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Search results - "Genius"
DenMnFonteio.jpg
28 viewsDenarius - 85 BC. - Mint of Rome
MN FONTEIVS C. f. - Gens Fonteia
Ob.: Laureate head of Apollo Vejovis right, M FONTEI CF behind, thunderbolt below, monogram below chin (ROMA or Argento Publico?)
Rev.: Infant Genius riding goat right, caps of the Dioscuri above, filleted thyrsos below.
Gs. 3,6 mm. 20
Cr353/1a, Sear RCV 271.

Maxentius
GALERIUS-2.jpg
33 viewsGALERIVS - Silvered AE Follis - 297-298 AD. - Heraclea mint
Obv.: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia, HTΓ in ex.
Gs. 10,5 mm. 27,5
Cohen 78, RIC 20b
Maxentius
galerius.jpg
37 viewsObv: Laurelled Bust of Galerius right
Rev: Genius standing left holding a cornucopiae and patera
Heraclea mint
1 commentspaul1888
maximianus_p__fel.png
20 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP C MAXIMIANVS P FEL AVG
(R.laur cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 41 CT 4.03.002 (R)
8.3g
(ex Bons Plans Numis)
Noviomagus
6F5CEE77-ACA9-41AF-ACC7-FEF70FA1D78A.jpeg
23 viewsDIOCLETIAN.. Ae follis. Lyons.. 285-ca.310 A.D.

IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG: Laureate bust left

GENIO POPVLI ROMANI: Genius standing left holding patera over altar, - / * in field, PLG in exergue.
2 commentspaul1888
GaleriusAUGSerdicaGenius.jpg
3 viewsSjoerd H
rjb_01_07_09.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 14b41 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 14b
mauseus
rjb_fol4_01_09.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 17a42 viewsConstantius I as Caesar 293-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 17a
mauseus
constantius169a.jpg
Constantius I Chloris, RIC 169a, Siscia, 305-306 CE21 viewsConstantius I Chloris as Augustus, Ό follis
Obverse: CONSTANTIVS AVG, laureate bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, nude with chlamys over shoulder and modius on head, patera in right hand and cornucopia in left hand.
Mintmark SIS Siscia mint RIC VI 169a.
18.9 mm., 1.8 g.
NORMAN K
rjb_2009_09_13.jpg
Maximianus I43 viewsMaximianus
Siscia mint
MAXIMIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia
-/-//SIS
RIC (VI) Siscia 169b
2 commentsmauseus
max207c.jpg
Maximinus II RIC 207c Siscia22 views
Maximinus II follis, 311 CE
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate bust right.
Reverse: GENIO AV-GVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on headn naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopia.
SIS in ex. Siscia mint. 25.3 mm., 6.9 g.
NORMAN K
Diocletian_RIC_3a_Serdica.jpg
1 Diocletian21 viewsDIOCLETIAN
AE1 Follis (9.63g), Serdica Mint, Struck 303-305 AD
R: GENIO POPVLIA ROMANI, Genius standing l. pouring liquid from patera and holding cornucopia, .SM.SD. in ex., B in r. field
RIC 3a, Officina B-2
Ex Harlan J. Berk
Sosius
Diocletian_RIC_VI_Ticinum_29a.jpg
1 Diocletian20 viewsDiocletian
AE1 Follis.
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, with patera & cornucopiae, mintmark PT in ex.
Ticinum RIC 29a
Sosius
Diocletian_RIC_VI_Heraclea_12a.jpg
1 Diocletian25 viewsDiocletian
AE1. 294 AD
IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopiae, H and officina letter in ex.
Heraclea, RIC VI 12a
Sosius
Septimius_Severus_-_RIC_IV_201_sm.jpg
24 Septimius Severus44 viewsSeptimius Severus.
AD 193-211.
AR Denarius (19mm, 3.09 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck circa AD 201-210.

Laureate head right / Genius standing left, sacrificing from patera over altar and holding two grain ears.

RIC IV 201; RSC 475. Good VF, toned, light porosity.

Ex CNG - Nov 2013
2 commentsSosius
Galerius_RIC_Heraclea_59a.jpg
4 Galerius30 viewsGALERIUS
AE Follis, Heraclea, 311 AD
IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG / GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, star in l. field, crescent in r. field, HT epsilon in ex.
RIC VI Heraclea 59a Scarce
Sosius
Galerius_RIC_VI_Nicomedia_54a_66a.jpg
4 Galerius34 viewsGALERIUS
AE Folles, Nicomedia Mint, 307-308 / 310-311

IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, bust l. / GENIO AV-GVSTI CM[H], Genius standing left holding patera and, cornucopiae, SMN delta in ex

RIC VI Nicomedia 54a/66a (identical)

Sosius
Galerius_RIC_VI_Antioch_53b.jpg
4 Galerius23 viewsGALERIUS
AE Follis, Antioch, 299-300 A.D.

GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, bust l. / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left left, holding patera and cornucopia, epsilon in r. filed, ANT in ex

RIC VI Antioch 53b
Sosius
Galerius_RIC_Alexandria_79v_hwflip.jpg
4 Galerius41 viewsGALERIUS
AE Folles, Alexandria, 308 AD

IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, bust l. / GENIO IMPE-RATORIS Genius standing left, holding cornucopia and patera, X in l. field, A over K in r. field, ALE in ex.

RIC VI Alexandria 79v (reverse legend break). VF, die break/chip at 12:00 on reverse.
1 commentsSosius
Galerius_RIC_VII_Heraclea_18b_hwflip.jpg
4 Galerius32 viewsGALERIUS
Silvered Follis, Heraclea, 297-298 AD

GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, head l. / GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing l., holding patera and cornucopiae, HT epsilon in ex.

RIC VI Heraclea 20b
Sosius
maximianus_2.png
5 Maximianus 3.01.01210 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
(R.laur cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 23b CT 3.01.012 (C)
10.6g
(ex Steve Thomas)
Noviomagus
Severus_II_RIC_VI_Siscia_170a.jpg
5 Severus II23 viewsSEVERUS II
AE Quarter-Folles , Siscia, 305-306 AD

FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C, Bust r. / GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae, SIS in ex

RIC VI Siscia 170a Rare
Sosius
Severus_II_Siscia_171a.jpg
5 Severus II24 viewsSEVERUS II
AE Quarter-Folles, Siscia, 305-306 AD

O: SEVERVS NOB C, Laureate bust left / GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius, naked, wearing modius, holding patera and cornucopia, chalmys over l. shoulder

RIC VI Siscia 171a; Rare; Fine, rough.
Sosius
Severus_II_Serdica_24.jpg
5 Severus II27 viewsSEVERUS II
Silvered Follis, Serdica Mint, 306-307 AD

O: IMP C FL VAL SEVERVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing naked l., modius on hd., holding patera from which liquid flows, and cornucopiae, delta to r., SM dot SD dot in ex.

RIC VI Serdica 24. aVF, Rare. Silvering brighter on reverse than obverse.
Sosius
Maximinus_II_RIC_VI_Antioch_164b.jpg
6 Maximinus II21 viewsMAXIMINUS II
AE Follis, Antioch, 312 AD

IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / GENIO-AVGVSTI, Genius stading left, holding head of Sol and cornucopia, star in l. field, epsilon I in right field, ANT in ex.

RIC VI Antioch 164b
Sosius
Maximian_Civic_Antioch.jpg
6 Maximinus II43 viewsANTIOCH
Semi-autonomous issue under Maximinus II, ca. 310 AD

GENIO ANTOCHENI - Genius of Antioch seated, facing; Orontes swimming below / APOLLONI SANCTO, Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre.

'The last civic coinages and the religious policy of Maximinus Daza', J. van Heesch. c.310 (Antioch).
Sosius
RIC_VI_Nicomedia_55.jpg
6 Maximinus II25 viewsMAXIMINUS II
AE Follis, Nicomedia, 307-308 AD

GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, bust l. / GENIO CA-ESARIS CM[H], Genius with patera and cornucopia, SMN gamma in ex.

RIC VI Nicomedia 55
Sosius
Licinius_Unid_3.jpg
8 Licinius33 viewsLICINIUS I
Silvered Follis, Antioch, 312 AD

IMP C LIC LICINNIVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / GENIO-AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, naked, modius on head, chlamys over left shoulder, holding head of Sol and cornucopia, star in l. field, H in r. field, ANT in ex.

RIC VI Antioch 164a. EF about 60% silvered.
1 commentsSosius
Eugenius_RIC_Trier_108.jpg
82U Eugenius19 viewsEUGENIUS
AE4, Trier Mint

DN EVGENI-VS PF AVG, bust right / VICTORI-A AVGGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch, TR in exergue

RIC IX Trier 107 or 108. Sear (2014) 20693. Rare: R3
Sosius
constantinesis.jpg
CONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200b Siscia, Emperor 307-337 CE23 viewsCONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200(b)
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureated head right
Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTA, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding paters and cornucopia. No field marks
in exergue: SIS, 18.4 mm., 1.6 g.
NORMAN K
diocletian21.jpg
Diocletian RIC 21a, Thessalonica, 300-301 CE.22 viewsDiocletian AE Follis
Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys opver left shoulder, holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopia.
Mintmark dot TSB dot Thessalonica, 29 mm., 6.9 g.
NORMAN K
lic30b.jpg
LICINIUS I AE follis, Thessalonica, 308-324 CE.24 viewsObverse: VAL dot LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTI, Genius standing leftholding cornucopia and pouring from a patera, Star left, B right.
mintmark dot SM dot TS dot. Thessalonica. 25.7 mm, 5.4 g. RIC VI 30b,B Type 2
NORMAN K
max207x.JPG
Maximinus II RIC 171B Siscia17 viewsMaximinus II quarter follis, 305-306 CE
Obverse: MAXIMINVS NOBC, laureate bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POP_VLI ROMANI , Genius standing left, modius on headn naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopia.
SIS in ex. Siscia mint. 19.1 mm., 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
MAX207C2.jpg
Maximinus II RIC 207C Siscia15 viewsMaximinus II follis, 311 CE
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG, laureate bust right.
Reverse: GENIO AV-GVSTI , Genius standing left, modius on headn naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopia.
SIS in ex. Siscia mint. 25,4 mm., 6.0 g.
NORMAN K
ZomboDroid_16092019093042.jpg
Maximinus II, as Caesar, 305-309. AE Follis. 27mm // 7,36g. Heraclea, 305-306.3 viewsObv.GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES Laureate head of Maximinus II to right.

