on bow. Houghton 70, Spaer 583,
Coin #641
cars100
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye965 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
Thracian_Chersonese_Hemidrachm.jpg
*SOLD*46 viewsGreek Thracian – Chersonese/Cherronesos AR Hemidrachm

Attribution: SNG Cop 833
Date: 400-350 BC
Obverse: Forepart of lion w/ head reverted and gaping mouth
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square; alternating depressions w/pentagram and pellet in one & pellet in other
Size: 12 mm
Weight: 2.5 grams
1 commentsNoah
Greek_AE20_3rd_cent.jpg
*SOLD*17 viewsGreek Thracian - Mesembria AE20

Attribution: SNG BM Black Sea 276 var., SNG Stancomb 229-30, Moushmov 3984
Date: 300-250 BC
Obverse: Helmet right
Reverse: METAM-BPIAN Ω N, wheel
Size: 19.5 mm
ex-Forvm
Noah
Greek_Cherronesos.jpg
*SOLD*18 viewsGreek Thracian – Chersonese/Cherronesos AR Hemidrachm

Attribution: Weber 2419, 2434; McClean 4079, BMC 11
Date: 400-350 BC
Obverse: Forepart of lion w/ head reverted and gaping mouth
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square, alternating depressions with pellet in one and
bunch of grapes in the other
Size: 14 mm
ex-Forvm
Noah
Greek_Diobol_4th_c_.jpg
*SOLD*22 viewsGreek Thracian - Mesembria AR Diobol

Attribution: SNG BMC 268 variant
Date: 400-350 BC
Obverse: Crested Corinthian helmet facing
Reverse: META between four spokes of wheel
Size: 16 mm
ex-Forvm
Noah
001_vespasian_tet_14_8grams_feb-01-feb-02-2012_o-r.JPG
0 - a - Vespasian Silver Tetradrachm - 14.8 Grams - Antioch, Syria.74 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Antioch, Syria.
Silver Tetradrachm of Emperor Vespasian ( 69 - 79 AD )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of the Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle, holding a laureate wreath in his beak, standing on club of Hercules facing left, palm branch to left in field.

Size: 28 - 29 mm
Weight: 14.8 Grams.
--
----
--
~*~ CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE ~*~
~~~
~
6 commentsrexesq
ant-pius_didrachm_5_9gr_o-r.jpg
0 - Antoninus Pius Silver Didrachm of Caearea, Cappadocia - Pietas standing w/ Altar32 views~
~~
~~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius ( 138 - 161 AD )
Silver Didrachm (two drachmai) of Caesarea, Cappadocia.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare headed bust of Antoninus Pius facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from Behind.
rev: Pietas, unveiled, standing left, raising right hand over lighted altar and holding open box in left hand.

Weight: 5.9 Grams.
~~~
*~!CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE - VERY LARGE PHOTO!~*
-----
-----
~ VERY RARE COIN ~
~~~
~~
~
1 commentsrexesq
tyre-phoenicia_tetradrachm_caracalla_13_79grams_murex-shell_01.jpg
0 - Caracalla #00 Tetradrachm - Tyre, Phoenicia - Murex Shell between Eagle's legs58 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm, Tyre, Phoenicia.
Struck 213 - 217 A.D. - Tyre Mint (Murex Shell between Eagle's legs as mintmark)

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on club facing, wings spread, tail and head left, wreath in beak, murex shell between legs

Weight: 13.79 Grams
Diameter 26.4 mm
---
-----
---
ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
--
-
4 commentsrexesq
tyre-phoenicia_tetradrachm_caracalla_13_79grams_murex-shell_obv_02_rev_03_95%.JPG
0 - Caracalla #00 Tetradrachm - Tyre, Phoenicia - Murex Shell between Eagle's legs - 0159 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm, Tyre, Phoenicia.
Struck 213 - 217 A.D. - Tyre Mint (Murex Shell between Eagle's legs as mintmark)

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on club facing, wings spread, tail and head left, wreath in beak, murex shell between legs

Weight: 13.79 Grams
Diameter 26.4 mm
--
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrian_purple
-----
---
ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
-
~ RARE COIN ~
--
-
3 commentsrexesq
caracalla_tet_antioch_small-flan-crack_sphinx_01.jpg
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #140 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
------
Ex Sphinx Numismatics
---
-
4 commentsrexesq
DSC07249_DSC07252_o_r_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #1.25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
~Flan crack @ 2 o'clock obverse/ 10 o'clock reverse~
------
Ex Sphinx Numismatics
3 commentsrexesq
DSC07242_DSC07243_o-96%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #1. 26 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
~Flan crack @ 2 o'clock obverse/ 10 o'clock reverse~
------
Ex Sphinx Numismatics
5 commentsrexesq
caracalla_tet_14_5grams_00.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #222 viewsEmperor Caracalla ( 198 - 217 A.D. )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #2

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of the Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

14.5 grams
rexesq
caracalla_tet_antioch_14_5grams_obv_02_rev_02_90%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #223 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla ( 198 - 217 A.D. )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #2

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of the Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

14.5 grams
2 commentsrexesq
caracalla_tet_antioch_14_5grams_obv_05_rev_03.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #2.19 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla ( 198 - 217 A.D. )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #2

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of the Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

14.5 grams
rexesq
caracalla_tet_13_48gr_00.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #318 views Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
rexesq
DSC07225_DSC07236_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #311 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
1 commentsrexesq
DSC07228_DSC07232_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #311 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
rexesq
DSC07264_DSC07273_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #39 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
rexesq
DSC07230.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .7 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
DSC07227.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .7 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
DSC07228.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .13 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_50%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #437 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.

Weight: 13.0 Grams
Size: 28 mm
--------------------------------------------------------
*Note: Wonderful portrait of the emperor on the obverse and the eagle on the reverse, I am very proud of this coin.
4 commentsrexesq
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_o.jpg
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #433 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.
13.0 Grams

-FULLSIZE-
(Click to Enlarge)
rexesq
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_r.jpg
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #4.14 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.
13.0 Grams

-FULLSIZE-
(Click to Enlarge)
rexesq
__1.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Tetradrachm #514 viewsRoman Empire
AR Tetradrachm. Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217 AD)

obv: Laureate head of Emperor, right.
rev: Eagle, spread wings, facing left with wreath in beak. Something between legs.
rexesq
__3_(1)~0.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Tetradrachm #64 views Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.98 / 13.0 grams
rexesq
__3.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Tetradrachm #6.30 views Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.
Delta and Epsilon in fields to either side of eagles' head, above wings.
-Weight: 12.98 / 13.0 grams-
1 commentsrexesq
hadrian_tet_o-r.JPG
0 - Hadrian Silver Tetradrachm40 views-
--
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm, 118 AD.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor Hadrian facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from the Front.
rev: Eagle, head left, body facing right, standing on thigh of sacrificial animal. Nothing in beak.

Weight: 14.1 Grams
Size: 28 mm x 27 mm

(Reference: Prieur 155a)
----
---
--
-
3 commentsrexesq
Diadumenian_AR-tet_11_3gr_mar2012_o-r_90%.JPG
0 - M - Diadumenian - AR - Silver Tetradrachm - Lion beneath Eagle39 views~
~~
~~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Diadumenian as Caesar, Coin Struck AD 218.
Son of Emperor Macrinus (8 April 217 AD – June 218 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Heirapolis.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Radiate bust of Diadumenian facing right. Draped and Cuirassed, Seen from Behind.
rev: Eagle standing facing, wings spread, holding wreath in beak. Lion walking right beneath.

Weight: 11.3 Grams
~~~~
*****~ HUGE PHOTO - CLICK PICTURE TO ENLARGE FULLY ~ *****
~~~
Reference: Prieur 947
I want to thank Mat and Potator for their help with the ID of this coin.
~~~
~~
~
6 commentsrexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_rev_02.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria19 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Reverse.
1 commentsrexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_rev_07.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria17 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Reverse.
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_rev_09.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria13 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Reverse.
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_obv_13_cut.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria18 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Obverse, bust cut.
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_00.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria19 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_01_cut_portrait.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria.16 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
------
Bust, cut.
rexesq
_AR-Tet_feb2012.jpg
0 - Roman Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria435 views~~~
Ancient Roman Empire

Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. RARE type.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing with body facing right, head and tail facing left, holding wreath in beak.
Greek letters to either side of eagle's head.
~~~~~
*notes: AMAZING PORTRAIT!!! Very Rare type, I have only ever seen ONE other example with this bust style.
~~~
~
1 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_00.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm62 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

Size: 29 / 30 mm
Weight: 11.02 grams
---------------
-------------
100% photo size
----------
4 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_150~1.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm36 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

Size: 29 mm / 30 mm - Very Large flan!
Weight: 11.02 Grams
---------------
-------------
150% photo size
----------
1 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_000.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm - 0129 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

11.02gr
---------------
rexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_in-flip_obv_01.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm - obv - in flip47 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

11.02gr
---------------
*Photos taken while coin was inside coin flip*
4 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_in-flip_rev_01.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm - rev - in flip29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

11.02gr
---------------
*Photos taken while coin was inside coin flip*
1 commentsrexesq
Gordian-III_AR-Tet_13_4gr_30mm_2012o-r_sara_75%.jpg
00. - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm #4.27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: - Laureate bust of Emperor Gordian III facing right, draped and Cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: - Eagle standing facing, wings spread holding laurel wreath in beak. Head and tail left.
'S C' below, in exergue.

Size: 30 mm
Weight: 13.4 Grams
----------------
*~!CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE - VERY LARGE PHOTO!~*
----------------
4 commentsrexesq
3350438.jpg
000b. Pompey the Great50 viewsThe Pompeians. Sextus Pompey. 37/6 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.49 g, 9h). Uncertain Sicilian mint, possibly Catana. Bare head of Pompey the Great right; capis to left, lituus to right / Neptune, holding aplustre and resting right foot on prow, standing left between the Catanaean brothers Anapias and Amphinomus running in opposite directions, bearing their parents on their shoulders. Crawford 511/3a; CRI 334; Sydenham 1344; RSC 17 (Pompey the Great). Fine, lightly toned, bankers’ marks on obverse.

AMPHINOMUS and ANAPIS (or Anapias), two brothers, of Silicy, respecting whom it is related that they saved their parents, at the peril of their own lives, from the flames of Etna, at the moment when an eruption of that volcano threatened their immediate destruction. This was a favourite subject with the ancients, in symbolising filial piety; and is often represented on Greek coins of Catana (Catania), where this noble action is alleged to have been performed. Of these two Sicilian brothers, types of that devoted love, which is ever cherished by good children towards the earthly anthors of their being, Cornelius Severus, alluding to Mount Edna, thus expresses himself: "Amphinomus and his brother, both equally courageous in the performance of a duty, whilst the flames murmured their threats against the neighbouring houses, rescue their decrepid father, and their aged mother."
1 commentsecoli
Philip-II_frontal-bust-armored_AR-tet_antioch_001.JPG
001 - Philip II - AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria - Frontal bust, armored; RARE Bust.23 viewsAncient Roman Empire

Philip II ( 244 - 249 AD ). Silver Tetradrachm, from Antioch, Syria.

( titles in Greek )
obv: Laureate bust facing left, rare cuirassed/armored portrait, seen from the front.
rev: Eagle facing left, wreath in beak, standing above city name over " S C ", wings open.
11.3 Grams, 28mm
2 commentsrexesq
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.82 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of “Union Jack” pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
Mamillius-Syd-741.jpg
009. C. Mamilius Limetanus.64 viewsDenarius, 82-81 BC, Rome mint.
Obverse: Bust of Mercury wearing winged hat; caduceus and the letter I behind.
Reverse: C MAMIL LIMETAN / Ulysses, dressed like a Greek sailor, being recognized by his dog Argus upon returning to Ithaca.
4.06 gm., 19 mm.
Syd. #741; RSC #Mamilia 6; Sear #282.

The Mamilia gens claimed descent from Mamilia, the daughter of Telgonius, reputed son of Ulysses. Mercury is an ancestor of Ulysses.

The story as told in Homer's "Odyssey" is somewhat different from that portrayed on this coin. When Ulysses returned to Ithaca after twenty years, he found his dog Argus lying on a dung heap and nearly dead. Argus had only enough strength to wag his tail in recognition of his master's voice before he died. Be that as it may, this is still an elegant portrayal of this touching scene, the likes of which are rarely found on Roman coinage.

2 commentsCallimachus
gordian-III_tet_ram-below-eagle_14_76gr_mar2012_amphora.jpg
01 - Gordian III Tetradrachm #3 - Ram leaping left beneath Eagle, head reverted, Crescent Moon above ram27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD ) Silver Tetradrachm.
Struck at the Roman Mint at Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing, holding laurel wreath in beak, head facing left.
BELOW: Ram leaping left, head turned facing behind (right), with Crescent Moon above head of Ram, all between the legs of the Eagle.

Weight: 14.76 Grams

~~~~
::Great detail on the head and beak of the Eagle, as well as on the Emperor's portrait, very nice coin, good weight for the type too. ::
~~~

*ex Amphora Ancient Coins, with photo-authenticity COA signed by David Hendin, author of Guide to Biblical Coins.
~~
~
5 commentsrexesq
coin317.JPG
010. Vespasian12 viewsSpes

In Roman mythology, Spes was the goddess of hope. She was traditionally defined as "the last goddess" (Spes, ultima dea), meaning that hope is the last resource available to men.
There was a temple to her in the Forum Holitorium. In art, Spes was depicted hitching her skirt while holding a cornucopia and flowers. Spes personified hope for good harvests, and for children, and was invoked at births, marriages, and other important times.

Her Greek equivalent was Elpis.

Vespasian Ae As REVERSE: Spes standing;

Check
ecoli
philip-II_as-caesar_frontal-bust-dr_cuir_13_03grams_ex-Hendin.jpg
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front45 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
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ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
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Seller photo. Great 'Frontal Bust' portrait and very large flan!
4 commentsrexesq
DSC07485_DSC07499.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front31 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
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ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
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5 commentsrexesq
DSC07494_philip-II_as-caesar_01.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front.14 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
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ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
-----
*Shown next to a US 25 cent piece (quarter-dollar) for size comparison.*
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rexesq
antioch_gordian-III_tetradrachm_01.jpg
02 - Gordian III Tetradrachm #236 views-
--
Roman Empire
AR Tetradrachm of Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.

rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, holding wreath in beak.
Beneath, crescent moon above ram running left, head reverted.

Weight: 10.9 Grams
--
-
4 commentsrexesq
DSC02767_cut_a.JPG
02 - Gordian III Tetradrachm #232 views-
--
Roman Empire
AR Tetradrachm of Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.

rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, holding wreath in beak.
Beneath, crescent moon above ram running left, head reverted.

Weight: 10.9 Grams
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rexesq
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.61 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Nero-Prieur-89.jpg
027. Nero.16 viewsTetradrachm, 63-64 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: ΝΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ / Laureate bust of Nero.
Reverse: ΕΤΟΥΣ ΒΙΡ . Ι / Eagle on thunderbolt, palm branch at right.
14.25 gm., 25 mm.
Prieur #89.

Dating this coin: BIP is the Greek way of writing the numeral 112 (B = 2; I = 10; P = 100) -- which is year 112 of the Caesarean Era of Antioch ( which started numbering from the Battle of Pharsalia, Aug. 9, 48 BC). The second I (after BIP) stands for the 10'th year of Nero's reign, which by today's reckoning is 63 - 64 AD.
Callimachus
DSC02611_100%_cut.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev19 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Rare Radiate, Frontal Left Bust.

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust left, seen from the front. Draped and Cuirassed.

rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between
the legs of Eagle.

Weight: 12.3 Grams
Size: 27mm
-
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*Quite Rare.
rexesq
DSC02613_100%_cut.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev - FLASH25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

*Rare Radiate, Frontal, Left facing Bust obverse w/ Eagle with Ram & crescent moon below reverse combination*

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust LEFT, seen from the FRONT. Draped and Cuirassed.
rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between the legs of Eagle.

Size: 27 - 28 mm
Weight: 12.3 Grams
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*Photo with CAMERA FLASH*
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-
4 commentsrexesq
DSC02628_100%_cut.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev.29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

*Rare Radiate, Frontal, Left facing Bust obverse w/ Eagle with Ram & crescent moon below reverse combination*

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust LEFT, seen from the FRONT. Draped and Cuirassed.
rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between the legs of Eagle.

Size: 27 - 28 mm
Weight: 12.3 Grams
rexesq
Gordian-III_tet_75%.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev..38 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

*Rare Radiate, Frontal, Left facing Bust obverse w/ Eagle with Ram & crescent moon below reverse combination*

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust LEFT, seen from the FRONT. Draped and Cuirassed.
rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between the legs of Eagle.

Size: 27 - 28 mm
Weight: 12.3 Grams
3 commentsrexesq
trajan_radiate-bust_tet_13_05grams_bust-of-zeus_01.jpg
03 - Trajan Tetradrachm - Bust of Nilus - Radiate bust of Trajan46 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 AD)
Tetradrachm from the mint at Alexandria, Egypt.
Regnal Year: 20 = 116/117 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Radiate bust of Trajan facing right. Star to right, below chin.
rev: Bust of Nilus, wearing taenia, crowned with reeds and lotus, facing right, lotus bud and cornucopia by right shoulder. Date in fields.

Weight: 13.04 Grams
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2 commentsrexesq
V932.jpg
03c Domitian as Caesar RIC 93259 viewsĆ As, 10.65g
Rome mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 932 (C). BMC - . BNF - .
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS IIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Spes stg. l., with flower
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2019.

Spes, the goddess of hope, is seen here as an 'heir apparent' type. She is represented on Roman coins as a young girl, reminiscent of earlier Greek statures depicting Elpis. H. Mattingly in BMCRE II says 'the flower held by Spes is an opening bud, she is raising her skirt in order to hasten forward'. Spes occurs quite commonly throughout the Flavian coinage and is frequently paired up with the young Domitian Caesar, likely expressing a hope or expectation for future dynastic success. It is very Ironic that Spes is often associated with Domitian Caesar on the coinage, considering he would later be the family member most responsible for the dynasty's downfall in 96. Surprisingly, this common Spes type is not in the BM.

The obverse features a quintessential Flavian portrait - unflattering hook nose with full and heavy facial features. Pleasant dark green patina.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
trajan_alexandria-egypt_tetradrachm_regnal-year-5_101-102AD_eagle_01.jpg
04 - Trajan Tetradrachm - 101/102 AD - Eagle38 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt.
Regnal Year: 5 = (101 / 102 AD)

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head right.

rev: Eagle standing facing right; 'L E' (date) in either field.
3 commentsrexesq
GI_044b_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Drachm - Pontos, Amisos25 viewsSilver drachm
Obv:– AVT KAI TPA ADPIANOC CEB P P VP G, Laureate bust left
Rev:– AMICOV ELEVQEPA-C ETOVC PXE, Demeter standing left holding corn ears & branched staff
Pontos, Amisos. Dated Year 166 of Amisos = 133-134 AD.
References:- cf SGI 1139, cf SNGvA 80. BMC Greek, pg. 22 Pontus 91. J.H. Nordbo, Imperial Silver Coinage of Amisus, 131/2-137/8 AD, Studies...Thomsen, p. 168, Year 166=133/4 AD, specimens 102-113
1 commentsmaridvnvm
AnasISear14.jpg
0491-0518 AD - Anastasius I - Sear 14 - Follis (small module)6 viewsEmperor: Anastasius I (r. 491-518 AD)
Date: ca. 498-507 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis (small module)

Obverse: -
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross.
Exergue:

Constantinople mint
Sear 14
7.77g; 24.3mm; 195°
Pep
AnasISear19.jpg
0491-0518 AD - Anastasius I - Sear 19 - Follis (large module)5 viewsEmperor: Anastasius I (r. 491-518 AD)
Date: 498-518 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis (large module)

Obverse: -
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left and right, star; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
Sear 19
16.27g; 33.3mm; 195°
Pep
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_14.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/730 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_01_02.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/732 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_04_rev_02.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 30 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
3 commentsrexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_14_rev_05.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 22 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
3 commentsrexesq
11340.jpg
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - obv 0224 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_07.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - obv 0312 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_09.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - obv 04 17 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_rev_05.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - rev15 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
DSC06878_DSC06880_hadrian_tet-alexandria.JPG
08 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Tyche13 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver/Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt.
Struck Regnal Year 11 = 126 / 127 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia ?

25 x 24mm
------------
Damaged flan.
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rexesq
hadrian_alexandria-tet_00.JPG
08 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Tyche24 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver/Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt.
Struck Regnal Year 11 = 126 / 127 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.

25 x 24mm
------------
Damaged flan.
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-
3 commentsrexesq
787Hadrian_RIC824.jpg
0824 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Roma standing46 viewsReference.
RIC 824; Strack 683

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P.
Bare head right.

Rev. ROMA / S - C.
Roma standing left, holding spear and palladium, with shield on his back.

11.83 gr
25 mm
6h

Note.
In Greek and Roman mythology, the palladium or palladion was a cult image of great antiquity on which the safety of Troy and later Rome was said to depend, the wooden statue (xoanon) of Pallas Athena
3 commentsokidoki
Hadrian_Tet_Sol_00.JPG
09 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Helios / Sol36 views
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Struck 129 - 131 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
rev: Radiate bust of Helios right, chlamys buckled over shoulder.
Regnal Year: Year 14 (129 - 131 AD) across fields.
1 commentsrexesq
Hadrian_Tet_Sol_02.jpg
09 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Helios / Sol16 views
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Struck 129 - 131 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
rev: Radiate bust of Helios right, chlamys buckled over shoulder.
Regnal Year: Year 14 (129 - 131 AD) across fields.
rexesq
victorituts.jpg
095/1a Victoriatus52 viewsAnonymous. 211-208B.C. AR Victoriatus. Uncertain Mint. (2.74g, 16mm, 12h). Obv: Laureate head of Jupiter right. Rev: Victory standing right, crowing trophy; VB monogram between. Crawford 95/1a. Sydenham 113, RSC 36m.

An interesting denomination, he Victoriatus circulated at the same time as the denarius but was made of debased silver and could have been valued at ľ a denarius. It was hoarded separately from denarii, and could have been used for trade in southern Italy among the Greek colonies. It was later remade into the Quninarri keeping the victory motif from the old Victoriatus.
1 commentsLucas H
BasIISear1813.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A213 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with probable in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

Sear 1813; probable DO A2.25
15.47g; 35.3mm; 30°
Pep
BasIIDOA2_24.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A2.2420 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

DO A2.24; Sear 1813
13.40g; 29.0mm; 180°
Pep
wileycweights16_2mm429g.jpg
1 Nomisma weight14 viewsSerrated edge cut from Greek coin?
16 by 2 mm
4.29g
ref: Weber 2014, Nr.071
wileyc
ANTOSE86a.jpg
1. Aeneas travels from Troy to Italy 47 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (24.15g, Ř 33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: S C [left and right in field], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloac, advancing right, carrying Anchises on left shoulder and holding Ascanius by right hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum in left hand. RIC 627[R2], BMCRE 1292, Cohen 761; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali) 373 (4 specimens); Foss 57b.

