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Search results - "Germanicus"
britannicus01.jpg
48 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
Germanicus_As.jpg
4.5 Germanicus18 viewsGERMANICUS
AE As

RI0037
Sosius
Germanicus_Signis_Receptis.jpg
4.5 Germanicus, father of Caligula38 viewsGERMANICUS
AE Dupondius. Struck under Caligula.

GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right / SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter.

RIC 57 [Caligula], Cohen 7, BMC 93 Fine
Ex VAuctions
RI0038
1 commentsSosius
image02453.jpg
30 viewsROME. Germanicus. Died AD 19.
Æ Tessera (21mm, 3.72 g, 2 h)
Cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; all within wreath
Large III; all within wreath
Buttrey 17/III

Ex Alberto Campana Collection (Numismatica Ars Classica 64, 17 May 2012), lot 2453
Ardatirion
coin189.JPG
003b. Nero & Drusus Caesars33 viewsNero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula.

There father Germanicus was Heir Apparent to his own adoptive father Emperor Tiberius, but Germanicus predeceased the Emperor in 19. He was replaced as heir by Julius Caesar Drusus, son of Tiberius and his first wife Vipsania Agrippina. But he too predeceased the Emperor on July 1, 23.

Nero and his younger brother Drusus were the oldest adoptive grandsons of Tiberius. They jointly became Heirs Apparent. However, both were accused of treason along with their mother in AD 32. Nero was exiled to an island and Drusus in a prison where they either starved to death or was murdered by order of the emperor in AD 33.

Dupondius. Rome mint, struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
Cohen 1. RIC 34

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ecoli
V0904-0002.jpg
005b. Britannicus126 viewsBritannicus (son of Claudius) AE17. Ionia, Smyrna

Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. His original name was "Germanicus" but was changed in honor of his father's conquest of Britain in 43 AD.

Nobody is sure why Claudius made Nero his successor and not Britannicus, although the fact that Britannicus may have been Caligula's son is a factor. Britannicus was killed by (partisans of) his step-brother (and brother-in-law) Nero so that Nero could become emperor of Rome.

His sister Octavia is the heroine of the play written at some time after the death of Nero. It's title is titled her name, but its central message is the wrong done to the Claudian house because of the wrong done to its last male member and its last hope.

Britannicus. Before 54 AD. AE 17mm (4.31 g), Minted at Ionia, Smyrna. Bare head right 'ZMYP' below bust / Nike flying right. cf S(GIC) 516. Scarce. Some dirt and patina chipping.

ecoli73
coin190.JPG
005c. Germanicus48 viewsGermanicus

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16.

Germanicus died in Alexandria, Egypt. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius.

AS, struck under Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC. Cohen 1.

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ecoli
coin313.JPG
005c. Germanicus24 viewsGermanicus AS / SC

Attribution: RIC(Claudius) 106

Date: 19 AD
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head right
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANI IMP P P around large SC
Size: 28.73 mm
Weight: 11.6 grams
Description: A decent and scarcer bronze

ecoli
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_S-dot-C_RIC-50_BMC-74_C-4_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_30mm_11,12g-s.jpg
009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,610 views009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N, Bare head of left.
revers:- C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 11,12g, axis:- h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC-50 (Caligula), BMC-74 (Caligula), C-4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Germanicus_AE-Dup_GERMANICVS-CAESAR_SIGNIS-RECE-DEVICTIS-GERM_S-C_RIC-57_-7_BMC-94_40-41-AD_Q-001_27mm_12,77g-s.jpg
009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 057, Rome, AE-Dupondius, SIGNIS RECEPT/DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus advancing left, 703 views009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 057, Rome, AE-Dupondius, SIGNIS RECEPT/DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus advancing left,
"My Father received the title as conqueror of Germany from the Senate and people of Rome".
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right.
revers:- SIGNIS-RECEPT/DEVICTIS-GERM, large S-C across field, Germanicus advancing left holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
date: Struck under Caligula 40-41AD.
mint: Rome
diameter: 27mm
weight: 12,77g
ref: RIC-57, C-7, BMC-94,
Q-001
12 commentsquadrans
9.jpg
009 Nero Claudius Drusus. AE sest. 39 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP bare head l.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius seated l. on curule chair,
weapons and armer lying around
"brother of Tiberius"
1 commentshill132
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMP_P_P_S-dot-C_RIC_106(Claudius)_Cohen_9,_BMC_241_Rome-41-43-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #188 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #1
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-001
quadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMPPP_S_C_RIC_106(Cl)_C_9,_Rome-41-3AD_Q-001_6h_30,5mm_11,03ga-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2147 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 29,5-30,5mm, weight: 11,03g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire86 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
RI 010a img.jpg
010 - Germanicus AS - RIC 10698 viewsObv:– GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head of Germanicus right
Rev:– TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S C
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – 50-54 A.D.
Reference – RIC 106
maridvnvm
Germanicus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_VESTA_S-C_RIC-54_BMC-73_C-29_Rome-39-40-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_26-28mm_10,25g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,304 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,
avers: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 10,25g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 39-40, ref: RIC I 054, BMC-73, C-29,
Q-001
quadrans
11a.jpg
011a Germanicus. AE As 10.96gm39 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII PP/SC
"son of N.C.Drusus and Antonia"
1 commentshill132
11b.jpg
011b Germanicus. AE AS 10.26m16 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT/SC
hill132
12a.jpg
012a Aggrippna Sr. sestertius 27.8gm45 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA MF MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI drp. bust r.
rev: MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE SPQR above, capentum drawn l. by two mules
"wife of Germanicus, mother of gaius"
hill132
IMG_8168~0.JPG
016. Germanicus, son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius (15 B.C.–19 A.D.) 19 viewsAv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III PP / S-C

AE As Ø27 / 11.6g
RIC 43 Rome, BMC 60, BN 106
Juancho
16a.jpg
016a Aggrippina jr. AE14 2.1gm26 viewsobv: drp. bust r.
rev: cult statue of Artemis
"mother of Nero, doughter of germanicus,
sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius"
hill132
002~3.JPG
031 Germanicus60 viewsAE AS
Germanicus AE As. Struck under Caligula, 39-40 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P around large SC. Cohen 4 var.

RIC 43 (Caligula) ex Zizum
Fine+, 27.5mm, 10.18gram
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
CalI38.jpg
037-041 AD - Caligula - RIC I 38 - Vesta Reverse48 viewsEmperor: Caligula (r. 37-41 AD)
Date: 37-38 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Consul Caesar Augustus Germanicus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head left

Reverse: VESTA (above)
The Emperor looks after the state.
S - C to left and right
Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, right holding patera, left long transverse sceptre.

Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 38; VM 9
5.61g; 26.0mm; 180°
Pep
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2224 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
011~1.JPG
041 Germanicus17 viewsGermanicus, Caesar
Died 10 Oct 19 A.D.

Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C

Fair, 8.138g, 27.4mm, 180*, Rome min, 42 A.D., S 1905, RIC 106, BMC 215 ex Forvm ex Bill D.

"Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor, but died of and unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula ontain the throne after Tiberius died."

-----

"Such virtuous conduct brought Germanicus rich rewards. He was so deeply respected and loved by all his kindred that Augustus - I need hardly mention his other relatives - wondered for a long time wether to make him his successor, but at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him."
Randygeki(h2)
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
AS GERMANICO RIC 35.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)62 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
RIC_35_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)12 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
AS_Germanico_1.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)73 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
RIC_43v_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)13 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
MAurel RIC1021.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172 AD43 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANIA SVBACTA IMP VI COS III (Germania seated left at foot of trophy), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1021 (S), Cohen 215 (10frcs)
22.84gms, 30mm,
Very rare

History: In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
MAurel RIC1058.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172-173 AD37 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III (trophy of arms, German {Marcomann} woman seated left below, in attitude of mourning, on two shields; German standing to right, his head turned and his hands bound behind him), SC in ex.
ref: RIC III 1058 (S), Cohen 227 (15frcs)
22.46gms, 30mm,
Very rare
History: In the second half of the second century was the most important and dangerous invasion of the Marcomanni. Their leader, Ballomar, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes, they crossed the Danube and achieved a smashing victory over 20,000 Romans near Carnuntum. Ballomar then led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, while the remainder ravaged Noricum. The Marcomanni razed Opitergium (Oderzo) and besieged Aquileia. The army of praetorian prefect Furius Victorinus tried to relieve the city, but was defeated and its general slain.
In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
commodus as-.jpg
166-177 AD - COMMODUS Caesar AE As - struck 175-176 AD49 viewsobv: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM (draped bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes walking left holding flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1544 (M.Aurelius), C.710
mint: Rome
8.92gms, 25mm
Scarce

Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, Marcus Aurelius’s headquarters during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father’s victory over the Marcomanni. Even the title of Sarmaticus he was given in 175.
During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius in Syria, the prince assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on July 7, 175, thus formally entering adulthood.
berserker
CarIV312dLimes.jpg
198-217 AD - Caracalla - RIC IV 312d - Limes Denarius - Venus Reverse44 viewsEmperor: Caracalla (r. 198-217 AD)
Date: 213-217 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Limes Denarius

Obverse: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Emperor Antoninus Pius (Caracalla) Germanicus
Head right; laureate

Reverse: VENVS VICTRIX
Victorious Venus
Venus standing left, holding helmet and sceptre and leaning on shield, captives seated right and left.

Limes Denarius of: RIC IV Caracalla 312d; VM 97/3 (Rome mint)
2.46g; 19.5mm; 0°
Pep
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa37 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
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TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
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DrususAsSC.jpg
1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus37 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula31 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


1 commentsBlindado
AgrippinaObol.jpg
1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
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GermanicusDupDEVICTISGERM.jpg
1be Germanicus Recovers the Legionary Standards Lost by Varus10 viewsGermanicus

Dupondius, struck by Caligula
37-41

GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right.
SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter

Commemorates the recovery by Germanicus, who was Caligila's father, of the legionary standards lost by Varus in the Teutoburg Forest

RIC 57
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665_P_Hadrian_RPC3209.jpg
3209 CILICIA, Germanicopolis. Hadrian Zeus standing49 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3209; SNG France 756 = Waddington 4735.

Obv: ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤωΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС.
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum.

Rev: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΗ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΟΠ.
Zeus standing left, holding patera and sceptre; to left, eagle standing left, head right, with wreath in beak.

6.17 gr
23 mm
3h

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection

The city of Germanicopolis was founded by the Graeco-Armenian King Antiochios IV of Commagene in honor of his Roman patron Germanicus. Its only coinage dates to the time of Hadrian, whose name it bore as an epithet.
1 commentsokidoki
germanicus as.jpg
37-41 AD - GERMANICUS memorial AE As - struck under Caligula 34 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S-C
ref: RIC I 35 (Caligula), C.1 (3frcs), BMC49
8.63gms, 28mm

Germanicus was a brilliant young Julio-Claudian who distinguished himself on the battlefield many times. Most notably in Germania where he inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes and recovered the legionary standards lost in the catastrophic Varus disaster. He was chosen Tiberius' succesor, but died of an unknown cause in 19 AD.
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coin200.JPG
402. Maximianus54 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. 250 - July, 310), known in English as Maximian, was Roman Emperor (together with Diocletian) from March 1, 286 to 305.

Born to a poor family near Sirmium (city in Pannonia), Maximian made a career in the army until 285, when the new emperor Diocletian, a friend of his, made him caesar (sub-emperor) and the ruler of the western part of the empire. The next year Maximian became augustus next to Diocletian, and in 293, when Diocletian introduced the Tetrarchy, Constantius Chlorus became Maximian's caesar and married Maximian's daughter Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

During his reign, Maximianus had several military successes, against the Alemanni and Burgundians in northern Germany, against the Carpi on the Danube frontier and against Carausius, who had rebelled in Britain and declared himself emperor there. He also strengthened the frontier defenses in Africa.

On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian retired together; it is clear that this was not a voluntary act of Maximian's, but that he was forced to do so by Diocletian. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus became the new emperors; Flavius Valerius Severus and Maximinus Daia became their caesars. When Constantius died the next year, Maximian's son Maxentius took the western emperorship, and named Maximian to be his augustus. Maximian resolved the conflicts around this emperorship by defeating Severus and Galerius in battle and bringing Constantius' son Constantine on his side by having Constantine marry his daughter Fausta.

However, in 308 Maximian rebelled against his own son, and marched upon Rome, but was beaten and forced to find refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In 310 he declared himself emperor for the third time, but was unable to defend himself against Constantine, who forced him to commit suicide.

For his own and his colleagues' victories, Maximian received the titles Germanicus Maximus V, Sarmaticus Maximus III, Armeniacus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus, Persicus Maximus II, Carpicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus.

Maximianus 286-305, Reform Follis - Siscia Mint
9.16g
Obv: Bust of Maximianus right "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG"
Rev: Moneta standing left holding a scale and cornucopiae "SACRA MONET AVGG E CAESS NOSTR" "SIS" in the exergue.
RIC 134b
ecoli
agrippina RIC102(claudius).jpg
41-54 AD - AGRIPPINA Senior AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (ca.42-43 AD)43 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS (draped bust right, hair behind in an elaborate plait)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
ref: RIC I 102 [Claudius], Cohen 3, BMC 219
mint: Rome
25.89gms, 35mm
Rare

Agrippina was the wife of Germanicus, and the father of six children who survived into adulthood, including the emperor Caligula. She was banished by Tiberius to the island of Pandataria, where she died of starvation in 33 AD. Her memory was honored under Caligula and Claudius.
berserker
Nero Claudius Drusus sest - R.jpg
41-54 AD - NERO CLAUDIUS DRUSUS AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (42-43 AD)38 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP (bare head of Drusus left)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P (Claudius, togate, holding laurel branch and roll, seated left on curule chair set on globe, resting both feet on cuirass on ground, several shields, spears, and a helmet are also scattered around him, a sword rests against the globe beneath the curule chair), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC I 109 [Claudius], Cohen 8 (10 frcs), BMCRE 208
26.36gms, 34mm, orichalcum
Rare

Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, son of Livia, brother of Tiberius and father of Claudius was the governor of Gaul in 13 BC, initiated a series of successful campaigns against the Germans. Died in a fall from his horse in 9 BC.
berserker
coin233~0.JPG
504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch18 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

ecoli
Maximinus-I-RIC-3.jpg
57. Maximinus I year II.14 viewsDenarius, 236 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: P M TR P II COS P P / The emperor standing between two standards, holding spear, and raising right hand.
3.50 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #8312.

Maximinus had a great victory over the Germans sometime in the late Fall of 235 at which time he took the title Germanicus. This coin from 236 does not have GERM in the obverse legend, indicating it was minted before the news of this victory reached Rome. Once this news reached Rome, a different obverse legend was used, which then remained unchanged for the rest of the reign.
Callimachus
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2150 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.104 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.63 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.74 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.44 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.138 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
R_667_Vitellius_Germanicus_Portrait.jpg
AD 069 - VITTELIUS GERMANICVS6 viewsVitellius Germanicus


Vitellius Germanicus was the son of Roman Emperor Vittelius.



for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
claudius_ae_as_minerva_spain.JPG
AE AS OF CLAUDIUS RV/MINERVA 54 viewsWEIGHT: 11.6GR, DIAMETER: 27MM
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (1 August 10 BC – 13 October AD 54), born Tiberius Claudius Drusus, then Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus until his accession, was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54 AD.