Rev. GENIO CAESARIS/ HTD Genius, nude but for chlamys over his left shoulder, standing front, head to left, holding patera, from which liquor flows, in his right hand and a cornucopiae with his left
Canaan
Roman_Imperial_RIC164b.jpg
Roman Imperial: Maximinus II Daia (310-313) BI Follis, Antioch (RIC-164b)26 viewsObv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG; Laureate head right
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI; Genius standing facing, holding head of Sol in right, cornucopia in left. ✶ / S in fields, ANT in exergue

SpongeBob
uncertain.jpg
39 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.33 g)
Contemporary counterfeit
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, GPR (Genio populi Romani) around
Blank
Rostowzew -

This tessera was cast from fractured molds, likely after the they had been discarded by the mint. It is the only possibly counterfeit tessera I have discovered to date.
Ardatirion
rjb_2011_01_01~0.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 14a38 viewsDiocletianus
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 14a
mauseus
rjb_2011_02_02.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 17b24 viewsGalerius as Caesar
AE Follis
Obv: C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 17b
mauseus
tyre_raphanea_genius_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS32 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm, 9.9 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left
Raphanea, Syria
laney
elagabal_rha_2_res_b.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS29 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm, 7.1 g
O: Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left.
Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Raphanea; SNG Copenhagen 385 v.
laney
elag_raph_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS23 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22.5 mm; 8.32 g
O: Bust right.
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left.
Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Raphanea
laney
elagaba_raph_resb.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218-222 AD
AE 24 mm; 8.65 g
O: Laureate bust right.
R: Genius of the city holding cornucopia, with eagles flanking, bull to left.
Raphanea, Syria; BMC 3
laney
elag_1_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS23 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22 mm; 8.13 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left
Raphanea, Syria
laney
elagabal_2_raph_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS22 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22 mm; 6.48 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left
Raphanea, Syria
laney
elagabalus_raph.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS24 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22.5 X 24 mm; 6.56 g
O: Radiate bust right.
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left.
Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Raphanea; cf SNG Cop. 385
laney
elagab_maesa_bon_event.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS & Julia Maesa35 views218 – 222 AD
AE 23 mm, 9 g
O: Confronted busts of Elagabalus and Julia Maesa
R: Naked Bonus Eventus standing left holding patera in right hand and two grain ears in left hand; in left field retrograde E /WN in ligature.
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis (Marcianopolis);
AMNG 949; not in Hristova/Jekov (2014), not in Pfeiffer (2013)
[reverse is described in AMNG 949 as: "Genius (Bonus Eventus")]
laney
elagab_maesa_bonus_eventus_r.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS & Julia Maesa9 views218 – 222 AD
AE 28 mm, 13.18 g
O: Confronted busts of Elagabalus and Julia Maesa
R: Naked Bonus Eventus standing left holding patera in right hand and two grain ears in left hand;
Moesia Inferior, Markianopolis (Marcianopolis); ?retrograde E to left?
cf AMNG 949 [reverse is described in AMNG 949 as: "Genius (Bonus Eventus")]
laney
traj_decius_res.jpg
(0249) TRAJAN DECIUS14 views249 - 251 AD
AE 26 X 30 mm 16.33 g
O: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, laureate and curiiassed bust right, seen from the back
R Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia S/C
laney
maximian_ii_res.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS32 views286-305, 307-308, and 310 AD
Struck 302 - 303 AD
AE Follis 27 mm 7.67 g
O: IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia; G to right; TS in ex
Thessalonica RIC 23b
laney
maximian_genio_2_res.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS15 views286-305, 307-308, and 310 AD
AE Follis 25 mm, 5.14 g
O: D N MAXIMIANO P F AVG laureate cuirassed bust right
R: GENIO POP ROM Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia; PLN iin exe.
London mint; RIC VI 90
laney
c_chlorus_genio_a.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS)29 views293-305 (as Caesar)
305-306 AD
AE 27 mm 8.45 g
O: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES laureate head right
R: GENIO POPVL ROMANI Genius standing left holding patera & cornucopia; ANT in exe
Antioch
laney
C_CHLORUS_GENIO_RES.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS44 views293 - 305 AD
AE FOLLIS 26.5 mm 8.0 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
LAUR CUIR BUST R
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI,
Genius standing l., modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, r. holding patera, l. cornucopiae; R in left field
GAMMA IN EXE.
ROME RIC 67a SCARCE
laney
constantius_chlorus_genio_res.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS (as Caesar)31 views293-305 AD
AE FOLLIS 26 x 28.5 mm 7.45 g
Obv. CONSTANTIVS NOBIL C, Laureate head r.
Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing l., modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, r. holding patera, l. cornucopiae; B/STAR in fields, TR in exergue.
Treveri (Trier)