This sestertius was issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in A.D.147.
The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Ilium, as the Romans called Troy, with Ascanius and Anchises. According to Vergil (Aeneid, Book 2), Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled with some remnants of the inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking with him his son, Ascanius, his elderly father, Anchises, and the Palladium, the ancient sacred statue of Athena. The Trojans eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. There they intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and thereby became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas' son Ascanius (known now as Iulus) was Rhea Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome. The mythological depictions on this coin reinforce the importance of Ilium, not only as the seedbed of the future Roman people, but also as the mother city of the future caput mundi.
Charles S
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
parthe.jpg
107-145 Vologases III - dirham from Ecbatana (Hamadan, Iran)67 viewsNo legend , diademed bust left
Blundered Greek legend , archer seated right, holding bow over monogram
1 commentsGinolerhino
AlexISear1909.jpg
1081-1118 AD - Alexius I Comnenus - Follis - Thessalonica mint17 viewsEmperor: Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081-1118 AD)
Date: 1081-1092 AD
Condition: aFair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust of the Virgin facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; She holds before Her the infant Christ whose nimbate head facing is represented; to left, ; to right, ; on either side of Virgin's head, uncertain wedge-shaped object.

Reverse: - ]
Alexius standing facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1909
4.27g; 26.1mm; 165°
Pep
ManISB1980.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I - Sear 1980 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: Manuel I (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: to left, /Γ/E; to right, /ΓI/O/S (or similar)
Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear and shield.

Reverse: MANHΛ ΔECΠOT (or similar)
Bust facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Uncertain Greek mint
Sear 1980; DOC 23
2.32g, 16.1mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy25 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
4.49g; 31.3mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966_2.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy - 2nd Example10 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
3.96g; 30.4mm; 180°
Pep
RI_132ey_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 861 var. - Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (Serdica) (Γ)45 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding globe, whip and billowing cloak.
Minted in Serdica (Γ in exe) Emission 3 Officina 3.
Reference:– RIC 861 var. Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (This bust type is not listed in RIC. This issue mark is not listed for this mint).

There is growing evidence that this coin forms part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.

A fascinating coin with lots of fine detail.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132ey_img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 861 var. - Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (Serdica) (Γ) 31 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding globe, whip and billowing cloak.
Minted in Serdica (Γ in exe) Emission 3 Officina 3.
Reference:– RIC 861 var. Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (This bust type is not listed in RIC. This issue mark is not listed for this mint).

There is growing evidence that this coin forms part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.

A fascinating coin with lots of fine detail.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132fu img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (Δ) (unlisted issue mark for mint)72 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding globe in left
Minted in Serdica (Δ in exe)
Reference:– RIC 864 var. Bust type H (This series of emission marks is not documented in RIC or Pink for this mint)
There is growing evidence that this coin is part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.
A nicely struck coin with lots of detail and plenty of silvering.
maridvnvm
RI 132fu img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (Δ) (unlisted issue mark for mint) (updated image)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding globe in left
Minted in Serdica (Δ in exe)
Reference:– RIC 864 var. Bust type H (This series of emission marks is not documented in RIC or Pink for this mint)
There is growing evidence that this coin is part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.
A nicely struck coin with lots of detail and plenty of silvering.

A new image of this pleasing coin.
maridvnvm
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)34 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
JohnVIIISear2564.jpg
1423-1448 AD - John VIII Palaeologus - Stavraton - Constantinople mint12 viewsEmperor: John VIII Palaeologus (r. 1423-1448 AD)
Date: 1423-1448 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Stavraton

Obverse: -
Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator.

Reverse: / or variants in two lines around crowned facing bust of John with pellets flanking.

Constantinople mint
DO 1706; Sear 2564; Bendall 348.20, sigla 18
6.59g; 23.8mm; 225°

Ex CNG
Pep
RI_152m_img.jpg
152 - Maxentius as Caesar - RIC VI Carthage 51a37 viewsObv:- M AVR MAXENTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:- SALVIS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding up fruits in both hands
Struck in Carthage late 306 A.D. H in left field, Greek_Delta in exe.
References:- RIC VI Carthage 51a.

The coin is on a full flan, well centered, with a decent strike and the reverse still holds on to decent detail enhanced by a nice patina.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius93 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
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169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII VIII Alexandria -; 25 viewsConstans AE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureaare and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, parazonium in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree.
Minted in Alexandria, (/ALE Greek_Gamma)
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria -;

Unknown variation with a parazonium instead of a spear
maridvnvm
384_P_Hadrian.JPG
1726 MYSIA, Pergamum Hadrian AE 30 Zeus standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1726;

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΝΕΡ ΤΡΑ(ΙΑ) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate bust right, seen from front
Countermarks.
a wreath (Howgego 480).
a helmeted bust of Athena right (Howgego 185).

Rev. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗ ΕΠΙ СΤΡΑ ΚΛ ΚΕΦΑΛΙΩΝΟС, ΤΟ Β (in field, l.)
Zeus naked standing facing, his r. hand on his hip from which falls a drapery, holding thunderbolt in his l. hand; at his feet, r., eagle standing facing, head l., a wreath in its beak
Countermark.
Telesphoros/telesphorus (Howgego, Greek Imperial Countermarks, 267)

15.67 gr
30 mm
6h
okidoki
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1727. Leopold I: Reconstruction Of The Bridge In The Forest Of Haye. 71 viewsObv: Leopold to right, in peruke, wearing armor and the Order of the Golden Fleece LEOPOLDVS. I. D.G. DVX. LOT. BAR. REX. IER
Rev: A traveling horseman going over bridge toward Abundance in countryside. In background landscape a herm of Mercury PROVIDENTIA. PRINCIPIS
Exergue: VIAE. MVNITAE MDCCXXVII Signed: SV.
AE64mm. Ref: Forrer V, p. 309, #6; Slg. Florange 171; Molinari 40/120; Europese Penningen # 1739

Leopold Joseph Charles (Leopold I) (1679-1729), Duke of Lorraine and Bar (1697), was the son of Charles V, Duke of Lorraine and Bar. This medal commemorates further the many reconstruction projects that Leopold I, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, fostered during his reign, in this case, the reconstruction of the bridge in the forest of Haye. The reverse alludes to the fact that the bridge increased commerce (Mercury) in Lorraine and led to more abundance for its inhabitants.
A herm, referred to in this medal, is a statue consisting of the head of the Greek god Hermes mounded on a square stone post. Hermes is the god of commerce, invention, cunning and theft, who also serves as messenger and herald for the other gods.
LordBest
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1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex16 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
PCrassusDenAmazon~0.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus17 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps; a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
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PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
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PCrassusDenAmazon2~1.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus35 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
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BrutusDenLictors.jpg
1ag Marcus Junius Brutus64 viewsTook his own life in 42 BC after being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Octavian

Denarius, issued as moneyer, 54 BC
Head of Liberty, right, LIBERTAS
Consul L. Junius Brutus between lictors, preceded by accensus, BRVTVS

Seaby, Junia 31

Plutarch wrote: Marcus Brutus was descended from that Junius Brutus to whom the ancient Romans erected a statue of brass in the capitol among the images of their kings with a drawn sword in his hand, in remembrance of his courage and resolution in expelling the Tarquins and destroying the monarchy. . . . But this Brutus, whose life we now write, having to the goodness of his disposition added the improvements of learning and the study of philosophy, and having stirred up his natural parts, of themselves grave and gentle, by applying himself to business and public affairs, seems to have been of a temper exactly framed for virtue; insomuch that they who were most his enemies upon account of his conspiracy against Caesar, if in that whole affair there was any honourable or generous part, referred it wholly to Brutus, and laid whatever was barbarous and cruel to the charge of Cassius, Brutus's connection and familiar friend, but not his equal in honesty and pureness of purpose. . . . In Latin, he had by exercise attained a sufficient skill to be able to make public addresses and to plead a cause; but in Greek, he must be noted for affecting the sententious and short Laconic way of speaking in sundry passages of his epistles. . . . And in all other things Brutus was partaker of Caesar's power as much as he desired: for he might, if he had pleased, have been the chief of all his friends, and had authority and command beyond them all, but Cassius and the company he met with him drew him off from Caesar. . . . Caesar snatching hold of the handle of the dagger, and crying out aloud in Latin, "Villain Casca, what do you?" he, calling in Greek to his brother, bade him come and help. And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against him, he let go Casca's hand, that he had hold of and covering his head with his robe, gave up his body to their blows.
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
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GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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TitusProv.jpg
1ax Titus96 views79-81

AE, Ankyra, Galatia
Laureate head, right AY KAICAP TITOC CEBASTO. . .
Man standing, left, SEBASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN

RPC 1620

By Suetonius' account: Titus, surnamed Vespasianus like his father, possessed such an aptitude, by nature, nurture, or good fortune, for winning affection that he was loved and adored by all the world as Emperor. . . . He was born on the 30th of December AD41, the very year of Caligula’s assassination, in a little dingy room of a humble dwelling, near the Septizonium. . . .

He was handsome, graceful, and dignified, and of exceptional strength, though of no great height and rather full-bellied. He had an extraordinary memory, and an aptitude for virtually all the arts of war and peace, being a fine horseman, skilled in the use of weapons, yet penning impromptu verses in Greek and Latin with equal readiness and facility. He had a grasp of music too, singing well and playing the harp pleasantly and with ability. . . .

As military tribune in Germany (c57-59AD) and Britain (c60-62), he won an excellent reputation for energy and integrity, as is shown by the large number of inscribed statues and busts of him found in both countries. . . . When his quaestorship ended, he commanded one of his father’s legions in Judaea, capturing the strongholds of Tarichaeae and Gamala (67AD). His horse was killed under him in battle, but he mounted that of a comrade who fell fighting at his side. . . . [Upon] Vespasian’s accession, his father left him to complete the conquest of Judaea, and in the final assault on Jerusalem (70AD) Titus killed twelve of the defenders with as many arrows. . . .

From then on, he acted as his father’s colleague and even protector. He shared in his Judaean triumph (of AD 71), the censorship (AD 73), the exercise of tribunicial power, and in seven of his consulships (AD 70, 72, 74-77, 79). . . .

He died at the same villa as his father, Vespasian, on the 13th of September AD81, at the age of forty-one, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. The people mourned his loss as if he were a member of their own family.
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HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
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coin291.JPG
201. Macrinus; Nikopolis27 viewsTyche

A Greek goddess, originally of fortune and chance, and then of prosperity. She was a very popular goddess and several Greek cities choose her as their protectress. In later times, cities had their own special Tyche. She is regarded as a daughter of Zeus (Pindar) or as a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys (Hesiod). She is associated with Nemesis and with Agathos Daimon ("good spirit"). Tyche was portrayed with a cornucopia, a rudder of destiny, and a wheel of fortune. The Romans identified her with their Fortuna.

AE26 of Nikopolis - Tyche OBVERSE: Laureate bust right REVERSE: Tyche standing left Holding rudder and Cornucopiae 26mm - 14 grams
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coins124.JPG
201. Septimius Severus13 viewsPax

In Roman mythology, Pax (Latin for peace) (she had the Greek equivalent Eirine) was recognized as a goddess during the rule of Augustus. On the Campus Martius, she had a temple called the Ara Pacis, and another temple on the Forum Pacis. She was depicted in art with olive branches, a cornucopia and a scepter. There was a festival in her honor on January 3.

Septimius Severus 193-211AD

Denarius 3.15g Obv: Head of Septimius Severus right 'L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII' Rev: Pax seated left holding a branch and scepter 'P M TR P V COS II PP'

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BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201157 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
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201240 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
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201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
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201a. JULIA DOMNA29 viewsLuna

In Greek mythology, Selene was an ancient lunar deity and the daughter of the titans Hyperion and Theia. She was identified with the Roman moon goddess, Luna.

Like most moon deities, Selene plays a fairly large role in her pantheon. However, Selene was eventually largely supplanted by Artemis, and Luna by Diana. In the collection known as the Homeric hymns, there is a Hymn to Selene (xxxii), paired with the hymn to Helios. Selene is described in Apollodorus 1.2.2; Hesiod's Theogony 371; Nonnius 48.581; Pausanias 5.1.4; and Strabo 14.1.6, among others.

The Roman goddess of the moon, Luna, had a temple on the Aventine Hill. It was built in the 6th century BC, but was destroyed in the Great Fire of Rome during Nero's reign. There was also a temple dedicated to Luna Noctiluca ("Luna that shines by night") on the Palatine Hill. There were festivals in honor of Luna on March 31, August 24 and August 28

JULIA DOMNA, - 217 AD. Antoninianus, Rome, 215 - 217 AD Bust, no crescent, right / Luna Lucifera in biga left. Rare. RIC 379.
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202. Caracalla100 viewsIn Roman mythology, Victoria was the goddess of victory. She is the Roman version of the Greek goddess Nike Nike INC , and was associated with Bellona. She was adopted by the Sabine agricultural goddess Vacuna.

Caracalla Denarius. 211 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right / P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Victory advancing right on prow with wreath & palm. RSC 188.
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202a. Plautilla60 viewsVenus

The Roman goddess of love and beauty, but originally a vegetation goddess and patroness of gardens and vineyards. Later, under Greek influence, she was equated with Aphrodite and assumed many of her aspects. Her cult originated from Ardea and Lavinium in Latium. The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion.

Venus is the daughter of Jupiter, and some of her lovers include Mars and Vulcan, modeled on the affairs of Aphrodite. Venus' importance rose, and that of her cult, through the influence of several Roman political leaders. The dictator Sulla made her his patroness, and both Julius Caesar and the emperor Augustus named her the ancestor of their (Julian) family: the 'gens Julia' was Aeneas, son of Venus and the mortal Anchises. Ceasar introduced the cult of Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and marriage, and built a temple for her in 46 BCE. She was also honored in the temple of Mars Ultor. The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE.

Roman statues and portraits of Venus are usually identical to the Greek representations of Aphrodite.

AR Denarius. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RSC 25.
ecoli
1509820_649071311796450_723220009_n.jpg
220 Trajan Decius37 viewsTrajan Decius, July 249 - First Half of June 251 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9364, RIC IV 10b, RSC IV 2, VF, 4.268g, 22.5mm, 180o, Rome mint, 250 - 251 A.D.; obverse IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopia held in both hands; scarce;


Abundantia, her Greek name is Euthenia, stands for abundance or plenty. Her attributes are heads of grain and the cornucopia. She can be seated or standing and is sometimes shown emptying a cornucopia.
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
22111.jpg
22111 Philip II/Equestrian17 viewsPhillip II/Equestrian
359-336 B.C.
Obverse: APOLLO
Diademed head of Apollo right
Reverse: ΦIΛIΠΠOY
Nude Rider on Prancing Horse. Strung Bow beneath. PHILLIP in Greek
above. Delta V is behind horse.
Mint: Macadonia 14.5mm 5.78g
SNGANS 901 Ex Frascatius coin
Blayne W
cow & Stellate.jpg
229 BC- Epidamos-Dyrrhachium, Illyria AR Drachm128 viewsCow standing Right, looking back at suckling calf, MENIEKOS in greek above, nike flying right above legend, monogram/thunderbolt below
Square containing stellate pattern, legend around square.

after 229 BC, 3.23 gms, Sear Greek Coins and their Values sg1900 variant

Meniskos-Kallenos name combination, Class 5 drachm, issued in year -5 (last issue = year -1) that can be around the 70's of the first century BC.
Well centered, well struck specimens are rare. Here you can identify both obverse symbols, flying Nike (=Victory) above Meniskos (wreath in hand off-flan) and thunderbolt in the exergue. The legend on the reverse is DYP KA[L] [LH] NOS (lower segment off-flan).
jimwho523
23-Lysimachos.jpg
23. Lysimachos.104 viewsTetradrachm, 287 - 282 BC, Pergamum mint.
Obverse: Diademed head of Alexander, wearing the Horn of Ammon. K under bust.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ / Athena seated, with spear and shield, holding Nike. A crescent and archaic xoanon at left, ΘΞ monogram in exergue.
17.29 gm., 30 mm.
Thompson #221; S. #6816 var.

The mint at Pergamum was open for only 5 years from 287 - 282 BC. This coin was issued by Philetareus who was Lysimachus' governor at Pergamum. One of the most striking portraits on Greek coinage !
4 commentsCallimachus
1165_P_Hadrian_RPC2329_5.jpg
2329 PHRYGIA, Laodicea Hadrian Medallion Zeus standing47 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2329.5; Von Aulock, Phrygiens -; SNG München -; SNG von Aulock-; SNG Copenhagen 575; BMC 195

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r. with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ
Zeus Laodiceus standing facing, head l., holding eagle in his extended r. hand, l. resting on sceptre

36.37 gr
39 mm
12h

Note.
From the Group CEM Collection, Classical Numismatic Group 90, 23 May 2012, 1058 and ex Waddell II, 12 September 1987, 363.

The epithet 'Olympios' was adopted by Hadrian in 128/9 following the dedication of the temple of Zeus Olympios in Athens. It emphasized the emperor's Panhellenic program and enthusiastic Philhellenism, for Zeus Olympios, chief god of the Greek peoples, was the Panhellenic god before all others. RPC suggests that the impressive Laodicean medallions bearing the new epithet were struck on the occasion of Hadrian's visit to the city in June 129.
6 commentsokidoki
rjb_gor3_sel_02_06.jpg
23832 viewsGordian III 238-44 AD
AE 34 mm
Seleucia ad Calycadnum in Cilicia
City goddess seated left, small shrine at feet containing magistrates (?) name
BMC 39
Countermark Howgego 670
The plate coin from Sear's Greek Imperial Coins
mauseus
964Hadrian_RIC274.jpg
274 Hadrian Aureus Roma 134-38 AD Spes standing101 viewsReference,
RIC 274; C.1412; Strack 272; BMC 732; Hill 798

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev. SPES P R
Spes, draped, standing left, holding flower in right hand and raising skirt with left.

7.11 gr
18 mm
6h

Oud geld

Note.
Spes was the Roman personification of Hope
the Greek counterpart was Elpis
9 commentsokidoki
ConVIIAnt86.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Antioch 086 - GLORIA EXERCITVS34 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 330-335 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG
Bust right; rosette-diadem, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
Two soldiers, helmeted, standing looking at one another, reversed spear in outer hand, inner hand on shield resting on ground; between them, one standard.
Exergue: SMAN; (Antioch mint, third officina)

RIC VII Antioch 86; VM 94
1.35g; 15.1mm; 135°
Pep
ConVIIIConst52.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I Posthumous - RIC VIII Constantinople 052 - Quadriga Reverse35 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 337-340 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
Posthumous issue
Bust right; veiled

Reverse: (no legend)
Emperor, veiled, to left in quadriga; the hand of God reaches down to him.
in field.
Exergue: CONS(?) (Constantinople mint, third officina?)

RIC VIII Constantinople 52; VM 95
1.27g; 14.8mm; 165°
Pep
743_P_Hadrian_RPC3336.jpg
3336 CILICIA, Aegeae. Hadrian. Tridrachm 117-18 AD Athena standing23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3336; SNG Levante 1715; SNG France 2327; Prieur 714

Issue Year 164 (ΔΞΡ)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ ΕΤΟΥС ΔΞΡ
Athena standing l., holding in r. hand patera over goat, r. head turned back, l. hand resting on shield; behind, spear

8.99 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
The kneeling goat on the coin is a play on words as the city name sounds like the Greek word for goats.
okidoki
akragas~5.jpg
338-287 B.C. AE Onkia; Eagle head right/ crab, AKRAGA14 viewsSicily, Akragas Onkia AE14. 338-287 B.C. 1.94g, 14mm. Eagle standing facing with head right / crab, AKRAGA below. SNG Cop 94; BMC 103 var. Sear Greek 1025 var. Rare with head right. Ex Roma NumismaticsPodiceps
379-1_Procilia.jpg
379/1. Procilia - denarius (80 BC)8 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 80 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Jupiter right; S C downwards behind.
R/ Juno Sospita standing right, holding shield and hurling spear; snake before; L PROCILI/F downwards behind.
3.57g
Crawford 379/1 (104 obverse dies/116 reverse dies)

* Lucius Procilius:

The life of Procilius is sparsely known. Besides, he is the only recorded member of the gens Procilia for the Republic and the lack of a cognomen further indicates a humble origin. Dictionaries often record two different Procilius (a historian and a politician), but they were possibly the same person. Since there are 35 years between this denarius and the dated events of Procilius' life, the moneyer could have been the father of the politician and historian.

Regarding Procilius the historian, none of his writings has survived, even as fragments, but he is quoted by Varro about the origin of the Lacus Curtius on the Forum (Latin Language, v. 148), Pliny the Elder on a text related to Pompey (Natural History, viii. 2), and Cicero alludes that he wrote on Greek constitutions (Atticus, ii. 2). The scope of his works must have therefore been quite extensive. In the aforementioned letter, Cicero shows his dislike for Procilius, which is perhaps related to Procilius' political role.

Indeed, in other letters, Cicero mentions that Procilius was also a Tribune of the Plebs in 56, and that he was allied to Gaius Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger's cousin) and Marcus Nonius Sufenas, also Tribunes that year. They supported Publius Clodius Pulcher, Tribune in 59 and Aedile in 56, who -- as Tribune -- had banned Cicero from Rome for his repression of the Catiline Conspiracy, hence the animosity of Cicero towards Procilius. In 56, Pulcher and the three tribunes, including Procilius, prevented the elections from taking place, in order to force an interregnum, so that Crassus and Pompey could be chosen consuls for 55 (Cassius Dio, Roman History, xxxix. 27-33).

They used violence and bribery to prevent this election and were therefore sued. Cato and Sufenas were acquitted, but Procilius was found guilty on 4 July 54 (Cicero, Atticus, iv. 15). Apparently, he was not condemned for the complete illegality of his deeds, but because he had killed a man in his house; and Cicero complains that 22 judges on 49 still wanted to absolve him. In the following letter to Atticus (ii. 16), Cicero adds that there are rumors about Sufenas and his judges, possibly about corruption, but does not give more details.

The use of Juno Sospita refers to the town of Lanuvium, where she was worshiped, probably the hometown of Procilius.

Joss
ArcIXConst86(c)3.jpg
383-408 AD - Arcadius - RIC IX Constantinople 86(c)3 - SALVS REIPVBLICAE32 viewsEmperor: Arcadius (r. 383-408 AD)
Date: 388-392 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Arcadius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, with right hand carrying trophy over shoulder and dragging captive with left. in left field.
Exergue: CONS (Constantinople mint, third officina)

RIC IX Constantinople 86(c)3; VM 39
0.96g; 13.3mm; 210°
Pep
ArcIXThes61(c).jpg
383-408 AD - Arcadius - RIC IX Thessalonica 61(c) - VIRTVS AVGGG35 viewsEmperor: Arcadius (r. 383-408 AD)
Date: 384-388 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN ARCAD-IVS PF AVG
Our Lord Arcadius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VIRTVS - AVGGG
The Emperors are militarily virtuous.
Emperor standing left, head right, on ship, holding phoenix on globe and standard. His right foot on captive; Victory on helm.
"" in left field.
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint, third officina)

RIC IX Thessalonica 61(c); VM 34
2.53g; 17.7mm; 135°
Pep
Antony_RSC12_Fouree_2.jpg
4) Antony: RSC 12 Fouree17 viewsMarc Antony
AR Fouree Denarius
42 BC, Greek Mint.

M ANTONI IMP, bare head right / III VIR R P C, facing head of Sol in a temple of two columns.

Syd 1168, Cr496/1, RSC 12, Sear5 #1467
RM0014
1 commentsSosius
Magnentius-Amb-34.jpg
40. Magnentius.12 viewsAE 1, Sept. 353 - Aug. 353, Ambianum mint.
Obverse: DN MAGNENTIVS P F AVG / Bust of Magnentius.
Reverse: SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES / Large Christogram between small A and ω .
Mint mark: AMB
7.16 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #34; LRBC #19; Sear #18774.