1 commentsAntonivs Protti
agrippina_II.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia, AE 17.9; Head of Persephone r.18 viewsAgrippina II. Augusta 50-59 A.D. Daughter of Agrippina Sr. and Germanicus, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius and mother of Nero, was born in 16 A.D. Aezanis, Phrygia, Bronze 2.50g. 17.9mm Obv: AGRIPPINAN SEBASTHN, Head of Agrippina II. r. Rev: AIZANITWN, Head of Persephone r. RPC 3102. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I174 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *326 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
AGRSSE01.JPG
Agrippina maior, grand daughter of Augustus, daughter of Agrippa, wife of Germanicus, mother of Gaius ("Caligula"), 14 BC- 33 AD233 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (26.9g, 36mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius, AD 37.
AGRIPPINA·M·F·MAT·C·CAESARIS·AVGVSTI, draped bust right
S·P·Q·R· in field above, MEMORIAE / AGRIPPINAE in two lines
Carpentum drawn by two mules moving left. The Carpentum's cover is supported by standing figures at the corners and its sides are ornamented.
Gaius had the ashes of his mother returned to Rome soon after he came to power in 37 AD. He celebrated the memory of his mother, father and brothers, all murdered by Tiberius, with a series of coins. The sestertius issue was reserved for the memory of his mother. Note the lack of S C on this issue which has S P Q R instead.
RIC 55; Cohen 1
2 commentsCharles S
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~4.jpg
Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1192 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen originally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv.Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
10 commentsPetitioncrown
Antonia~0.jpg
Antonia Augusta 66 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA

Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Cladius veiled and togate stg left holding simpulum

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Antonia~1.jpg
Antonia Augusta72 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Head of Antonia right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Claudius veiled and togate standing left holding simpulum

11.47g

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.
Jay GT4
ant_felix.jpg
Antoninus Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius 52 - 60 A.D. Hendin 6514 viewsJudaea, Antonius Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius, 52 - 60 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 651, Meshorer TJC 342, aF, Caesarea mint, 2.921g, 18.2mm, 0o, 54 A.D.; obverse “ΙΟΥ/ΛΙΑ ΑΓ/ΡΙΠΠΙ/ΝΑ” (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius), within a wreath tied at the bottom with an X; reverse , TI K“ΛΑΥΔ”IOC KAICAP “Γ”EPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L I“D” below (year 14). Ex FORVMPodiceps
H-651.jpg
Antonius Felix5 viewsOBV: IOY/LIAA/PIPPI/NA, (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius)
within a wreath tied at bottom with an X.
REV: Two crossed palm branches, around, TI KLAVDIOC KAICAP GEPM.
(Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus) Date Below (LIA - A.D. 54)
Hendin-651; AJC II Supp. 5, 32
A.D. 54 3.08gm 18mm
goldenancients
J12N-Felix H-651.jpg
Antonius Felix, procurator under Claudius, Æ Prutah, 52-59 CE107 viewsBronze prutah of Antonius Felix, procurator under Claudius, 52-59 CE, 2.50g, 17mm.

Obverse: TI KΛAVΔIOC KAICAP ΓEPM. Two crossed palm-branches; around, legend (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus); date below, LIΔ = Year 14 = 54 C.E.
Reverse: IOY/ΛIAAΓ/PIΠΠI/NA (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius) within a wreath tied at bottom with an X.

Reference: Hendin 651, Treasury of Jewish Coins 342. AJC II, Supp. V, 32

Added to collection: November 17, 2005
1 commentsDaniel Friedman
32653_Antonius_Felix_prutah,_Hendin_651.jpg
Antonius Felix, prutah, Hendin 6512 viewsJudaea, Antonius Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius, 52 - 60 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 651, over struck on earlier prutah, probably Agrippa I, Hendin 651, F, Caesarea mint, 0.952g, 14.9mm, 0o, 54 A.D.; obverse “ΙΟΥ/ΛΙΑ ΑΓ/ΡΙΠΠΙ/ΝΑ” (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius), within a wreath tied at the bottom with an X; reverse , TI K“ΛΑΥΔ”IOC KAICAP “Γ”EPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L I“Δ” below (year 14). Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Germanicus_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Sardeis, Germanicus15 viewsGermanicus
Lydia, Sardeis
AE 16
Obv.: [ΓEΡM]ANIK[OΣ] KAIΣ[AΡ], Bare head left
Rev.: ΣΑΡΔΙΑΝΩΝ / ΜΝΑ−ΣΕΑΣ, Athena standing left, holding phiale
AE, 3.33g, 16 mm
Ref.: RPC 2993
Ex Helios Numismatik
shanxi
bosporus_aspurgus.jpg
Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Tiberius/ Aspurgus21 viewsKingdom of Bosporus, Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Bronze 12 nummi, RPC I 1903 (14 examples), MacDonald 300, F, 7.000g, 22.7mm, 0o, c. 35 - 37 A.D.; obverse “TIBERIOS KAISAROS”, laureate head of Tiberius right; reverse, diademed head of Aspurgus right, IB before, uncertain monogram behind; brown tone. This coin and coins of Caligula (RPC 1904, “Gaius Caesar Germanicus” 14 examples known to RPC) were both struck with this date, with young portraits, about which RPC notes, “the pieces with the portraits of Tiberius and Caligula were probably made at the end of the reign; the Tiberian pieces are so similar to the Caligulan ones that it seems very likely that both were made within a short space of time.” Could the young portrait on the obverse be viewed as that of Tiberius Gemellus? The grandson of Tiberius was named joint-heir with Caligula in the will of the emperor. Ex FORVMPodiceps
RIC_Augustus-Caligula_Martini-Pangerl_90,_95__etc.JPG
Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (27 B.C. – 14 A.D.) and Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar) (14-37 A.D.) or Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) (37-41 A.D.)26 viewsMartini-Pangerl 90 (re TI•CÆ), 75 & 83 (re AVG), 98 (re helmet), 95-97 (re dolphin)

AE 23-26 mm

Obv: TI•CÆ, AVG and helmet countermarks on an unidentified undertype.

Rev: Dolphin countermark on an unidentified undertype.

The TI•CÆ countermark is late Augustinian and is often combined with the dolphin and helmet countermarks. The AVG countermark is probably associated with Tiberius or Caligula.

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
Caligula_RIC_38.jpg
Caligula54 viewsCaligula, as
RIC 38
11.15 g. 28 mm.
Obv. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICUS PON M TR POT; bare head left.
Rev. VESTA /S-C; Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
1 commentsMarsman
caligula.jpg
Caligula56 viewsRoman Empire
Caius Caesar "Caligula"
(Reign as 3rd Emperor of the Roman Empire 37-41 AD)
(b. 12 AD, d. 41 AD)


Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP, Laureate head of Caligula facing left

Reverse: SEGO BRIGA within wreath




Bronze As
Minted in Segobriga, Spain 37-41 AD



Translations:

C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP = Caius Caesar Emperor Germanicus Imperator(Commander-in-Chief)

SEGO BRIGA = Segobriga, Spain (near Madrid)



References:
RPC 476
1 commentsSphinx357
Germanicus D 1.jpg
Caligula As43 viewsAE As.Caligula,
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Reverse: VESTA/S/C
RIC 38, C. 27, BMC 46.
Tanit
Caligula_RIC35.jpg
Caligula for Germanicus - As - RIC 3512 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC
Size: 27 mm
Weight: 9,80 g
Mint: Rome
Date: 37-38 AD
Ref: RIC I 35 (Caligula), Cohen 1, BMC 49
vs1969
Caligula_RIC_18_(fourree).JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD176 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT, laureate head of Caligula facing right.

Rev: GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus facing right.

Plated Denarius, Illegal Mint after Lugdunum, circa 37 - 38 AD

3 grams, 19 mm, 90°

RIC I 18, RSC Caligula & Germanicus 2, S1815 (var.), VM 3
2 commentsSPQR Coins
Caligula_RIC_18.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD182 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT, laureate head of Caligula facing right.

Rev: GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus facing right.

Silver Denarius, Lugdunum mint, 37 - 38 AD

3.5 grams, 17.8 mm, 90°

RIC I 18, RSC Caligula & Germanicus 2, S1815 (var.), VM 3
4 commentsSPQR Matt
Caligula_RIC_I_38.jpg
Caligula, AE As, RIC I 38, Countermarked5 viewsGaius Germanicus "Caligula"
Augustus, 37 - 41 A.D.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare headed bust facing left.
Reverse: VESTA, Vesta, seated to the left, S - C across the fields.

Weight: 8.89 g, Diameter: 28.5 x 27 x 2 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, struck between 37-38 A.D. Reference: RIC I 38, Countermark: "TI.C.A" on the obverse side, done in the reign of his successor, Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus).
Masis
Caligula_denarius.jpg
Caligula, denarius26 viewsCaligula, denarius.
37-8 AD, Lugdunum.
19 mm 3.62g.
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT / laureate head of Caligula right.
Rev. GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM / bare head of Germanicus right.
RIC 18.
1 commentsMarsman
Caligula.jpg
Caligula, RIC 387 viewsC•CAESAR•AVG•GERMANICUS•PON•M•TR•POT
AE as, 32 mm
Bare head left
VESTA
Vesta seated left holding patera and scepter, SC to the sides
1 commentsnovacystis
car5.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius75 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Pax left holding branch

Ref. RIC 268, RSC 314, BMC 147
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car4.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius66 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P.M.TR.P.XVII.COS.IIII.P.P. Apollo seated left resting hand on lyre
Ref. Sear 1835
Year 214AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
car6.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius53 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Pax left holding branch and scepter
Ref. RIC 268, RSC 314, BMC 147
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
x5.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius57 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Fides standing left holding two standards
Ref. Sear 1837, RIC 266, RSC 315, BMC 143
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x2.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius64 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P. Jupiter left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; at feet, eagle.
Ref. RIC240, BMC94
Rome mint

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

Jupiter was the father of the gods and is normally shown with a scepter and thunderbolt. He may be standing or seated. He can be accompanied with an eagle (as here) or a small Victory.

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x9.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius43 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right
Rev. P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter enthroned left, holding Victory & scepter, eagle at foot left.
Ref. RSC 343, RIC 277c
Rome mint
Year 216

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
cara33.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius40 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Laureate bust right
Rev. P.M.TR.P.XVIII.COS.IIII.P.P. Aeskulapis standing, Globe on ground
Ref. RIC 253
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car112.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius57 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P. Jupiter left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; at feet, eagle. Rome mint
Ref. RIC 240

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XX CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
ant11.jpg
Caracalla Antoninianus Serapis60 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate, draped bust right
Rev. P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing left, wearing polos & holding wreath of corn ears & transverse scepter

Ref. RIC 289d, RSC 383b
Weight 4.9g

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XX CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the twentieth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
RT_001_carteia.jpg
Carteia, Spain, 9 B.C.32 viewsUnder Germanicus and Drusus. Head of city goddess / "CART CAESARSUS" around rudder. RPC 123jimmynmu
4140368_(1).jpg
CILICIA, Anazarbus; Germanicus10 viewsCILICIA, Anazarbus. Germanicus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ Diassarion (29mm, 16.81 g, 12h). Dated CY 67 (AD 48/9). Bare head right / Laureate head of Zeus Olybris right before mountain with acropolis; ETOYΣ [ZΞ] (date) in exergue. Ziegler 35 (O1/R1); SNG BN –; SNG Levante 1366; RPC II 4060 (same obv. die as illustration). VF, green and red-brown patina, surfaces a little rough. Good portrait and interesting reverse design.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 269 (30 November 2011), lot 257; Hirsch 251 (9 May 2007), lot 861.

RPC gives three possible identifications for the figure on the obverse: Claudius, Britannicus, or Germanicus. Britannicus is the most easily dismissable attribution; as RPC notes (p. 595) the nomenclature would be unlikely for such a date. Levante and Ziegler describe the figure as Claudius (the latter with a question mark), but the varying portrait style and the obverse legend “TIBERIOC KΛAΔIOC KAICAP” on a parellel issue of the same year casts serious doubt. Germanicus then seems the most likely of the three. Ex - CNG
ecoli
48.jpg
CLAUDIO, asse (41-50 d.C.)83 viewsClaudio (Tiberius Claudius Nero Germanicus) augusto (41-54 d.C.). Asse, zecca di Roma (41-50 d.C.)
AE, gr. 9,4; mm. 29,0; 180°; porosità, altrimenti MB
D/ TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, testa laureata a sin
R/ LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, SC nel campo. Libertas stante a dx. con pileus nella mano dx e mano sin. distesa
BMC 185.145, Cohen 47, Sear 638
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (14 maggio 2008, numero catalogo 68d); ex collezione A. B. (Venezia, Italia, fino al 2008).
paolo
RIC_Claudius_RIC_113.JPG
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus) (41-54 A.D.)14 viewsRIC I (Claudius) 113

AE as (28 mm). Rome mint, struck ca. 50-54 A.D.

Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head, left.

Rev: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, S-C in fields. Libertas draped, standing facing, head right, holding pileus (pointed cap) in right hand, left hand extended.

RIC rarity C

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
RIC_Claudius_RIC_I_94.JPG
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Drusus Germanicus) (41-54 A.D.)26 viewsRIC I (Claudius) 94

AE dupondius (27-28 mm). Rome mint, struck ca. 41-50 A.D.

Obv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head, left.

Rev: CERES AVGVSTA, SC in exergue, Ceres veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, holding two grain ears and a long torch.

Note: Issued in response to bread riots in Rome, as part of an ongoing publicity campaign to reassure Romans of the adequacy and stability of the grain supply from North Africa. Ceres (=Demeter) was the goddess of grain, and was primarily worshipped by plebeians, and in rural areas.

RIC rarity C

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
Claudius_RIC106.jpg
Claudius for Germanicus - As - RIC 1067 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
Weight: 10,03 g
Mint: Rome
Date: 50-54 AD
Ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9
vs1969
CLAVDIVS Libertas.jpg
Claudius Libertas74 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
bare head of Claudius left

Rev. LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC
Libertas standing facing head right holding pileus, left hand extended

Rome 41-42 AD

11.28g

Sear 1859

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Minerva~0.jpg
Claudius Minerva 67 viewsT CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP

Rev. Minerva advancing with spear and shield SC

Rome 42 AD

Sear 1862

Ex-Arcade Coins

SOLD
Titus Pullo
CLAVDIVS Minerva.jpg
Claudius Minverva55 viewsT CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP

Rev. Minerva advancing with spear and shield SC

Rome 42 AD

12.0g

Sear 1862

SOLD
Titus Pullo
claudius_97.jpg
Claudius RIC I, 97162 viewsClaudius 41 - 54
AE - As, 10.97g, 26mm
Rome 41
obv. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IM[P]
bare head l.
rev. LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
Libertas standing frontal, head r., holding pileus
in r. hand, between S-C
RIC I, 97; C.47
about VF
From Curtis Clay: The obverse of Jochen's As shows the rare earliest
portrait of Claudius' reign, youthful and reminescent of his brother
Germanicus. I think Jochen's coin will have a rank high among the luckiest
first purchases ever made!

PILEUS, a felt cap, given to slaves who received their freedom. Therefore a attribute of Liberty
2 commentsJochen
Germánico.JPG
Claudius, AE As, Germanicus, 50 - 54 AD5 viewsClaudius (41 – 54 AD)

AE As, struck under Claudius, Rome, 50 – 54 dC.

Anv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, around large SC
RIC I 106 (Claudius)

Diameter: 28mm.
Weight: 7.7g
Jose Polanco
CLAUDU04-1.jpg
Claudius, RIC 101, for Germanicus, Dupondius of AD 41-50 14 viewsÆ Dupondius (16.4g, Ø 31,5mm, 6h). Rome mint, struck AD 41-50.
Obv.: DIVVS AVGVSTVS, head of Augustus facing left between S C.
Rev.: DIVA AVGVSTA, Livia seated left holding corn ears with poppy and a long torch
RIC (Claudius) 101 (R2); Cohen (Octave Auguste) 93; BMCRE 224
Charles S
GermAs04-3.jpg
Claudius, RIC 106, for Germanicus, As of AD 50-5463 viewsÆ As (10.8g, 29mm, 6h). Rome mint, struck AD 50-54.
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR·TI AVG F DIVI AVG, head of Germanicus facing right.
Rev.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR·AVG GERM PM TR P IMP·P P around large S·C
RIC (Claudius) 106; Cohen 9

Germanicus was the brother of Claudius and the father of Gaius ("Caligula")
2 commentsCharles S
cyenaica_drusus.jpg
CYRENAICA, Cyrene. Drusus, with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus53 viewsObverse: Laureate head of Drusus right
Reverse: Bare heads of Tiberius and Germanicus, vis-à-vis
Mint : Cyrene
Date : Struck circa AD 23
Reference : RPC 947; Lindgren III 1589 (this coin)
Grade : VF
Weight : 9.23 g
Denom : As
Metal : AE
Dealer : CNG
Acquired: 14/05/08
Comments : Black-green patina. From the Patrick Villemur Collection. Ex Henry Clay Lindgren Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 37, 20 March 1996), lot 1223.
Bolayi
U11184F1GOTYQOGO.jpg
Divus Germanicus AE Dupondius. Rome Mint Under Caligula 37-41 AD35 viewsDivus Germanicus AE Dupondius.
Rome Mint Issued by Caligula in honor of his deceased father (Died in 19AD) 37-41 AD 11.95g
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR Germanicus, bare-headed and cloaked, standing in quadriga, right, holding eagle tipped scepter
Reverse: SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S C Germanicus bare-headed and cuirassed, right, with tunic standing, left, right hand raised and left holding aquila.
RIC I 57 (Gaius); BMC 94; Cohen 7
Ex Forum Auctions ( Jay GT4 )
1 commentsVladislav D
Domitian.jpg
Domitian31 viewsRoman Empire
Imperator Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
(Reign as 11th Emperor: Sept. 14th, 81-Sept. 18th, 96)
(Born: Oct. 24th, 51, Died: Sept. 18th, 96 [age: 44])

Obverse: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP XI, Head of Domitian wearing laurel wreath and facing right

Reverse: IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P PP, Minerva standing on a galley's prow (or a rostral column), holding spear and shield, owl at feet

Silver Denarius (18.2mm, 3.63g)
Minted in Rome circa 92


Understanding the inscriptions:

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM=Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
Sphinx357
domitian_127.jpg
Domitian RIC II, 127519 viewsDomitian 81 - 96
AV - Aureus, 7.38g, 18mm
Rome AD 88 - 89
obv. DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS
head laureate r.
rev. GERMANICVS COS XIIII
Germania naked to waist, wearing breeches, sitting r. on shield, in mourning
attitude; below a broken spear
shield with scroll ornaments and central dot
RIC II, 127; C.148
good F, clipped?