laney
GALER_GENIO.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS45 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
305 - 311 AD (as Augustus)
AE 23 X 25.5 mm 5.66 g
O: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
LAUR HEAD R
R: GENIO IMPERITORIS, K iN LEFT FIELD, T/K IN RIGHT FIELD
GENIUS STANDING L POURING FROM PATERA AND HOLDING CORNUCOPIA
ALE IN EXE
ALEXANDRIA
(JRyan)

laney
galerius_genio.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS24 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
305 - 311 AD (as Augustus)
struck 297 AD
AE 27.4 mm, 10.53 g
O: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOBC CAES laureate head right
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI Genius standing left holding poatera dn cornucopia, crescent over A at right; ANT in exe.
Antioch mint; RIC 49b
(ex-Forum)
laney
constantine_antioch_genio_resb.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (as Caesar)48 viewsstruck 306-307 AD
AE Follis 27.5 mm 8.22 g
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
R: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand,cornucopiae in left.
D (Officina) in right field
ANT in exergue, Antioch
Not listed in RIC
laney
const_i_as_caes.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (as Caesar) 17 viewsstruck 306-307 AD
AE Follis 27.5 mm 8.22 g
O: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
R: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand,cornucopiae in left.
D (Officina) in right field
ANT in exergue, Antioch
Not listed in RIC
laney
SEVERUS_II_B.jpg
(0306) SEVERUS II27 views306 - 307 AD
struck 305/306 AD as Caesar
AE Quarter Follis
O: VL VAL SEVERVS NOB
LAUR HEAD R
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
GENIUS STANDING L, MODIUS ON NEAD, NAKED EXCEPT FOR CHLAMYS, HOLDING PATERA AND CORNUCOPIAE
SIS IN EXE
SISCIA
RIC VI 170a (RARE)
(ex P.Bulgerin)
laney
licinius_genio.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I22 views308 - 324 AD
AE FOLLIS 23.5 mm 5.56 g
O: VAL LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
R: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding cornucopiae and patera, star in left field and B in right, .SM.TS. in exergue.
THESSALONICA RIC VII 30b
laney
MAXIMINUS.jpg
(0309) MAXIMINUS II DAIA29 viewsCaesar 305-308; Filius Augustorum 308-309; Augustus 309-313 AD.
struck 309 - 313 AD
AE 21.5 mm 4.04 g
O: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG
LAUR HEAD R
R: GENIO AVGVSTI
GENIUS STANDING L POURING FROM PATERS, HOLDING CORNUCOPIAE, EAGLE AT FEET, GAMMA IN R FIELD
SMNA IN EXE
NICOMEDIA
laney
MAXIMINUS_II_GENIO.jpg
(0309) MAXIMINUS II DAIA28 viewsCaesar 305-308; Filius Augustorum 308-309; Augustus 309-313 AD.
struck 309 - 313 AD
AE 23 mm 6.41 g
O: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG
LAUR HEAD R
R: GENIO IMPERITORIS
GENIUS STANDING L POURING FROM PATERA OVER ALTAR AND HOLDING CORNUCOPIA, STAR IN LEFT FIELD, I IN RIGHT FIELD, ANT IN EXE
ANTIOCH
laney
max_ii_gen_1_res.jpg
(0309) MAXIMINUS II DAIA15 viewsCaesar 305-308; Filius Augustorum 308-309; Augustus 309-313 AD.
struck 305-308 AD
AE 23.5 mm 4.86 g
O: GAL VAL MIXIMINVS NOB CAES , Laureate bust right REVERSE: GENIO CAESARIS , Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae; SMNA in exe.
Nicomedia mint
laney
max_ii_gen_2_res.jpg
(0309) MAXIMINUS II DAIA14 viewsCaesar 305-308; Filius Augustorum 308-309; Augustus 309-313
struck 308-309 AD
AE 24.5 mm 5.87 g
O: MAXIMINVS FIL AVGG laureate head right
R: GENIO CAESSARIS Genius standing left holding cornucopiae and patera; star in left field; D right field; SMTS in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
claudius_nilus_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS23 views41 - 54 AD
struck 50 - 51 AD
AE Diobol 24.5 mm, 5.44 g
O: Diademed head right
R: Nilus bust right; cornucopia behind, small Genius standing before
Year 11
Alexandria mint
cf BMC Alexandria 81, RPC I 5174
laney
claudius_nilus_res~0.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS24 views41 - 54 AD
struck 50 - 51 AD
AE Diobol 24.5 mm, 5.44 g
O: Diademed head right
R: Nilus bust right; cornucopia behind, small Genius standing before
Year 11
Alexandria mint
cf BMC Alexandria 81, RPC I 5174
laney
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius86 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
rjb_dio_06_09.jpg
(VI) 6a17 viewsDiocletian
IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 6a
mauseus
rjb_2011_03_05.jpg
(VI) 6a imitation20 viewsDiocletian
IM DIOCLETIANVS P AG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 6a imitation
mauseus
rjb_lon_6_17_08_06.jpg
(VI) 6b26 viewsMaximianus I
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 6b
mauseus
rjb_lon_30_05_06.jpg
(VI) 1454 viewsConstantius I
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 14
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_max_lon_04_06.jpg
(VI) 1538 viewsGalerius
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 15
mauseus
rjb_lon10_05_06.jpg
(VI) 1621 viewsConstantius I
CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 16
mauseus
rjb_lon_06_09.jpg
(VI) 1713 viewsMaximianus I
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 17
mauseus
rjb_09_07_09.jpg
(VI) 1712 viewsMaximianus I
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 17
mauseus
rjb_lon1_05_06.jpg
(VI) 17cf imitation26 viewsMaximianus I
IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) - (cf17-19) imitation
mauseus
rjb_06_07_09.jpg
(VI) 37a14 viewsConstantius I
CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 37a
mauseus
rjb_lond2_01_09.jpg
(VI) 42 imitation19 viewsMaximianus I
IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 42 imitation
mauseus
rjb_lon90_06_06.jpg
(VI) 9015 viewsMaximianus I
DN MAXIMIANO PF S AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left wearing turreted head-dress
-/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 90
mauseus
rjb_lon_6_209b_08_06.jpg
(VI)209b11 viewsMaximinus II
IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 209b
mauseus
rjb_lon2_05_06.jpg
(VI)209c15 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 209c
mauseus
rjb_08_09_a.jpg
(VI)21213 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 212
mauseus
rjb_lon3_05_06.jpg
(VII) 39 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 3
mauseus
rjb_lon1_07_09.jpg
(VII) 239 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
S/F//MLL
RIC (VII) 23; Toone 30
mauseus
Maximianus.jpg
*SOLD*37 viewsMaximian Follis