The large Christogram is made up of X and P, the first two letters of "Christ" in Greek. It is placed between the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. This is an allusion to Revelation 22:13 where Christ says "I am the Alpha and the Omega, The Beginning and the End, the First and the Last." It is interesting that these symbols would appear on the coins of Magnentius since he is generally considered to have been a pagan. See RIC, vol. VIII, page 43 for a discussion of this reverse type.
Callimachus
coin223.JPG
406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
ecoli
233_P_Hadrian__Spijkerman_3.JPG
4100 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4100; Spijkerman 3; SNG ANS 1360-3 var. (bust type)

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from rear), r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

13.35 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
The Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Jordan, Israel and Syria. The ten cities were not an official league or political unit, but they were grouped together because of their language, culture, location, and political status, with each possessing a certain degree of autonomy and self-rule. The Decapolis cities were centers of Greek and Roman culture in a region that was otherwise Semitic (Nabatean, Aramean, and Jewish). With the exception of Damascus, Hippos and Scythopolis, the "Region of the Decapolis" was located in modern-day Jordan.

Petra (GreekΠέτρα, Petra, meaning "stone";
okidoki
caesar.jpg
47/46 BC Julius Caesar83 viewsDiademed head of Venus right, wearing necklace, hair collected into a knot, falling in two locks

CAESAR
Aeneas, naked, advancing left, head facing, holding palladium in extended right hand and bearing his father, Anchises, wearing long tunic and hood, on his left shoulder.


Military mint moving with Caesar in North Africa.

47-46 BC

3.5g

Crawford 458/1; CRI 55; Sydenham 1013; RSC 12.

Ex-Munzhandlung Polak

The reverse depicts Aeneas’ flight from Troy, with his elderly father Anchises on his shoulder. Virgil's epic poam The Aeneid tells the story of Aeneas. When Troy was sacked by the Greeks, Aeneas, after being commanded by the gods to flee, gathered a group of Trojan's and then travelled to Italy and became progenitors of the Roman people.

Probably struck in Africa during Caesar’s campaign against the remaining Pompeian's. The obverse depicts Venus, from whom Caesar claimed descent via Iulus, son of the Trojan prince Aeneas, who was the son of Anchises and Venus.
1 commentsJay GT4
Marc_Antony_Cr496.jpg
496/1 Marc Antony45 viewsMarc Antony AR Denarius. 42 BC, Greek Mint. (3.62g, 17.8m, 2.3h). Obv: M ANTONI IMP, bare head right. Rev: III VIR R P C, facing head of Sol in a temple of two columns. RSC 12, Sear5 1467, Syd 1168, Cr496/1.

After Caesar’s death, Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate. Ultimately, Lepidus was pushed to the side and Antony was defeated by Octavian at the battle of Actium. Fleeing back to Egypt, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide in the face of their defeat by Octavian.
2 commentsLucas H
coins213.JPG
501. Constantine I Cyzicus GLORIA EXERCITVS29 viewsCyzicus

Cyzicus was an ancient town of Mysia in Asia Minor, situated on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmara, and to have been artificially connected with the mainland in historic times.

It was, according to tradition, occupied by Thessalian settlers at the coming of the Argonauts, and in 756 BC the town was founded by Greeks from Miletus.

Owing to its advantageous position it speedily acquired commercial importance, and the gold staters of Cyzicus were a staple currency in the ancient world till they were superseded by those of Philip of Macedon. (For more information on ancient coinage click here) During the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) Cyzicus was subject to the Athenians and Lacedaemonians alternately, and at the peace of Antalcidas (387 BC), like the other Greek cities in Asia, it was made over to Persia.

The history of the town in Hellenistic times is closely connected with that of the Attalids of Pergamon, with whose extinction it came into direct relations with Rome. Cyzicus was held for the Romans against Mithradates in 74 BC till the siege was raised by Lucullus: the loyalty of the city was rewarded by an extension of territory and other privileges. Still a flourishing centre in Imperial times, the place appears to have been ruined by a series of earthquakes —the last in AD 1063— and the population was transferred to Artaki at least as early as the 13th century, when the peninsula was occupied by the Crusaders.

The site is now known as Bal-Kiz and entirely uninhabited, though under cultivation. The principal extant ruins are the walls, which are traceable for nearly their whole extent, a picturesque amphitheatre intersected by a stream, and the substructures of the temple of Hadrian. Of this magnificent building, sometimes ranked among the seven wonders of the ancient world, thirty-one immense columns still stood erect in 1444. These have since been carried away piecemeal for building purposes.

RIC VII Cyzicus 110 R5

Ex-Varangian

ecoli
coins224.JPG
501. Constantine I GLORIA EXERCITVS Arles21 viewsArles SCONST
15 views
Arles

Over 3000 years of history reside upon this rocky rise just north of the Mediterranean Sea on the Rhône River. Part of ancient Liguria, the site later became a city, Arlate, named by the Celts as the village amidst the marshes. After the Celts came the Greeks who made good use of this easily accessed inland port. The Greeks were displaced by the Romans and with Caesar's defeat of the Phoenicians at Massalia (current-day Marseille) with the help of nearly 20 battle ships built by the Arlesians, Arles became the Roman capitol of Provincia Romana, with the lands formerly under the dominion of Massalia, Glanum and other former Phoenician supporters now hers.

Constantine I AE3. 333-334 AD. CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS laurel wreath with dot, SCONST in ex. RIC Vii 375
ecoli
coin514.JPG
501. Constantine I Heraclea VOTA35 viewsHeraclea

Heraclea (Greek ‘Ηράκλεια), an ancient city of Lucania, situated near the modern Policoro, 3 m. from the coast of the Gulf of Taranto, between the rivers Aciris (Agri) and Sinis (Sinni) about 13 m. S.S.W. of Metapontum. It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines and Thurians in 432 BC, the former being predominant. It was chosen as the meeting-place of the general assembly of the Italiot Greeks, which Alexander of Epirus, after his alienation from Tarentum, tried to transfer to Thurii. Here Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, defeated the consul Laevinus in 280 BC, after he had crossed the river Sinis (see Battle of Heraclea). In 278 BC, or possibly in 282 BC, probably in order to detach it from Tarentum, the Romans made a special treaty with Heraclea, on such favourable terms that in 89 B.C. the Roman citizenship given to the inhabitants by the Lex Plautia Papiria was only accepted after considerable hesitation. We hear that Heraclea surrendered under compulsion to Hannibal in 212 BC and that in the Social War the public records were destroyed by fire. Cicero in his defence of the poet Archias, an adopted citizen of Heraclea, speaks of it as a flourishing town. As a consequence of its having accepted Roman citizenship, it became a municipium; part of a copy of the Lex Iulia Municipalis of 46 BC (engraved on the back of two bronze tablets, on the front of which is a Greek inscription of the 3rd century BC defining the boundaries of lands belonging to various temples), which was found between Heraclea and Metapontum, is of the highest importance for our knowledge of that law. It was still a place of some importance under the empire; a branch road from Venusia joined the coast road here. The circumstances of its destruction and abandonment was unknown; the site is now marked by a few heaps of ruins. Its medieval representative was Anglona, once a bishopric, but now itself a heap of ruins, among which are those of an 11th-century church.

Constantine I (AD 307-337)
AE3 - Vot XXX, .SMHB (Eyes to God)
AE-3 (AD 327-329)
OB: Plain-diademed head, right, looking upwards
CONSTANTINVS AVG.
REV: Wreath with VOT. /
XXX inscribed within
D. N. CONSTANTINI MAX. AVG.
. SMHB in exergue
Heraclea mint
RIC, Vol. VII, #92
Rated “Scarce” in RIC
ecoli
coin448.JPG
501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

ecoli
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
coin399.JPG
515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ćlia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallćcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menća and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
1 commentsecoli
636_P_Hadrian_Emmett803_5.jpg
5270 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Agathodaemon27 viewsReference.
Emmett 803.5; Köln 805; Dattari 1547; Milne 982; RPC III, 5270

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ΑΔΡΙΑ CEB
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder; crescent before.

Rev. L E below
Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils.

12.24 gr
24 mm
12h

notes.
Agathodaimon:
In ancient Greek religion, Agathos Daimon or Agathodaemon (Greek: ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, "noble spirit") was a daemon or presiding spirit of the vineyards and grainfields and a personal companion spirit,[2][3] similar to the Roman genius, ensuring good luck, health, and wisdom.

source:
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins at FORVM
Skhent:
The crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.
1 commentsokidoki
21-Galerius-Nic-54a.jpg
54 Galerius as Augustus: Nicomedia follis.22 viewsFollis, 308 - 310 AD, Nicomedia mint.
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI CMH / Genius standing, pouring from patera and holding cornucopiae.
Mint mark: SMND
6.61 gm., 24.5 mm.
RIC #54a; PBCC #964; Sear #14508.

The meaning of the CMH ligature in the reverse inscription is a mystery. It is found on coins from the mints of Nicomedia and Cyzicus. It is generally thought to refer to the value of the coin. One possible suggestion is that it means 100 (C) sestertii struck at a new weight of 48 to the pound (Greek M = 40; Greek H = 8).
Callimachus
473_P_Hadrian_Emmett1015.jpg
5717 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 127-28 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus 46 viewsReference.
Emmett 1015.12; RPC III, 5717 Dattari 7750. BMC 787, p.92; Milne 1267; Köln 992

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔWΔƐΚ(Α)
Nilus reclining left on hippopotamus, holding reed in left and cornucopia with small Genius in right hand; above ΙϚ

26.69 gr
35 mm
12h
Note Jay gt4
The Greek numeral sixteen (Iς) above Nilus refers to what was considered the ideal height of the annual Nile flood, sixteen cubits. Less could mean drought or famine. Even in modern times grand celebrations were held when the flood reached 16 cubits. In years when the flood failed to reach 16 cubits, the celebrations were canceled, and prayers and fasting were held instead. The peak flood occurred at the end of August, which explains why the Egyptian year began on 29 August.
1 commentsokidoki
Philip-II-RIC-232.jpg
68. Philip II as Augustus.21 viewsAntoninianus, ca 247 - 249AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP IVL V PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II.
Reverse: PM TR P IIII COS P P / Felicitas standing, holding long caduceus and cornucopiae.
4.19 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #232; Sear #9268.

No coins were minted at Antioch for Philip II when he was Caesar. It is only after 247 when his father made him Augustus and co-emperor with himself do we find coins of Philip II being minted in Antioch. The dated reverse legends on the coins of both Philips from Antioch are a bit puzzling. Philip I was already COS II (247) and COS III (248), and these numbers are not shown on coins minted at Antioch. The Philip II coins of Antioch seem use the TR P numbers of his father. It is thought that perhaps the mint at Antioch was just copying reverse types from coins in general circulation (Aequitas, Felicitas, the temple & lion of the millennium series, etc.). If the mint personnel spoke Greek and did not fully understand what TR P, COS, and various Roman numerals actually meant, it is understandable how they could come up with legends that did not make sense.
1 commentsCallimachus
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.34 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia103 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
770Hadrian_RIC706~0.jpg
706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left57 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
3 commentsokidoki
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.133 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 108 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cćsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et delicić generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cćsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et delicić generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
domitian AE19~0.jpg
81-96 AD - DOMITIAN AE19 Byzantion - struck 81-96 AD47 viewsobv: DOMITIANOY KAICAPOC (laureate head left)
rev: [BYZ]ANTIWN (crescent moon and star)
ref: Moushmov3274
mint: Byzantion (Thrace)
3.16gms, 19mm
Very rare

The crescent and star is one of the oldest symbol, it appears on petroglyphs and steles of the first civilization in Sumer. This symbol was adopted by the Greeks and was associated with many of their gods. Nevertheless, Byzantium was the first governing state to use the crescent moon as its national symbol. According to some reports, they chose it in honor of the goddess Diana.
berserker
Vabalathus-RIC-381.jpg
82. Vabalathus.11 viewsAntoninianus, 270 - 272 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R / Laureate and diademed bust of Vabalathus.
Reverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Aurelian.
4.03 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC (Aurelian) #381; Sear #11718.

Vabalathus was the son of Odenathus and Zenobia, king and queen of Palmyra. His Arabic name was Wahb Allat, meaning "gift of the goddess," and "Vabalathus" is the Latinized form of that name. The goddess is Al-Lat, a pre-Islamic goddess who was one of the three main goddesses of Mecca. She was called "the Great Goddess" and thereby became identified with the Greek goddess Athena. Vabalathus used "Athenodorus" as the Greek form of his name.
Callimachus
Justinian-Con-S-163.jpg
96. Justinian I.19 viewsFollis (40 nummia), 541, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: DN IVSTINIANVS P P AVG / Helmeted and cuirassed bust, facing; holding globe and cruciger. Cross at right.
Reverse: Large M, cross above, ANNO XIIII at sides, Γ between legs of M.
Mint mark: CON
22.82 gm., 38 mm.
Sear #163.

The large M is the Greek numeral 40 -- i.e. 40 nummia is the coin's denomination. The smaller Γ is the Greek numeral 3 -- i.e. the 3'rd officina of the mint at Constantinople. ANNO XIIII is Latin for Year 14 -- the 14'th year of Justinian's reign (541 AD).
In 541, things were going bad for the Empire -- trouble with the Goths in Italy, the Bulgars ravaging the Balkans, and the Persians invading from the east. Bubonic plague swept across the eastern Mediterranean in 541, reaching Constantinople in May 542, before going on to Italy and Gaul.
Callimachus
OWLS_44_LOW.jpg
A parliament of 44 Owls9 views40 official issues
3 Imitations
1 pseudo-Athenian
Basically from the beginning to the end with the Sullan pseudo -Athenian ethnicless New Style imitation which has the monogram of Marcus Lucullus, Quaestor in Greek.
cicerokid
greek01_griffin.jpg
Abdera of Thrace Griffin61 viewsThrace, Abdera
AE 17mm
Ob: Griffin recumbent on club
Rv: ABDHRITE?N - legend around head of Apollo in square
385-375 BC
Ref: BMC 3 Thrace Abdera 83v, SNG Cop 374var

Scotvs Capitis
Abdera_Apollo_Griffin_4a.jpg
Abdera, Thrace * Griffin | Apollon, AE14 - 4th Century BC.432 views
Griffin | Apollon, Bronze.

Obv: Griffin pouncing right, head raised in menacing poise, club below; MENAN
Rev: Apollon, right, within linear square: ABΔ-HPI-T-ΩΝ (with retrograde N).

Exergue: MENAN

Mint: Abdera
Struck: ca. 352-323 BC.

Size: 14.67 mm.
Weight: ca. 2.5 grm.
Die axis: 0°

The Griffin (Greek gryphos, Persian shirdal - "lion-eagle") is a legendary creature with the body of a lion and the head, with upstanding ear-tufts, and wings of an eagle: as the lion was considered 'King of the Beasts' and the eagle 'King of the Air,' the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. The griffin is generally represented with four legs, wings and a beak, with eagle-like talons in place of a lion's forelegs and feathered, with equine-like ears jutting from the crown of its head. Some writers describe the tail as a serpent, in the manner of a chimera.
2 commentsTiathena
RI 132ep img.jpg
Abundantia868 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS . P . F . AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundatia, standing right, empting cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII in exe.) Emission 4 Officina 4
Date Minted – Middle to End 277 A.D.
References: Cohen 1. Bastien 195 (54 examples). RIC 17 Bust type F (Common)

Abundantia stands for abundance or plenty. Her attributes are ears of corn (grain) and cornucopiae. She is sometimes (as here) shown emptying the cornucopiae and sometimes shown seated. Her Greek name is Euthenia
1 commentsmaridvnvm
848C5FCB-5EE9-43DF-B128-4A7C814C8C02.jpeg
Acarnania, Leucas, Stater, Leukas, EF(40-45), Silver, Pozzi:1317v26 viewsCOIN CONDITION EF(40-45)
MAIN CATEGORY Coins
COMPOSITION Silver
WEIGHT (GRAMS) 7.90
DENOMINATION Stater
GREECE PROVINCE Akarnania
GREEK COIN THEME Leucas
POZZI 1317v
MINT NAME Leukas
2 commentsMark R1
Thelpusa.jpg
Achaea. Arcadia, Thelpusa. Septimius Severus AE17. Unpublished105 viewsPeloponnesus. Thelpusa, Arcadia. Septimius Severus bust rt., Θ Ε Λ in wreath. Obverse die and reverse type not listed in BCD. BCD Pelop. I -; BCD Pelop II -; SNG Cop -; BMC -.

Thelpusa or Thelpousa (Greek: Θέλπουσα, also known as Telphusa/Τέλφουσα or Thelphusa/Θέλφουσα) was an ancient city-state in Azania in Arcadia.

The city was built on the left bank of the Ladon and bounded with Kleitor and Psophis. The name comes from the nymph Thelpousa or Thelpusa, daughter of Ladon. The city contained the temple of Eleusinian Demeter, and nearby, a stone statue of the goddess of the daughter and Dionysus and Ongius, chief of Thelpousa and the son of Apollo, Asclepius' children with the memory of Trygon and the temple of the twelve gods. When Pausanias] visited the city, Thelpousa was abandoned and ruined for many years. In 352 BC, its city residents took part with the Lacedaemonians. It was a member of the Achaean League and was cut off from the rights of law. Thelpusa was the patriot of Asclepius and Artion.
ancientone
corinthMarcusBellerophon2.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Marcus Aurelius Ć 26mm. Bellerophon.83 views Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: CLI COR Bellerophon riding Pegasos flying right, attacking a chimaera, facing right.
BCD 706; SNG Copenhagen -.

Bellerophon in Greek mythology was "the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside Cadmus and Perseus, before the days of Heracles", whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail: "her breath came out in terrible blasts of burning flame.
The replacement of Bellerophon by the more familiar culture hero Perseus was a development of Classical times that was standardized during the Middle Ages and has been adopted by the European poets of the Renaissance and later.
ancientone
aegira.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Aigeira. c. 167-146 BC228 viewsAR Hemidrachm, Obv: Laureate head of Zeus r. Rx: Forepart of goat r. over monograms Achaean League AX monogram with AL to left, KI to right; all within laurel wreath, tied below. Rare. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex Craig Whitford NBD Bank Money Museum Collection Part II, lot 87. VF/EF, 2.49g. BCD-399 (same rev. die), Agrinion-571a, Clerk-16, Benner-Aigeira-5. HJBerk BBS 159, lot 166.2 commentsCGPCGP
ant~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Antigoneia (Mantineia). Circa 188-180 BC213 viewsAR Hemidrachm (13mm, 2.43 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; A-N across field, monogram below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Clerk 195; BCD Peloponnesos 1491; SNG Copenhagen 281. VF, toned. ex BCD Collection (not in LHS sale); Benner-Antigoneia-2. CNG auction 179 lot 40.CGPCGP
greek6.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Antigoneia (Mantineia). Circa 188-180 BC.72 viewsAR Hemidrachm (13mm, 2.32 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; A-N across field, monogram below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Clerk 195; BCD Peloponnesos 1491; SNG Copenhagen 281; Benner-Antigoneia-2. Toned. CGPCGP
corinth.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Corinth. c. 167-146 BC275 viewsAR Hemidrachm, Obv: Laureate head of Zeus l. Rx: Pegasus flying r. over AX monogram with A-K-S across fields; all within laurel wreath, tied left. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex HJB Buy or Bid, 2/17/1981. About VF, 2.27g. BCD-73.2, Agrinion-583, Clerk-111; Benner-Korinth-11. HJBerk BBS 159, lot 167.3 commentsCGPCGP
dyme.jpg
Achaia, Achaean League, Dyme. 88-30 BC.135 viewsAR Hemidrachm. Obv: Laureate head of Zeus r. Rx: Monograms above and to left of AX monogram F to right, fish r. below; all within laurel wreath. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex CNA Mail Bid Sale XXI, June 26, 1992, lot 674 (part). VF, 2.36g. BM-30, Clerk-53; Benner-Dyme-16. HJBerk BBS 159, lot 165.1 commentsCGPCGP
elisco.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. c. 188-180 B.C.70 viewsSilver hemidrachm, BMC Peloponnesus p. 4, 46; S 3003 var, VF, Elis mint, 2.312g, 12.8mm, 315o, c. 196 - 146 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse large AX monogram in laurel wreath, F - A at sides, CW/CIAC below; Agrinion 334a; BCD 665.1; Benner-Elis-5. ex Coin Galleries auction, 23 November 1963, #423; ex Forum.CGPCGP
elisa.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. 167-146 BC.133 viewsAR Hemidrachm. 2.30g. Laureate Head of Zeus right/ AX, F-A across, LY above, Sigma Omega below; all within laurel wreath. Dark toning. EFBCD-664, Agrinion-349a, Clerk-281; BCD 664; Benner-Elis-27. HJBerk BBS 160, lot 105.4 commentsCGPCGP
antel~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. 175-168 BC61 viewsAR hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus right/Achaian League monogram. A - FA - N monograms across fields. All within wreath tied at bottom. Clerk 290; Agrinion-337c; BCD 665.2; Benner-Elis-11.CGPCGP
elis553.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 175-168 BC.106 viewsAR hemidrachm. 15mm, 2.3g. Laureate head of Zeus right / AX monogram, F-A across, LY above; all within wreath tied at the bottom. BCD 665.5. Clerk 280.CGPCGP
fouree~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 175-168 BC. Bronze dichalkon?132 viewsBronze Dichalkon? (16mm). Laureate head of Zeus right / AX monogram, F-A across, LY above; all within wreath tied at the bottom.

If fourree core - Imitating BCD 665.5/Clerk 280?
CGPCGP
elis~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 88-30 BC.83 viewsAR hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus right/Achaian League monogram. 14 mm 2.2g. FA DWE XE monograms across fields. Thunderbolt below. All within wreath tied at bottom. BCD 680-1; Clerk 259; Benner-Elis-52. Toned. ex. Christopher Morcom collection. ex CNG auction 173 lot 219.CGPCGP
sparta~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Lakedaimon, Sparta 88-30 BC.112 viewsAR hemidrachm. Laureate head Zeus right/Achaian League monogram. Caps of the dioscuri across fields. Monograms above and below All enclosed within laurel wreath tied at bottom. Clerk 318a; Benner-Sparta-6. exHCC, Inc.1 commentsCGPCGP
Picture_001.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Megara. 175-168 BC.113 views AR Hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus right / DW Monogram on left and PO Monogram on right side of Large AX monogram; above, lyre; all within laurel-wreath, tied below. Clerk 120; BCD 27.1; Benner-Megara-4.3 commentsCGPCGP
pal~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Pallantium. 88-30 BC.70 viewsAR Hemidrachm (12mm, 1.89 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / Monogram; P - A - L across field, Trident and AN monogram below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Toned. Clerk 220; BCD 1593.1; Benner-Pallantion-3.CGPCGP
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ACHAIA, Achaean League, Patrai-Patras. 195-188 BC.92 viewsAR Hemidrachm (15.3mm, 2.36g). Laureate head of Zeus right / AX Monogram; Monograms to left and right; Trident below; all within wreath tied at the bottom. Clerk 47(Ceryneia); Agrinion Hoard 270; Benner-Patrai-4.

exAmphora Coins.
CGPCGP
teg.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Tegea. 88-30 BC. 137 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.49 g, 8h). Laureate head of Zeus right / XA monogram; T-E across field; all within wreath. Clerk 223; BCD 1744; SNG Copenhagen 293; Benner-Tegea-4. Toned.