GERMANICUS, after the campaign against the Chatti and the extension of the DECUMATES AGRI of Vespasian to the river Main and the Taunus mountains AD 83
Hexagonal long shield, used by the Germanic tribes
1 commentsJochen
D251.jpg
Domitian RIC-25184 viewsÆ Quadrans, 3.32g
Rome Mint, 84-85 AD
Obv: (No legend) Rhinoceros stg. l.
Rev: IMP DOMIT AVG GERM; S C in centre
RIC 251 (R). BMC -. BNC 542.
Acquired from Marc Breitsprecher, February 2019.

A few years into Domitian's reign an extraordinary issue of quadrantes were struck featuring a rhinoceros. Although the coins are undated, their production can be narrowed down between late 83 when he assumed the title Germanicus and 85 when the consular date XI appeared on the quadrantes. The type is highly unusual and breaks with the standard obverses that were normally featured on the quadrans. One may ask, why a rhinoceros? Certainly the animal was rare in Rome and most difficult to obtain. The rhinoceros depicted on the coin is the African species, identified by the two horns. Martial in his book 'On Spectacles' tells of such a rhinoceros in the Colosseum. Presumably, these coins were struck with that very 'star performer' in mind. Ted Buttrey wrote about this coin type in his article Domitian, the Rhinoceros, and the Date of Martial's "Liber De Spectaculis": "it is wrong to write off the rhinoceros of Domitian's coin casually, as if the coin were a picture postcard from the zoo: 'This is a rhinoceros'. No, coin types are pointed. Everything has to do with imperial advertisement and with its importance at the moment of issue: 'This is my rhinoceros'. Domitian's rhinoceros, in its supremacy in the arena might well stand as a metaphor for the invincible success of the emperor conquering general who had recently assumed the historically-weighted title of Germanicus." Coming back to Martial, he also speaks of tokens being showered upon the cheering crowds - could these quadrantes struck cheaply and in massive quantities have been gifts to the cheering mob at the arena? In essence, can this coin double as currency and a souvenir from a long ago day at the games in the Colosseum?

This variant of the famous rhinoceros quadrans is somewhat rare (no examples in the BM) because of the obverse legend beginning in the upper right, more commonly it begins in the lower left. Artistically, most of the rhinos depicted on these coins have a lot to be desired. Some look like wild boars with horns added for effect. Happily, the animal depicted on this coin's obverse indeed looks every part the powerful and fearsome beast which awestruck Roman audiences - as a matter of fact, it appears to be charging with its head down. Perhaps the engraver was a witness to the very games martial describes?

As mentioned above, the rhino depicted on the coin is the two-horned African species. In contrast, the Indian rhino has one horn. Pliny in his Natural Histories describes the rhinoceros as a one horned creature (although confusingly he confirms its Ethiopian origins), Martial said it had two. The rhino was so rare in Rome, Pliny had to go all the way back to the games of Pompey the Great in 55 BC to find a reference for the animal on display in the city, apparently it was a one-horned Indian rhino. At any rate, both the numismatic evidence and Martial's description coincide rather nicely to confirm that Domitian, at great expense no doubt, brought to Rome an African rhinoceros for his shows in the new Colosseum. The surviving coins featuring this fantastic beast prove how important a feat this was to the emperor.

Well centred with a lovely green patina and fine style.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D295a.jpg
Domitian RIC-29551 viewsÆ Dupondius, 13.50g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI; Head of Domitian, radiate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: S C in field; Trophy; to l., German captive std. l.; to r., Germania std. r.
RIC 295 (C). BMC 310. BNC 332.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, October 2019. Ex Edgar L. Owen.

A 'Germania Capta' dupondius struck during Domitian's first issue of 85, the first bronze issue that fully celebrated the German victory. The war with the German tribe the Chatti likely took place in either 82 or 83. Domitian acquired the title 'Germanicus' in 83, the year of his German triumph. Why it took so long for these achievements to be commemorated on the bronze coinage is a mystery. Perhaps the bronze mint was not in full operation until 85? The motif of the reverse design closely follows the 'Judaea Capta' types of Vespasian (who in turn copied it from well known republican types). The trunk of the trophy even resembles a palm. The 'Germania Capta' types would be struck for only a few short years between 85-88.

Beautiful dark olive green patina.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D331sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-331168 viewsAR Denarius, 3.20g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P IIII; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POTES P P; Germania seated r. on shield; below, broken spear
RIC 331 (R2). BMC 82. RSC 181. BNC 84.
Ex Roma Auction V, 23 March 2013, lot 728.

In either 82 or 83 AD Domitian conducted a census of Gaul as a smoke screen in order to make preparations to invade the Germanic Chatti lands across the Rhine. Not much is known of what the actual war consisted of - perhaps some road building, punitive raids against Chatti strongholds, and some minor skirmishes. No large battles, a la Mons Graupius, have come down to us, prompting Tacitus' assertion, 'that in recent times, the Germans were more triumphed over than conquered'. Even the date of the conflict is in dispute - although Domitian did rack up four salutations between June 83 and September 84, several of which must be attributed to the Chattan Campaign.

Domitian celebrated a triumph over the Chatti in 83, after which he claimed the title 'Germanicus'. This rare denarius from 85 is a record of the war and triumph over the defeated German tribe. The coin is part of the last series of denarii minted with the recently increased silver fineness before the lesser Neronian standard was restored. During this period particular attention was paid by the die engravers to Domitian's portrait, evidenced here by the aegis and fine style. The Germania Capta reverse has become an iconic Flavian type, along with Vespasian and Titus' Judaea Capta types, despite the 'hollow' triumph it records.

A most wonderful coin in hand!
10 commentsDavid Atherton
Domitian.jpg
Domitian- VIRTVTI54 viewsDomitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.


Obverse:
Laureate bust right with aegis

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PERP PP

IMP: Imperator, general
CAES: Caesar, emperor
DOMIT: Domitian
AVG: Augustus, emperor
GERM: Germanicus
COS: Consul
XIII: 8 or XVI
CENS: Censor
PERP: Perpetuus
PP: PATER PATRIAE, the farther of the country. A title given to him by the Senatus.


Reverse:

VIRTVTI AVGVSTI SC

VIRTVTI: Virtus
AVGVSTI: Augusti
S—C: Senatus Consulto, decret of the senate

Comment:
CENS PERP: The censor gave Vº Bº a certain works from the Senate (Censor Perpetuus / Censoria Potestate). Late in 85 A.D he made himself Censor Perpetuus (Censor for life), with a general supervision of conduct and morals.


Virtus standing right, left foot on a helmet, holding spear and parazonium (a dagger)

Domination: Copper, AS, size 28 mm

Mint: Rome, struck 87. A.D.

Comment:
I can't decide what number of TRP it is!
If the obverse legend is as follows, as I suggest:

a) IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PERP PP or
b) IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PERP PP
then it would be
a) RIC II, 356a; C.650; dated AD 87; common
b) RIC II, 409; C.658; dated AD 92-94; common

BTW XIII = 13, XVI = 16
John Schou
gemellus.jpg
Drusus with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus. AE Sestertius24 viewsDrusus, with Tiberius and Germanicus Gemellus. AE Sestertius, Rome, 22-23 A.D. Struck under Tiberius. Crossed cornuacopiae, each surmounted by bare-headed bust of a boy facing one another, winged caduceus between. / DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II, Legend around large S C. RIC 42. Ex. GoldbergHolding_History
EB0380_scaled.JPG
EB0380 Germanicus TR P IIII7 viewsGermanicus, AE AS, Struck under Caligula, 40-41 AD.
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI [AVG N], bare head left.
Rev: [C CAESAR] DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P around large SC.
References: RIC 50; Cohen 4.
Diameter: 27 mm, Weight: 8.143 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0381_scaled.JPG
EB0381 Germanicus PON M TR POT6 viewsGermanicus Caesar, AE As, Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD.
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left.
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC.
References: RIC I 35; Cohen 1.
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 10.452 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0540_scaled.JPG
EB0540 Caligula / Agrippina & Germanicus14 viewsCaligula, AE 22, of Smyrna, Ionia. Magistrate and proconsul Menophanes and Aviola, ca 37-38 AD.
Obv: ΓAION KAICAΡA ΓEΡMANIKON EΠI AOYIOΛA, laureate head right.
Rev: [ΓEΡMA]NIKON AΓΡ[IΠΠEINA ZMYΡNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC], Draped bust of Agrippina I right, vis-Ã -vis bare head of Germanicus left.
References: RPC I 2471; Klose XXIX, SNG von Aulock 2201.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 5.431 grams.
EB
orange.JPG
France, Orange - Triumphal Arch255 viewsIt was built on the former via Agrippa to honor the veterans of the Gallic Wars and Legio II Augusta. It was later reconstructed by emperor Tiberius to celebrate the victories of Germanicus over the German tribes in Rhineland.pax
GERMAS01-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 35, for Germanicus, As of AD 37-388 viewsÆ As (10.4g, Ø 28mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head of Germanicus left.
Rev.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT round large S·C.
RIC 35; Cohen 1
Charles S
germas02-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 43, for Germanicus, As of AD 39-4015 viewsÆ As (11.9g, Ø 28mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head of Germanicus left.
Rev.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III P P round large S·C.
RIC (Gaius) 43 (R2) (but incorrect legends: see note below); BMCRE p.156 n.‡; not in Cohen
Ex G.Henzen (1996)

Germanicus adopted by Tiberius, father of Caligula, lived 15BC-19AD.

Note: Both obverse and reverse legends are wrong in the revised edition of RIC Vol1 (1984) no. 83. The obverse is quoted as "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGvst F DIVI AVG N"; the reverse as "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR Pot III P P": the parts in lower case are incorrect and should be deleted. The 1923 issue of RIC, no. 46 had these legends correct.
1 commentsCharles S
GermDu01-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 57, for Germanicus, Dupondius of AD 37-4158 viewsÆ Dupondius (13.7g, Ø 29mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-41.
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR, standing in a slow quadriga advancing right
Rev.: SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S C, Germanicus standing left, cuirassed with tunic raising his right arm and holding aquila in his left hand.
RIC (Gaius) 57; Cohen 7
ex David Ruskin (Oxford)

This type recalls the triumph Germanicus earned in 17 AD for his German campaigns, in which he recovered the standards lost by Varus in 9 AD.
3 commentsCharles S
Gallien_-_Germanicus_max_v.JPG
Gallien - GERMANICVS MAX V12 viewsGALLIENVS . P . F . AVG
GERMANICVS MAX V
Un trophée avec deux captifs attachés dans l'attitude de la tristesse
Cologne - 2e Émission - phase a - printemps 257
Bourdel 287a
Göbl 872l
Eauze 1490
Elmer 55
PYL
Gallien_-_Germanicus_max_v_2.JPG
Gallien - GERMANICVS MAX V11 viewsGALLIENVS . P . F . AVG
GERMANICVS MAX V
Un trophée avec deux captifs attachés dans l'attitude de la tristesse
Cologne - 2e Émission - phase a - printemps 257
Bourdel 287a
Göbl 872l
Eauze 1490
Elmer 55
PYL
Gallien_-_Germanicus_Max_V~0.JPG
Gallien - GERMANICVS MAX V - Trèves14 viewsGALLIENVS . P . F . AVG
GERMANICVS MAX V
Un trophée avec deux captifs attachés dans l'attitude de la tristesse
Trèves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 382b
Göbl 872n
Eauze ...
Elmer 59c
PYL
Gallien_-_germanicus_max_v~1.jpg
Gallien - GERMANICVS MAX V - Trèves13 viewsGALLIENVS . P . F . AVG
GERMANICVS MAX V
Un trophée avec deux captifs attachés dans l'attitude de la tristesse
Trèves - 1ere Émission - automne 258
Bourdel 382a
Göbl 872o
Eauze 1512
Elmer ...
PYL
Gallienus_GERMANICVS_MAX_V_4b.jpg
Gallienus antoninianus38 viewsGERMANICVS MAX VTibsi
Gallienus_Germanicus_Max_V.jpg
Gallienus Germanicus Max V24 viewsGallienus, AR Antoninianus, 258 - 259, 20.75mm, 3.8g, Joint Reign, Lugdunum, RIC 18, Van Meter 316, Cohen 308, SEAR 2961
OBV: GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REV: GERMANICVS MAX V, trophy between two captives

Refers to a victory over the German tribe Alemanni at Milan circa AD 259,
where Gallienus stemmed their invasion of Italy
Romanorvm
Germanicus.jpg
Germanicus75 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
bare head of Germanicus right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP PP
around large SC

Rome 42 AD

9.46g

Issued by Claudius in honour of his deceased brother Germanicus
Sear 1905

Jay GT4
germanicus_1.jpg
GERMANICUS19 viewsd. 19 AD
STRUCK UNDER CALIGULA 37 - 38 AD
AE As 25.5 mm 9.92 g
O: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG DIVI AVG N
BARE HEAD L
R: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM PR PIIIPP
LEGEND AROUND LARGE SC
laney
germanicus_2.jpg
GERMANICUS18 viewsd. 19 AD
STRUCK UNDER TIBERIUS, 14 - 37 AD
AE SEMIS 24 mm 8.45 g
O: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F
BARE HEAD R
R: PERM AVG COL ROM
LEGEND AROUND CIRCULAR SHIELD WITHIN WREATH
ROMULA, SPAIN
laney
Germanicus.jpg
Germanicus54 viewsGERMANICUS, father of Caligula, Died AD 19. Æ Dupondius (29mm, 12.8g). Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-41. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right. / SIGNIS - RECEPT / DEVICTIS - GERM / S-C , Germanicus standing left, holding eagle-tipped scepter. (mint of Rome). RIC I, pg 112, #57 (Gaius)
Son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius, Father of Caligula, Germanicus Caesar was (by accounts) loved by his legions and the people of Rome. Germanicus carried out punitive actions against the Germans for their part in the Varus ambush, in which the 17th, 18th, and 19th legions were almost decimated to a man. Germanicus's campaign recovered 2 of the 3 lost Eagle stantards from the lost legions. This coin depicts the triumph given to Germanicus and celebrates the recovery of the lost eagle standards.
3 commentsSoxfan
Germanicus_RIC_57.jpg
Germanicus101 viewsGermanicus, dupondius (struck under Caligula in honor of his father).
RIC 57
13,66 g. 30 mm.
Obv. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right.
Rev. SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter.
Struck at Rome by Caligula (37-41 AD) to commemorate the recovery from the Germans by his father, Germanicus, of the standards of the lost legions of Varus. Another opinion is that the coin was struck by Claudius to commemorate his brother.