Attribution: RIC VI 31b, Ticinum
Date: AD 296-297
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust r.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius stg. l., modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, holding patera r. and cornucopiae l., star in l. field, ST in exergue
Size: 26 mm
Weight: 9.94 grams
2 commentsNoah
Diocletian.jpg
*SOLD*38 viewsDiocletian AE Follis

Attribution: RIC VI 19a, Thessalonica
Date: 298-299 AD
Obverse: IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG, laureate bust l.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius stg. l., modius on head, with patera & cornucopia, TSA in exergue
Size: 26.8 mm
Weight: 8.98 grams
1 commentsNoah
Constantius_I_Chlorus.jpg
*SOLD*18 viewsConstantius I Chlorus AE follis

Attribution: RIC VI 213a, Trier
Date: AD 296-297
Obverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head r.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius stg. l. holding patera and cornucopiae, “A” in
l. field, Γ in r. field, TR in exergue
Size: 25 mm
Weight: 8.4 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Dioclet_follis.jpg
002 - Diocletian (284-305 AD), Follis - RIC 85a or 95a20 viewsObv: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Minted in Siscia (*SIS in exe, gamma in right field), officina 3, 295-296 AD.

The two RIC-types 85a and 95a are quite complicated to distinguish. The difference is supposed to be a slight difference in size of the bust.
pierre_p77
maj1709_(5).jpg
003 - Galerius (as Caesar 293-305 AD), Follis - RIC 16450 viewsObv: MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae.
Minted in Lugdunum (PLC in exe, B in right field) 301-303 AD.
2 commentspierre_p77
0036.jpg
0036 - Denarius Cassia 55 BC73 viewsObv/Head of Genius Populi Romani r. with sceptre over shoulder.
Rev/Eagle on thunderbolt r., on l. lituus, on r. jug, below Q CASSIVS.

Ag, 19.4mm, 3.59g
Moneyer: Q. Cassius Longinus
Mint: Rome.
RRC 428/3 [dies o/r: 126/140] - BMCRR Rome 3868 - RSC Cassia 7 - Syd. 916
ex-Tkalec, auction 27 apr 2007, lot 162
1 commentsdafnis
0041~0.jpg
0041 - Denarius Trajan 113 AC13 viewsObv/IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP, Trajan head laureate r., draped.
Rev/SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Genius standing l., holding patera and ears of grain.

Ag, 19.6mm, 3.10g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/275 [C]
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 92, lot 225
dafnis
Fontius-Syd-724.jpg
005. Mn. Fonteius, Cf15 viewsDenarius, ca 85-84 BC, Auxiliary Italian mint.
Obverse: MN FONTEI CF / Bust of Vejovis with hair in loose locks; thunderbolt below; AP monogram under chin.
Reverse: Winged Cupid or Genius seated on goat; caps of the Dioscuri above; thyrsus with fillet below; all within a laurel wreath.
3.89 gm., 20 mm.
Syd. #724; RSC #Fonteia 9; Sear #271.