From Collection C.P.A. Ex Tkalec (24 October 2003), lot 94.

exCNG 78, lot 695.
4 commentsCGPCGP
greek8.jpg
Achain league, Pallantion Ar Tetrobol92 views1st cent. BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus.
Rev.: Monogram of the Achaian League.
BCD Peloponnesos 1593.2
2 commentsMinos
athna.jpg
AE Drachm of Syracuse Time of Dionysus I, ca 400 BC29 viewsObverse: Head of Athena facing left wearing a Corinthian helmet with an olive wreath on the bowl, inscription S Y R A
Reverse: 8-pointed Seastar between two dolphins
Calciati 62 (ref. Wildwinds) 28 mm. 34 grams

The coin has some damaged spots but overall shows the Greek love of beautiful forms. My Christmas present to myself this year.
1 commentsdaverino
sb217.jpg
AE Follis Justinian SB 21728 viewsObv: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M star to rt and left, cross above, below in greek theta, upsilon, Pi, Omicron, Lambda and S
Date: 537-539 CE
Mint: Antioch
Sear 21, class IV, DO 212
wileyc
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
thess.jpg
AE Trichalkon of the Thessalian League, 196-146 BC80 viewsObv: Laureate head of Apollo right
Rev: Th E S S A/ L O N in vertical columns; Apollo Itonia standing right, throwing spear w/right arm and holding shield w/left. On top of Athena's spear to left the Greek letters Th R A and to right an Owl.
References: BMC 49; Rogers 20; Nomos 4, 1385
Diameter 19 mm, Wt 7.6 gms

The Thessalian League was a confederacy of northern Greek city-states centered in Larissa. The letters above Athena's spear refer to the authorizing magistrate - in this case (Th R A)sylos whose complete name is given on silver staters of the period. A die match to lot 838 in the Triton XV sale (ACsearch)
1 commentsdaverino
AE-weight_Byzantine-(Nomisma)_dotted-rectangle_and_dotted_cross_and_rosette_-AD-Q-035_13x13x3mm_3,95g-s.jpg
AE weight, 1 Nomisma, dotted pattern both side, dotted cross left down, and dotted rosette (?) etc..#35250 viewsAE weight, 1 Nomisma, dotted pattern both side, dotted cross left down, and dotted rosette (?) etc..#35
type: Byzantine AE weight, There is a coin weight to 1 Nomisma = 4 Scripula.
The lettering N with rosette = No is clearly Greek, cross with 4 points stylized 4 scripula.
size: 13x13x3mm,
weight: 3,95g,
date: 5th.-7th. centuries A.D.,
ref: ???
distribution: Byzantine,
Q-035
2 commentsquadrans
senate.jpg
AE18; Senate/ Roma8 viewsMysia, Pergamum, 1st Century A.D. Ć 18 mm, 3.45 g. Obv: Bust of Senate right. Rev: Bust of Roma right. Sear: Greek Imperial Coins 4910, BMC 205. ex areichPodiceps
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Aegae, Aeolis 47 viewsSecond and first centuries B.C.
Bronze AE19
6.12 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right
Rev.: AIΓAEΩN right
Radiate Zeus standing naked, facing;
holding eagle in outstretched right and scepter in left,
three monograms in left field
B.M.C. Vol. 17, p. 96, No. 12; Sear 4167

This coin was purchased as a semi-cleaned unattributed Greek with bronze disease. Treated and cleaned revealed a coin similar to one already in my collection, but with a little nicer obverse.
Jaimelai
123.jpg
Aelius Denarius - Felicitas (RIC 430)111 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, 137 AD
3.25g

Obv: Bare bust of Lucius Aelius Caesar (R)
L. AELIUS CAESAR

Rev: FELICITAS standing (L)
holding Caduceus in R hand & Cornucopia in L.
TR PO-T COS II

RIC 430, RSC 50

Ex. Collection of Professor James E. Seaver (1918 - 2011). Professor Seaver taught ancient history at the University of Kansas and was a keen opera lover, hosting his own radio show on the subject "Opera is my Hobby" for nearly 60 years. He was a passionate collector of ancient coins, amassing over 5,000 Greek & Roman coins, often using them to aid his teaching. The Seaver collection was auctioned in 2011.
3 commentsKained but Able
coins67.JPG
AEOLIS, Aigai 49 viewsAigai is an ancient Greek site in Turkey, situated at a rather high altitude almost on top of the Mount Gün (Dağı), part of the mountain chain of Yunt (Dağları) in western Anatolia in the location of the present village of Yuntdağı Köseler, depending Manisa central district, although the easier road to the site departs from İzmir's Aliağa district center, though the bifurcation for Şakran township. Aigai lived its brightest period under the Attalid dynasty that ruled from nearby Pergamon in the 3rd century and 2nd century B.C.

Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiolís) or Aeolia (IPA [iːˈoʊlɪə]) (Ancient Greek Αιολία Aiolía) was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegeaeae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna (Herodotus, 1.149).

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aiolos, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

AEOLIS, Aigai. Circa 3rd Century BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of goat right. SNG Copenhagen 4

Ebay
ecoli
greek34.jpg
Aeolis, Elaia AE1426 views(2nd cent. AD)
Obv.: Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Athena wearing Aegis.
Rev.: Kalathos.
1 commentsMinos
BOTH_ASSELIAS_THIS.jpg
Aesillas Macedonian Tetradrachm c 80 BC7 viewsObv: Head of Alexander the Great with horns of Ammon
behind Θ mint of Thessillonika
MAKEΔONΩN below
Rev: AESILLAS ; below Q (Quaestor)
Left ;Money Chest ; middle, Club of Hercules, ; right, Quaestor's Chair
All surrounded by a wreath
Obs 37 Reverse not in plates
Bauslaugh group VI c 85 BC
29mm 17.02gm
cicerokid
aezanis_helios.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia; Head of Demos r./ Helios in quadriga; AE 2934 viewsAezanis, Phrygia, Time of Gallienus. Coin struck A.D. 250-270; AE 29mm, 12.28g; Diademed head of young Demos right, ΔHMOC AIZANΕITWN/ Helios standing in facing quadriga, holding sceptre and globe, EΠI IOV CEVHPEINOV APXI NEΩKOP. Sear Greek Imperial Coins 5060Podiceps
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
P1010250.JPG
Agrippa II PANIAS mint69 viewsAgrippa II, 56-95 AD, bronze of 17 mm.
Bust of Nero to right
Wreath with Greek legend naming BOTH Agrippa II and Nero within. ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ

Hendin 582. This is the middle of three denominations of this early type of Agrippa II as king.
ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ
Maritima
elaia_aiolis_torch.jpg
AIOLIS, ELAEA71 viewsAE 15 mm 2.25 g
Ca. 27 BC - 14 AD
OBV: [EPI] S-W/ KRA[TOY[
HEAD OF DEMETER R, WREATHED WITH CORN
REV: E-L-A/ITWN SURROUNDING TORCH
WITHIN WREATH
AEOLIS, ELAEA
RPC I 2410 (1-5); BMC 13 S127, 28
RARE
laney
kyme_artemis.jpg
AIOLIS, KYME57 views2nd-1st CENTURY BC
AE 16.5 mm 3.31 g
O: HEAD OF ARTEMIS R
R: KY/APATOURIOS
SINGLE-HANDLED VASE, LAUREL TO EITHER SIDE
BMC 113, 90
laney
kyme_BMC114.jpg
Aiolis, Kyme, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 11498 viewsAeolis/Asia Minor, Kyme, pseudo-autonomous, time of Gallienus
AE 21, 4.2g
struck under magistrate Ermeias, AD 253-268
obv. IERA.CVN. - .KLHTOC
Youthful bust of Senate, draped, r.
rev. AIL.ER - M[E]
River-god Xanthos, bearded, wreathed, nude to hips, leaning l., resting l. arm on
vase from which water flows, holding in r. hand long waterplant.
KVMA / I in l. field
in ex. [Y]ANTQO[C] (Y meaning Greek XI)
SNG von Aulock 1648; Franke KZR 204; SLG Prowe III, 724; BMC 13, 114

This river-god played an important role in the Troyan War under the name Skamandros (today Küzük Menderes). For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological important coins'!
1 commentsJochen
aiolis_larissa_phrikonis.jpg
AIOLIS, LARISSA PHRIKONIS75 views4TH CENTURY BC
AE 10 mm 1.16 g
O: HEAD OF HORNED NYMPH, FACING, SLIGHTLY R
R: FOREPART OF BULL, HEAD TURNED FACING SLIGHTLY R, "LA" ABOVE
Very rare
1 commentslaney
ATHENA_OWL.jpg
AIOLIS, NEONTEICHOS83 viewsAE 10.3 mm 0.86 g
2nd CENTURY BC
OBV: HELMETED HEAD OF ATHENA R
REV: OWL STANDING R, HEAD FACING, ON NE MONOGRAM
AIOLIS, NEONTEICHOS
SEAR 4223 BMC 141 RARE
1 commentslaney
Untitled_collage_(1)238.jpg
Akarnania Leucas AR Stater circa 490-480 BC 8.51g37 viewsPegasos flying left.Head of Athena right.
This is the earliest provenance for a coin of Leukas,and the coin itself belongs to the rare series which represents the earliest issues of the mint.Archaic Greek Silver coinage The Asyut Hoard 238 this coin.
1 commentsGrant H
10300146~0.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 20.5mm 8.25g 11h57 viewsPegasos flying right mintmark below.Rev helmeted head of Athena right,to left bearded ithyphallic herm facing right,standing on three steps,caduceus and mintmark.
ex CNG 103 lot 146 9-14-16
ex Thomas BentleyCederlind.
ex Gorny & Mosch auc 233 lot 1400 10-6-15
ex Sotheby Zurich lot 385 4-5-1973
ex The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
ex J.Pierpont Morgan 1905.
ex John Ward pl.11 465 Greek coins and their Parent Cities 1902
2 commentsGrant H
Akarnania_Man_Headed_Bull.jpg
Akarnania Man-headed Bull15 viewsAkarnania, Greek AE21, 211 - 219 BC, BCD Akarnania 345
OBV: Laureate head of Zeus right, star behind?, monogram below?
REV: Head of the River god Acheloos as Man-headed bull right, APK monogram behind, ΟΙΝΙΑ∆ΑΝ above
SRukke
greek23.jpg
Akarnania, Leukas Ar Stater55 views(350-320 BC)
Obv.: Pegasos flying right.
Rev.: Helmeted head of Athena right; caduceus and L behind.
Pegasi II pg. 415, 92; BCD Akarnania 221.
2 commentsMinos
Akarnania,_Leukas,_167-100_BC,_AR_Didrachm.jpg
Akarnania, Leukas, 87 BC, AR Didrachm45 viewsCult statue of the goddess Aphrodite Aeneias with stag standing right, holding aplustre, bird on standard behind; all within a laurel wreath.
ΛΕΥΚΑΔΙΩΝ ΦΙΛΑΝΔΡΟΣ (Leukadion Philandros) above prow of galley right.

de Callata˙ Didrachms of Leukas 195-212 dies O31/R2; BCD Akarnania 313-314; BMC 180, 101-103; Postolokas, Lambros 67, 688 var.

(23 mm, 7.90 g, 11h)
Forestier & Lambert.

Based on the study of de Callata˙, Didrachms of Leukas, this coin was struck in the summer and autumn of 87 BC as a contribution to Sulla’s campaign against Mithrades Eupator. De Callata˙ connected it with the encampment of Sulla’s troops at Leukas that year and argued that the coinage is a pseudo-civic Greek coinage issued by and for for the Romans. This is reflected in the reverse iconography where the galley prow is distinctively Roman, identifieable as such by the wolf head on the prow, above the ram, a decorative element unknown on Greek vessels.

This coin was struck when the Hellenistic age was in advanced decline, succumbing to the expansionary drive of Rome. The coins of this issue were often struck from relatively crude dies in an advanced state of wear. Yet they retain a charm and aesthetic that in some sense seems to speak of the last gasps of a dying Hellenistic age. The obverse image is thought to depict the cult statue of Aphrodite Aeneias, whose sanctuary was situated near the town of Leukas, overlooking the shipping canal that separated the island from the mainland.
2 commentsn.igma
Punic_AR.JPG
Akragas, Sicily119 views213-211 BC (Punic Occupation)
AR 1/4 Shekel (14mm, 2.11g)
O: Head of Triptolemus right, wreathed in corn.
R: Horse galloping right; Punic letters 'ht' below.
SNG Cop 379; HGC 2, 174; Burnett, Enna 151; de Luynes 3965; Weber 8540; Walker Group II, 1st Series
ex Tom Cederlind

One of the leading centers of Greek influence in the west during the 6th and 5th centuries BC, Akragas was sacked by Carthage in 406. Conquered by Rome in 262 and retaken by Carthgage 8 years later, the city never again regained its' former status. Akragas suffered greatly during the Second Punic War (218-201), with this coin being struck just before the city fell to Rome once again in 210.
Although renamed Agrigentum, its' culture remained essentially Greek for another few hundred years until Rome granted the inhabitants citizenship after Julius Caesar's death in 44 BC.

This coin was struck on the Carthaginian standard and of debased silver.
3 commentsEnodia
Hahn-36_2.jpg
Aksumite Empire: Anonymous (ca. 440-470) Ć Unit (Hahn, Aksumite 36.2; Munro-Hay Type 76; BMC Axum 316)31 viewsObv: Crowned bust right, holding cruciform scepter
Rev: Greek cross within circle, central element with gold inlay
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Hahn_Aksumite-70_2.JPG
Aksumite Empire: Ella Gabaz (ca. 610-630) Ć Unit (Hahn, Aksumite 70.2; Munro-Hay 120; BMC Aksum 414)27 viewsObv: "King WZN" (in Ge'ez), draped bust right wearing headcloth, holding grain ear
Rev: "He who is Fitting for the People" (in Ge'ez), long cross with ends terminating in smaller crosses over a smaller Greek cross; gilding in center
1 commentsSpongeBob
axum_anon.jpg
Aksumite, Anonymous53 viewsObverse: Draped bust right, wearing headcloth ('King')
Reverse: Greek cross within circle, with greek legend ('May this please the country')
Date : Circa AD 340-425
Reference : Munro-Hay Type 52; BMC Aksum 140
Grade : VF
Weight : 1.12 g
Metal : AE
Comments : 13mm, The most common of all axumite coins, they are generally attributed to King Ezana, the first Christian King of the Axumites. Part of now Ethiopia, Axum (Askum) was in the path of the ancient commercial trade routes between Africa, Arabia, and India, as a result it became a very wealth and cosmopolitan centre in the ancient world. In the second century AD, Aksum expanded its empire acquired tribute states on the Arabian Peninsula across the Red Sea, conquered northern Ethiopia, and then finally conquered Kush.

In the fourth century, King Ezana, converted to Christianity under the influence of a Syrian bishop named Frumentius and declared Axum to be a Christian state. Axum remained a strong empire and trading power until the rise of Islam in the seventh century AD, when it became cut off from its major trading partners. However, because the Axumites had sheltered Muhammed's first followers, the Muslims never attempted to overthrow Axum as they spread across the face of Africa.

Of general interest they are the only coins minted in sub saharian africa during the ancient times and one of the first nations to offically convert to Christianity and to show Christian icons on their coins.
Bolayi
Alexander I Balas.JPG
Alexander I Balas21 viewsAE 18, 150-145BC
Obverse: Head of Alexander right in crested helmet
Reverse: BASILEWS ALEXAND: Nike standing lfet with wreath and palm.
Sear Greek 7040
18mm, 5.5gm
Jerome Holderman
unknown_greek_jg_01b.jpg
Alexander III61 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lions skin / ALEXANDROU, bow case above, club of Herakles below.Tkonnova
artet1.JPG
Alexander III551 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
coin609.jpg
Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. 14 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. Uncertain Greek mint.
Struck 310-275 BC. Head of Herakles right in lionskin
/ Zeus seated left with eagle & scepter. Coin #609
cars100
Alexander_III_Tetradrachm2.jpg
Alexander III Posthumous Tetradrachm -- Amphipolis -- ~323 BC19 views16.80 g, 25 mm, 270°
Amphipolis Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Alexander III; Posthumous
Price 104

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of Alexander), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. He is further recognized for spreading Greek culture, language, and thought from Greece throughout Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiating the era of the Hellenistic World.
___________________
What a nose.
Hydro
Alexander_III_Tetradrachm_3.jpg
Alexander III Posthumous Tetradrachm -- Arados -- 328-323 BC23 views16.03 g, 26 mm, 90°
Arados Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Alexander III; Posthumous
Price 3325

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of Alexander), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. He is further recognized for spreading Greek culture, language, and thought from Greece throughout Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiating the era of the Hellenistic World.
Hydro
Alexander_III_Tetradrachm.jpg
Alexander III Posthumous Tetradrachm -- Phocis -- ~323 BC25 views16.95 g, 30 mm, 100°
Phocis Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Alexander III; Posthumous
Price 834; Muller 750

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of Alexander), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. He is further recognized for spreading Greek culture, language, and thought from Greece throughout Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiating the era of the Hellenistic World.
________________________
A nice coin, but a past owner was way too harsh in chemically cleaning this. On the obverse, the lower jaw of the lion and Herakle's cheek contains a thin line of what I believe to be black chemical burn.
Hydro
G_4_w.jpg
Alexander III tetradrachm62 viewsTetradrachm, Amphipolis mint, lifetime issue, c.336-334, Price 9 (same obv. die.), 17.0 gm, 25.5 mm

This was the first expensive Greek coin I bought, just over 30 years ago when I was still a student. It strained my food budget for some time, but i just had to have it.
1 commentsManzikert
Alexander.jpg
Alexander III Tetradrachm Price 299975 viewsKINGS OF MACEDON. Alexander III ‘the Great’, 336-323 BC. Tetradrachm (Silver, 25 mm, 17.13 g, 12 h), Tarsos, struck under Balakros or Menes, circa 333-327.
O: Head of Herakles to right, wearing lion skin headdress.
R: AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left on low throne, holding long scepter in his left hand and eagle standing right with closed wings in his right.
- Price 2999. A rare early and unusual issue from Tarsos, "Officina B", bearing no symbol.

By comparing these early Tarsos tetradrachms to the staters of Mazaios (Pictured below) it is easy to see the identical forms of the throne, scepter, footstool and other details. The drapery is rendered in a similar manner, the Aramaic inscription of the one and the Greek inscription of the other share the same curve following the dotted border. This evidence indicates the two series of coins were the common product of a single mint.

2 commentsNemonater
AlexanderTheGreate.jpg
Alexander III The Great15 viewsArgead Dynasty

Kingdom of Macedon (336 - 323 BC)

Obverse: Herakle's head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp, headdress tied at neck.

Reverse: Bow, quiver and club, Basilews written between.
Pericles J2
Lifetime_Issue!_Signed_by_the_artist_EX_FORVM~0.jpg
Alexander III The Great Lifetime Issue Drachm ! Signed by the artist 122 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C.




Silver drachm, Price 2090A, ADM I 80 (same dies), VF, 4.214g, 16.0mm, 0o, Miletos mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck, K on lion's jaw behind Herakles' ear; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus seated left, legs uncrossed, right leg forward, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, monogram before;

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins ' Shop.


Lifetime Issue! Signed by the artist!(?) The K behind Herakles ear had traditionally been identified as the signature of the artist. Matt Kreuzer, however, believes the K (the Greek numeral 20) was used c. 325 B.C. to introduce the Attic drachm to Miletos by indicating either that 20 of these was equal to a gold stater, or that one of these drachm was equal to 20 of the 3 to 4 gram bronzes circulating at the time.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

**This coin is considered as Best of The Type :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-108526


From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
ATG_bust_Pergamon.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C.143 viewsAlexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC), better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

"Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.
Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr Joann Fletcher (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml)
Cleisthenes
ATGlifetimeDrachmLydiaSardes.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue104 viewsSilver drachm, Price 2553, VF, 4.297g, 16.4mm, 0o, Lydia, Sardes mint, c. 334 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue; Obverse: Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; Reverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, eagle in right, scepter in left, EYE monogram left, rose under throne. Ex FORVM.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the 13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Alexander_III_The_Great_Lifetime_Issue_Ionia_,_Miletos_Mint_.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue. Ionia, Miletos mint.32 viewsSilver Drachm, Müller Alexander 763; SNG Cop 895; SNG Alpha Bank 629; SNG Saroglos 771; SNG München - ; Price 2090, Choice good Very Fine , as found Superb Fine Style, toned, centered, bumps and marks, Ionia, Miletos mint, weight 4.004g, maximum diameter 18.0mm, die axis 0o, struck between 325 - 323 B.C.,.
Obverse ; head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right, clad in Nemean Lion scalp headdress tied at neck.
Reverse ; AΛEΞAN∆POY ( means " Of Alexander " in Ancient Greek ), Zeus seated left on throne without back, nude to the waist, himation around hips and legs, feet on footstool, right leg forward, eagle in extended right hand, long scepter topped with lotus vertical behind in left hand, ∆H monogram left.


*Lifetime issue. This coin was issued during the lifetime and rule of Alexander the Great. Most Alexander coins were issued after his death.

*Alexander the great believed if the world ruled by one king or leader , will be better for all.
Alexander the great was considered a god after his death.



FORVM Ancient Coins. / From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
AlexTheGreatMemphisTet.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Possible Lifetime Issue103 viewsThis is the same coin in my collection, different picture, as the Alexander tetradrachm listed as [300mem].

Silver tetradrachm, Price 3971, VF, 16.081g, 26.1mm, 0o, Egypt, Memphis mint, c. 332 - 323 or 323 - 305 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, legs crossed, eagle in right, scepter in left, rose left, DI-O under throne. Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou. Ex FORVM, "The Memphis issues are among the finest style Alexander coins. Experts disagree on the date of this issue. Some identify it as a lifetime issue and others as a posthumous issue (Joseph Sermarini).

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsJames Fitzgerald
Alexander_Athena_Tet_Master_01b.jpg
Alexander III | Athena, Lysimachos * Thrace, AR Tetradrachm, Lampsakos, ca. 323-281 BC.202 views
Alexander III | Athena, Lysimachos * Silver Tetradrachm

Obv: Diademed head of Alexander III with horn of Ammon.
Rev: Helmeted Athena enthroned left holding Nike in outstretched right hand, left arm resting on shield, ΒAΣIΛEΩΣ in right field, LYΣIMAXOY in left field. Monogram inner left, below Nike.; crescent below exergual line.

Exergue: Crescent

Mint: Lampsakos
Struck: 301-299 BC.

Size: 30.055 mm.
Weight: 15.07 gms.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: In very fine condition, bright, clear, sharp images on each side, superb relief, well centered and nicely struck.

Holed and plugged.

Refs:*
Sear Greek Coins and their Values, (SG) Number, 6814

Status: TCJH, Private Collection.
4 commentsTiathena
J03-Alex III.jpg
Alexander III, AR drachm, 336-323 BCE64 viewsAR drachm of Alexander III “The Great”, 17 mm, 4.13 grams, seemingly lifetime issue (336–323 BCE), however, dated 323 -317 BCE. Lampsacus mint.

Obverse: Head of Herakles wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: Zeus seated left, legs parallel, on stool, holding eagle and scepter. Legend in Greek AΛEΞANΔPOY. Monograms in the left field an "A" with an "overhang" - below is a serpent.

Reference: Price 212, 1363, SNG Vol. VIII 441, Margaret Thompsons' "Alexander's Drachm Mints II" as 148 to 152.

Added to collection: June 5, 2005
Daniel Friedman
4215_4216.jpg
Alexander III, the Great, AE17, Bow, Bowcase and Club17 viewsAE17 (Drachma?)
Greek Provincial
Macedon
Alexander III, the Great
King: 336 - 323BC
Issued: 325 - 310BC
16.5mm 4.28gr
O: NO LEGEND; Head of young Herakles, wearing lionskin headdress, right.
R: NO LEGEND; Bow and bow case above club.
Exergue: BA, between bow/bowcase and club; thunderbolt, below club.
SNG Alpha Bank 782; Price 376.
tina0116g11 121098479798
4/27/13 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
Lead_Prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus86 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC. Lead Prutah/Token, Transjordan mint, 79/78 BCE?, 15.6 mm, 2.7 grams. O: Aramaic legend (King Alexander) in three lines within a dotted circle. R: Anchor in a circle with Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (of King Alexander) around. Hendin 1155, reverse appears to be a match with Menorah Coins die #1.