A historical dupondius with sharp details.
5 commentsMarsman
GERMANICUS_RES.jpg
GERMANICUS17 viewsDied A.D. 19
struck under Claudius, ca. 50 - 54 AD
AE As 28 mm 9.89 g
O: Bare head right
R: Legend around large S C.
Rome
laney
druso.jpg
GERMANICUS22 viewsAE as. Struck under Claudius 42-43 AD. 11,32 grs. Bare head right. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large S C.
RIC (Claudius) 106. BMCRE (Claudius)218. Cohen 9.
benito
druso~0.jpg
GERMANICUS21 viewsAE as. Struck under Claudius 42-43 AD. 11,32 grs. Bare head right. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large S C.
RIC (Claudius) 106. BMCRE (Claudius)218. Cohen 9.
benito
germanicus_b.jpg
GERMANICUS13 viewsd. 19 AD
Struck 37 - 38 AD (under Caligula)
Æ As 26.5 mm; 8.40 g
Struck under Caligula
O: Bare head left
R: Legend around large SC
laney
Germanicus.png
Germanicus27 viewsGermanicus. Died AD 19. Æ As (28.5mm, 9.74 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Claudius, AD 42-43. Bare head right / Legend around large S • C. RIC I 106 (Claudius); von Kaenel Type 79.

From the estate of Thomas Bentley Cederlind.
2 commentsAjax
collagemaker_2018060_FGoEr.jpg
Germanicus16 viewsAE23, Corinthian, Issued by C. Mussius Priscus and C. Heius Pollio, duoviri. Struck 4-5 AD
Obverse: [GERM]ANIC - VS [CAESAR COR], bare head of Germanicus right.
Reverse: C MVSSIO/PRISCO IIVIR/C HEIO POLL/IONE ITER, legend on 4 lines within wreath of parsley.
References: RPC 1142; BCD 356; Amandry XIII
Justin L
CollageMaker_20180702_185400950.jpg
Germanicus22 viewsAE As, Struck 39-40 AD, Rome Mint, Issued by Caligula
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, Head of Germanicus, bare, left.
Reverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, surrounding large SC.
References: RIC I 50, BMC 60, RCV 1822
Size: 28mm, 11.02g
Justin L
DSC01730.JPG
Germanicus (minted under Claudius)23 viewsAs, General Germanicus died 19 A.D, 29mm Rome mint struck under Cluadius 42-43 A.D.
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAEASR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IM PP, SC in center
1 commentsDk0311USMC
00398.jpg
Germanicus (RIC 106, Coin #398)10 viewsRIC 106 (C), Copper AS, Rome, 42 AD.
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head left..
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P Large S C..
Size: 29.3mm 9.52gm
MaynardGee
00713.jpg
Germanicus (RIC 35, Coin #713)9 viewsRIC 35 (C), AE AS, minted under Caligula, Rome, 37 - 38 AD.
OBV: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N; Bare head left.
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT; Legend around large S C.
SIZE: 27.5mm, 9.78g
MaynardGee
00734.jpg
Germanicus (RIC 35, Coin #734)9 viewsRIC 35 (C), Copper AS, Rome, 37-38 AD.
OBV: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N; Bare head left.
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT; Legend around large S C.
SIZE: 28.4mm, 10.98g
MaynardGee
00543.jpg
Germanicus (RIC 503, Coin #543)52 views
Germanicus, RIC 503 (Scarce), AE AS, Rome, 40 - 41 AD
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head left.
REV: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII P P
Legend around large S C.
Size: 27.4mm 9.64g

1 commentsMaynardGee
Germanicus~0.jpg
Germanicus - AE as13 viewsRome
42 AD
bare head right
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
S·C
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
SRCV I 1905, RIC I 106, BMCRE I 215
9,53g
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
germanico_IMPTCAESDIVIVESPFAVGREST_as_(Tito)_Ric228.jpg
Germanicus - as9 viewsIMPTCAESDIVIVESPFAVGREST
Tito Ric 228
antvwala
Germanicus.jpg
Germanicus - Commemorative issued by Caligula44 viewsAs, 10.30 g, 26 mm, 7 h, 37-38 AD

Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
Bare head right

Reverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC

Rome mint

RIC I 35
drjbca
1292_Germanicus_Italica.JPG
Germanicus - Italica9 viewsAE semis
15 BC - 19 AD
bare head left
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F
Aquila between two standards
MVNIC__ITALIC
PE_R / AV_G
RPC I 70; ACIP 3339
5,4g 24-22mm
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
germanicus.jpg
Germanicus - RIC 3518 viewsGermanicus AE As.
Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD.
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left /
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC.
1 commentsxokleng
092006_07.jpg
Germanicus AE As41 viewsGermanicus AE As
Restoration issue by Titus, ca AD 80
Ob: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
Rv: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around large S-C
RIC 228, Sear5 #2598
Scotvs Capitis
germanicus_01.jpg
Germanicus AE As39 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P - Large S C.
Date: 42-3 AD
Mint: Rome
Ref: RIC 106, Cohen 9
oa
GERMANICVS.JPG
Germanicus AE As6 viewsGermanicus, † 19. As, Rome A.D. 42. AE As, RIC 106 [Claudius], Cohen 9, BMC 241, Sear RCV 1905, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANI IMP P P around large SC. Podiceps
GermanicusAsMed.jpg
Germanicus AE As44 viewsGermanicus, prominent and beloved general; father of Caligula
assassinated October 10, 19 AD
struck 42/43 AD under Claudius, Rome mint
AE As, 30mm
Obv: bare head right; GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
Ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius); Sear5 #1905; Cohen 9; BMC 241
6 commentsTIF
Germanicus2.jpg
GERMANICUS Ae As RIC 106, Senatus Consulto14 viewsOBV: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head right
REV: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TRP IMP P P - Legend around large SC
9.3g, 30mm

Minted at Rome, 50-4 AD
Legatus
Germanicus3.jpg
GERMANICUS Ae As RIC 35, Senatus Consulto13 viewsOBV: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N - Bare head of Germanicus left
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Legend around large S C
9.2g, 27mm

Minted at Rome, 37-8 AD
Legatus
germanicus_ae_as.JPG
Germanicus AE As,20 viewsGermanicus Æ As. Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC.
RIC 35 [Caligula], Cohen 1, BMC 49 _sold

Antonivs Protti
__57Germanicus.jpg
Germanicus AE AS. Large SC.31 viewsGermanicus AE As. Bust left / Large SC surrounded by legendAntonivs Protti
rY537gETK9tx5WkGqT2iF4ty6pR8H6.jpg
GERMANICUS AE as. Struck under Claudius. legend around SC. 21 viewsGERMANICUS AE As, struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right. Reverse - TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C. BMC 218. RCV 1905. 28.5mm, 9.0gAntonivs Protti
Germanicus02a.jpg
Germanicus AE Dupondius115 viewsI love this one. I find it has real aesthetic appeal.

Germanicus AE Dupondius struck by Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right / SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter. Cohen 7.

EXTREMELY FINE
HIGHLY ATTRACTIVE, A QUITE ENTRANCING PIECE.
Ex Künker 2006
6 commentsTrajan
Germanicus_Drusus_Sardes~0.jpg
Germanicus and Drusus - Sardis12 viewsstruck by Tiberius
c. 14-17 AD
head of Germanicus right
ΓEPMANIKOΣ // KAIΣAPEΩN
head of Drusus right
ΔPOYΣOΣ // ΣAPΔIANΩN
RPC I 2992
2,8g 15-13mm
ex Naumann
Johny SYSEL
Germanicus_As_SC.jpg
Germanicus As76 viewsObv.
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head right

Rev.
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
SC
ancientdave
Germanicus_by_Caligula.jpg
Germanicus by Caligula181 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head of Germanicus left

C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P
around large SC

Rome 40-1 AD

9.79g

Sear 1822, RIC 50

Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased father Germanicus.

Ex-Tater's
3 commentsJay GT4
Germaincus by Gaius SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM RIC 57.jpg
Germanicus by Gaius SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM RIC 57445 viewsDupondius, 30mm, 14.17g.

Obverse: GERMANICVS/CAESAR in two lines across field, Germanicus, bare-headed and cloaked, in slow quadriga, R. Eagle-tipped sceptre in L hand.

Reverse: SIGNIS - RECEPT/DEVICTIS - GERM/S - C in three lines to L and R of Germanicus, bareheaded and cuirassed, standing L, R hand raised, L holding eagle-tipped sceptre.

Struck under Gaius in honour of his father, 37-41.

Rome, RIC 57, Common.

The coin is badly struck rather than heavily worn. Issued to commemorate Germanicus' capture of the standards lost in the Teutoberg Forest in 9AD. He had been awarded the ornamenta triumphalia by Augustus, the trappings of a triumph without the thing itself; the full triumph was finally awarded by Tiberius in Ad15, but not actually celebrated until Germanicus returned to Rome in 17, after a successful campaign. Although RIC does not say so, I assume the figure of Germanicus in a quadriga commemorates the triumph.
3 commentsRobert_Brenchley
GermanicusCaes.jpg
Germanicus Caesar52 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR
Germanicus in triumphal quadriga r. holding eagle-tipped sceptre.

SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM SC
Germanicus stg l. his r. hand raised holding legionary eagle in l.

Rome 37-41 AD

11.95g


Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased father (Died in 19AD)

New picture of one of my very first Julio-Claudian coins!

SOLD AT FORUM AUCTION
Jay GT4
Germanicus_Dupondius.jpg
Germanicus Dupondius166 viewsStruck by Caligula 37-41 A.D. in honor of his late father, Germanicus.

Obv: GERMANICUS CAESAR
Germanicus carrying scepter in triumphal Quadriga to right

Rev: SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM SC
Germanicus in curaiss walking left, bearing recovered military standard


The obverse of this coin likely depicts Germanicus' military triumph, an event that must have made quite an impression on young Caligula. The reverse depicts Germanicus (or a statue dedicated to him) walking left, bearing one of two standards that he recovered from Germanic tribes which were taken from General Varus in 9 A.D.
5 commentsancientdave
GermanicusDupondius.jpg
Germanicus Dupondius134 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR
Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right holding eagle-tipped sceptre

SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM SC
Germanicus standing left, his right hand raised, holding legionary eagle in left

Rome, 37-41 AD

15.97g

Scarce

Sear 1820, RIC 57, BMCRE 93

Ex-Calgary coin from an old collection

Minted by Caligula in honor of his father.
4 commentsJay GT4
germanicus_(gaius)57.JPG
Germanicus RIC I, (Gaius) 57171 viewsGermanicus, died AD 19, brother of Claudius, father of Gaius Caligula
AE - Dupondius, 16.7g, 31mm
Rome AD 41.54
obv. GERMANICVS/CAESAR in two lines across field
Germanicus, bare headed and in military cloak, standing r. in a slow-quadriga
ornamented with Victory holding wreath.
rev. SIGNIS - RECEPT/DEVICTIS - GERM/S- C in three lines, between them Germanicvs bare-headed in tunika standing l., r. hand raised for greeting, in l.
hand eagle-sceptre
RIC II, (Gaius) 57; C.7; BMCR. 94
VF, nice patina!

This issue reminds on the triumph of Germanicus AD 17 due to his campaigns against the Germans, where he regains 2 of the 3 signs which were lost AD 9 by Varus in the battle of Teutoburger Wald.

For Latin scholars: The grammar structure on the rev. is the infamous 'ablativus absolutus' in connection with a chiasmus!
3 commentsJochen
germanicus_57.JPG
Germanicus RIC I, (Gaius) 57662 viewsGermanicus, died AD 19, brother of Claudius, father of Gaius Caligula
AE - Dupondius, 16.7g, 31mm, Rome AD 41-54
obv. GERMANICVS/CAESAR in two lines across field
Germanicus bare-headed and in military cloak standing r. in a slow-quadriga
ornamented with Victory holding wreath.
rev. SIGNIS - RECEPT/DEVICTIS - GERM/S- C in three lines, between them Germanicvs bare-headed in tunika standing l., r. hand raised for greeting, in l.
hand eagle-sceptre
RIC II, (Gaius) 57; C.7; BMCR. 94
VF, nice patina!

This issue commemorates the triumph of Germanicus AD 17 due to his rather poor successful campaigns against the Germans, where he regains 2 of the 3 signs of the 17., 18. and 19. legion which were lost AD 9 by Varus in the battle of Teutoburg Forest. On the battlefield he let collect the mortal remains of the dead and built a big tomb.
For Latin scholars: The grammar structure on the rev. is the infamous 'ablativus absolutus' and we find a nice Chiasmus, a crossing of words.
3 commentsJochen
germanicus_35.jpg
Germanicus RIC I, 35121 viewsGermanicus, died 19 BC, father of Gaius Caligula, brother of Claudius
AE - As, 10.95g, 27mm
Rome 37/38 (struck under Gaius)
obv. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIV[I] AVG F
bare head l.
rev. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
around big SC
RIC I, Gaius 35; C.1
nearly VF

For comparison with Claudius RIC I, 97!
Jochen
Germanicus_SC.JPG
Germanicus SC17 viewsGermanicus AE As struck by Caligula, 29mm, Rome, 40 - 41 AD
OBV: GERMANIICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N; Bare Head, Left
REV: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR POT III P P; Legend around large SC
Sear 5 - 1822, RIC 50, Van Meter 3 rated VB3, RIC 50

RARE
Romanorvm
Germanicus_Struck_by_Caligula.JPG
Germanicus Struck by Caligula13 viewsGermanicus, Copper, 195°, 29.72mm, 9.8g, SEAR 1822, BMC 49, RIC I pg 110 35, VanMeter 2 pg 77,     
OBV:GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head of Germanicus left
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICUS PON M TR POT S C, Legend around large SC

A bit of a rough one
Romanorvm
Germanicus_R_I_C__I__57_extra.jpg
Germanicus, AE Dupondius, RIC I 5793 viewsGermanicus
Caesar, 4 – 19 A.D.

Coin: AE Dupondius, commemorating the recovery, by Germanicus, of the Legionary Eagles (Aquilae) lost in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 A.D.

Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus, in Triumph, in a Quadriga, going to the right, holding the reigns with his left hand and a Sceptre with his right.
Reverse: SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus, cuirassed, advancing to the left, saluting with his right hand and holding an Aquila with his left. S-C across the fields.

Weight: 13.06 g, Diameter: 28.5 x 29 x 2 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, issued in the reign of his son, Gaius "Caligula", between 37 - 40 A.D. References: RIC I 57, BMC 94, Note: A metal detecting find at about 3 miles from Chinon, France, by Mr. Murray Jemison in 2010 at what was said to have been a Roman garrison site.
Masis
0041-520np_noir.jpg
Germanicus, As86 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his father (died AD 19)
Rome mint, AD 37-38
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, Bare head of Germanicus left
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC
10,64 gr
Ref : RCV #1821, Cohen #1
Potator II
4534_4535.jpg
Germanicus, As, S/C12 viewsAE As
Germanicus
Born 15BC - Died 19AD
Issued: 50 -54AD or 80 - 81AD
29.5 x 27.0mm
O: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N; Bare head, right.
R: S/C
Rome Mint
Aorta: 16 or 17: B2, O6, R11 or 12, T4, M2.
Kenn Hollister/Moneta ANA Chicago 2013
4/3/17
Nicholas Z
0041-510.jpg
Germanicus, Dupondius - *150 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his father (died AD 19)
Rome mint, AD 37-41
GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right
SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus standing left, rising right arm, holding legionnary eagle
17.79 gr
Ref : RCV #1820, Cohen #7
3 commentsPotator II
Germanicus_RIC_C50.JPG
Germanicus, father of Caligula, brother of Claudius22 viewsObv: (GERM)ANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI A(VG N), bare head of Germanicus facing right.

Rev: (C) CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP III PP, around large SC.

Copper As, Rome mint, 40-1 AD (posthumous commemorative issued by Caligula)

10.7 grams, 28 mm, 180°

RIC I Caius 50, S1822, VM 3
SPQR Coins
Germanicus_(CM)_RIC_57.JPG
Germanicus, father of Caligula, brother of Claudius36 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus standing in a slow quadriga right, holding an eagle-tipped scepter.

Countermark: NCAPR in incuse rectangle.

Rev: SIGNIS RECEPT / DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus, in military attire, advancing left, raising his right arm and holding an aquila.

Orichalcum Dupondius, Rome mint, 37 - 41 AD

13.4 grams, 29.3 mm, 225°

RIC I Caligula 57, S1820

Ex: FORVM
SPQR Matt
0041-505.jpg
Germanicus, Middle bronze 86 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large S C
8.88 gr
Cohen #9
Potator II
Germanicus_RIC_108~0.jpg
Germanicus, RIC 10819 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N,
Bare head right
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
AE as, 28mm, 9.91g
novacystis
GERMANIC-1-ROMAN~0.jpg
Germanicus, RIC I-106 Rome29 viewsAE As
Rome mint, 42 A.D.
28mm, 10.15
RIC I-106, RCVv.1-1905

Obverse:
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head right.
(Hole at top of the head.)