Vejovis was an ancient deity whose early function was forgotten. At his shrine in Rome, his statue portrayed him as a young beardless youth with a goat. By the time this coin was issued, he was identified with Pluto, the god of the underworld. He was probably a god of expiation since a goat was sacrificed to him once a year. We know from other sources that this goat sacrifice was expiatory in nature.
Callimachus
Nero,_RIC_I_214,_AE-AS,_NERO_CLAVD_CAESAR_AVG_GER_P_M_TR_P_IMP_P_P,_GENIO_AVGVSTI,_S-C,_I,_Sear_1977,_WCN_269,_BMC_252,_Rome_63AD,Q-001,_6h,_22-23mm,_4,82g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0214, Lugdunum, AE-As, S/C//--, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, 64 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0214, Lugdunum, AE-As, S/C//--, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,
avers: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, sacrificing from patera over altar, and holding cornucopiae, S C across fields.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 22,0-23,0mm, weight: 4,82 (!)g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 63A.D., ref: RIC I 214, Sear 1977, BMC 252,
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-P-MAX-TR-P-P-P_GENIO-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-533_C-_Lugdunum_66-AD__Q-001_h_28mm_9,79g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0464, Lugdunum, AE-As, GENIO AVGVSTI,129 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0464, Lugdunum, AE-As, GENIO AVGVSTI,
avers: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, sacrificing from patera over altar, and holding cornucopiae, S C across fields.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 28mm, weight: 9,79g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 66 AD., ref: RIC-464, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
0166.jpg
0166 - Nummus Constantine I 307-10 AC16 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing l., modius on top, togate from waist down and holding patera and cornucopia; PLN in ex.

AE, 25.6 mm, 5.88 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/104 [S]
ex-Soler y Llach, auction Oct 2012, lot #2482
dafnis
0194.jpg
0194 - Nummus Maximian 307 AC49 viewsObv/ DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of M. r.
Rev/ GENIO POP ROM, Genius of the Roman People standing l., holding patera and cornucopia; in ex., PLN.

AE, 7.09g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/90 [C2].
ex-Emporium Hamburg, auction 72, lot 819.
dafnis
0195.jpg
0195 - Nummus Constantius I 300-03 AC61 viewsObv/ FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius of the Roman People standing l., holding patera and cornucopia.