This coin is a bit of a mystery and therefore quite interesting. These were at one one time extremely rare and therefore not believed to be a coin at all but rather a trial specimen or a token used to gain entrance to an establishment. As hoards were discovered, it became apparent that this coin was common (although far more rare than his bronze issues) and in general circulation in the Transjordan.

Although the lead coins are not dated, the similar Aramaic inscription found on the dated prutah of Jannaeus (Hendin 1152, shown in my collection, dated year 25 = 80/79 BCE) indicates it may have been minted around 79 BCE. These are the only types of Jannaeus that have an Aramaic inscription.

The appearance of both Greek and Aramaic on these coins may reflect a softening of Jannaeus (a staunch supporter of the Hellenistic Sadducees) toward the Aramaic speaking Pharasees.
1 commentsNemonater
J09-Jannaeus.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan", (Hasmonean King), Anchor/Wheel Æ Prutah, 103-76 BCE235 viewsBronze prutah of Alexander Jannaeus "Yehonatan" (103 – 76 BCE), 15 mm, 2.61 grams. Struck 100-90 BCE.

Obverse: Star within diadem, Hebrew inscription between the rays המלך יהונתן “Yehonatan the King”.
Reverse: Anchor. Greek inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΣ “[Coin] Of King Alexander”

Reference: Hendin 469, Meshorer AJC I, Group Ca #8

Added to collection: April 11, 2005
3 commentsDaniel Friedman
Alexander_Jannaeus_(Yehonatan).jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan)35 viewsAlexander Jannaeus 103-76 BCE. Prutah, Jerusalem mint. 15mm, 1.51 g. O: Paleo-Hebrew inscription: Yehonatan the King around lily; R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (King Alexander in Greek), anchor upside down, within inner circle. Hendin 1148

These coins are reminiscent of those issued by Hyrcanus I and Antiochus VII. Restoring the anchor design highlighted his conquest of a number of Mediterranean coastal cities.
Nemonater
1148.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan) AE Prutah. H 1148. 50 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC, bronze prutah of 13.9 mm, 1.82 grams.

Obverse: Lily with Hebrew inscription "Jonathan the King."

Reverse: Anchor with Greek inscription, "of King Alexander."

When it was issued, this coin was struck in massive numbers. However, during the subsequent rule of Hyrcanus II, the vast majority of them were overstruck, apparently while still in the mint, to create coin Hendin-478. Thus the original lily/anchor type is quite scarce relative to the other Hasmonean prutot.

Hendin-1148.


1 commentsSkySoldier
Jannaeus_1153_barb-.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE lepton11 viewsJerusalem
78-76 BC
star of six rays, within circle of dots (off flan),
barbaric blundered imitation of Aramaic legend around
anchor within circle
blundered barbaric imitation of Greek legend around
Hendin 1153
0,54g
Johny SYSEL
judaean-alexander-jannaeus-widow.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - Widow's Mite - Hasmonean AE Lepton, Half Prutah23 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, (103-76 BC), AE Lepton, Half Prutah, 1.1g, 14mm

Obverse: Eight ray star inside dotted circle border. Aramaic inscription around linear circle border. "King Alexander, year 25"

Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛƐΩΣ ΑΛEΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Inverted Seleucid anchor inside circle. Greek inscription around circle.

Reference: Hendin 1152 var
Gil-galad
Alexander_Jannaeus_Prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah33 viewsOBV:Wheel, or star, with eight rays surrounded by beaded diadem,
Aramaic between the rays "Yehonatan Ha Malek" or Jonathan the King.
REV: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOY, legend in Greek surrounding Seleucid anchor within a circle
Hendin-469 103 B.C. - 76 B.C.
2.70 grams 15mm
3 commentsgoldenancients
Jannaeus_Prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus Prutah21 viewsOBV:Wheel, or star, with eight rays surrounded by beaded diadem,
Anepigraphic
REV: BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOY, legend in Greek surrounding Seleucid anchor within a circle
Hendin-472 103 B.C. - 76 B.C.
Danny Jones
prutoh_2_k.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC7 viewsAE lepton - Widow’s Mite, 2.7g, 16mm; Jerusalem mint.
Obv.: Hebrew script between Star rays (YHNTN HMLK) = “Yehonatan the king," surrounded by royal diadem.
Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (of King Alexander in Greek), anchor upside-down as if hanging on the side of a boat.
Reference: Meshorer Group K; Hendin 1150.
John Anthony
leptons.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, AE Lepton or Prutah, 103 - 76 B.C. 5 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, AE Lepton or Prutah, 103 - 76 B.C. 12mm each, 1.1g and 1.2g. Commonly referred to as the Widow’s Mite. Obverse: Anchor, Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ (“of King Alexander”) Reverse: Star with 8 rays. Ex Jerome HoldermanPodiceps
judaean-alexander-jannaeus-prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah23 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC), 2.6g, 15.59mm

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest & the Council of the Jews", Five lines of Hebrew text within wreath.

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤍𐤕𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤄‬𐤍𐤄‬𐤂𐤃‬𐤋
𐤉𐤇‬𐤁‬𐤓𐤄‬
𐤅𐤄‬𐤃‬𐤃‬𐤌

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border.

Reference: Hendin 1145 (473)
Gil-galad
alexander-jannaeus-prutah-red-1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)12 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest of the Jews", Three lines of Paleo-Hebrew text within wreath.

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤇‬𐤍𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤍𐤋𐤉𐤇‬𐤍

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border. Three unknown characters right.

Reference: Hendin 1139 var

Ex: Holyland Ancient Coins Corporation - Musa Ali
Gil-galad
alexander-prutah-2017-2.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)5 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest & the Council of the Jews", Five lines of Hebrew text within wreath, top line off flan.

YHW
NTNHK
HNHGDLW
HBRHY
HDDM

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤍𐤕𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤄‬𐤍𐤄‬𐤂𐤃‬𐤋
𐤉𐤇‬𐤁‬𐤓𐤄‬
𐤅𐤄‬𐤃‬𐤃‬𐤌

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border.

Reference: Hendin 1145 (473)

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
alexander-prutah-2017-1.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, 103-76 BC19 viewsAncient Greek, Alexander Jannaeus, Hasmonean AE Prutah, (103-76 BC)

Obverse: "Yehonatan the High Priest & the Council of the Jews", Five lines of Hebrew text within wreath, top line off flan.

YHW
NTNHK
HNHGDLW
HBRHY
HDDM

𐤉𐤄‬𐤅
𐤍𐤕𐤍𐤄‬𐤊‬
𐤄‬𐤍𐤄‬𐤂𐤃‬𐤋
𐤉𐤇‬𐤁‬𐤓𐤄‬
𐤅𐤄‬𐤃‬𐤃‬𐤌

Reverse: Two joined cornucopias, ribbons on each side, pomegranate between, all within dotted circle border.

Reference: Hendin 1145 (473)

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
Alexander-NFA-June1986-Blk.jpg
Alexander of Macedon - Tetradrachm of Amphipolis8 viewsDenomination: Tetradrachm
Era: After 323 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Hercules in Lion Scalp

Reverse: Jupiter seated l. holding staff in l. eagle in r. ΑΛΕΣΑΝΔΡΟΥ along r. paralell with staff. Torch mintmark of amphipolis

Mint: Amphipolis
Weight: 3.87 gm.
Reference: Muller 81 var.
Provenance: NFA Summer Mail Bid Sale, June 27, 1986, lot 202; Ex Superior Stamp and Coin Co., Inc. Dr Walter Lee Crouch Collection, June 13-16, 1977, lot 2577

Remarkable obverse style. GVF.
1 commentsSteve B5
ATG_mod_Greek_2.JPG
Alexander the Great11 viewsA depiction of Alexander the Great, with the Horn of Ammon, on the obverse of a modern Greek coin.Cleisthenes
alexamphipolis.jpg
Alexander the Great AR Tetradrachm 325-320 BC21 viewsOBVERSE: Head of Herakles clad in the skin of the Nemean lion
REVERSE: Zeus Aeotophoros enthroned left, ALEXANDROY in right field, Cornucopia in left field.

This classic type was probably minted at Amphipolis in Macedon at or near the end of Alexander's brief reign (333-323BC). The lion was the symbol of Persia and the obverse likely represents his conquest of that Empire. The Figure of Zeus enthroned is almost the same as that of Baal on the silver shekels of the Persian satraps. The significance of the conquest of the East by Greeks was not lost on Alexander or his contemporaries
Price 104 (ref.Wildwinds) Weight 17.1 gm
1 commentsdaverino
Alexander_the_Great.png
Alexander the Great ( or Alexander III ) Tetradrachm Lifetime Issue. 135 viewsAncient Greek / Alexander the Great (336 - 323) BC Tetradrachm

Obverse : head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck.

Reverse :Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, sickle and M before, AΛEΞAN∆POY ( means Alexander in Ancient Greek ) behind . ΦIΛH monogram under throne over BAΣIΛEΩΣ ( means King in Ancient Greek ) .

Babylon mint, struck 325 to 323 BC , lifetime issue, 17.01 gr . Very rare . Choice gVF.


**A Lifetime Issue , according to FORVM Classical Numismatics Discussion Board .

References : Müller 703, Price 3624*.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.


Sam
Alexander_the_Great__Tetradrachm_Lifetime_Issue_.png
Alexander the Great (336 - 323) BC ( or Alexander III ) Tetradrachm Lifetime Issue.46 viewsObverse : head of Alexander the Great as Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck.

Reverse :Zeus seated left, holding eagle in right hand and scepter in left, sickle and M before, AΛEΞAN∆POY ( means Alexander in Ancient Greek ) behind . ΦIΛH monogram under throne over BAΣIΛEΩΣ ( means King in Ancient Greek ) .

Babylon mint, struck 325 to 323 BC , lifetime issue, 17.01 gr . Very rare . Choice gVF.


**A Lifetime Issue , according to FORVM Classical Numismatics Discussion Board .

References : Müller 703, Price 3624*.

EX The Sam Mansourati Collection.

Jovan Lee Delavega Ancient Coins Collection.
Jovan D
Alexander_drachm.jpg
Alexander the Great, drachm19 viewsAlexander the Great. AR Drachm. Ionia, Colophon mint. Posthumous, c. 323-319 B.C.. Price 1769. Obverse: Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck. Reverse: Greek inscription, Zeus on throne, right leg drawn back, holding eagle and scepter, lyre left, A under throne. Ex Forvm.Lucas H
Alexander_the_Great_drachm.JPG
Alexander the Great, Ephesus18 viewsdrachm
336-323 BC
4.19 grams
Alexander in the guise of Herakles with lion skin headdress
Zeus seated left on throne with eagle on outstretched hand. Symbol to left of Zeus.
Ephesus was an important Greek city thus it is no surprise that their coinage shows a more refined sense of artistry. Coins struck in Ehesus signal a higher level of sophistication.
JBGood
Alexander Zabinas - SG 7128.JPG
Alexander Zabinas - SG 712838 viewsSeleukid Kingdom
AE21, 128-123 BC
Obverse: Head right, clad in lion skin headdress.
Reverse:BASILEWS ALEXANDPOY, Nike advancing left with wreath and palm. Monogram left.
21mm, 9.0 gm.
Sear Greek 7128; BMC, Seleucid Kings of Syria, pg 83 and plate XXII, #10
Jerome Holderman
1273~0.jpg
Alfoldi 009 / - Unlisted E1 bust with Pegasus on shield ! new photo9 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: E1 = Radiate, cuirassed and helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield (shield decorated with Pegasus)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIP
WEIGHT 3.59g / WIDTH 21mm
RIC 632
ALFOLDI 009 / - (unlisted)
COLLECTION NO. 1273
Note: very interesting variant with military bust, Pegasus on shield and XXIP mintmark in exergue (instead of greek marks which were typical for Siscia's second emmission). This coin is unlisted in Alfoldi and is the only example of this (exact) type known to me !
Barnaba6
untitled3_copy78.png
Alpha Bank14 viewsThis is an exact copy of a stater from Aegina in the Alpha Bank numismatic collection.During the 6th century BC Aegina became a great maritime and commercial power.It is considerd as the first city in Greece which struk coins.The reverse of these first Greek coins has become since 1972 the Alpha Bank logo.Grant H
mithridatesviamastris2.jpg
Amastris, Paphlagonia26 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Amastris, Paphlaognia
(Under Reign of Mithridates VI 'the Great' of Pontus)

Obverse: Aegis with facing head of gorgon in middle


Reverse: Nike advancing right, palm across shoulders, AMAΣ-TPEΩΣ in fields

Bronze Unit (20mm, 7.1g)
Minted in Amastris 85-65BC

Reference: SNG Copenhagen 246


Translations and explanations:

Amastris was founded circa 300BC by a Persian princess of the same name, niece of King Darius III and is now Amasra in modern day Turkey.

Mithridates VI was a thorn in Rome's side for 40 years until finally being defeated by Pompey the Great.

An aegis is the shield or breastplate of Zeus or Athena.

Nike is the Greek god of victory.

AMAΣTPEΩΣ means 'of the Amastrians'.






Sphinx357
amisos.jpg
amisos70 viewsAmisos - Ares and sword in sheath AE 22 Amisos 2nd - 1st Century BC. Amisos is a Greek city on the Black Sea coast founded in 6th century BC. , 8.53 g. Obv.: Head of young Ares wearing helmet. Rev.: Sword in sheath Legend in Greek. Ref.: D. Sear Greek coins and their values, Vol. II, p. 340, 3643dpaul7
amphipolis_artemis-goats.jpg
AMPHIPOLIS42 viewsAMPHIPOLIS - (168 – 149 B.C.) AE 22. Amphipolis is a city founded by the Atheninians back in 436 B.C. on the river Strymon, very close to the Aegean Sea. Obv.: Head of Artemis Tauropolos right, bow & quiver at shoulder. Rev.: Two goats on their hind legs, contending, face to face. Legend in Greek: ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΟΝ. 7.37 g. Ref.: D. Sear. Greek coins and their values, Vol. 1, p. 142, 1394
dpaul7
Amphipolis,_Macedon_Athena_-_Goats.jpg
Amphipolis, Macedon ca. 168-149 BC.15 viewsAmphipolis, Macedonia, ca. 168-149 BC. Ae 21 to 23mm. Weight 6.93g. Obv: Head of Artemis right. Rev: ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, two goats standing on their hind legs, butting heads. Minted for Amphipolis in Macedon circa 168-149 BC. Amphipolis was founded by the Athenians in 436 BC to protect their mining interests in the north. The city surrendered to the Spartan general Brasidas in 424 BC. The city preserved its independence until 357, when it was captured by Philip II of Macedon. This piece was minted following the dissolution of the Macedonian monarchy and the establishment of four separate Macedonian republics in 168 BC. The obverse of this type depicts the diademed head of Artemis Tauropolis facing right, with bow and quiver at her shoulder. The reverse type features two goats on their hind legs, contending, face to face, with the Greek legend ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ in the fields. Sear Greek 1394.ddwau
007-3-horz.jpg
An Issue of the Celts in the area of the Lower Danube, AR Tetradrachm9 views2nd - 1st centuries BC
This coin is to be a representation of a tetradrachm issued in Thasos c. 150 BC
15.24 grams
Obv. is a representation of a young Dionysos facing right
Rev. is a representation of a naked Herakles stg, l. the "dots" to either side and below Hercules represents the Greek legend on the Thasos coin that this issue was intending to pass as.
Sear #1759
Purchased on eBay
Richard M10
Ancient_Greek__Apollonia_Pontika.jpg
Ancient Greek / Apollonia Pontika / AR Diobol48 viewsObverse : head of Apollo facing with short hair.
Reverse : anchor flukes up, A , crayfish , magistrates initials.
Apollonia Pontika mint.
Topalov Apollonia p. 597, 56; SNG Stancomb 44 ff.; SNG BM 168 ff.; SNG Cop 461 (no magistrate name or name on left),
From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Ancient_Greek_HESSALY,_Larissa.jpg
Ancient Greek / HESSALY /Larissa54 viewsGreece ,THESSALY, Larissa. Circa 344-321 BC. AR Drachm
Obverse: Head of nymph facing slightly left.
Reverse : Horse right, grazing.
5,759 gr Max Dia 18 mm
Ref : SNG Cop. 122



From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
CARIA_Halikarnassos.jpg
Ancient Greek , CARIA, Halikarnassos (uncertain mint ?)59 viewsCirca 400 - 340 B.C. Silver Hemiobol (7 mm, 0.54 gr ).
Ram's head right / Man's head (possibly Apollo ) right , Carian letters behind neck , A to right.
Choice g VF ( An exceptional example ) . Rare ( Extremely rare with this grade )
Uncertain mint of Halikarnassos
No references have been found - Early coining ( Under Study )

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Ancient_Greek__Alexander_the_Great_Drachm.jpg
Ancient Greek / Alexander the Great (336 - 323) BC Drachm49 viewsPhilip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AR Drachm . In the name of Alexander III. Kolophon mint. Struck under Menander or Kleitos, circa 322-319 BC.
OBVERSE : Head of Alexander, as Hercules, clad in lion’s skin.
REVERSE : Zeus Aëtophoros seated left holding eagle and scepter, Lyre before.

17.9 MM AND 4.16 GRAMS , VF . Price 1768.


From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Ancient_Greek__Island_of_THASOS_Tetradrachm.jpg
Ancient Greek / Island of THASOS / Tetradrachm ( After 148 BC )102 viewsObverse : Head of young Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy and with band across forehead.
Reverse : HPAKΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ - Hercules, naked, standing left, holding club, lion's skin over left arm; monogram in field to left.

Reference: Sear 1759; B.M.C. 3.67-78

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
11 commentsSam
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Ancient Greek / Kings of Macedonia / Philip II.46 views1/5th Tetradrachm / 323-315 BC.
Obverse : Head of Apollo right, hair bound with taenia .

Reverse : Youth on horseback prancing right.

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
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Ancient Greek Bestiary366 viewsClockwise: Lion of Chersonessos, Dyrrhachion Cow, Calf and Wasp; Dove of Sikyon; Pegasos of Leukas (mythical); Lion and Bull of Tarsos; Macedonian Horse and Human.
Center: Owl of Athens.
Of the animals listed above, it is said that the human animal is the most violent and destructive of all.
4 commentsJason T
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Ancient Greek Coin Collection From Sixth to First Centuries B.C.305 viewsHere are the coins I started collecting from 2012 to present. As Aristotle wrote two millennia ago that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, there is no better way to present a collection of Greeks than to put them all together in a single shot. (Please click on picture for bigger resolution and to show greater details on coins).

Top row from left to right: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Fifth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fourth row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC**THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Third row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Second row: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
10 commentsJason T
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Ancient India, Kushans: Vima Takto (ca. 80-100 AD) of various denominations49 views

Upper Left

Kushans: Vima Takto (ca. 80-100 AD) AE (AICR-1177; MACW-2918; Senior B13.1T)

Obv: King on horse to right holding axe-like weapon in raised right, three-pronged tamgha on right, Greek legend around BACIΛEY BACIΛEYWN CWTHP MEΓAC
Rev: Zeus standing to right, with his left holding long scepter and with his outstretched right making blessed gesture. Kharosthi letter vi on left and flower-pot on right. Kharosthi legend around reading Maharajaasa Rajatirajasa Mahatasa Tratarasa



Middle Left

Kushans: Vima Takto (ca. 80-100 AD) AE drachm (AICR-1178; MACW-2919; Senior B13.1D)

Obv: King on horse to right holding axe-like weapon in raised right, three-pronged tamgha on right, Greek legend around BACIΛEY BACIΛEYWN CWTHP MEΓAC
Rev: Zeus standing to right, with his left holding long scepter and with his outstretched right making blessed gesture. Kharosthi letter vi on left and flower-pot on right. Kharosthi legend around reading Maharajaasa Rajatirajasa Mahatasa Tratarasa



Lower Left

Kushans: Vima Takto (ca. 80-100 AD) AE (AICR-1179; MACW-2921; Senior B14.1)

Obv: Hybrid Herakles-Siva deity standing facing holding long trident in right and lion-skin in left, three-pronged tamgha on left and Kharosthi letter vi on right.
Rev: Tyche standing to right holding cornucopia, nandipada on left, flower-pot on right



Upper Right

Kushans: Vima Takto (ca. 80-100 AD) AE (MACW-2937; Senior B17.1vT)

Obv: Radiate (9 rays) diademed bust of king to right holding arrow decorated with ribbons in raised right hand, three-pronged tamgha on left, dotted border around.
Rev: King in Iranian cap with long diadem-ties riding on horse to right holding axe-like weapon in raised right hand, three-pronged tamgha on right, Greek legend around reading BACIΛEYC BACIΛEYWN CWTHP M.



Middle Right

Kushans: Vima Takto (ca. 80-100 AD) AE drachm (Senior B17.1D)

Obv: Radiate diademed bust of king to right holding arrow decorated with ribbons in raised right hand, three-pronged tamgha on left, dotted border around.
Rev: King in Iranian cap with long diadem-ties riding on horse to right holding axe-like weapon in raised right hand, three-pronged tamgha on right, Greek legend around reading BACIΛEYC BACIΛEYWN CWTHP M.



Lower Right

This one is unknown to me, but dealer indicated it might be central asian. Rider on horseback facing left / tamghra. Any help in identification is much appreciated...
SpongeBob
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Ancient Judaea, Hasmonean Kingdom: Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BCE) Ć Prutah (Hendin-1150)36 viewsObv: Paleo-Hebrew inscription (Yehonatan the King) among the rays of an eight-pointed star, all within a diadem.
Rev: Greek inscription BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (of King Alexander) around an inverted anchor.
1 commentsSpongeBob
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ANDRONICUS I AE 1/2 Tetarteron S-1989 DOC 8180 viewsFacing bust of the Virgin orans, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; on her breast nimbate head of the infant Christ; to l MP to R. OV Rev. Half length figure of Andronicus facing with forked beard, wearing crown , scaramangion and saigon and holding labarum and gl. cr. Uncertain Greek Mint. 18mm Very Fine .

Excellent example because of the large flan, I consider this coin to be extremly rare. DOC 8
Simon
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ANDRONICUS I AE 1/2 Tetarteron S-1989 DOC 8163 viewsFacing bust of the Virgin orans, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; on her breast nimbate head of the infant Christ; to l MP to R. OV Rev. Half length figure of Andronicus facing with forked beard, wearing crown , scaramangion and saigon and holding labarum and gl. cr. Uncertain Greek Mint 15mm

Not as nice as my other example but an extremely rare coin, this is only the second one ( mine being the other.) I have seen besides the one pictured in DOC.
Simon
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Anonymous7 viewsAnonymous. 211-210 BC. AR Victoriatus (16.5mm, 3.14 g, 6h). Spearhead (first) series. Mint in southeast Italy. Laureate head of Jupiter right within border of dots / Victory standing right, placing wreath on trophy; Roma in exergue.

In around 218 BC, at roughly the same time as the appearance of the silver denarius, mints in the Roman Republic began to strike silver coins bearing on the obverse a bust of Jupiter and on the reverse a figure of Victory placing a wreath upon a trophy. Known as a victoriatus in Latin or tropaikon in Greek, this coin was primarily issued to facilitate payments in Greek-speaking southern Italy, where its weight was roughly equivalent to a drachm or half nomos. Rome at this time had a great need for coinage, as the Second Punic War then raged across Italy, and the city needed silver to pay her allies. This function is demonstrated by the hoard evidence, which shows that their circulation was generally limited to southern Italy, and later Cisalpine Gaul and Spain.