Reverse:
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Legend around S-C

Note: Struck during the reign of Claudius, David Sear puts the mint date at 42 A.D. and RIC lists it between 50-54 A.D.
1 commentsrubadub
germanicus.jpg
Germanicus, with Divus Augustus (15 B.C. - 19 A.D.)10 viewsAR Drachm
CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea
O:GERMANICVS CES TI AVGV COS II PM, bare head of Germanicus right.
R:  DIVVS AVGV-STVS, radiate head of Augustus left.
3.23g
16.5mm
RPC I 3623a; cf. Sydenham, Caesarea 50; RIC I 61; BMCRE 106

The date of this issue remains uncertain. RPC places it late in Tiberius' reign, circa 33/4 AD, while the traditional dating, adopted by RIC and Sydenham, place's it in the first year of Caligula's reign, 37/8 AD.
1 commentsMat
Germanicus1-horz.jpg
Germanicus. As, 50-54 AD.28 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head of Germanicus to right
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P round large S C.

RIC 106
2 commentsPedja R
germanicus_max_v_9_82g.JPG
GERMANICVS MAX V11 viewsdouble sesterce
atelier II
9.82g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
GERMANICVS MAX V
Bastien 302
de Witte 66
Cohen 86
RIC 198
Elmer ...
PYL
Hadrian_Denarius_Concordia.jpg
Hadrian Denarius Concordia82 viewsObv.
IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate & Cuirassed bust right


Rev.
PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG P P M TR P COS P P
CONCORD in ex.
Concordia enthroned left holding patera, arm on statue of Spes, cornucopiae below

Minted in first year of the reign, 117 A.D.

18mm 3.3g

Curtis Clay says,


"The earliest issue of Hadrian's reign, notable for giving him five honorary titles of Trajan, namely Optimus, Germanicus, Dacicus, Parthicus, and Pater Patriae, all of which however disappeared from his second issue of coins.

Obviously the Senate, upon hearing of Trajan's death in Cilicia and Hadrian's accession at Antioch, voted Hadrian these titles, and the mint immediately put them on the coins, but Hadrian modestly refused the titles, causing them to disappear from the coinage. It would have taken a month or so for news of the Senatorial awards to reach Hadrian in Antioch, and then for news of Hadrian's rejection of the titles to get back to Rome."
5 commentsancientdave
Hadrian_Denarius_Concordia_2.jpg
Hadrian Denarius Concordia 2100 viewsObv.
IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder


Rev.
PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG P P M TR P COS P P
CONCORD in ex.
Concordia enthroned left holding patera, arm on statue of Spes, cornucopiae below

Minted in first year of the reign, 117 A.D.

19mm 3.60g


Curtis Clay says,


"The earliest issue of Hadrian's reign, notable for giving him five honorary titles of Trajan, namely Optimus, Germanicus, Dacicus, Parthicus, and Pater Patriae, all of which however disappeared from his second issue of coins.

Obviously the Senate, upon hearing of Trajan's death in Cilicia and Hadrian's accession at Antioch, voted Hadrian these titles, and the mint immediately put them on the coins, but Hadrian modestly refused the titles, causing them to disappear from the coinage. It would have taken a month or so for news of the Senatorial awards to reach Hadrian in Antioch, and then for news of Hadrian's rejection of the titles to get back to Rome."
4 commentsancientdave
Hadrse48-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 534a, Sestertius of AD 117 (Accession)56 viewsÆ sestertius (23.78g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 117.
Obv.: IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F HADRIAN OPT AVG GER laureate draped cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS P P (around) S C (ex.) Trajan right handing globe to Hadrian left, both togate and standing.
RIC 534a [R]; Cohen 523; BMCRE 1101; Strack 500; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-2) 234 (4 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 111:4
ex G.Henzen (2009)

The reverse is a symbolic representation of the adoption of Hadrian by Trajan in 117 (on his death bed while in Silicia and in the absence of Hadrian). The rare "accession" reverse type of Hadrian's first issue gives him titles of OPTimus, GERmanicus, DACicus, PARTHICus, and Pater Patriae, which the Senate had decreed to him in his absence. Hadrian however refused these titles and they were omitted from subsequent issues.
Charles S
3350319.jpg
HRYGIA, Apameia; Germanicus41 viewsHRYGIA, Apameia. Germanicus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ (15mm, 3.65 g, 6h). Caius Julius Callicles, magistrate. Bare head right / Stag standing right on meander pattern. RPC I 3134; SNG von Aulock 3488. VF, black patina. 1 commentsecoli
Germanicus-Dupondius-SIGNISRECEPTIS-RIC[Gaius]57b.jpg
III-GAIUS-a - 003 Dupondius RIC I/5716 viewsAv) GERMANICVS CAESAR
Germanicus in Quadriga right

Rv) SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM
Germanicus in military dress standing left, holding eagle sceptre

Weight: 15,1g; Ø: 29mm; Referenz: RIC I [Gaius]/57
sulcipius
Germanicus-Drusus-AE28-LYDIA-SARDIS-SEAR365.jpg
III-GAIUS-b - 001 AE28 SARDIS RPC I/299551 viewsAv) ΔPOYΣOΣ KAI ГERMANIKOΣ KAIΣAPEΣ NEOI ΘEOI ΘIΛAΔEΛΦOI
Germanicus and Drusus seated left, side by side on curule chairs

Rv) Г AIΩ AΣINNIΩ ΠΩΛΛIΩNI ANΘYΠATΩ around wreath
KOINOY AΣIAΣ within wreath

Weight:11,7g; Ø: 28mm; Reference: RPC I 2995; BMC Lydia pg. 252, 106;
SNG Copenhagen 518; SEAR/ 365
Mint: LYDIA // SARDIS; struck gepr.:37--41
This coin was re/over-strucked only with a new legend by the proconsule ASINIUS POLLIO; Because of this overstruck the central image appears like a cameo.
1 commentssulcipius
smyrna_britannicus_RPC2476.jpg
Ionia, Smyrna, Britannicus, RPC 247670 viewsBritannicus, son of Claudius, killed AD 55 by Nero
AE 16, 3.89g
struck AD 50-54 under the magistrates Philistos (stephanophoros) and Eikadios (strategos)
obv. Youthful bust of Britannicus, draped, bare-headed, r.
Below the neck ZMY
rev. EPI FILICTOV - EIKADIO / S
Nike, flying r., holding tropaion over l. shoulder
RPC 2476 (Nero as Caesar); BMC 283 (Britannicus); Klose 233, 37 (Britannicus)
very rare, VF (one of the nicest specimens)

It is discussed wether the obv. shows Britannicus or Nero. Britannicus was the son of Claudius with Messalina. Originally his name was Germanicus. After the victory of his father over Britannia he was renamed Britannicus. He was poisoned AD 55 in order of Nero.
2 commentsJochen
FC5.jpg
IONIA, Smyrna. Gaius (Caligula), with Germanicus and Agrippina Senior. AD 37-41.15 viewsIONIA, Smyrna. Gaius (Caligula), with Germanicus and Agrippina Senior. AD 37-41. Æ 21mm (6.42 g, 12h). Menophanes, magistrate, and Aviola, proconsul. Struck circa AD 37-38. Laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / Draped bust of Agrippina I right, vis-à-vis bare head of Germanicus left. RPC 2471; Klose XXIX, SNG von Aulock 2201.Joe Geranio
10787LG.jpg
Ionia, Smyrna; Caligular30 viewsSmyrna, Ionia
Obv: GAION KAISARA GERMANIKON EPI AOUIOLA
Head of Caligula laureate r.
Rev: GERMANIKON AGRIPPEINAN ZMURNAIWN MHNOFANHS
Draped bust of Agrippina I. r., facing bare head of Germanicus l.
5.58 gram, 21.5 mm, RPC2471
ecoli
13614q00.jpg
Judaea, Antoninus Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius, 52 - 60 A.D.63 viewsBronze prutah, Hendin 651, TJC 342, Fair, 2.51g, 17.5mm, Caesarea mint, 54 A.D.; obverse IOU/LIA AG/RIPPI/NA (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius), within a wreath tied at the bottom with an X; reverse TI KLAUDIOC KAICAP GEPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L ID below (year 14);

ex FORVM
1 commentsareich
prutah_3.jpg
Judaea, Antonius Felix, Procurator under Claudius27 viewsAE Prutah, 19mm, 3.4g, 5h; Jerusalem, AD 54.
Obv.: TI KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP ΓEPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus); Two crossed palm branches / L IΔ (year 14)
Rev.: Inscription in wreath IOY/ ΛIA AΓ/ PIΠΠI/ NA (Julia Agrippina).
Reference: Hendin 1347.
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale 3/16/15, 46.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
antonius_felix_judaean_resb.jpg
JUDAEA--ANTONIUS FELIX (Procurator of Judaea under Claudius)14 views52 - 59 AD
Struck 54 AD (Year 14)
AE Prutah 16.5 mm 2.39 g
O: TI KΛAΥΔIOC KAICAP ΓEPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L IΔ below (year 14)
R: IOΥ/ΛIA AΓ/ΡIΠΠI/NA (refers to Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius), within a wreathreverse TI KΛAΥΔIOC KAICAP ΓEPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L IΔ below (year 14);
Judaea, Caesarea mint
laney
5~0.jpg
Lydia, Characa. Drusus AE18. Amphora countermark 26 viewsDrusus Caesar (Son of Germanicus, Brother of Caligula and Nero Caesar)
Obv. DPOVSOS KAISAP, Juvenile head of Drusus.
Rev. MENOFANTOY KAPAKI..., Caduceus.
18mm., 4.2gm.
Sylloge of Ancient Unedited Coins of Greek Cities and Kings, 1837, p. 79
Howgego 369.
1 commentsancientone
PhilidelphiaCaligula.JPG
Lydia, Philadelphia. Caligula AE18. Dioscuri40 viewsObv: ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAΡ, bare head right, star behind
Rev: ΦIΛAΔEΛΦEΩN ..., laureate and jugate busts of the Dioscuri right.

Older references identify imperial family members on the reverse but RPC identifies them as Dioscuri. RPC notes, "That the jugate busts probably do not represent Germanicus and Agrippina I, Germanicus and Agrippina as Apollo and Artemis, or Apollo and Artemis (see BMC; Imhoof-Blumer, LS, pp. 116-117; Trillmich, Familienpropaganda der Kaiser und Claudius, pp. 130-131) since the further figure can sometimes be seen to be laureate (e.g. 2023/1 = BMC 53). It must therefore be male, and the two interpreted as the Dioscuri, who had previously appeared on the coinage of Philadelphia." The Dioscuri are also found on the imperial coinage of Caligula. In addition, since the magistrate named on the reverse is a priest, religious symbolism would be appropriate. The facial features of the reverse busts do, however, resemble members of the family of Caligula. Perhaps the they are Nero and Drusus Caesars as the brothers Castor and Pollux.
-FORVM ANCIENT COINS
ancientone
IMG_9318.JPG
Lydia, Sardes; Germanicus and Drusus26 viewsLYDIA, Sardes. Germanicus and Drusus, Caesares. 28-29 AD(?), by Asinius Pollio, Proconsul. Togate figures of Drusus and Germanicus seated left on curule chairs, DROUSOS KAI GERMANIKOS KAISARES NEOI QEOI FILADELFOI around (overstruck on original legend) / KOINOU ASIAS in two lines within wreath; GAIW ASINNIW POLLIWNI ANQUPATW around (overstruck on original legend). RPC I 2995; Weber 6905.

This interesting coin appears to be an original issue, but in actuality, it is an earlier issue that is restruck with two intricate 'countermarks.' These 'countermarks' were ring-shaped punch restrikings of the legends that surround the obverse and reverse designs. While the obverse 'countermark-legend' is the same as that which appeared on the original striking, the reverse legend, originally EPI ARCIEPEWS ALEXANDROU KLEWNOS SAPDIANOU, has been totally replaced by a new 'countermark-legend.'
1 commentsecoli
fc18.jpg
LYDIA, Sardis. Germanicus, with Drusus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ (16mm, 3.12 g, 12h). Bare head of Germanicus right / Bare head of Drusus right21 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- (anyone may use as long as credit is given)LYDIA, Sardis. Germanicus, with Drusus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ (16mm, 3.12 g, 12h). Bare head of Germanicus right / Bare head of Drusus right. RPC I 2992; BMC 110-2; SNG Copenhagen -.Joe Geranio
GermanicusDrususBlackBackground.jpg
LYDIA. Sardes. Germanicus, with Drusus (Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19). Ae (Restruck circa AD 28/9)65 viewsAsinius Pollio, proconsul

This coin was originally struck with the reverse legend EPI ARXIEREWS ALEXANDROU KLEWNOS SARDIANOU but using an elaborate set of ring shaped countermark dies the obverse and reverse legends were restruck, the reverse indicating the new magistrate.

Obverse Legend : deltaΡΟΥΣΟΣ KAI gammaΕΡMANIKOΣ KAIΣΑΡΕΣ NEOI ΘEOI ΦΙΛΑdeltaΕΛΦOI
Obverse Description : Togate figures of Drusus and Germanicus seated left on curule chairs, one figure holding a lituus
Reverse Legend : gammaΑΙΩ AΣΙΝΝΙΩ ΠΟΛΛΙΩΝI ANΘΥΠΑΤΩ KOINOΥ AΣΙΑΣ
Reverse Description : KOINOY AΣΙΑΣ in two lines within wreath; legend around
Weight: 15.5 gm
Diameter: 29 mm

RPC 2995

Supposedly there is an article about this coin in the November 1994 issue of The Celator. I'm trying to locate a copy of that article-- no luck finding it online so I'll have to find and buy a copy of that issue. The piece by Thomas McKenna is titled "The case of the curious coin of Caligula: A provincial bronze restruck with legend-only dies".
3 commentsTIF
LVerusAsTrophies~0.jpg
MAFJ6 Brother and Emperor6 viewsLucius Verus

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. At that time, according to the Historia Augusta, "To Lucius, legally his brother, he betrothed his daughter Lucilla. In honor of this union, they gave orders that new institutions of boys and girls, named after them, should be added to the state child-welfare scheme."

The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

When Lucius returned to Rome, according to the Historia Augusta, "Lucius requested that Marcus should triumph with him. Lucius requested further that the sons [Commodus and M. Annius Verus] of Marcus should be called Caesars. But Marcus had such great moderation that, although he triumphed together with Lucius, yet after Lucius' death he called himself Germanicus only, because he had won that name for himself in his own war. At the triumph, moreover, they let Marcus' children of both sexes ride with them, even the unmarried girls." A family affair!
Blindado
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Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG II55 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley right, mast with banners at prow

LEG II
legionary eagle between two standards


Patrae mint 32-31BC

3.14g

Great "bankers" mark on reverse, a very nice "C"


Origianlly founded by Pompey the Great in 84 BC. Legio II was given the title of "Augusta" in about 25 BC by Augustus. The II Augusta legion took part in Germanicus' campaigns in Germany and was commanded by Germanicus' friend Publius Vitellius who held the rank of legate. Publius Vitellius later prosecuted Piso for the murder of Germanicus.
Jay GT4
ANTLEGII.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG II68 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

LEG II
legionary eagle between two standards


Patrae mint 32-31BC

3.17g

Perfect tiny hole for suspension with great dark toning


Origianlly founded by Pompey the Great in 84 BC. Legio II was given the title of "Augusta" in about 25 BC by Augustus. The II Augusta legion took part in Germanicus' campaigns in Germany and was commanded by Germanicus' friend Publius Vitellius who held the rank of legate. Publius Vitellius later prosecuted Piso for the murder of Germanicus.