AE, 28 mm, 10.41 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/20 [R]
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 313, lot 354.
dafnis
Titus_79-81-AD_Q-001_27-29mm_12,76ga-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0226, RIC II(1962) 0126, AE-As, Roma, GENI P R, S/C//--, Genius standing left, Scarce!, #1299 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0226, RIC II(1962) 0126, AE-As, Roma, GENI P R, S/C//--, Genius standing left, Scarce!, #1
avers:- IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Laureate head left.
revers:- GENI P R, Genius, naked to waist, standing facing, looking left by a garlanded altar, holding patera and cornucopiae. S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27-29mm, weight: 12,76g, axis:- h,
mint: , date: , ref: RIC 0226, RIC II(1962) 0126 p-130, C-96, BMC 210,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
03-Diocletian-Lon-28a.jpg
03 Diocletian: London follis.19 viewsFollis, ca 300-305 AD, London mint (group III).
Obverse: IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG / Laureate and curriassed bust of Diocletian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
11.20 gm., 28.5 mm.
RIC #28a; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
Antoninus-Pius_ANTONINVS-AVG-PI-VS-PP-TRP-COSIII_GENIO-SENATVS_Q-001_3_30g.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0069a, Rome, AR-Denarius, GENIO SENATVS, Genius, #1,106 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0069a, Rome, AR-Denarius, GENIO SENATVS, Genius, #1,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PI-VS-P-P-TRP-COS-III, Bare head right.
revers:- GENIO-SENATVS, Genius standing left, holding branch and scepter.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,30g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 140-143 A.D., ref: RIC-III-69a, p-34, C-398,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Ant_Pius_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-PP-TRP-COSIII_GENI-O-S-ENATVS_Q-002_18-19mm_3,24g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0069a, Rome, AR-Denarius, GENIO SENATVS, Genius, #2,92 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0069a, Rome, AR-Denarius, GENIO SENATVS, Genius, #2,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-COS-III, Bare head right.
revers:- GENI-O-S-ENATVS, Genius standing left, holding branch and scepter.
exrg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date:140-142 A.D., ref: RIC-III-69a-p-34, C-398,
Q-002
quadrans
Ant_Pius_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-COS-III_GENIVS-POP-ROMANI_RIC-III-070a-p-14_C-403_140-3-AD_Q-001_7h_16-17mm_2,68g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0070a, Rome, AR-Denarius, GENIVS POP ROMANI, Genius standing front,135 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0070a, Rome, AR-Denarius, GENIVS POP ROMANI, Genius standing front,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-COS-III, Bare head right.
revers:- GENIVS-POP-ROMANI, Genius standing front, head right, with scepter and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-17,0 mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 140-143 A.D., ref: RIC-III-70a-p-14, RSC-405, BMC-207,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Ant_Pius_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-PP_TR-P-XIIII_COS-IIII_RIC-196_RSC-220_BMC-717_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,07g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0196, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS-IIII, Genius standing left,91 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0196, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS-IIII, Genius standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XIIII, Laureate bearded head right.
revers:- COS-IIII, Genius standing left, holding ears of grain and patera.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 150-151 A.D., ref: RIC-III-196-p-50, RSC-220, BMC-717,
Q-001
quadrans
035_Antoninus_Pius,_RIC_III_1052,_Rome,_AE-As,_ANTONINVS_AVG_PIVS_P_P,_TR_POT_XXIIII_COS_IIII,_S-C,_160-1AD,_Q-001,_5h,_25-26mm,_9,42g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 1052, Rome, AE-As, TR POT XXIIII COS IIII, Genius standing left, S/C//--, #1148 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 1052, Rome, AE-As, TR POT XXIIII COS IIII, Genius standing left, S/C//--, #1
avers: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: TR POT XXIIII COS IIII, Genius standing left sacrificing over altar from patera and holding sceptre in left hand.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 25,0-26,0mm, weight: 9,42g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 160-161 A.D., ref: RIC III 1052,
Q-001
quadrans
035p_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),Egypt,_Alexandria,_AR-Tetradr,_L-IS,_Y-16,_G-1680,_D-2297,_KG-35_548,_152-3_AD_,Q-001,_0h,_21,5-22mm,_14,02g-s.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-1680, D-2297, AR-Tetradrachm, L-IS/-//--, Nilus reclining left, #174 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-1680, D-2297, AR-Tetradrachm, L-IS/-//--, Nilus reclining left, #1
avers: ANTωNINO C CЄB ЄVCЄB, Laureate head right.
reverse: Nilus reclining left, holding reed and cornuopiae from which emerges small Genius; small Genius inscribes Nilometer before, crocodile below.
exergue: L-IS/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,0mm, weight: 14,02g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: L-IS, Year=16, 152-152 A.D., ref: Geissen-1680, Dattari-2297, Kapmann-Ganschow-35.548-p186,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
037a_Marc-Aurelius_RIC-461_AR-Den_AVRELIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-II-FIL_TR-POT-VIII-COS-II_A-Pius_C-673_Rome-153-54-AD_Q-001_5h_17-18mm_3,22g-s.jpg
037a Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0461 (Ant. Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, TR POT VIII COS II, Genius standing left, Scarce!68 views037a Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0461 (Ant. Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, TR POT VIII COS II, Genius standing left, Scarce!
avers: AVRELIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-II-FIL, Bare head right.
revers: TR-POT-VIII-COS-II, Genius standing left, sacrificing with patera over altar and holding aquila.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 154-155 A.D., ref: RIC-III-461. (Ant. Pius), p-86, C-673, RSC-673, BMCRE-826 , Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_039h_img.jpg
039 - Trajan Denarius - RIC 34820 viewsObv:– IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, Laureate head right, aegis over left shoulder
Rev:– P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Genius or Bonus Eventus standing left, holding patera & corn ears
Minted in Rome. A.D. 114-117
Reference:– RIC II 348
maridvnvm
RI_044ae_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC -79 viewsObv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate bust right
Rev:- COS III, Genius, draped at waist, standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, no altar
Minted in eastern mint.

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-

"I don't doubt the Genius coin is Eastern, though I don't find that obv. die among the many illustrated by Strack.

The letter forms are typical, for example P P at end of obv. legend tending to look like I I, and the slanting S of COS on the reverse. The slightly clumsy style of the types is also typical.