The victoriatus was generally struck in less pure silver than the denarius, rarely meeting the same 90% standard, yet it generally followed the same overall pattern of debasements. Despite this, it proved to be an important coin for the budding empire. Though the type was discontinued around 170 BC, the coins themselves continued to circulate, eventually becoming worn enough to function in the marketplace as quinarii. Accordingly, even into the early Imperial period, the silver quinarius was also sometimes refered to as a victoriatus.
ecoli
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Anonymous (Ezanas Christian)518 viewsObverse: Bust rt. Garment draped on shoulders, v-neck collar, wearing a head cloth. Within a beaded border. Greek inscription BAX ACA (Interpretation uncertain)
Reverse: Greek cross in beaded inner circle, cross inlaid with gold. Greek inscription outside circle TOYTOAP[CHTHXWPA (May this please the country/people)
Date : AD.330-358
Reference : M-H 50, V27
Grade : EF
Weight : 0.73g
Metal : Silver

Comments : AR 13mm, Die Axis 0°, Aksum has claims to be the first civilization anywhere to use Christian imagery on its coins. King Ezanas became a Christian early in his reign and quickly made Christianity the official state religion. Around A.D. 330 he began to use the cross on his coinage as propaganda to spread his new religion, this is type is thought to be the first of those issues.
Bolayi
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Anonymous (Ezanas Christian)47 viewsObverse: Bust rt. Garment draped on shoulders, v-neck collar, wearing a head cloth. Within a beaded border. Greek inscription BAX ACA (Interpretation uncertain)
Reverse: Greek cross in beaded inner circle, cross inlaid with gold. Greek inscription outside circle TOYTOAP[CHTHXWPA (May this please the country/people)
Date : AD.330-358
Reference : M-H 50, V27
Grade : EF
Weight : 0.73g
Metal : AR

Comments : 13mm, Die Axis 0°, Aksum has claims to be the first civilization anywhere to use Christian imagery on its coins. King Ezanas became a Christian early in his reign and quickly made Christianity the official state religion. Around A.D. 330 he began to use the cross on his coinage as propaganda to spread his new religion, this is type is thought to be the first of those issues.
1 commentsBolayi
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Anonymous AE Follis12 viewsAttributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings."
Mint: Constantinople

SB 1813 Class A2. AE 32, 14.12g
Belisarius
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Anonymous, As, Rome, 157/156 BC Janus I Galley I Roma After 211 BC.50 viewsReference.
BMC 217; Crawford 56/2.; Sydenham 143

Obv:
Laureate and bearded head of Janus above, I.

Rev: Prow of galley right; above, I. below, ROMA

29.87 gr
33 mm
2 commentsokidoki
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Anonymous. Circa 215-212 BC. Ć Uncia11 viewsAnonymous (post-semilibral), Uncia,Roma, 215-212 BC, AE,

Reference.
Crawford 41/10; Sydenham 108.

Post Semi-Libral standard. Rome mint.

Obv. no legend

Helmeted head of Roma right ; behind, • (mark of value)

Rev. ROMA
Prow of galley right; • (mark of value) below.

5.71 gr
20 mm

Note. Andrew McCabe
They are always overstruck on captured Sicilian or Carthaginian coin, which explains the mashed up areas eg behind the head.
okidoki
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Antioch in Syria, era of Hadrian, ca. 117 - 138 AD. AE 11 - 14mm5 viewsAntioch in Syria, era of Hadrian, ca. 117 - 138 AD.
bronze uncia (1/4 obol)
Obv. no legend, laureate head right, border of dots;
Rev. large S C in wreath, Greek letter below, all within border of dots
Ref. , Butcher 239a - 248; Vagi 1379, RIC II 629b
Lee S
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Antioch Tancred Prince of Galilee, Regent 8 viewsTancred Prince of Galilee, Regent (1100–1103; 1105–1112)
AE Follis, 1st Type, small module.
Obverse: O / ΠΕ -P O / C, Facing bust of St.Peter
Reverse: + ΚΕ ΒOH / ΘΗ TΟ ΔV / ΛΟCΟV Τ / ΑΝΚΡI ("Lord, help thy servant Tancred "), Greek legend in five lines. Cross,
Mint: Antioch
Ref: Met 49-62; Schlumberger II:6
Minted: 1100–1103; 1105–1112
jimbomar
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Antiochos IV Epiphanes22 viewsAE 15, Antiochos IV Epiphanes, 175-164 BC, Antioch on the Orontes. Obv: Veiled bust of Laodike IV. Rev: BASILEWS ANTIOXOY, elephant head. VF, SC 1407, Hoover HGC 9, 684 (R1)Molinari
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Antiochos IV Epiphanes, Ba’al-Berit, AE 219 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochos IV Epiphanes, 175 - 164 B.C. Bronze AE 21, Houghton and Lorber II 1449(4) (same dies), SNG Spaer 1077, Sawaya 28 - 59, aF, Berytus mint, 4.864g, 20.8mm, 0o, c. 168 - 164 B.C.; obverse radiate and diademed head of Antiochos IV right, CI behind; reverse Phoenician script "of Laodicea, mother in Canaan" left, “ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ” right, Ba'al-Berit (Poseidon) standing facing, phiale in right, trident in left, “Λ / Α” left, “ΟΦ” monogram right; scarce. Ba’al-Berit, the local god of Berytus, was assimilated to the Greek Poseidon. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Antiochos XII 87-84 BC21 viewsAntiochus XII 87–86/5 BC, Damascus mint Ae 22mm, Weight 7.1g. Obv: Beardless diademed bust of Antiochus XII right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ – Tyche standing left with palm branch in right hand and cornucopia in left, dotted border. Reference: SC 2, 2476; SNG Israel I, Nos. 2900–2902. SPAER 2897

Antiochus XII Dionysus (Epiphanes/Philopator/Callinicus), a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom who reigned 87–84 BC, was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and Tryphaena to take up the diadem. He succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucid realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings.

Antiochus initially gained support from Ptolemaic forces and was the last Seleucid ruler of any military reputation, even if it was on a local scale. He made several raids into the territories of the Jewish Hasmonean kings, and tried to check the rise of the Nabataean Arabs. A battle against the latter turned out to be initially successful, until the young king was caught in a melee and killed by an Arab soldier. Upon his death the Syrian army fled and mostly perished in the desert. Soon after, the Nabateans conquered Damascus.

Antiochus' titles - apart from Dionysos - mean respectively (God) Manifest, Father-loving and Beautiful Victor. The last Seleucid kings often used several epithets on their coins.
ddwau
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Antiochus IV “Epiphanes”, (Selucid King), Æ, 175-164 BCE56 viewsBronze of Antiochus IV (175 – 164 BCE),
2.55 grams, 14.5 mm 0o. Ake-Ptolemais mint.

Obverse: Diademed (laureate) head of Antiochus IV right,
AB monogram behind, dot border, serrated edge.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ "of King Antiochus" (in Greek), Apollo seated left on omphalos holding arrow in right and resting on grounded bow in left, aplustre outer left, monogram in exergue.

References: SNG Cop. 195, Spaer 1109 cf., Lindgren 1031

Added to collection: April 12, 2005
Daniel Friedman
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Antiochus VII Euergetes, "Sidetes" (Seleucid King) / Hyrcanus I, (Hasmonean King) 131-130 BCE, Jerusalem53 viewsBronze prutah of Hyrcanus I under Antiochus VII (131 – 130 BCE), 14.9 mm, 2.41 grams. This is first Jewish bronze coin struck in Jerusalem, as a transitional issue, dated 131/130 BCE.

Obverse: Jerusalem Lily
Reverse: Anchor, upside down, flanked by Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΨ (on right) ΕΨΕΠΓΕΤΟΨ (on left) (of King Antiochus, Benefactor), date AΠP (Year 181) or BΠP (Year 182) below anchor.

References: Hendin 451, BMC 69, SNG. Isr. 2139, AJC-I Supplement II, #2, Sear 7101, Houghton CSE 831.

Added to collection: April 12, 2005
Daniel Friedman
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ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Apulian blackware salt pot, c.400 B.C.20 viewsApprox. 400 B.C.
Greek Apulian blackware salt pot - circular, raised foot, ridge body and white, rounded mouth, nice black glaze.
The base exhibits some graffito 'LA' (Could be a maker's mark or personal label of some kind)
These types of small pottery were commonly used as salt containers.
Diameter: 2 3/4 inches
(Ex Mcdonald collection)
superflex
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ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Corinthian Arybalos146 viewsCorinthian Arbalos
5th Century B.C.
Two Warriors Facing Boar
2 5/8" Height
Repaired
3 commentsBarry
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ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Hellenistic period terracotta statue of a monkey14 viewsA very rare, genuine ancient Greek Hellenistic period terracotta statue of a monkey, dating to approximately 300 - 250 B.C.
The charming creaure is shown seated and clutching a cylindrical vessel under its left arm.
Possibly a votive piece which would have been dedicated at a temple or sanctuary, in thanks for, or in anticipation of a favor.
A fascinating and unusual piece of ancient Greek art.
Condition: Very good, age related encrustation, as shown. Unrestored.

Height: 3 3/4 inches

Provenance:

Ex. Collection of Mr. E. Ohly, United Kingdom.
superflex
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ANTIQUITIES, Greek, Iron spear, c.300 B.C.69 viewsAn ancient Greek Iron spear point, dating to approximately 300 B.C.
A powerful weapon with long cylindrical socket for attachment to a wooden pole, now long since perished. The blade itself of elongated, triangular form with strong central mid rib.
Height: 14 inches.
4 commentssuperflex
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ANTIQUITIES, Greek, South Italian “Owl skyphos”, 4th Century B.C.40 viewsA South Italian “Owl skyphos”
This is one of the most iconic pieces of pottery from the ancient Greek world, showing the owl Goddess Athena.
A piece that would of had much sentimental value to its original owners, reminding them as they drank wine of their homeland in Athens.
Totally intact and lovely style.
75mm x 145mm across the handles
Mid 4th century BC
superflex
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Antoninianus; NOBILITAS AVGG. RIC 8, officina ς11 viewsPhilip I AR antoninianus. Rome 248 A.D. IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate bust right / Nobilitas standing right holding scepter and globe. NOBILITAS AVGG. Greek letter officina mark ς (=6) in left field. RIC 8, Cohen 98. Sear RCV III: 8938. 1 commentsPodiceps
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Antoninus Pius (?)10 viewsO. Bust of Antoninus Pius facing right (?).
R. Winged thunderbolt and Greek writing (?).
25mm
b70
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ANTONINUS PIUS / SERAPIS , Alexandria BILLION TETRADRACHM39 viewsMINTED IN ALEXANDRIA , EGYPT FROM 138 - 161 AD
OBVERSE : ANTwNINO C CEBEUC CEB Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REVERSE : Draped bust of Serapis right,modius on head. L K
References : SNG Cop 426 ( No, L K ?)

22.2 MM AND 13.15 GRAMS.

Alexandria ( of Egypt ) issued billon tetradrachms in large numbers between the reign of Augustus and the closing of the Alexandrian mint during the reign of Diocletian. These coins were no doubt mainly intended to pay the salaries of government officials, of the permanent garrison, and of the temporary troops stationed in Alexandria for purposes of war. They were probably also the form in which taxes in money were received, and were used for trade among the people within the city of Alexandria and other Graeco-Roman cities in Egypt. They also served the purpose of providing a subsidiary coinage with Greek legends which formed the vehicle for Roman imperial propaganda throughout Egypt. On the reverse of these coins were placed the Egyptian Hellenized deities, as an indication of the goodwill of the Roman emperors towards Egypt.
The greater part of the agricultural population of Egypt had scarcely any need for coins except to pay their taxes. The real currency and measure of value in the agricultural settlements was grain, wine or oil. The chief export of Egypt was grain, and this did not bring much money to the cultivators, for most of the grain was collected as tribute, not in trade, and they got nothing in return. Consequently, there is reason to suppose that considerably fewer coins circulated in Egypt generally than the region of Alexandria.
From the reign of Nero onwards, Egypt enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Egypt, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139 AD) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
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Antoninus Pius, drachm; Hermanubis & jackal, year 2219 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Bronze drachm, Geissen 1831, Milne 2389, Emmett 1568, F, Alexandria mint, 17.793g, 30.9mm, 0o, 29 Aug 158 - 28 Aug 159 A.D; obverse AVT K TAI A“Δ”PI ANT“Ω”NINOC CEB EVC (or similar), laureate head right; reverse , Hermanubis standing right, modius on head, himation on legs, long palm vertical in left, caduceus in right, jackal behind at feet right, L - B/K (year 22) across field. Hermanubis combined the Greek Hermes with the Egyptian Anubis; both conductors of souls. Hermanubis was popular in Egypt during Roman rule, where he was usually depicted with a human body, a jackal head, and holding the sacred caduceus. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
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Antoninus Pius, RIC 615a, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Aeneas) 114 viewsĆ Sestertius (26.15g, Ř33mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-44.
Obv/ ANTONINVS · AVGVSTVS PIVS, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right, aegis on left shoulder.
Rev/ P P TR P COS III (in field) [S C (in ex.)], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloak, advancing right, looking back, carrying Anchises on his shoulder and holding Ascanius by the hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum (shepherd's crook) in left hand.
RIC 615a (R2), BMCRE 1264, Cohen 655 (80 Fr.), Strack 904 (3 specimens found); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 309 (same obv. and rev. dies, 3 specimens found).
ex Numphil (Paris, june 2014 auction)

This type is part of a series figuring scenes from ancient Roman legends. The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Troy with his son Ascanius and his father Anchises. According to the legend, Aeneas, son of Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled by boat with some inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking the Palladium - the ancient sacred statue of Athena - and eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. They intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas'son Ascianus was Rhea Silvia, the mother of the twins Romulus and Remus.

Numismatic note: This issue has been struck from a single obverse die with the unique obverse legend "ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS" found nowhere else in the coinage of Antoninus Pius. This obverse die was used exclusively with two reverse dies with slightly different legends: the one in the photo above, and a similar one with the legend "P P TR POT COS III". The use of the aegis on the bust is not exclusive for this issue, but very rare for Antoninus Pius.
2 commentsCharles S
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Antoninus Pius. Thrace, Philippopolis; 24 viewsAres

In Greek mythology, Ares ("battle strife") is the god of war and son of Zeus (king of the gods) and Hera. The Romans identified Mars, the god of war (whom they had inherited from the Etruscans) with Hellenic Ares, but among them, Mars stood in much higher esteem. Among the Hellenes, Ares was always mistrusted: his birthplace and true home was placed far off, among the barbarous and warlike Thracians (Iliad 13.301; Ovid); to Thrace he withdrew after he was discovered on a couch with Aphrodite ( Odyssey 8.361).

Although important in poetry, Ares was only rarely the recipient of cult worship, save at Sparta, where he was propriated before battle, and in the founding myth of Thebes, and he appeared in few myths (Burkert 1985, p.169). At Sparta there was a statue of the god in chains, to show that the spirit of war and victory was never to leave the city. At Sparta young dogs and even humans were sacrificed to him. The temple to Ares in the agora of Athens that Pausanias saw in the 2nd century AD had only been moved and rededicated there during the time of Augustus; in essence it was a Roman temple to Mars. The Areopagus, the "hill of Ares" where Paul preached, is sited at some distance from the Acropolis; from archaic times it was a site of trials. Its connection with Ares, perhaps based on a false etymology, may be purely etiological. Ares s throne at Mount Olympus is said to be covered with human skin.

Antoninus Pius AE18 of Philippopolis, Thrace. AVT AI ADRIA ANTWNEIN, bare head right / FILIPPOPOLEITWN, Ares standing left, holding spear in left hand, shield leaning against him at right. BMC 10.
ecoli
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Apameia, Phrygia 133-48 B.C.14 viewsApameia, Phrygia, c. 133 - 48 B.C. Apameia mint, Ae 18~20.6mm. 7.97g. Obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. Rev: AΠAME AΡTEMIΔ BABA, cultus-statue of Artemis Anaitis standing facing, wearing long chiton, kalathos and veil, a taenia or support hanging from each extended hand; BMC Phrygia p. 77, 48
Artemis Anaďtis was a fusion of the Persian goddess Anahita and the Greek Artemis. Tacitus (Annals 62) refers to the syncretic deity simply as the “Persian Diana”, who had a temple in Lydia “dedicated in the reign of Cyrus” (presumably Cyrus the Great).
ddwau
gordianIII_SNGlev774~0.jpg
Aphrodite509 viewsAphrodite is the greek goddess of beauty and love. She is much older and more primordial than Venus. Venus was a more local goddess and came to Rome not before the 4th century. Aphrodite is melted together of indoeuropean-hellenistic, aegaean-anatolean and semitic-oriental elements. The origin of her name is unknown, perhaps it is related to the sem.*asthart. Her relation to Cyprus is referring to that origin. Possibly the name of the month April comes from etruscan *aprodita. So there could be an etruscan intermediation. She seems to be a conglomerate of old fertility goddesses. Her attributes dolphin and shell points to marine, dove, sparrow and and swane to caelestic and apple, rose and pomegranat to herbal sexual spheres. With Homer Aphrodíte replaces the dark weird deities as a light goddess of charm and gracefulness. She was called 'philommeides', the smiling, and she was the mistress of the Graces.
On the rev. of this coin we see Aphrodite as a later depiction as goddess of grace and seduction. She holds a mirror as the symbol of vanity. Her companions are two Erotes with torches to ignite love.
2 commentsJochen
greek11.JPG
Apollonia Drachm after 229 BC37 viewsSilver Greek drachm
NIKANDROS. Cow left, suckling calf
APOL ANDRISKOY.
Illyria
CGPCGP
a15.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 63 - Bronze Tetrachalk; Topalov 73 - with solar symbol countermark170 views350 B.C.
3.95 gm, 16.5-19 mm.
Obv.: Apollo seated left on omphalos, right hand resting on bow, left on omphalos
Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand
Rev.: Anchor; A and A[KOYΣY/]ΛEΩΣ (magistrate's name partially flattened by countermark blow on opposite side) to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.414, 1; p.600, 63
D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. 1, p. 165, 1658,
BMC Mysia Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, p. 10, 17 var (magistrate)

Topalov Type: "Apollo sitting on the Omphalos – Upright Anchor" Bronze Tetrachalk (about 350 B.C.)
Obv.: Apollo sitting on the omphalos, holding a bow in his right hand, his left hand hanging downwards or resting on the omphalos. Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand (second half of the 3rd c. B.C.)
Rev.: Magistrates' initials or names on the left or on the right. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side betwee flukes and the stock.
1 commentsJaimelai
apollonia.jpg
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace31 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Apollonia Pontica, Thrace


Obverse: Gorgon (Medusa?) or Apollo head facing with tongue sticking out


Reverse: Upturned anchor with crayfish and A on sides


Silver Drachm (16mm, 2.5g)
Minted in Apollonia Pontica 450-400BC

Reference: SNG Black Sea 155


Translations and explanations:

Apollonia Pontica (Apollonia on the Black Sea) is modern day Sozopol, Bulgaria.

While the city was clearly named after Greek god Apollo, the earlier coins feature a snake-haired gorgon face that over time seems to transition to a more Apollo like image.

The anchor on the reverse was the symbol of the city denoting its important maritime trade status.

Sphinx357
4213_4214.jpg
Apollonia Pontika, Drachm, A/Crayfish9 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace
Issued: 5th - 4th Centuries BC
13.5 x 12.5mm 3.25gr
O: NO LEGEND; Facing gorgoneion.
R: NO LEGEND; Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right.
SNG Stancomb 35-38; SNG Black Sea 160-163.
VF
Fiona's Mom.
2004 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
AP_Apollo-Anchor~0.jpg
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace * Apollon / Anchor * AR Trihemiobol,101 views
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace
Silver Trihemiobol
Date: ca. 450-350 BC(?)
Obv: Laureate Head of Apollo facing
Rev: Inverted anchor, A at center, and perpendicular MA monogram to the left.

Weight: 1.10 g.
St. 12 * (Image shown, reverse is inverted to actual coin)


Similar to, Sear Greek Coins and their Values (SG) Number sg1657
SNG Cop 459-461.

* Olympian
Tiathena
DAEE35E0-C38D-4EBE-9DE8-381BAC801E6D.jpeg
Apollonia Pontika, Thrace, 410 - 323 B.C.5 viewsApollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in ancient Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology. The ideal of the kouros (a beardless, athletic youth), Apollo has been variously recognized as a god of light and the sun, truth and prophecy, healing, plague, music, poetry, and more. Apollo is the son of Zeus and Leto, and has a twin sister, the chaste huntress Artemis.
GS88290. Silver diobol, Topalov Apollonia p. 387, 6 and p. 596, 56; SGCV I 1657, SNG Cop 459 - 461; HGC 3.2 1315, aEF, slightly off center, some porosity, small edge split, Apollonia Pontica (Sozopol, Bulgaria) mint, weight 1.256g, maximum diameter 10.2mm, die axis 180o, 410/404 - 341/323 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo facing with short hair; reverse anchor flukes up, thick flukes, A left, crayfish right; ex Numismatik Lanz (2010)
Mark R1
006.JPG
Apollonia, Illyria28 views229 - 80 B.C.
Silver drachm 3.09 gm, 18.5 mm
Obv.: Cow left, head turned, suckling calf right, AΓIAΣ above (magistrate AGIAS)
Rev.: AΠOΛ – EΠI-KA-ΔOY around double stellate pattern within
double linear square with sides curved inwards
BMC vii Illyria p. 56, 5,
D. Sear Greek Coins and Their Values. Vol. I, p. 185, 1878-1879
Apollonia mint
Jaimelai
greek-illyria-appolonia.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria (229-30 BC BC) AR Drachm29 viewsAncient Greek, Apollonia, Illyria (229-30 BC BC) AR Drachm, 17.8mm, 3.11g, 6h

Obverse: AΓIAΣ, Above cow standing left suckling calf.

Reverse: AΠOΛ - ƐΠI - KA - ΔOY, Double stellate pattern.

Reference: Ceka 3, BMC 15

Ex: Tom Mullally
Gil-galad
Illyria-Apollonia-Drachm.jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Autonomous AR Drachm. ca (229-30 BC)17 viewsAncient Greek, Apollonia, Illyria, Autonomous AR Drachm. ca (229-30 BC), Agias (Moneyer), Epikadou (Magistrate), 3.3g, 18mm

Obverse: AΓIAΣ, Cow standing left suckling calf.

Reverse: AΠOΛ ƐΠI KA ΔOY, Legend around double stellate pattern. A control mark outside of first circle border.