Ex-ECIN, Ex-Littleton Coin Company
Jay GT4
Untitled.jpg
Nero38 viewsRoman Empire
Nero
(Reign as 5th Emperor of the Roman Empire 54-68 AD)
(b. 37 AD, d. 68 AD)

O: NEPΩ KΛAV KAIΣ ΣEB ΓEP, Radiate bust of Nero facing right, wearing aegis

R: AYTO KPA, Draped bust of Alexandria facing right, wearing elephant-skin headdress, mint mark LIB





Billon Tetradrachm
Minted in Alexandria 65-66 AD



Translations:

NEPΩ KΛAV KAIΣ ΣEB ΓEP=Nero Claudius Caesar Emperor Germanicus

AYTO KPA= Autokrator(Commander-in-Chief)

LIB=12th year of Nero’s Reign


Billon=Silver and Copper alloy




References:
Emmet 109
BMC Alexandria 163
Sphinx357
Néron semis.jpg
Nero - semis36 viewsNERO CLAV. CAE. AVG. GERM..... ; laureate bust right.
CERTA. QV[INQ. ROM.] CO. (Certamina quinquennalia Romae condidit) : "Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (etc.) instated in Rome the Quinquennal Competitions." / S C : table ornamented with griffins supporting a prize-urn and a crown.
1 commentsGinolerhino
NeroDen.jpg
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus68 viewsNero 54-68, denarius, Rome mint, struck 64-65. 2.9 g., 18mm. O: NERO CAESAR AVGVSTVS, laureate head right R: IVPPITER CVSTOS, Jupiter seated left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre. RIC 53, BMC 74.

This reverse type commemorates the supposed protection of Nero, by Jupiter, from the Pisonian Conspiracy. Nero's excesses after The Great Fire of Rome in 64 resulted in close associates conspiring to assassinate and replace him with Gaius Calpurnius Piso. As the king of the Gods oversaw the security of the Roman state, Nero believed it was Jupiter the Guardian (Custos) who had saved him from harm.

About a year after this coin was minted, in 66 CE, the Jews would rebel against Roman rule and, in 67, Nero would send general Vespasian to crush the rebelion.
2 commentsNemonater
Nero_Caludius_Drusus_2.jpg
Nero Claudius Drusus AE Sestertius RIC 109 [Claudius]23 viewsOBV: NERO CLAVDIUS DRUSUS GERMANICUS IMP, bare head left
REV: TI CLAUDIUS CAESAR AUG P M TR P IMP P P S-C, Claudius seated left on curule chair amidst arms
28.6g, 35mm

Minted at Rome, 41-2 AD
Legatus
Nero- Victoria new.jpg
Nero- Victoria42 viewsNero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate head left
IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM

IMP: Imperator,
NERO: Nero
CAESAR: Caesar
AVG: Augustus,
GERM: Germanicus,

Reverse:

S --- C

S :Senatus: Senat
C: Consulto: Decree

Showing: Reverse S - C, Victory flying left,

Domination: AS, Bronze, size 27 mm

Mint: Rome???
John Schou
[901a]_NervaAntiochAE26.jpg
Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D., Antioch, Syria195 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Syria, p. 182, 261, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.524g, maximum diameter 25.0mm, die axis 0o, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; Obverse: IMP CAESAR NERVA AVG III COS, laureate head right; Reverse: large S C in wreath, D below; unbelievable portrait. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)

David Wend

Introduction
Although short, the reign of Marcus Cocceius Nerva (A.D. 96-98) is pivotal. The first of Edward Gibbon's so-called "Five Good Emperors," Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Claimed as an ancestor by all the emperors down to Severus Alexander, he has traditionally been regarded with much good will at the expense of his predecessor, Domitian.

Ancestry
Nerva could claim eminent ancestry on both sides of his family. On the paternal side, his great-grandfather, M. Cocceius Nerva, was consul in 36 B.C.; his grandfather, a distinguished jurist of the same name, accompanied Tiberius on his retirement to Capri in 26 A.D. On his mother's side an aunt, Rubellia Bassa, was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. In addition, a great-uncle, L. Cocceius Nerva, played a part in the negotiations that secured a treaty between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C

Early Career and Life under Domitian
Nerva was born on 8 November, 30 A.D. Little is known of his upbringing beyond the fact that he belonged to a senatorial family and pursued neither a military nor a public speaking career. On the other hand, he did hold various priesthoods and was a praetor-designate. More importantly, as praetor designate in 65, Nerva was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor Nero.

As a result, he received triumphal ornaments and his statue was placed in the palace. Following Nero's fall in 68, Nerva must have realized that support of Vespasian and the Flavian cause was in his best interests. In 71 his loyalty was rewarded with a joint consulship with the emperor, the only time that Vespasian ever held the office without his son Titus. It was under the reign of Vespasian's other son, Domitian, that Nerva's political fortunes were ultimately determined, however. He shared the ordinary consulship with Domitian in 90, an honor that was perhaps the result of his alerting the emperor about the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the governor of Upper Germany, in 89. Even so, like so many others of the senatorial class, Nerva came under scrutiny in the final years of Domitian's reign, when the emperor was unwilling to tolerate any criticism.

Whether or not Nerva was forced to withdraw from public life during Domitian's final years remains an open question. What is not in dispute is that he was named emperor on the same day that Domitian was assassinated in September, 96. Indeed, in some respects the accession was improbable, since it placed the Empire under the control of a feeble sexagenarian and long-time Flavian supporter with close ties to the unpopular Domitian. On the other hand, Nerva had proven to be a capable senator, one with political connections and an ability to negotiate. Moreover, he had no children, thereby ensuring that the state would not become his hereditary possession.

Imperial Initiatives
Upon taking office, Nerva made immediate changes. He ordered the palace of Domitian to be renamed the House of the People, while he himself resided at the Horti Sallustiani, the favorite residence of Vespasian. More significantly, he took an oath before the senate that he would refrain from executing its members. He also released those who had been imprisoned by Domitian and recalled exiles not found guilty of serious crimes. Nevertheless, Nerva still allowed the prosecution of informers by the senate, a measure that led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

In the area of economic administration Nerva, like Domitian, was keen on maintaining a balanced budget. In early 97, after appointing a commission of five consular senators to give advice on reducing expenditures, he proceeded to abolish many sacrifices, races, and games. Similarly, he allowed no gold or silver statues to be made of himself. Even so, there was some room for municipal expenditure. For the urban poor of Italy he granted allotments of land worth 60 million sesterces, and he exempted parents and their children from a 5% inheritance tax. He also made loans to Italian landowners on the condition that they pay interest of 5% to their municipality to support the children of needy families. These alimentary schemes were later extended by Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few. By early 98 he dedicated the forum that Domitian had built to connect the Forum of Augustus with the Forum of Peace. It became known as the Forum of Nerva, or the Forum Transitorium. Nerva also built granaries, made repairs to the Colosseum when the Tiber flooded, and continued the program of road building and repairs inaugurated under the Flavians. In addition, pantomime performances, supressed by Domitian, were restored.

In the military realm, Nerva established veterans' colonies in Africa, a practice that was continued by the emperor Trajan. Normal military privileges were continued and some auxiliary units assumed the epithet Nervia or Nerviana. We are not well informed beyond these details, and any military action that may have occurred while Nerva was emperor is known sketchy at best.

Nature of Nerva's Government
Nerva's major appointments favored men whom he knew and trusted, and who had long served and been rewarded by the Flavians. Typical was Sextus Julius Frontinus. A consul under Vespasian and governor of Britain twenty years earlier, Frontinus came out of retirement to become curator of the water supply, an office that had long been subject to abuse and mismanagement. He helped to put an end to the abuses and published a significant work on Rome's water supply, De aquis urbis Romae. As a reward for his service, Frontinus was named consul for the second time in 98. Similarly, the emperor's own amici were often senators with Flavian ties, men who, by virtue of their links to the previous regime, were valuable to Nerva for what they knew. Thus do we find the likes of A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiiento, one of Domitian's ill-reputed counselors, seated next to Nerva at an imperial dinner. Nerva was less willing to consult the Senate as a whole. In many cases he preferred the opinions of his own consilium, and was less submissive than many senators would have liked. This attitude may have been responsible for hostile discontent among several senators.

Mutiny of the Praetorians and the Adoption of Trajan
It was not long before the assassination of Domitian came to work against the new emperor. Dissatisfied that Domitian had not been deified after his death, the praetorian guards mutinied under Casperius Aelianus in October 97. Taking the emperor as hostage, they demanded that Nerva hand over Domitian's murderers. The emperor not only relented, but was forced to give a public speech of thanks to the mutineers for their actions. His authority compomised, Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 to announce the adoption of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, governor of Upper Germany, as his successor. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed imperator and granted the tribunicia potestas. Nerva's public announcement of the adoption settled succession as fact; he allowed no time to oppose his decision. From the German victory, Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus and conferred the title on Trajan as well. He also made Trajan his consular colleague in 98.

Death and Deification
On January 1, 98, the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Three weeks later he died at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. From his headquarters at Cologne, Trajan insisted that Nerva's ashes be placed in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the senate to vote on his deification. We are further told that he dedicated a temple to Nerva, yet no trace of it has ever been found. Nor was a commemorative series of coins issued for the Deified Nerva in the wake of his death, but only ten years later.

Conclusion
Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Copyright (C) 1998, David Wend.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
R_667_Vitellius.jpg
RIC 1, p.273, 103 - Vitellius, Vitellius Germanicus and Vitellia29 viewsVitellius
Denarius, Rome, AD 69
Obv.: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVGVST TR P, laureate head right
Rev.: LIBERI IMP GERM AVG, confronted draped busts of Vitellius' son (on left) and daughter (thought to have been named Vitellius Germanicus and Vitellia)
Ag, 3.090g, 18.1mm, 180o
Ref.: RIC² 103, RSC II 2, BMCRE I 29, BnF III 62

Ex FORVM ANCIENT COINS
3 commentsshanxi
germanicus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - GERMANICUS (CLAUDIUS' REIGN)21 viewsClaudius AD 41-54 Copper As HONORING GERMANICVS Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head of Germanicus, right Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P - around S C Rome mint AD 50-54 = RIC I, p. 129, 106; BMC 218; D. Sear I, p. 375, 1905 dpaul7
Philip_I_Antoninianus__Liberalitas.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Philip I , The Syrian.60 viewsPhilip I, 244 - 249 A.D. Silver Antoninianus.
Obverse: “IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG ” Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: “LIBERALITAS AVGG II” Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Rome mint , 244 - 247 A.D., XF .
RIC 38b.
4.99 grams, 21 millimeters
EX CNG 328, part of Lot 761.
High relief portrait.

Marcus Julius Phillipus was born around 204 A.D. His father was a Syrian chieftain named Marinus, and Phillip became known as , as he was the first man of that race to hold the imperial power. Phillip was the deputy praetorian prefect (leader of the emperor’s bodyguards) under Gordian III, and accompanied that emperor on his Eastern Campaigns. In 243, Phillip became praetorian prefect in place of Timesitheus, whom he was accused of murdering. He promptly proceeded to incite the legions to mutiny, and became emperor in 244 A.D., upon Gordian’s death.
Faced with the dilemma of whether to pursue Roman success against Persia, or to return to Rome and consolidate his power, Phillip quickly put together a treaty with the Persians and returned to Rome. In 246 and 247, Phillip won battles against the Germans and the Carpi, and took the titles Germanicus Maximus and Carpicus Maximus. Using his newfound popularity, Phillip took the opportunity to raise his son, Phillip II, to the rank of Augustus. In 248, Rome selebrated her 1000’th anniversary. This was the highpoint of Phillip’s reign.
That same year, no fewer then three generals rose separate rebellions. Phillip sent the city prefect, Trajan Decius, to deal with the uprisings, and the general disaffection of the legions in the East. Decius was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 249 A.D., and would defeat and kill Phillip at Verona.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
1 commentsSam
Agrippina Snr RIC 102 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina Senior, RIC 10280 viewsAgrippina Senior
AE Sestertius
Rome Mint. 42 A.D.
Obv: AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS - Draped bust right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIUS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P S-C
Ref: RIC 102. Cohen 3. RCV 1906. VM 2.
Notes: Wife of Germanicus. Mother of Caligula. Struck by brother-in-law Claudius. One of my favourite coins despite its condition. Beautiful patina.
seraphic
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)191 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen orriginally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv.Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
3 commentsPetitioncrown
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-&-Rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1785 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen orriginally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv. Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
25 commentsPetitioncrown
bpJ1H7CaligulaMule.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caligula, As, Provincial Mule37 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head, left.
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Large S C within legend.
As 10 gm 26 mm
Comment: Crude lettering indicates provincial origin. Combines an obverse of Caligula with a reverse intended for his issue honoring Germanicus.
Massanutten
RIC#116.JPG
Roman Empire, Claudius21 viewsEmperor: Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
Denomination: Æ As
Struck: 41-2
Mint: Rome
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P, bare head left.
Reverse: Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Reference: RVC2000 1861, RIC 116.
filip
dom1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, AE As, RIC 304b137 viewsMint:Roma
Nov/Dec 85 AD
Dimensions:2.65cm/10,43Grms.
Obverse : IMP CAES DOMITIAN - AVG GERM COS XI CENS PER P P.
"Imperator Cæsar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus Consul undecimus Censor Perpetuus Pater Patriæ"
Reverse: SALVTI - AVGVSTI// SC.
“Saluti Augusti”
Réf: C. 419, RIC 304b, BMC. RCV.2808.
2 commentsmoneta romana
bpS1O8Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus (254-268)52 viewsObv: GALLIENVS P F AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: VICT GERMANICA
Victory on globe advancing right with trophy over left shoulder. Captives seated left and right.
Antoninianus, 3.7 gm, 21.8 mm, Cologne RIC 49.
Commentary: Celebrates his expulsion of the Jethungi from Italy.
History (As co-Augustus, 253-260): He was raised to the rank of co-Augustus in 253 by his father, Valerian, and tasked to bring order to the Western half of the Empire. Until 256 he concentrated his efforts against the barbarian hordes crossing the Danube. Having largely met with success, he then turned to the Rhine where until 258, he continued his string of successes in securing the borders against the German invasions. Between 255 and 258, the Senate awarded him the title of Germanicus Maximus five times for his stupendous victories and a belated Dacicus Maximus in 257. In 258 he returned to the Danube to meet fresh incursions by the Goths. In the following year, the Jethungi crossed the Upper Danube and invaded Italy forcing Gallienus to return to the homeland. Initial success was met at Milan followed by complete victory in early 260 at Augsburg with the recovery of thousands of Roman captives. But those successes were marred by the capture of his father by Shapur I.
Massanutten
Gallienus-Germ-Max-copy.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus-Germanicus Max V169 viewsGALLIENUS-s Gallienus, as Joint Ruler, Billon Antoninianus.Cologne(Koln) mint, 258-9 AD.

OBV.GALLIENVS P F AVG *, radiate, cuirassed bust left holding spear & sheild
REV. GERMANICVS MAX V, two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.
EX.na
Attrib.RIC 18,RSC 310.
*legend seems to read GALLIENVS dot P dot F dot AVG and I don't know if this is just one of those RIC quirks where they just fail to mention it seeing it as inconsequential or a legitimate new var.
black-prophet
GERMANIC-1-MOY.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus25 viewsDenom: AE As
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head left
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P S C
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large S C
Mint: Rome
RIC –I-106; BMCRE-215
Dia. 29.6 mm
11.25 gm
Germanicus
MYoung
GERMANIC-2-MOY.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus99 viewsAE As

Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N. Bare head right
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC.
Mint: Rome
RIC –I-35; Cohen-1
Dia. 30 mm
10.99 gm
Germanicus
2 commentsMYoung
Germaniucs.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus 45 viewsGermanicus. Ae as. 40-41 AD. Scarce.

Rev; C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP around large SC.
RIC 50.
Uneven surface behind bust but good detail.
10.50g. 26mm.
3 commentsPhoenix21
DSC_0405-horz.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, GERMANICUS57 viewsGERMANICUS FATHER OF CALIGULA DIED 19 AD
AE As
Rome Mint struck under Caligula
GERMANICUS CAESAR TI AVGVST DIVI AVG N Bare head Left
C.CAESAR.AVG.GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC
RIC 35 GAIUS
1 commentsAdrian W
GERM.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus, AE As, struck by Claudius, RIC 106196 viewsMint:Roma
42 AD .
Dimensions: 29.8mm/9,66grms ,
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N "Germanicus Caesar Tiberius Augustus Filius Divi Augusti Nostri)
Reverse:TI CLAVDIUS AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P"Tiberius Claudius Augustus Germanicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestate Imperator Pater Patriae/ S.C
Réf:C.9(3f) RIC106 RCV1905
Conservation:TTB
Struck by Claudius in memory of his brother
2 commentsmoneta romana
bpJ1F5Germanicus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus, Restoration by Titus41 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head, left.
Rev: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII RESTITVT
Inscription in two concentric circles around large S C
As 5.7 gm 25 mm RIC 230
Massanutten
00543~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus, RIC 50347 views
Germanicus, RIC 503 (Scarce), AE AS, Rome, 40 - 41 AD
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head left.
REV: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII P P
Legend around large S C.
Size: 27.4mm 9.64g

MaynardGee
bpJ1F1Germanicus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus, Scarce, 40-41 AD34 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head, left
Rev: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P
Large S C within inscription.
As 11.4 gm 26 mm Mint: Rome RIC 50(var), S 1822
Comment: Issued by Caligula. Varient from RIC in use of AVG for AVGUST on obv and P for POT on rev. Originally thought to be imitative by inference to RIC note for type in 35.
Massanutten
Tg94rYy3ac2DK5Nq6dpXZ8wGyE4kH7.jpg
Roman Empire, Nero Claudius Drusus d. 9 BC, Sestertius6 viewsHead of Nero Claudius Drusus left "NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP"
Claudius seated left holding a branch his feet on a cuirass. Around the chair are shileds, a spear and helmet. "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP SC"
RIC 109
25.54g
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
N8z26Wsdko7YE3jFeD4fy9rJYwH58j_(1).jpg
Roman Empire, Nero Claudius Drusus d. 9BC, Sestertius11 views23.02g
Head of Nero Claudius Drusus left (Father of Germanicus and Claudius) "NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP"
Claudius, togate seated left on a curule chair and holding a branch. Weapons and armor below the chair "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP"
RIC I 109 (Claudius)
Struck 50-54 AD under Claudius.
Antonivs Protti
bpJ1E2NeroClaudDrus2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Nero Claudius Drusus, Provincial Imitation117 viewsObv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP
Bare head, left.
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Either Claudius or Drusus holding branch and seated, left, on curule chair amid an assortment of arms.
Sestertius 15 gm 32.7 mm (RIC 93)
Comment: The official issue was minted by Claudius in 41-42. Drusus was a son of Livia and the younger brother of Tiberius; husband of Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony); father of Germanicus, Claudius and Lavilla. Died of injuries sustained from a horse fall while on campaign in Germany.
Massanutten
Divo_Victorino_Pio_Consacratio~0.JPG
Roman Empire, VICTORINUS. Commemorative AE antoninianus of Cologne. Struck A.D.271 under Tetricus I.48 viewsObverse: DIVO VICTORINO PIO. Radiate head of Victorinus facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Eagle facing right, head turned left, standing on globe and holding wreath in beak.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC Vii : 85 | AGK 1 | Elmer 785 | Cunetio 2633
VERY RARE

A.D.271
Early in this year Victorinus was assassinated by Attitianus, an actuarius (regimental quartermaster), reportedly for reasons of personal revenge but more likely part of an officer coup. The most likely interpretation of the evidence is that Domitianus II was involved in this officer coup and, having presumably been hailed as Emperor by some of the troops, managed to secure temporary control of one of the 'Gallic' mints. However, those forces favouring Tetricus I as the new Emperor were able to assert themselves so swiftly and decisively that Domitianus’s elevation was unlikely to have lasted more than a few days. This coin, deifying Victorinus, was struck by Tetricus I towards the end of the year.
This year too, Aurelian, the central emperor, pushed the Vandals back from Pannonia and forced them to withdraw over the Danube. He also pursued the Alamanni who had entered Lombardy, closed the passes in the Alps and encircled the invaders near Pavia. The Alamanni were destroyed and Aurelian received the title Germanicus Maximus.
Also this year, Felicissimus, financial minister of the state treasury, led an uprising of mint workers in Rome against Aurelian but he was defeated and killed on the Caelian Hill.
3 comments*Alex
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~2.jpg
Roman, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1336 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen originally from the Morreti Collection.

Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile.

Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
9 commentsPetitioncrown
Rome_Germanicus_RIC66.jpg
Rome_Germanicus_RIC668 viewsjmuona
Rome_Germanicus_RIC66B.jpg
Rome_Germanicus_RIC668 viewsjmuona
Rome_Germanicus_RIC68B.jpg
Rome_Germanicus_RIC687 viewsjmuona
Rome_Germanicus_RIC71BB.jpg
Rome_Germanicus_RIC7110 viewsjmuona
Rome_Germanicus_RIC71B.jpg
Rome_Germanicus_RIC719 viewsjmuona
Rome_Germanicus_RIC71Bx.jpg
Rome_Germanicus_RIC717 viewsjmuona
Rome_Germanicus_RIC71BBB.jpg
Rome_Germanicus_RIC718 viewsjmuona
Colonia_Romula,_Sevilla,_Ae_As_-_28_mm_,_13,63_grams___.jpg
Spain - Colonia Romula, Sevilla, Ae As 21 views- 28 mm / 13.63 gr. RPC 74, Burgos (1992) 1588.
Tiberius AE As, 28mm of Colonia Romula (Seville), Spain. PERM DIVI AVG COL ROM, laureate head of Tiberius left / GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR, confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus.
Antonivs Protti
IMG_9926.JPG
Spain, Carteia6 viewsSPAIN, Carteia. Tiberius. AD 14-37. Æ Germanicus and Drusus, Caesars, among the quattorviri. Turreted head of Fortuna right / Rudder. Chaves 1629-788; RPC I 123. dark brown patina.ecoli
IMG_9925.JPG
Spain, Carteia8 viewsSPAIN, Carteia. Tiberius. AD 14-37. Æ Germanicus and Drusus, Caesars and honorary quattorvirs. Turreted and draped bust of Fortuna right / Rudder. ACIP 3306; RPC I 123. ecoli
Caligula_RIC_I_38~0.jpg
TI.C.A Countermark, Caligula, AE As, RIC I 38118 viewsGaius Germanicus "Caligula"
Augustus, 37 - 41 A.D.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare headed bust facing left.
Reverse: VESTA, Vesta, seated to the left, S - C across the fields.

Weight: 8.89 g, Diameter: 28.5 x 27 x 2 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, struck between 37-38 A.D. Reference: RIC I 38

Countermark: "TI.C.A" on the obverse side, done in the reign of his successor, Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus).
Masis
Tiberius_Germ_Drus.jpg
Tiberius with Germanicus and Drusus76 viewsCOL ROM PERM DIVI AVG

laureate head of Tiberius left

GERMANICVS CAESAR DRVSVS CAESAR

Confronted heads of Germanicus and Drusus

Spain, Colonia Romula (Seville).

10.28g

RPC 74; Burgos 1588.
Rare

SOLD!
Jay GT4
tibese05-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 42, sestertius of AD 22-23 (Twins in cornucopiae)46 viewsÆ sestertius (27.1g, Ø34mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 22-23.
Obv.: Children's heads on crossed cornucopiae with caduceus in the centre.
Rev.: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large S C
RIC 42 (S); BMC 95; Sear (RCV 2K) 1793
ex CNG (2000)

This issue celebrates the birth of the twins Germanicus Gemellus and Tiberius Gemellus, sons of Drusus and Livilla. This coin bears the title of Drusus. The only other coins with Drusus' titles are the Drusus As and the Justitia Dupondius.
1 commentsCharles S
LIVIDU02-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 43, for Livilla, dupondius of AD 22-23 (Pietas)35 viewsÆ dupondius (12.7g, Ø31mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23.
PIETAS, veiled bust of Livilla as Pietas, facing right
DRVSVS CAESAR T AVGVSTI F TR POT ITER [around large] S C around large S C
RIC (Tiberius) 43 (scarce); Cohen (Livia) 1

Vagi argues that this is not Livia, wife of Caesar but Livilla, sister of Germanicus, wife of Drusus. This is supported by the fact that the title AVGVSTA is absent on the obverse and the titles of Drusus appear on the reverse. Together with the Drusus as and the twin's heads sestertius these types form the family bronzes of Drusus.
1 commentsCharles S
LIVIDU04-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 46, for Antonia or Agrippina, dupondius of AD 22-23 (Justitia)61 viewsÆ dupondius (13.2g, Ø30mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Tiberius, AD 22-23.
IVSTITIAE, diademed bust of of Antonia or Agrippina as Justitia, facing right
TI CAESAR DIVI·AVG·F·AVG·P·M·TR·POT·XXIIII around large S·C
RIC (Tiberius) 46 (S); Cohen (Livia) 9
ex G. Henzen (1997)

Vagi argues that this type commemorates the justice achieved on behalf of the murdered Germanicus. Since Germanicus was very popular in Rome, his murder lead to a public outcry in Rome. The portret on this coin is not Livia's (it would have been followed by AVGVSTAE as for the Salus dupondius) but a stylized portret probably referring to Germanicus' mother Antonia or his wife Agrippina Senior.
1 commentsCharles S
traj1.jpg
Trajan 97-11737 viewsOb. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P Laurate head right
(Imperator Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas) The supreme commander Trajanus, sovereign, victor over the Germans and Dacians, High Priest and Tribune of the people
Rev. COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC Winged Victory
(Consul V Pater Patriae Senatus Populusque Romanus Optimus Princeps) Consul for the fifth time, father of his country, the senate and the Roman people to the highest prince
Ref. RIC II 131

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
traj2.jpg
Trajan 97-117 denarius41 viewsOb. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P
(Imperator Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas) The supreme commander Trajanus, sovereign, victor over the Germans and Dacians, High Priest and Tribune of the people
Rev. COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC Roma seated left holding spear and Victory
(Consul V Pater Patriae Senatus Populusque Romanus Optimus Princeps) Consul for the fifth time, father of the country as recognised by the Senate and the people of Rome, the most perfect Prince.
Ref. RIC 116

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
Trajan_Eagle_ProvincialBlack.jpg
Trajan Provincial39 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD. AR Tetradrachm. Tyre, Phoenicia. 117 AD. (13.59g, 23.72 mm) Obv: ΔHMAPX EX KA YΠAT S (= TR P XXI COS VI), Laureate head right. Rev: [AYTOKP K]AIC NEP TPAIANOC API CEB ΓEPM [ΔAK ΠAPΘ] (With all of Trajan's honorary titles: Germanicus, Dacicus, Optimus, Parthicus), Eagle on a thunderbolt, head left.
Prieur 1513

Ex: Octavian Coins

People call these tetradrachms "big chunks of silver", and they are right!
Paddy
Trajan_S_C.jpg
Trajan-S C33 viewsTrajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.


Obverse:
Laureate head right

AVTOKP KAIC NEP TPAIANOC CEB EPM AK

AVTOKP: Imperator (Emperor)
KAIC: Caesar
NEP: Nerva
TPAIANOC: Trajan
CEB: SEBASTOS (græsk indikation for augustus)
ΓEPM: Germanicus (honorary title for a German victory)
ΔAK: Dacicus (honorary title for a Dacian victory)


Reverse:
large S C, dot between S C

S C: Senatus Consultus, By the decree of the senate

Domination: Bronze AE 26,size 23 mm.

Mint: Antioch. Antiocheia ad Orentum, Seleucis and Pieria. SEAR 1078
John S
gallienus_ants_DSC07068_DSC07074_95%.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianii - 'GERMANICUS MAX V' and 'IOVI ULTORI'28 viewsRoman Empire
Two (2x) individual AR/Billon Antoninianii of Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
----------------------------------------------
LEFT:

Gallienus AR Antoninianus - GERMANICUS MAX V - German Captives bound at base of Roman Trophy. - #01

Emperor Gallienus, as Joint Ruler with his father, the Emperor Valerian.
Minted in AD 258 - 259. Silver/billon Antoninianus struck at the Lyons Mint.

obv: GALLIENVS P F AVG - Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: GERMANICUS MAX V - Two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.

Weight: 5.1 Grams - Nice silver coin struck on a very large and heavy flan for the time period.
Size: 26 mm x 25 mm
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RIGHT:

Gallienus AR Antoninianus - IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing w/ thunderbolt 'S' in left field - #01

Gallienus (253 - 268 AD) Silver/billon Antoninianus.

~ Unsure of which Mint this coin was struck at ~

obv: GALLIENUS AUG - Radiate bust right, cuirassed. Seen from the front.
rev: IOVI ULTORI - Jupiter standing, facing right preparing to hurl thunderbolt.
'S' in left field.

Weight: 3.43 Grams
Size: 24 x 23 mm
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2 commentsrexesq
gallienus_vict-germanica_3_8gr_sept2012cut.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - T - VICT GERMANICA - Victory trampling bound captive.35 views-
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Ancient Roman Empire
Gallienus AR Antoninianus

obv: GALLIENVS . P . F . AVG - Radiate cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: VICT GERMANICA - Victory advancing left, carrying wreath & trophy, treading on bound captive seated at foot left.

Size: 26 mm / 27 mm - Very Large diameter, wide, thin flan.
Weight: 3 Grams
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
gallienus_antoninianus_trophy-captives_00.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Trophy/Captives - GERMANICUS MAX V40 viewsGallienus - GERMANICUS MAX V - AR/BI Antoninianus #01
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Ancient Roman Empire
Gallienus, as Joint Ruler, Billon Antoninianus.
Lyons Mint, AD 258 - 259

obv: GALLIENUS P F AUG - Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front
rev: GERMANICUS MAX V - Two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.

Weight: 5.1 grams - quite heavy for the type.
Size: 25mm.
1 commentsrexesq
gallienus_antoninianus_germanicus-max_trophy-captives_obv_01.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Trophy/Captives - GERMANICUS MAX V26 viewsGallienus - GERMANICUS MAX V - AR/BI Antoninianus #01
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Roman Empire
Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
Silver Antoninianus. Minted in AD 258 - 259 in Lyons.

obv: GALLIENUS P F AUG - Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: GERMANICUS MAX V - Two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.

Weight: 5.1 grams - quite heavy for the type.
Size: 25mm.
rexesq
gallienus_antoninianus_germanicus-max_trophy-captives_obv_02_rev_02.JPG
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Trophy/Captives - GERMANICUS MAX V24 viewsGallienus - GERMANICUS MAX V - AR/BI Antoninianus #01
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Roman Empire
Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
Silver Antoninianus. Minted in AD 258 - 259 in Lyons.

obv: GALLIENUS P F AUG - Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: GERMANICUS MAX V - Two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.

Weight: 5.1 grams - quite heavy for the type.
Size: 25mm.
rexesq
gallienus_ar-ant_germanicus-max-V.jpg
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Trophy/Captives - GERMANICUS MAX V - #0241 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
Silver Antoninianus. Minted in AD 258 - 259 in Lugdunum (Lyons, France).

obv: GALLIENUS . P . F . AVG - Radiate, cuirassed bust facing right. Seen from the front.
rev: GERMANICUS MAX V - Two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.

Weight: 3.5 + Grams
Size: 26 mm+ x 22 mm
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-
*Notes: AMAZING bust!! note the detail at the center of the breastplate, there appears to be a dot decoration there, also notice the 'dots' between, before and after the '. P . F .' in his title on the obverse(front). Just an amazing obverse with a fantastic bust! The reverse, leaves a little something to be desired, but the obverse more than makes up for it. Sadly it doesnt weigh 5.1 grams like my other Gallienus AR Ant of the same reverse.... but it does weigh near to 4 Grams, which is still good weight for a coin of the period.... also good size.
5 commentsrexesq
s-l1600_(7).jpg
VI - Gallienus Antoninianus - Trophy/Captives - GERMANICUS MAX V - #0324 viewsGallienus - GERMANICUS MAX V - AR/BI Antoninianus #03
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Roman Empire
Emperor Gallienus (253 - 268 AD)
Silver Antoninianus. Minted in AD 258 - 259 in Lyons.

obv: GALLIENUS P F AUG - Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Seen from the front.
rev: GERMANICUS MAX V - Two German captives bound and seated at the foot of a trophy.