Reverse: BMC 15-16 (pending)
Gil-galad
4245_(1)_4246_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΙΝΕΑ9 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issued: 2nd Century BC
16.5mm
O: ΑΡΙΣΤΩΝ; Cow standing left, head looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΙΝΕΑ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square, with sides curved inwards.
Mionnet Supp. 9; BMC 4; Ceka 24.
Holding History VCoins Inventory # C458
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4253_(1)_4254_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΝΔΡΙΣΚΟΥ10 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issued: After 229BC
17.0mm
O: ΝΙΚΑΝΔΡΟΣ; Cow standing left, head looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΝΔΡΙΣΚΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within linear double square with sides curved inwards.
BMC 5; Ceka 83.
Holding History
12/7/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4243_(1)_4244_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ7 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
17.0mm
O: NIKHN; Cow standing left, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards.
Mionnet Supp. 18; BMC 11-12; Ceka 88.
Holding History VCoins Inventory # C456
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4241_4242_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ7 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
16.5mm
O: ΞΕΝΩΝ; Cow standing right, head looking left, suckling calf, left.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΑΥΤΟΒΟΥΛΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards.
Exergue: Obverse: Eagle standing right, head left, top center.
Ceka 92.
Holding History VCoins Inventory # C459
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4249_(1)_4250_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΔΑΜΟΦΩΝΤΟΣ10 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issed: After 229BC
16.0mm
O: ΤΙΜΗΝ; Cow standing left, head looking right, calf suckling, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΔΑΜΟΦΩΝΤΟΣ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square, with sides curved inwards.
Exergue: ΓΛΚ monogram, obverse, left field.
Mionnet 19; SNG Cop 381; BMC 14; Ceka 115.
Holding History
12/7/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4247_(1)_4248_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΕΠΙΚΑΔΟΥ9 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
Issued: 230 - 229BC
19.5 x 17.0mm
O: ΑΓΙΑΣ; Cow standing left, looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΕΠΙΚΑΔΟΥ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square with sides curved inwards.
BMC 15-16; Ceka 3.
Holding History VCoins Inventory #: C452
11/21/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
4251_(1)_4252_(1).jpg
Apollonia, Illyria, Drachm, ΑΠΟΛ ΚΑΙΡΗΝΟΣ8 viewsAR Drachm
Greek Provincial
Apollonia, Illyria
19.0 x 16.5mm
O: ΞΕΝΟΚΛΗΣ; Cow standing left, head looking right, suckling calf, right.
R: ΑΠΟΛ ΚΑΙΡΗΝΟΣ; Double stellate pattern within double linear square, with sides curved inwards.
Mionnet Supp. 22; BMC 39; Ceka 91.
Holding History
12/7/14 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
Apulia,_Arpi___MGA_13.jpg
Apulia, Arpi 16 views3rd Cent. BC
21mm, 7.55 grams
Zeus left
Greek word, Boar right, monogram below, 2 pellets in exergue
Crawfrod 10/3
JBGood
rjb_2013_12_03.jpg
Apulian16 viewsGreek Daunian culture jug or cup, 5th century BCmauseus
rjb_kylix_09_06.jpg
Apulian kylix74 viewsApulian (Greek colonies in Southern Italy) kylix or shallow drinking vessel with palm frond tondo, c 325 BC.3 commentsmauseus
mithra.jpg
AR Drachm of Mithradates I (171-138 BC)13 viewsObverse: Bearded bust left wearing diadem with circular reel and pellet border.
Reverse: Beardless archer sitting right on omphalos wearing cloak and bashlyk, 3 line Greek inscription BASILEWS MEGALOY ARSAKOY

A nice portrait of the king done in realistic style probably near the end of his long reign

Sellwood 11.1
daverino
sinope.jpg
AR Drachm of Sinope in Paphlagonia ca. 425-410 BC12 viewsOBVERSE: Head of sea eagle facing left with dolphin below.
REVERSE: Double-Incuse punch with pellets in center

Sinope was originally founded by Greek colonists from Miletus ca 725 BC. Bithynia, Paphlagonia and Pontus bordered the southern shore of the Black Sea. It remained an important port, as indicated by the maritime themes on its coinage, for many centuries. Recently near- perfectly preserved remains of Byzantine-era vessels, probably bound for Sinope, have been found at the bottom of these anoxic waters.

SNG BMC 1367 Black Sea (ref. Wildwinds), wt 5.99 gm (ex-Forvm coins)
daverino
thasosdrachm.jpg
AR Drachm of Thasos 510-490 BC33 viewsOBVERSE: Satyr running right carrying off a protesting nymph
REVERSE: An incuse square with bar pattern

Thasos was blessed with silver mines and some of the finest wineries in the Mediterranean. They also knew how to have fun as this popular series of coins demonstrates. Actually it is not entirely certain that these coins were minted in Thasos since there is no inscription but it seems a very good guess. It is impossible to imagine anyone producing a coin like this today. The Greeks had an earthy sense of humor. The design of the coin is like a pinwheel of arms and legs which is based on the triskeles motif but here is used to create a whole picture. This coin has a very deep strike and the expressions on the faces of the nymph and satyr suggest she isn't protesting too much and the whole thing isn't to be taken too seriously.

Sear 1358, wt 3.82 gm, diam 17 mm
daverino
2010-09-25.jpg
AR half Siliqua Heraclius, SB 87128 viewsObverse: DN :Greek_epsilon:RAC :Greek_Lambda:IO PP AV or similar, Crowned, dr, and cuir bust facing beardless
Reverse: No legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on L., and Martina on r., the former wearing crown and Chlamys, the other latter , crown with long pendilla and robes, between thier heads, cross and with four dots between down lower.
Mint: Carthage
Date: 610-641 CE
Sear 871
.66gm 9mm
wileyc
kroton.jpg
AR Nomos of Kroton, Bruttium 500-480 BC9 viewsOBVERSE: KPO upwards on left, Tripod with legs terminating in lion's feet, heron standing left on right.
REVERSE: Incuse tripod.

A slightly chipped example. Bruttium was in the toe of Italy (Calabria). It is believed to have been settled by Greek colonists from Crotona, hence the KPO legend. The followers of the cult of Pythagoras resided here and the tripod/inverse tripod design may have been inspired by their ideas or, more likely, it depicts a trophy in Olympic events. The Greeks were mainly farmers then (and now) and were more attracted to homely themes like scenes from nature and sporting competition than philosophy as subjects on their coins.

SNG ANS 269 (5.99 gm) ex-Forvm Coins
daverino
manbull.jpg
AR Nomos of Neapolis, Campania c340-241 BC62 viewsOBV: Head of nymph facing right, bunch of grapes(?) to left
REV: Man-faced Bull walking right, Victory overhead crowning with wreath.

Sambon 436, SNG ANS 366, weight 7.3 gms; 18 mm

A coin which has all the things that I like about the ancient Greeks - beautiful sense of natural form, balanced design, and whimsical imagination. The small flan cuts off some elements of the overall design and put it in range of my budget.
4 commentsdaverino
wrestlers.jpg
AR Stater of Aspendos in Pamphylia 420-370 BC16 viewsObverse: Two wrestlers grappling, dotted circular border
Reverse: Slinger throwing right with triskeles in field. Square dotted border. {ES} TFED{PYS} the ethnic name of Aspendos in vertical letters to left.

The activities depict Olympic events of the time. The weight of 10.9 grams represents 2 siglos(~5.5 gm), the Persian standard of weight rather than the Greek drachm standard. SNGFr 54 (ref. Wildwinds)
daverino
messanaTD.jpg
AR Tetradrachm of Messana, Sicily 461-445 BC22 viewsOBVERSE: seated charioteer holding reins of slow biga of mules to right. Nike flying above crowning mules with wreath. Olive leaf in Exergue
REVERSE: Hare springing right with legend MESSAN I ON with 'C' above the hare.
The charioteer theme on the obverse was introduced by the Tyrant Anaxilas in 480 BC to celebrate his victory in the races at the Olymics of either 480 or 484 BC. Anaxilas died in 475 BC but his sons succeeded him until they were expelled in 461, at which time the winged Nike was added to the obverse. The earliest of the Nike/charioteer types had A, B, C or D above the hare and the old style Greek S in the legends (not visible on this coin)
A bit rough but within my price range! The coin has an elegant design and illustrates the homely subjects that caught the eye of the Greeks and which they rendered so beautifully on their coins

Weight 17.5 gms, Diameter 25-27 mm
daverino
Arab Byz 3.jpg
Arab-Byzantine fals - Emesa (Homs, Syria)70 viewsKAΛON / b-Homs (in Arabic) , bust of a Byzantine emperor holding globe with cross.
EMI CHC around large m ; tayyib (= "good", like καλον in Greek) in exergue.
Ginolerhino
rabbathmoba.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Rabbathmoba. Septimius Severus AE28.44 viewsObv: AVT KAI L CE[P CEOVP CE]B, laureate head right.
Rev: RABBAQ M W NA.., cult statue of Ares(Greek god of war), standing facing, holding spear, shield, and sword, set upon basis set on plinth.
28mm, 9.9gms.
ancientone
esbus_elagabal_Spijkerman3.jpg
Arabia, Esbus, Elagabal, Spijkerman 325 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 22, 9.49g, 22.34mm, 210°
mint of Esbus
obv. AVT M AVR ANTONINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. tetrastyle temple with central arch and side-wings with flat roofs; in the center Tyche as City-Goddes with short chiton and turreted, stg. half left, r. foot set on unknown object (head of bull?), holding in raised l. hand long sceptre and in extended r. hand unknown object (bust of emperor?)
l. and r. on the flat roofs A - V (Aurelia)
in ex. ECBOVC
ref. Spijkerman 3; Rosenberger IV, 3; Sofaer Collection 4; BMC Arabia p.29, 3
very rare, F+, dark green patina with sand incrustations which strengthen the contour
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Note: The obv. legend is a mix of Greek and Latin expressions: After AVT (Greek for Imperator) follows the name of the emperor in Latin.

Aurelia Esbus was situated near today's Amman/Jordan and is mentioned several times in the Bible under the name Heshbon. Originally it was a city of the Moabites which was conquered by the Israelites. During the Roman Empire it was known for its excellent springs.

Esbus has minted only under Elagabal. There are known only 6 types with no more than 3 obv. dies (Catalog of the BM).
1 commentsJochen
greekY.JPG
Arados40 viewsAE 21, Phoenicia, Arados, 130/29 BC. Obv: Bust of Tyche, turreted and wearing necklace, palm branch over shoulder. Rev: Poseidon seated on prow, holding trident and wreath, Athena Promachos as prow figurehead, Aradian era date 130 (130/29 BC) in ex. Dark brown patina with red earthen highlights, aVF. Hoover HGC 10, 78 (C).Molinari
greekX.JPG
Arados40 viewsAE 21, Phoenicia, Arados, 132/1 B.C. Obv: Bust of Tyche, turreted and wearing necklace, palm branch over shoulder. Rev: Poseidon seated on galley of prow, holding trident and wreath, Athena as prow figurehead, Aradian era date 128 (132/1 BC) below. Dark green patina, aEF. Lindgren I, 2230. Hoover HGC 10, 78 (C).Molinari
greekQ.JPG
Arados30 viewsAE 15, Phoenicia, Arados, 130 B.C. Obv: Head of Zeus and Astarte, jugate, facing right, dotted border. Rev: Prow of galley with Athena fighting, holding sword and shield, inscription above and Aradian era date 130/29 BC below. Black patina, aEF. Lindgren I, 2231, Hoover HGC 10, 90 (C).Molinari
greekP.JPG
Arados13 viewsAE 15, Phoenicia, Arados, ca. 2nd cent. B.C. Obv: Head of Zeus and his consort (?), jugate, facing right, dotted border. Rev: Prow of galley with Athena fighting, holding sword and shield, inscription above and below. Dark green patina with earthen highlights, about VF. Lindgren I, 2231.Molinari
greek com.JPG
Arados BMC Phoencia-12719 viewsPhoenician 146-145 BC
OBV :: Bearded head of Zeus right
REV :: Triple pointed ram of galley left. Phoenician letters above, date below
BMC Phoencia-127
Purchased 04/2008
Johnny
arcadius_const_29.jpg
Arcadius RIC X, 29160 viewsArcadius 383 - 408, son of Theodosius I
AV - Solidus, 4.40g, 21mm
Constantinopolis 9.officina, ca. 403 - 408
obv. DN ARCADI - VS PF AVG
bust cuirassed, laureate, helmeted and pearl-diademed
head 3/4 r., with spear across r. shoulder and shield with
horseman spearing enemy at l. shoulder
rev. NOVA SPES REI PVBLICAE
Victory sitting r. on cuirass, shield behind, with l. hand holding shield
on l. knee, scribing with r. hand XX above XXX on it.
field: star and Theta
exergue: CONOB
RIC X, 29
R2; good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

OB, possibly from Greek obryzon = refined (gold). In the later Roman Empire the word was regularly used to describe gold which had been melted down and testet before being returned for minting
Jochen
arcadius_cyzicus_26(c).jpg
Arcadius, RIC IX, Cyzicus 26(c)125 viewsArcadius AD 383-408
AE - AE 4, 1.40g, 14.0mm
Cyzicus 3. officina 28 Aug. 388-15 May 392
obv. D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Victory advancing left, holding trophy over r. shoulder, dragging
captive with l.
field: l. cross-Rho
ex. SMK Gamma
RIC IX, Cyzicus 26(c); S.4; LRBC. 2578
EF
added to www.wildwinds.com
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

CROSS-RHO, or TAU-RHO, is an early Christian symbol. Probably it is the sign described by Lactantius which Constantine I put on the shields of his soldiers at the Milvian bridge. It is an abbreviation of the Greek 'stauros', meaning 'cross', therefore called often 'staurogram'.
2 commentsJochen
Nabataean_Kingdom,_Aretas_III,_87_-_62_B_C_.jpg
Aretas III, 87 - 62 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Meshorer 118 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas III, 87 - 62 B.C. Among the first Nabatean coins. After gaining Damascus, Aretas assumed the title Philhellenos to appease the Hellenistic population. He also adopted the Greek practice of striking coins. This coin is similar to Seleucid types that preceded it from the same mint. Bronze AE 16, Meshorer 1 (with crescent and L) or 1A (without crescent and L), aF, Damascus mint, 3.197g, 16.4mm, 0o, 84 - 71 B.C.; obverse head right with crested helmet, long hair as dotted lines; reverse , Nike standing left, uncertain object in left, wreath in right, crescent over “L” (=A) left (off flan?). Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Nabataean_Kingdom,_Aretas_III,_87_-_62_B_C_~0.jpg
Aretas III, 87 - 62 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Meshorer 19 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas III, 87 - 62 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Meshorer 1 (with crescent and L) or 1A (without crescent and L), F, Damascus mint, 4.333g, 16.3mm, 0o, 84 - 71 B.C.; obverse head right with crested helmet, long hair as dotted lines; reverse , Nike standing left, uncertain object in left, wreath in right, crescent over “L” (=A) left (off flan?) Among the first Nabatean coins. After gaining Damascus, Aretas assumed the title Philhellenos to appease the Hellenistic population. He also adopted the Greek practice of striking coins. This coin is similar to Seleucid types that preceded it from the same mint. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Greek_AE-Q-001_1h_9x10mm_0,95ga-s.jpg
Argolis, Argos, (c.c. 400-375 B.C.), BCD Peloponnesos 1120 (Head of Hera left), AE-10, Wolf,118 viewsArgolis, Argos, (c.c. 400-375 B.C.), BCD Peloponnesos 1120 (Head of Hera left), AE-10, Wolf,
avers:- Head of Hera right, wearing stephane.
revers:- Wolf head left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 9-10mm, weight: 0,95g, axis: 1h,
mint: Argolis, Argos, date: c.c. 400-375 B.C., ref: Cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1120 (Head of Hera left). BMC-,
Q-001
quadrans
greek21.jpg
Argos, AR triobol 2.6gm29 viewsBCD 1177 var.bird r. / 80-50 BC
obv: forpart of wolf at bay
rev: large A, eagle std.r. on thunder bolt. small bird to r.
all within incuse square
1 commentshill132
1427__Ariarathes_X2.jpg
Ariarathes X - AR Drachm5 views38-37 BC
AR Eusebeia
diademed head right
Athena standing left holding Nike with wreath spear and shield on the ground; trophy to the left
BAΣIΛEΩΣ / AΡIAΡAΘOΥ // EΥΣEBOΥΣ KAI / ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOΥ
(ΠΛΘMO) / E
BMC Greek (Galatia) 2.p43 Simonetta 1977 2.p45

ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
ariobarzanes I combined.JPG
Ariobarzanes I95 viewsKingdom of Cappadocia
AR Drachm 4.0 g 16- 18 mm Sears7302 ( var) 90 BC VF
OBV:: Diademed, Middle aged head right
REV:: Athena standing left, holding nike and spear. shield resting on ground
Regnal Year 6
Greek lettering in right and left fields and in exergue
purchased 03/2006
1 commentsJohnny
Ariobarzanes_II.jpg
Ariobarzanes II Philopator - AR drachm2 viewsEusebia
56 BC ?
diademed head right
Athena holding spear and Nike, shield at her feet
BAΣIΛEΩΣ / APIOBAPZANO[Y] / ΦIΛOPATOP
Z?
BMC Greek (Galatia) 1.p41; Simonetta 1977 1.p43
ex Naumann
Johny SYSEL
Seal007.jpg
ARISTANETOS. ROMAN LEAD SEAL269 viewsAPICT - ANETOV
Draped bust of a slightly balding middle-aged man with sideburns

Cf. Gert Boersema stock no. 5705 (2010)=Münzzentrum 157 (2011), 552 for the same seal type with a clear legend;

18x16x10mm

10.74g; very fine

Note: The style of this portrait of a slightly balding middle-aged man with sideburns suggests a date in the early 4th century. It is the personal seal of a man called Aristanetos, as the Greek genitive legend indicates. In late Roman and early Byzantine times there are numerous personal seals that feature the portrait of the owner. Many of them are not known from other sources. These named portraits of individuals who were powerful and important in their day but are now long forgotten except for a few pieces of lead have a special kind of fascination.

From the Gert Boersema files
2 commentsJay GT4
Pheneos_AE_Dichalkon.jpg
Arkadia, Pheneos, ca. 300-240 BC, Ć Dichalkon 17 viewsWreathed bust of Artemis Heurippa right, with bow and quiver over shoulder.
ΦENEΩN Mare grazing right; AP monogram below, HP monogram in exergue.

HGC 5, 988; BCD Peloponnesos 1626; SNG Copenhagen 274; BMC 24.

(16 mm, 3.07 g, 3h)
Gorny & Mosch 216, 16 October 2013, 2446.

Amongst the finest examples of the type known, with a beautifully detailed bust of Artemis.

Pheneos lies at the foot of Mount Kyllene, located near the modern village of Kalyvia and in the ancient region of Arkadia in the Peloponnese. It served as an important cultural centre, notably for holding the Hermaea, a series of ancient Greek festivals in honour of Hermes. The latter god figures prominently on most of the coinage of Pheneos. However, the basis for the iconography of this rare coin is the tradition that Odysseus discovered his lost mares in Phenean territory. In gratitude he erected a temple to Artemis Heurippa (the finder of horses). The legend is recounted by Pausanius (8.14.5) "There stands also a bronze Poseidon, surnamed Horse, whose image, it is said, was dedicated by Odysseus. The legend is that Odysseus lost his mares, traversed Greece in search of them, and on the site in the land of Pheneos where he found his mares founded a sanctuary of Artemis, calling the goddess Horse-finder (Heurippa), and also dedicated the image of Horse Poseidon." Little remains of the ancient city of Pheneos. Like many ancient cities, its coinage, which is of limited volume, remains the most tangible evidence of its existence.
n.igma
fleche3.jpg
Arrowhead24 viewsGREEK BRONZE ARROWHEAD PROTO MONEY
Black Sea area
arrowhead twisted for votive action
Circa 600-500 BC
frederic
Bronze_Arrowhead.jpg
Arrowhead10 viewsBronze (Greek or Scythian?)
Trilobate, socketed, with barb and hole
37mm, 2.92g
Will J
fleche1.jpg
Arrowheads20 views3 Greek Arrowheads
Circa 500 BC
frederic
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Arsakes II., 211 - 185 BC; Artabanos I. (Assar)54 viewsAR dr., 4,7gr., 16,22mm;
Sellw. 6.1, Shore 4, Sunrise 242 (Artab. I.)
mint: Ragai Arsakia, axis: 12h;
obv.: beardless bust, left, w/bashlyk w/untied chin and neck straps and diadem tied in a bow behind head; med.-long hair over ear and 6 locks on forehead; beardless; earring ?;
rev.: archer, right, w/bashlyk, bow in left hand, seated on backless throne; on left side Greek inscription APΣAKoY; dotted border 12 - 14h and 6 - 7h;
at bottom of right field eagle looking left;

ex: CNG 103, lot 437; ex: Atrek hoard 1965 (IGCH 1978).
Schatz
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Arsinoë II Philadelphos - 1st daughter of Pharaoh Ptolemy I Soter315 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGS of EGYPT, ALEXANDRIA, 253 - 252 BC, Struck under Ptolemy II.
AV Octodrachm (Mnaďeion) - 27mm, 27.69 g, 12h

O - Arsinoë II head right, veiled and wearing stephane; lotus-tipped scepter in background, Θ to left
R - APΣINOHΣ ΦIΛAΔEΛΦOY, double cornucopia bound with fillet.

Svoronos 460; Troxell, Arsinoe, Transitional to Group 3, p. 43 and pl. 6, 2-3 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 134.

Arsinoe II married Lysimachus at the age of 15. After Lysimachus' death in battle in 281 BC, she fled to Cassandreia and married her paternal half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos. As he became more powerful, she conspired against him leading to the killing of her sons, Lysimachus and Philip. After their deaths, she fled to Alexandria, Egypt to seek protection from her brother, Ptolemy II Philadelphus; whom she later married. As a result, both were given the epithet "Philadelphoi" ("Sibling-loving (plural)") by the presumably scandalized Greeks.