Weight: 4.30 grams, 21mm.
---------------------------------------------
*Commemorating Emperor Gallienus' Victory over the Germans.
2 commentsrexesq
1797439_10201245662439409_413921510_n.jpg
Vitellius50 viewsRoman Empire
Vitellius
(Reign as 8th Emperor of the Roman Empire April 16-Dec. 22, 69 AD)
(b. 15 AD, d. 69 AD)


Obverse: A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, Laureate head of Vitellius facing right

Reverse: FIDES EXERCITVVM, Hands in handshake




Silver Denarius
Minted in Tarraco Jan.-June 69 AD



Translations:

A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN= Aulus Vitellius Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Germanicus
FIDES EXERCITVVM= Loyalty of the Armies

Tarraco = Tarragona, Spain



References:
RIC I 27
ERIC II 101
Sphinx357
Vitellius_dynastic_smalljpg.jpg
Vitellius RIC 010173 viewsVitellius (AD 69). AR denarius
(18mm, 2.95 gm, 5h).
NGC VG 4/5 - 4/5. Rome.
Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head of Vitellius right
Rev: LIBERI IMP GERM AVG, bareheaded and draped busts of the children of Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Junior and Vitellia), facing one another.
RIC I 101. Rare.
Ex: Heritage Auctions November 29, 2018 Lot 65074
5 commentsorfew
CIIGRICV197unlistedvar.jpg
[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.59 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold strike, excellent centering and eastern style, rare this nice; rare variety. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV214.jpg
[1114b] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.53 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, 2.930g, 20.3mm, 180o, Antioch mint; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate bust right; Reverse: NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident in left hand, • in exergue; excellent centering. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ClaudiusIIGothicusRIC34.jpg
[1114c] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.51 viewsAntoninianus. RIC 34. Weight, Size. F. Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse: FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing left, holding two standards. Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Z1546TN.jpeg
[1119a] Probus, Antoninianus, 276-282 A.D.84 viewsProbus (AD 276-282) AE Antoninianus; Obverse: Radiate bust, left, wearing imperial mantel and holding scepter surmounted by eagle IMP. PROBVS P. F. AVG. Reverse: Cult image of Roma seated within six column temple ROMAE AETER. R thunderbolt A in exergue; Rome mint 21mm x 22mm, 3.59g; VF; RIC, Vol. 5. Part 2, #183.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Probus (276-282 A.D.) and Rival Claimants (Proculus, Bonosus, and Saturninus)of the 280s

Robin Mc Mahon
New York University

Probus's Background
M. Aurelius Probus was most likely born in Sirmium in 232 A.D. It is difficult to reconstruct Probus' career before he became emperor because of the unreliable nature of the account in the Historia Augusta, but it is certainly possible that he was a tribune under Valerian. Perhaps all that can be said with any reliability is that he served in the military and was on Aurelian's staff during his Eastern campaigns. There is a certain amount of confusion in the sources about him because of the fact that he has often been confused with a certain Tenagino Probus, who served as prefect in Egypt under Claudius II Gothicus.

Accession to Power
After the murder of Aurelian, the Senate chose as his successor the septuagenarian senator, Tacitus, who took up the burdens of state and headed with the army to the East. The Eruli had overrun Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia and finally Cilicia, where Tacitus, with help from his half-brother Florianus, defeated them. Tacitus, however, either died of an illness or was killed by his own troops; he was succeeded by Florianus. In the meantime, Probus had been declared Emperor by his own troops in mid-276, and prepared to meet Florianus, who was marching from the Bosporus, having broken off his victorious engagement against the Eruli. Florianus was acknowledged in Rome and was supported by Gaul, Spain, Britain, and Italy; Probus was supported by Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine and Egypt. The two fought a desultory campaign near Tarsus. With a much smaller force, Probus decided his best strategy would be to avoid a pitched battle and let the heat overcome the troops of Florianus. The latter, having reigned barely two months, was murdered by his own troops. Probus became sole Emperor, possibly by August 276.
Probus in the West: 276-279
His first order of business was to punish the murderers of Aurelian, who may have also had a hand in the murder of Tacitus. On the basis of numismatic evidence, Probus appears to have traveled from the east across the Propontis, and then through the provinces of Thrace, Moesia and Pannonia. It is at this time that he must have defeated the Goths because he already had the title Gothicus by 277 A.D. Shortly after he arrived at the Rhine River he made a trip to Rome to have his powers ratified by the Senate.

Following the death of Postumus in 258, the situation in Gaul had rapidly deteriorated and numerous bands of invaders had swept across the Rhine. In the south, the Longiones, together with the Alamanni, had advanced through the Neckar valley into Gaul. The Franks had crossed the Rhine further north. In order to meet this simultaneous threat, Probus divided his forces having his generals campaign against the Franks, while he himself fought against the Longiones and Alamanni. Both Probus and his generals were victorious; in fact, Probus even captured Semnon, the leader of the Longiones, with his son. Both groups of invaders agreed to terms and booty and prisoners were returned; in the end, Probus allowed Semnon and his son their freedom.

Probus is next reported to have fought victoriously against the Burgundians and to have secured his victory with some ingenuity. Because his forces were smaller than those of the invaders, he wanted to engage the enemy on terms as favorable as possible; the Romans were on one side of the river and the barbarians were on the other. Probus was able to induce them to cross the river by having his soldiers hurl insults at them, and being enraged, they began crossing the river. Before the barbarians were able to organize themselves, the Roman army soundly routed them. Smarting from their defeat, the enemy did not live up to their end of the treaty, with the result that, in a second battle, they were again worsted by Probus. The barbarians who were taken prisoner were enrolled in the Roman Army and sent to Britain.

Not content with merely defeating the barbarians along the Rhine, Probus took important steps to secure the boundary for the future. He planned and constructed a series of forts and depots on the German side of the Rhine at various crossing points, which he garrisoned with troops. Further, Probus apparently took measures to restore economic stability to Gaul by encouraging the planting of vineyards. Probus' titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus suggest claims to the success of his operations in the area.

Events in the East 279-280
The sources do not give many details of Probus's activities in Raetia and Illyricum, but Zosimus does say he repulsed an invasion of Vandals from Illyricum in a battle along a river generally identified as the Lech. In 279, theatre of operations was Lycia. Zosimus records the curious story of the adventures and death of a robber chieftain name Lydius who may be the same individual called Palfuerius in the Historia Augusta. In order to prevent further troubles, Probus constructed fortresses, and settled large groups of veterans in this area, giving them land in exchange for the promise that their sons would also serve in the legions when they were old enough.

Probus's Military and Economic Activities In Egypt
Meanwhile, Probus had sent his generals to Egypt, where the Blemmyes were stirring up trouble in 280; they had broken through the border, advanced up the Nile, and, in league with the city of Ptolemais, captured the city of Koptus. They were eventually expelled and order was restored by Probus' generals. Once Probus had restored order, he set about the task of a large-scale reconstruction of the dikes, canals, and bridges along the Nile, something which not been done since it had been undertaken by Augustus in the years 27-25 B.C. More specifically, the Vita Probi notes, "On the Nile, moreover, he did so much that his sole efforts added greatly to the tithes of grain. He constructed bridges and temples porticos and basilicas, all by the labour of the soldiers, he opened up many river-mouths, and drained many marshes, and put in their place grain-fields and farms"(9.3-4). The importance of this type of work cannot be underestimated since a large percentage of the food supply for Rome came from Egypt and the African provinces.

The Revolts of Proculus, Bonosus, and Saturninus
According to the Historia Augusta, although the Persian King, Vahram II, had made peaceful overtures, Probus had rejected these and was planning to push the war forward when he was faced with a series of revolts both in the West and East. It is difficult to place them in their exact time-frame since the sources do not agree. Nevertheless, the situation was serious enough for Probus to cancel his plans for war with Persia and hurry back to the West. On his return Probus settled large numbers of barbarians in the Empire. Perhaps this was done to repopulate areas which had been left abandoned by the effects of invasions and plague. This policy, which Probus did not begin, and which was continued by his successors was, however, destined to bring trouble to Rome in the future.

The writer of the Vita Probi in the Historia Augusta indicates that in 280 A.D. Proculus revolted in the vicinity of the city of Lugdunum, which had been severely dealt with by Aurelian and, for reasons not given, spurred on by this fear, had adopted a hostile attitude towards Probus. Proculus apparently had some connections to the Franks and he had hoped to rally them to his cause. They appear, however, to have handed him over to Probus when he arrived on the scene. Probably at the same time, Bonosus revolted. His rebellion seems to have been serious as it appears to have required considerable force to be suppressed. Bonosus, an officer in charge of the Rhine fleet, had somehow let the Germans slip over the border and burn the fleet. Fearful of retribution, he apparently took shelter in proclaiming himself emperor. He was, in spite of his lapse with the fleet, an excellent soldier. The fighting was only stopped when Bonosus, despairing of his position, hanged himself. Probus spared the lives of his sons as well as that of his wife.

Julius Saturninus, one of Probus 's commanders in Syria, probably seized power in the year 281. A close friend and associate of Probus, he may have been compelled to adopt the purple by his unruly troops. Although he initially rejected a request of the people of Alexandria to put on the purple, he later changed his mind and proclaimed himself Augustus. In any case, Probus planned to put down the rebellion. However, Saturninus was killed by his own troops before Probus had a chance to act.

The sources do not provide much in the way of material to analyze the extent of these revolts and how widespread the feeling was against Probus in the West. There are indications that the revolts were more than local affairs because inscriptions from as far away as Spain have been found where Probus's name has been erased.

In 281 Probus was in Rome to celebrate his victories. Although the Historia Augusta goes into great detail to describe the events of Probus’s triumph and celebrations of his victories in respect to the number of animals and prisoners involved, there may be some truth to its description because Zosimus states there was a uprising which at this time required a force of soldiers to suppress. On a more substantial note, Probus completed the wall around Rome which had been begun by Aurelian.

Probus' Assassination
Probus was too anxious to push ahead with his plans for an invasion of Persia, which had been postponed due to the revolts and unrest in the West, and, to this end, he left Rome in 282 and proceeded first to his native town of Sirmium when news came that M. Aurelius Carus, Perfect of the Guard, had been proclaimed emperor. When troops sent by Probus to quell the rebellion went over to Carus, Probus' remaining troops killed the emperor. His death occurred sometime between September or October 282.
Copyright (C) 1999, Robin Mc Mahon. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families; http://www.roman-emperors.org/probus.htm. Used by permission.

Probus started as a simple soldier but advanced to general and was declared emperor after the death of Tacitus. Florian's murder left him as undisputed ruler. His leadership brought peace and prosperity but he was murdered by mutinous soldiers, enraged at being employed on public building projects. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PostumusRIC93.jpg
[1200] Postumus, Summer 260--Spring 269 A.D.43 viewsBillon Antoninianus, RIC 93 Bust Type A. RSC 419. Weight, Size; VF; Obverse:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars/Virtus, standing right, holding spear and resting on shield. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Postumus (A.D. 260-269)

Michel Polfer
Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg

Postumus is the first emperor of the so-called "Gallic Empire", which lasted from his rebellion against Gallienus in 260 AD to the surrender of Tetricus I to the central emperor Aurelian in 274 AD.

In 260 AD, the general situation of the Empire was favorable to usurpations: Valerian I, father of and co-emperor with Gallienus, had been made prisoner by the Persian king Shapur I. The news shook the Empire and in the following months, the position of his heir Gallienus became very difficult, as he had to face rebellions in several parts of the Empire. While the inner situation was thus more than unstable, the barbarians, sensing the opportunity, poured across the northern frontier. The Franks entered into Gaul, devastating Germania Inferior and Belgica. Some Frankish warrior groups pressed on as far as Spain, where they destroyed Tarragona. The Alamanni broke through the lines in Germania superior and Raetia, overran the Agri Decumates, sacked the city of Aventicum and begun to extend their destructions to the interior of Gaul. Italy itself was exposed to them, as Gallienus had withdrawn most of the troops to fight the usurper Ingenuus on the Danube. After his victory over Ingenuus, Gallienus returned to Italy and was able to defeat the Germanic invaders at Milan in midsummer 260 AD. The resulting peace was short-lived, as a new rebellion on the Danube, led by Regalianus, and the great Sarmatic invasions of 260 exposed the northern frontier. Moreover, Gallienus had to face the revolt of Macrianus and Quietus in Egypt, which removed this important province from his control.

Thus, it is not surprising that Gallienus was unable to take swift and effective military actions, when - probably in the summer of 260 AD- an other usurper, M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus, rebelled on the Rhine frontier. The exact position of Postumus on the moment of the revolt is not known, but the context makes it clear that he was commanding troops on the Rhine frontier. The direct reason for his rebellion seems to have been a quarrel about booty taken from a barbarian raiding-party destroyed on its way home by Postumus and his soldiers. While Postumus had distributed the booty to his men, the praetorian prefect Silvanus ordered him to surrender the booty to himself and the Caesar Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, whom his father had left behind as his representative in the town of Cologne, under the guardianship of Silvanus. Postumus troops rebelled and proclaimed their commander imperator. They marched against and laid siege to Cologne. The garrison in the town was compelled to hand over Saloninus and Silvanus, both were put to death.

The area controlled by Postumus after his rebellion in 260 AD consisted of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior as well as of Raetia and the whole of Gaul (except for the southern parts of Lugdunensis and perhaps also Narbonensis). From 261 AD on, it also included Britain and the Spain. Neither he nor his successors made any attempt to extend the Gallic Empire further to the south or the east.

According to the literary sources at our disposal, the first "Gallic" emperor Postumus reigned well. They praise him for his military success against the Germanic invaders, thus crediting him with the restoration of the western provinces which had been on the verge of collapse. That Postumus undertook heavy fighting against Germanic tribes is also confirmed by his coinage and by the fact that he assumed -before the 10th of December 261 AD - the title of Germanicus maximus.

In 265 AD, the central emperor Gallienus tempted to crush the usurper, but twice failed to do so. On the first occasion, the fugitive Postumus owed his life only to the carelessness of Gallienus' cavalry commander Aureolus, on the second occasion, the emperor, besieging the usurper in a Gallic town, was wounded by an arrow and had to break of the assault. It seems that thereafter Gallienus made no other serious attempt to overcome this usurpation, devoting his attention to the political and military problems in the eastern part of the Roman empire.

He could do so, because Postumus took no actions at all to march on Rome. Right from the beginning of his usurpation, Postumus thus had made it clear that he had no intentions to make a bid for Rome, that his thoughts were only for Gaul. Even when in 268 AD Aureolus, the cavalry commander of Gallienus stationed in Milan - who had succeeded to recover Raetia for the central empire- entered into rebellion and declared himself for Postumus. Postumus did not take up the implied invitation to invade Italy, finally abandoning Aureolus to his fate.

But on the other hand there is no evidence at all to support the theory that he had the intention to create a separate "Galliarum Imperium." On the contrary: Postumus - ass well as his successors - avoided in his propaganda every hint to the limited extension of his reign. He put himself clearly in the tradition of the central Roman emperors, clearly underlining the universal claim of his rule, taking all the traditional titles of the Roman emperors, including those of pontifex maximus and pater patriae, proclaiming senators and nominating his own consuls. His coins show the same universal claims, giving preference to types like Roma aeterna or pacator orbis, to salus and fides.

By the end of 265 AD, Postumus' coins joyfully proclaimed his victory, the festivities celebrating his quinquennalia continued into the following year. But while the coinage of Postumus of the years 267-268 underlined the peace and prosperity brought to his reign by the guiding hand of the emperor, the sudden deterioration of his billon coinage in 268 AD shows that Postumus was facing more and more difficulties. It is very likely that his repeated refusal to march on Rome had disturbed many of his soldiers, since only his recognition of sole ruler of the Empire might have legitimized their rebellion of 260 AD and provided them with adequate reward for their support. So the debasement of 268 was probably occasioned by Postumus' need to buy the loyalty of his men, thus forcing him to mint beyond the silver supplies which the area under his control could provide. Nevertheless, he was able to celebrate in late 268 AD the commencement of his tenth year in power as well as his entry into his fifth consulship on 1st of January 269.

These festivities were cut short early in 269 AD by the rebellion of Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus at Moguntiacum (Mainz). There is no direct written or epigraphic evidence for the office Laelianus held at the time of his revolt against Postumus, but it seems most likely that he held an office in Germania Superior, either as legatus legionis XXII Primigenie or as governor of Germania Superior. His rebellion can be explained only on the grounds of a growing dissatisfaction of the troops of the Rhine-army with their commander in chief and emperor Postumus. How deep these tensions had become became apparent after the successful action against the usurper: no sooner had Postumus taken Moguntiacum and thus ended the ephemerous rebellion of Laelianus than he was murdered by his own troops for refusing them to sack the city. In his place, the troops raised to the purple a simple soldier, Marcus Arelius Marius, shortly afterwards killed and replaced by Marcus Piavonius Victorinus.

Copyright (C) 2000, Michel Polfer. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/postumus.htm


Postumus was an incredibly skilled general and administrator. Rebelling against Gallienus, Postumus succeeded in uniting Gaul, Spain and Britain into what was essentially an empire within an empire. Enjoying tremendous military success against the Germans, he kept his Gallic Empire secure and prosperous. In 268 A.D. he quickly destroyed the forces of the usurper Laelianus, but his refusal to allow his forces to sack Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) led to his assassination by disgruntled troops (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue132 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
 
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