Arsinoe II Philadelphos, died 270-268 BC.
4 commentsrobertpe
IMGP4303Art4combo.jpg
Artabanos IV., 216 - 224 AD24 viewsAR dr., 3,62gr, 19,59mm; Sellwood 89.3, Shore 465, Sunrise - ;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara and 2-layer diadem, double loop and 2 ribbons; over the crest of the tiara a row of 18 pellets on stalks, 4 pellets on stalks on the side, ear flap w/4 pellets; mustache, med.-long forked beard; large eye, molded cheek; double necklace; in upper right field abbreviation of the king’s name in Aramaic/Pahlavi >y; complete dotted border;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one extended hand and monogram X w/top bar below bow; archer has both legs; throne seat as ⊼; peculiar curved vertical line behind throne (upholstered back ?); 5 entirely or partially visible lines of legend, the top line in Aramaic/Pahlavi, the other 4 in ‘Greek’;

ex: CNG Triton VII (01/04), #509.
Schatz
IMGP4307Art4combo.jpg
Artabanos IV., 216 - 224 AD27 viewsAR dr., 3,65gr, 20mm; Sellwood 89.1, Shore 464, Sunrise 461 (Artabanos VI., 212-224/7);
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara and 2-layer diadem, double loop, 2 ribbons, and 1 neck flap; over the crest of the tiara a row of 18 pellets on stalks, 4 pellets on stalks on the side, ear flap w/4 pellets; mustache, med.-long forked beard; large eye, molded cheek; double necklace; in upper right field abbreviation of the king’s name in Aramaic/Pahlavi >y; dotted border 7 to 16h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one extended hand and monogram Ā w/dot between the legs below bow; archer has legs crossed; throne seat as ⊼; peculiar vertical line behind throne (upholstered back?); 5 entirely or partially visible lines of legend, the top line in Aramaic/Pahlavi, the other 4 in ‘Greek’;

ex: Vienna Coin Show, VA.
Schatz
IMGP4328Art4combo.jpg
Artabanos IV., 216 - 224 AD25 viewsAR dr., 3,42gr, 20,2mm; Sellwood 89.1, Shore 464, Sunrise 461 (Artabanos VI., 212-224/7) ;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara and 2-layer diadem, double loop, 2 ribbons, and neck flap; over the crest of the tiara a row of 18 pellets on stalks, 6 pellets on stalks on the side, ear flap w/4 pellets; mustache, med.-long forked beard; large eye, molded cheek; double necklace; in upper right field abbreviation of the king’s name in Aramaic/Pahlavi >y; complete dotted border;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one extended hand and monogram Ā w/dot between the legs below bow; archer has legs crossed; throne seat as ⊼; peculiar vertical line behind throne (upholstered back?); 5 lines of legend, the top line in Aramaic/Pahlavi, the other 4 in ‘Greek’;

ex: Vienna Coin Show, VA.
Schatz
IMGP4309Art4combo.jpg
Artabanos IV., 216 - 224 AD29 viewsAR dr., 3,45gr, 17,65mm; Sellwood 89.1var., Shore 464var., Sunrise 461var. (Artabanos VI., 212-224/7) ;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara and 2-layer diadem, double loop, 2 ribbons, and neck flap; over the crest of the tiara a row of 17 pellets on stalks, 4 pellets on stalks on the side, ear flap w/5 pellets; mustache, med.-long forked beard; large eye, molded cheek; double necklace; in upper right field abbreviation of the king’s name in Aramaic/Pahlavi >y; dotted border 7 to 16h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one extended hand and monogram Ā below bow; archer has legs crossed; throne seat as ⊼; peculiar vertical line behind throne (upholstered back?); 3 lines of legend visible (the top line in Aramaic/Pahlavi is off flan), the showing 3 lines in ‘Greek’;

ex: D. Grotjohann, GER., ex: Gorny & Mosch.
Schatz
IMGP4301Art4combo.jpg
Artabanos IV., 216 - 224 AD23 viewsAR dr., 3,45gr, 19,7mm; Sellwood 90.1, Shore 464, Sunrise 462 (Artabanos VI., 212-224/7) ;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara and 3-layer diadem, double loop, 2 ribbons, and neck flap; over the crest of the tiara a row of 16 pellets on stalks, under the crest a row of dots, a six point star on the side, ear flap w/5 pellets; mustache, med.-long forked beard; large eye, molded cheek; double necklace w/row of pellets in the center (?); complete dotted border;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one extended hand and monogram X w/top bar below bow; archer has 2 legs; throne seat as ⊼; peculiar vertical line behind throne (upholstered back?); 4 lines of legend visible (the top line in Aramaic/Pahlavi ), the showing 3 lines in ‘Greek’;

ex: Baldwin’s Auction 90 (09/14), #1272 (The David Sellwood Collection).
Schatz
IMGP4311Art4combo.jpg
Artabanos IV., 216 - 224 AD, or Tiridates III., 224 - 228 AD (?)36 viewsAR dr., 3,46gr, 17,75mm; Sellwood 89.4 (Artabanos IV.), Shore -, Sunrise - ;
mint: Ekbatana; axis: 12h;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara and 2-layer diadem, double loop, 2 ribbons, and neck flap; over the crest of the tiara a row of 18 pellets on stalks, 4 pellets on stalks on the side, ear flap w/4 pellets; mustache, med.-long forked beard; large eye, molded cheek, crease from nose to corner of mouth; double necklace; complete dotted border;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one extended hand and monogram Ā w/dot below bow; archer has legs crossed; throne seat as ⊼ w/dot; peculiar vertical line behind throne (upholstered back?); 5 lines of legend visible the top 2 lines in Aramaic/Pahlavi, the other 3 lines in ‘Greek’, Sellwood later reads the second line as tr’dt = Tiridates;
crudely cut rev. die;

ex: The New York Sale XXXIV (2015), # 470 (Baldwin’s), ex: David Sellwood Collection.
Schatz
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Artabanus II (c. A.D. 10 - 38) AR Drachm, 19mm12 viewsArtabanus II (c. A.D. 10 - 38) AR Drachm,
Obv. bare-headed bust left with medium square cut beard, wearing diadem with loop at the top and three ends, hair almost straight, earring visible; border of dots.
Rev. beardless archer, seated right on throne; in right hand, bow; below bow monogram 26; Greek inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ / ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ / ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΣ / ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ, legend on left read from outside.
Ref. Sellwood type 63.
Lee S
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Artaxerxes II - Darius III183 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silver siglos, 5.490 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.

Following Darius II came Artaxerxes II (called Mnemon), during whose reign Egypt revolted and relations with Greece deteriorated. His reign (dated as from 404 to 359 B.C.E.) was followed by that of his son Artaxerxes III (also called Ochus), who is credited with some 21 years of rule (358-338 B.C.E.) and is said to have been the most bloodthirsty of all the Persian rulers. His major feat was the reconquest of Egypt.
This was followed by a two-year rule for Arses and a five-year rule for Darius III (Codomannus), during whose reign Philip of Macedonia was murdered (336 B.C.E.) and was succeeded by his son Alexander. In 334 B.C.E. Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire.

Siglos was the Greek transliteration of the Semitic denomination ""shekel"" which became a standard weight unit for silver in the Achaemenid Persian Empire after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus the Great in 539 B.C. Ironically, silver sigloi seem to have been struck primarily in the western part of the empire and the standard went on to influence several Greek civic and royal coinages in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. There is endless debate about whether the figure on the obverse represents the Persian Great King or an anonymous royal hero, but since the Greeks regularly referred to the parallel gold denomination as the ""daric"" it seems clear that at least some contemporaries considered it a depiction of the king. Of course, whether this is what the Persian authorities intended or an example of interpretatio Graeca must remain an open question.
4 commentsNemonater
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Artemis Parthenos kneeling right on back of stag/ Bull left, AE2017 viewsThrace, Chersonesos. ca 250 BC. Ć 20mm, 3.58g. (obv on right in photo) XEP, Artemis Parthenos kneeling right on back of stag about to slay it, holding a bow in her left hand, dagger in right / Bull butting left on club; DIAGORA & bow below. SNG BMC 769, SNG Cop 9. Ex areich. Photo credit areich Podiceps
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Aspendos Pamphylia Greek Wrestlers69 viewsPamphylia, Aspendos mint, silver stater, 370 - 333 BC, 10.383g, 22.5mm, die axis 0o, SNG Cop 233, SNG Paris 87, SNG Von Aulock -, SGCV II 5398 var
OBV: Two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, ∆Α between their legs
REV: ΕΣΤΦΕ∆ΙΙΥΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise, no trace of incuse square

In 333 B.C., after Alexander took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king.
Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city.
The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms -
they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
4 commentsRomanorvm
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Aspendos, Pamphylia, 370 - 333 B.C.224 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Obverse : two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, KI between their legs.

Reverse : EΣTΦE∆IIYΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise,


Extremely fine Silver Stater . Weight: 10.62 g. Max Diameter: 23 mm. Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey)
SNG France 104. Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

Historical and Numismatic Note:

Pamphylia (/pćmˈfɪliə/) was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).

Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. Aspendos is about 40 km east of Antalya, Turkey about 16 km inland on the Eurymedon River. In 546 B.C. it fell to Persia. After a Persian defeat in 467, the city joined the Attic-Delos Maritime League. Persia took it again in 411 B.C., Alexander in 333 B.C., and Rome in 190 B.C. Although often subject to powerful empires, the city usually retained substantial autonomy.


The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3121.

2 commentsSam
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Athena (helmeted head of)167 viewsIonia, Erythrai, Trajanus, 98-117. AE-26 mm, 9.33 grs. AV: AU NERO[...] TRAIANON, Lor. bust of Trajan to right, dotted border. RV: ERUQ - AIWN - EPICTRA[..], in field: PRE[...] Goddess standing to right. Round CM: head of Athena with a greek helmet. Collection: Mueller.Automan
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Athena and her owl 172 viewsIn Greek mythology, a Little Owl baby (Athene noctua) traditionally represents or accompanies Athena, the virgin goddess of wisdom, or Minerva, her syncretic incarnation in Roman mythology. Because of such association, the bird often referred to as the "owl of Athena" or the "owl of Minerva" has been used as a symbol of knowledge, wisdom, perspicacity and erudition throughout the Western world.
The reasons behind the association of Athena and the owl are lost in time. Some mythographers, such as David Kinsley and Martin P. Nilsson suggest that she may descend from a Minoan palace goddess associated with birds and Marija Gimbutas claim to trace Athena's origins as an Old European bird and snake goddess.
On the other hand, Cynthia Berger theorizes about the appeal of some characteristics of owls such as their ability to see in the dark to be used as symbol of wisdom while others, such as William Geoffrey Arnott, propose a simple association between founding myths of Athens and the significant number of Little Owls in the region (a fact noted since antiquity by Aristophanes in The Birds and Lysistrata).
In any case, the city of Athens seems to have adopted the owl as proof of allegiance to its patron virgin goddess, which according to a popular etiological myth reproduced on the West pediment of the Parthenon, secured the favor of its citizens by providing them with a more enticing gift than Poséidon.
Owls were commonly reproduced by Athenians in vases, weights and prize amphoras for the Panathenaic Games. The owl of Athena even became the common obverse of the Athenian tetradrachms after 510 BC and according to Philochorus, the Athenian tetradrachm was known as glaux throughout the ancient world and "owl" in present day numismatics. They were not, however, used exclusively by them to represent Athena and were even used for motivation during battles by other Greek cities, such as in the victory of Agathocles of Syracuse over the Carthaginians in 310 B.C. in which owls flying through the ranks were interpreted as Athena’s blessing or in the Battle of Salamis, chronicled in Plutarch's biography of Themistocles.
(Source: Wikipédia)
moneta romana
AcarnaniaLeukas.jpg
Athena and Pegasos on AR Stater of Leukas235 viewsCirca 320-280 B.C. AR Stater (22mm. 8.58g. 6h). BCD Akarnania 269 var. (no monogram). SNG Copenhagen 357 var. (same). Pegasi 134. Obverse Pegasus left, lambda below. Reverse helmeted head of Athena left, monogram below, lambda before stylis. EF, toned.

Ex Sukenik Collection (acquired from Brian Kritt). Ex CNG.

Leukas is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea; and according to ancient sources, a former Corinthian colony. Their coinage reflect their ties with the mother city and almost identical with the coinage of Corinth which could only be distinguished by a small Greek letter to signify where the coins were made, in case of our coin, the letter lambda for Leukas. The coin we have is a beautiful specimen with exquisite details. We could strongly confirm from this coin that the winged Pegasus is a male mythical beast. The reverse is also quite interesting since Athena’s helmet is realistically well proportioned in relation to her head. Other coins of the same type show a smaller helmet which she could impossibly use! The engraver of this coin followed the rules of proportion. Of particular importance is that Leukas is associated with Sappho and the myth of her suicide at Cape Lefkada (Lefkada being the modern name of Leukas). Recently, some scholars suggested that Leukas is the actual place of Homer’s Ithaca. Passages from the Odyssey described Ithaca as an island reachable on foot, which is the case for Leukas since it is not really an island, that it was connected to the mainland by a narrow causeway.
3 commentsJason T
Athena_Greek_Goddess_of_War.jpg
Athena Greek Goddess of War268 viewsSilver tetradrachm, references: SNG Cop 1130; condition: VF, mint: uncertain, weight: 16.590g, maximum diameter: 30.5mm, die axis: 270o, date struck: after 297 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Athena enthroned left, rests arm on shield, transverse spear against right side, holds Nike crowning name, monogram under arm, lion's head in exergue;
Sam Mansourati Collection
An absolute beauty EX FORVM auction
Sam
Attica_beauty_(1_sur_1).jpg
Athena. Classical Beauty Fifth century BC186 viewsc 431/ 415 BC
"Archaic style" head of Athena, wearing crested helmet ornamented with olive leaves and floral scroll, on Athen tetradrachm

I consider this coin as historical to the extent that athenian owl tetradrachm was the first widely used international coinage.

Here, all the coin :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=lastup&cat=21343&pos=0
2 commentsmoneta romana
athenowl.jpg
Athens AR Classical Tetradrachm 454-431 BC14 viewsOBVERSE: Helmeted head of Athena right
REVERSE: Owl perched right, Olive leaves and crescent moon in left field; ethnic [AOE] in right field obscured by obverse test punch.

This type of owl is from the high point of Athens' domination of the Greek world. According to Reid Goldsborough's classification it is distinguished by the confident smile on the face of Athena, her full rounded features and, on the reverse, the short legged owl. The coin is somewhat crystallized as seen by the surfaces and its low conductivity. Crystallization is rarely found in Owls, I suspect because their high relief required heating the planchet strongly before striking. Not a perfect coin but the character of Athena nicely represents the opinion that the Athenians had of themselves in their heyday.

weight 16.95 gms
daverino
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Athens Emergency Issue Plated Tetradrachm Circa 406-404 BC938 viewsQuote from David Sear:

"Athens was the greatest power in the Greek world throughout most of the 5th century BC. Its famous 'owl' coinage, principally of silver tetradrachms, possibly commenced in 510 BC on the occasion of the downfall of the tyrant Hippias. On these celebrated coins the helmeted head of the goddess Athena was accompanied by her attendant owl and the first three letters of the ethnic 'AQE'. Later, a diadem of olive leaves was added to Athena's helmet and a cresent moon was placed in the reverse field, though the precise chronological significance of these changes remains uncertain. To the intense chagrin of the Spartans Athens became the leader of the Greek states, including those of Ionia, in the epic struggle against the expansionist policies of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The victories at Salamis (480 BC) and the Eurymedon (circa 467) clearly established the Athenian supremacy in the Aegean world. Initially, the Delian League (founded in 477) was an alliance of independent states sharing a common cause under the leadership of Athens. It gradually developed into an Athenian maritime empire with the member cities obliged to pay an annual tribute into the League's treasury on Delos. In 454 this treasury, amounting to 5,000 talents of silver, was actually removed to Athens and the vast wealth was openly employed for the aggrandizement of the city, now under the leadership of the great statesman Pericles. Vast building projecdts, such as the monumental edifices on the Acropolis, were financed in this way. From 431, however, Athens became embroiled in the protracted Peloponnesian War and increasingly the wealth of the state was dissipated in this futile cause. This attractive tetradrachm belongs to the exceptionally large ouput of Athenian 'owls' made during the second half of the 5th century. In contrast to the artistic development taking place at mints in other parts of the Mediterranean world, the late archaic style of the earlier 5th century became 'frozen' on these issues which represent the first truly imperial coinage of the Greek world. As Athens restricted or forbade the issue of independent currency at many of the cities within her sphere of influence the 'owls' came to circulate over an increasingly wide area. But this all came to an end with the defeat of Athens by Sparta in 404 BC and during the period immediately preceding this catastrophe the Athenians were reduced to the desperate expedient of issuing bronze tetradrachms and drachms with a thin surface coating of silver. This specimen is an excellent example of this emergency coinage the production of which drew contemporary comment from Aristophanes who, in his play Frogs (717ff), compares the decline in the quality of the leading citizens with the recent debasement of the Athenian coinage."
3 commentsGunner
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Athens New Style Tetradrachm 95/4 BC4 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
28.5mm 16.76 gm Thompson issue (New) 66
Thompson catalogue: 937a ? (not in plates)
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark Γ control MH below
3 magistrates : NIKETES DIONYSIOS MENE
RF symbol : Gorgon Head
All surrounded by an olive wreath
cicerokid
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Athens, Attica129 viewsEleusinian Festival Coinage
340-335 BC
AE 16 (16mm, 3.65g)
O: Triptolemos seated left in winged chariot drawn by two serpents, holding grain ear in right hand.
R: Pig standing right on mystic staff; EΛEYΣI above, bucranium in ex.
SNG Cop 416; Sear 2586v

The Sons of Dysaules
The story of Triptolemus being charged with bringing agriculture to man has been well told. That of his brother Eubouleus perhaps less so.
Eubouleus was a swineherd whose pigs were lost when the Earth gaped open to swallow up Persephone.
Pigs were sacrificed during the Eleusinian Rites in a women’s mystery ritual known as the Thesmophoria. The piglets would be washed in the sea during the Procession and then brought back to the Sanctuary and ritually slaughtered.
It is interesting to note that in ancient Greek religion pigs were thought to be able to absorb miasma from humans, making this an even more appropriate offering.

"It is said, then, that when Demeter came to Argos she was received by Pelasgos into his home, and that Khrysanthis, knowing about the rape of Kore, related the story to her. Afterwards Trokhilos, the priest of the mysteries, fled, they say, from Argos because of the enmity of Agenor, came to Attika and married a woman of Eleusis, by whom he had two children Eubouleos and Triptolemos. That is the account given by the Argives."
~ Pausanias, Description of Greece 1. 14. 3
8 commentsEnodia
Ath_dek_elect_w.jpg
Athens, dekadrachm125 viewsThis is a British Museum electrotype (made by Robert Ready in the late 19th century with his RR mark on the edge) of the largest circulating Greek coin. With the price of these at about $500,000 dollars when they come on the market a good quality reproduction like this is the nearest most of us will come to handling one of them.
48.21 gm, 34 mm; original weighs 42.7 gm.
Manzikert
AthensOwl.jpg
Athens, Greece, Pi-Style III Tetradrachm, 353 - c. 340 B.C63 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 17.1g, Athens mint, oval flan, typical of the type.
O: Head of Athena right with eye seen in true profile, wearing crested helmet ornamented with three olive leaves and pi-style floral scroll, pellet in ear.
R: Owl standing right, head facing, to right AΘE in large lettering, to left olive sprig and crescent, pellet over eyes.
- Kroll Pi-Style p. 244, fig. 8; Flament p. 126, 3; SNG Cop 63; SNG Munchen 96; SNG Delepierre 1479; Svoronos Athens pl. 20: 2

Unlike the customary flans of 5th and earlier 4th century Athenian tetradrachms that have solid, rounded edges from having been cast in a mold, these were struck on thick planchets made of flattened, folded-over, older tetradrachms. The flattened coins were not just folded in two but were folded over a second time to produce a planchet of three or four layers

There are three distinct features of this type of Athens Owl coinage. 1st, they have flans that are commonly misshapen. A number of them are so distorted that numismatists and collectors in Greece have long referred to them as “logs” (koutsoura); these are the tetradrachms in the form of long, stretched ovals with one or two nearly straight sides. 2nd, since the flans, of whatever shape, were ordinarily too small for the full relief designs of the dies, relatively few pi-style coins were minted with their entire obverse and/or reverse type showing. 3rd, just as the diameters and surface areas of the pi flans are generally smaller than those of Athenian tetradrachms of the 5th century and of the first half of the 4th century, they tend also to be exceptionally thick.

The name Pi-style refers to the floral helmet ornament on the obverse which resembles the Greek letter pi (P) bisected by a long central tendril.
5 commentsNemonater
attalusI.jpg
Attalus I AR Tetradrachm 241-197 BC23 viewsOBV: Diademed head of Philetairos, founder of the Pergamene dynasty, to right
REV: Athena enthroned left resting left arm on shield and placing a wreath on the name of PHILETAIROY with her extended right arm. 'A' in field below Athena's arm - likely Sear 7720
Philetairos was a eunuch trusted by Seleukos to guard the treasury at Pergamon. This he did for many years before eventually striking out on his own and founding a dynasty by adoption. Attalus I, one of his successors was a loyal ally of Rome in its wars with Macedon.
The coin is worn but it still retains much of its original portrait quality. The engravers of royal Greek tetradrachms often tried to capture a subtle atmospheric effect by fading the profile into the fields.
Diam 27.6 mm, wt 15.6 gm
1 commentsdaverino
rjb_greek4_08_07.jpg
Attica - Athens21 viewsAR hemiobol
449-413 BC
O - Helmeted head of Athena right
R - Owl standing right, AΘE
Possibly an eastern imitation
mauseus
rjb_greek3_08_07.jpg
Attica - Athens25 viewsAR drachm
449-413 BC
O - Helmeted head of Athena right
R - Owl standing right, AΘE
mauseus
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Attica Owl15 viewsAttica Owl
Sear 2537

Athens AR Tetradrachm. c350 BC, Head of Athena right in ivy-crested helmet, eye in profile / Owl standing right, head facing, olive twig and crescent behind, AŘE before. BMC 144, SNGCop 65.
simmurray
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Attica Owl80 viewsSear 2537

Athens AR Tetradrachm. c350 BC, Head of Athena right in ivy-crested helmet, eye in profile / Owl standing right, head facing, olive twig and crescent behind, AŘE before. BMC 144, SNGCop 65.
1 commentssimmurray
greek46.jpg
Attica, Athens Ar "New Style" Tetradrachm146 views(135-134 BC). Mened-, Epigeno-, and Diod(o)-, magistrates.
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev.: Owl standing right, head facing, on amphora; magistrates’ names in fields; to left, Asklepios standing left, holding serpent-entwined scepter; B on amphora, ΓΛ below; all within wreath.
Thompson 348f (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 240 (same obv. die).
12 commentsMinos
greek68.jpg
Attica, Athens AR Tetradrachm66 views(454-415 BC)
Obv.: Head of Athena right in crested Attic helmet decorated with three olive leaves above visor and spiral palmette on bowl, wearing round earring and bead necklace.
Rev.: Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind, AOE before.
2 commentsMinos
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Attica, Athens AR Triobol45 views(454-404 BC)
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena.
Rev.: Owl standing facing between olive sprays.
SNG Copenhagen 44.
1 commentsMinos
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Attica, Athens AR Triobol (Clean)30 views(454-404 BC)
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena.
Rev.: Owl standing facing between olive sprays.
SNG Copenhagen 44.
Minos
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Attica, Athens, Athena and Owl41 viewsAttica, Athens, 449-413 BC, silver tetradrachm, 21 mm, 16.88 g.
O: Head of Athena to right, the eye seen in facing, archaic style, banker's mark on cheek.
R: Owl standing to right, head facing; to right A-theta-E; to left, olive twig and crescent, all within incuse square, two test cuts and crescent banker's mark in field.

This was the first true "silver dollar" of the ancient world, the coins manufactured in Athens circulated wherever the Greeks travelled. Furthermore, similar coins were struck at a number of Eastern mints, and this may be one of them.

Dark toning with beautiful dark blue highlights.
Nemonater
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Attica, Athens. (Circa 454-449 BC)28 viewsAR Tetradrachm

25 mm, 17.20 g

This is a transitional Owl tetradrachm that bridges the early classical owls (minted from 478-454) with the subsequent mass classical (standardized) coinage, which really got going in the early 440s BC to finance Pericles' building projects like the Parthenon and then later the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) vs. Sparta. The 454 date is critical in that it was the year that Athens moved the treasury of the Delian league (confederation of Greek states led by Athens to defend against the Persian threat) from Delos to Athens.

This coin shares many attributes of Starr V early classical coinage (465-454 BC). On the obverse, the olive leaves on Athena's helmet connect to her diadem with small stems (which disappear in the mass coinage). In addition, the palmette leaves on Athena's helmet are smaller, less decorative, and more realistic. Finally, Athena is smiling (she starts to frown as the war with Sparta goes badly) and is more beautifully depicted than in the more hastily produced mass coinage.

On the reverse, like with the Starr V coins, the incuse is quite noticeable and the AOE (short for AOENAION, or "Of the Athenians") is written in smaller letters (they are much bigger in the mass coinage). Also, the owl is stouter, has smaller eyes, and his head is at an angle rather than parallel to the ground like all later issues.

The only difference between the Starr V owls and this example is in the owl's tail - in Starr V it ends with three small feathers. On this coin and all subsequent coinage the owl's tail ends in a single prong. Given all the other similarities to Starr V it is likely this coin was minted soon after the Treasury's move from Delos to Athens - perhaps 454/453.
2 commentsNathan P
lucius_verus_snake.jpg
Augusta Traiana, Thrace. AE 20. Coiled snake5 viewsLucius Verus, Augusta Traiana, Thrace. 3,7 g , 20 mm. AV KAI Λ AVPEΛIOC OVEPOC, bare head right / with Greek legends for AVΓOVSTHC TPAIANHC, coiled snake. Moushmov 2991.Podiceps