As you say,the Roman model showed an altar before the Genius. Eastern specimens are known accurately copying that type, with altar, Strack *31. ....... Yours is a new variant, with altar omitted. "
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_048x_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius Denarius - RIC 06926 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare head right
Rev: GENIO SENATVS, Genius of the Senate standing facing with branch and rod.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 140 - 143
Reference:– RIC III 69. RSC 398
maridvnvm
RI_048t_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 18913 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIII, laureate head right
Rev: COS IIII, Genius standing left holding patera & corn ears
Minted in Rome. A.D. 149-150
Reference:– RIC III 189. RSC 219
maridvnvm
Diocletian-Lug-RIC-177a.jpg
05 Diocletian: Lugdunum follis.20 viewsFollis, 303-305 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Diocletian facing left.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, altar at feet, chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera, and cornucopiae. Star in right field.
Mint mark: PLC
8.52 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #177a; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
050p_Julia_Domna,_Pisidia,_Antioch,_AE-22,__Dr_bust_r_,_Genius-Antioch,_BMC_Lycia,_etc__pg__181,_35__Q-001,_6h,_22mm,_5,4g-s~0.jpg
050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, BMC (Lycia) 35, AE-22, ANTIOCH ENI COL CAE, Genius of Antioch standing left,114 views050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Pisidia, Antioch, BMC (Lycia) 35, AE-22, ANTIOCH ENI COL CAE, Genius of Antioch standing left,
avers: IVLIA AV GVSTA, Draped bust of Julia Domna right.
reverse: ANTIOCH ENI COL CAE, Genius of Antioch standing front, head left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 5,40g, axis: 6h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 193-211 A.D., ref: BMC Lycia etc. pg 181, 35,
Q-001
quadrans
Pisidia,_Antioch,_051p_Caracalla,_IMP_CAES_M_AVR_ANTONINVS_A,_ANTIOCH_GEN_COL_C,_Genius,_SNG_Cop_44_var_,_BMC_41_var__(legends),_198-217_AD,_Q-001_6h,_22-23,5mm,_6,13g-s.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG Cop 44 var. (legends), AE-22, -/-//--, ANTIOCH GEN COL C, Tyche or female genius of the city standing left, #146 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG Cop 44 var. (legends), AE-22, -/-//--, ANTIOCH GEN COL C, Tyche or female genius of the city standing left, #1
avers: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS A, Laureate, bust right.
reverse: ANTIOCH GEN COL C, Tyche or female genius of the city standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0-23,5mm, weight: 6,13g, axis: 6h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 198-217 A.D.,
ref: SNG Cop 44 var. (legends), BMC 41 var. (legends),
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla,_Pisidia_Antioch_Caracalla_Genius_Branch_Q-001_0h,_6,06_g_,_22_mm-sa.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG Righetti 1337, AE-22, -/-//--, ANTIOCH GEN COL CA, Fortuna or female Genius standing left, #1103 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG Righetti 1337, AE-22, -/-//--, ANTIOCH GEN COL CA, Fortuna or female Genius standing left, #1
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: ANTIOCH GEN COL CA, Fortuna or female Genius standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 6,06g, axis: 0h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 198-203 A.D., ref: SNG Righetti 1337, SNG Leypold II 1994,
Q-001
quadrans
Geta_AR-Den_P-SEPTIMIVS-GETA-CAES_PONTIF-COS-II_RIC-IV-I-59b-p-321_C-114_Roma-209-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,71g-s.jpg
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left,92 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left,
avers:- P-SEPTIMIVS-GETA-CAES, Bare head right, bearded.
revers:- PONTIF-COS-II, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears.
exe: , diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,71g, axis:- 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 209 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-059b-p-321, C-114,
Q-001
quadrans
Geta_AR-Den_P-SEPTIMIVS-GETA-CAES_PONTIF-COS-II_RIC-IV-I-59b-p-321_C-114_Roma-209-AD_Q-002_0h_18,5-19mm_2,62g-s.jpg
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),83 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),
avers:- P-SEPTIMIVS-GETA-CAES, Bare head right, bearded.
revers:- PONTIF-COS-II, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 2,62g, axis:- 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 209 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-059b-p-321, (but base metal, "limes" ?), C-114,
Q-001
quadrans
Geta_AR-Den_P-SEPTIMIVS-GETA-CAES_PONTIF-COS-II_RIC-IV-I-59b-p-321_C-114_Roma-209-AD_Q-002_0h_18,5-19mm_2,62g-s~0.jpg
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),89 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 059b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PONTIF COS II, Genius standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),
avers:- P-SEPTIMIVS-GETA-CAES, Bare head right, bearded.
revers:- PONTIF-COS-II, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding grain ears.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 2,62g, axis:- 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 209 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-059b-p-321, (but base metal, "limes" ?), C-114,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_055g_img.jpg
055 - Commodus Denarius - RIC III (Commodus) 19433 viewsObv:– M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:- PIETATI SENATVS / CVPP, Commodus standing right, holding roll & clasping hand of Genius Senatus standing left, holding scepter
Minted in Rome. A.D. 186-189
Reference:– RIC III (Commodus) 194. RSC 408.
maridvnvm
160Hadrian_RIC574.jpg
0574 Hadrian AS Roma 119-21 AD Genius standing25 viewsReference.
RIC 574; C 1186

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS III / S - C in field
Genius standing right, foot on globe, holding scepter and cornucopia.

11 gr
25 mm
6h
okidoki
RI_063e_img.jpg
063 - Clodius Albinus Denarius - RIC 023d47 viewsObv:– IMP CAES D CLO SEP ALBIN AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GEN LVG COS II, Genius of Lugdunum, standing facing, towered head left, vertical scepter in right hand, cornucopiae in left, eagle at feet to left and looking upward right
Minted in Lugdunum. November A.D. 195 to 19th February A.D. 196
Reference:– RIC 23d (R2)
2 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI 064eu img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 04333 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP IIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIVS P R, Genius of the Roman People standing left holding patera over lit altar & cornucopia
Minted in Rome between A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE 81, RIC 43, RSC 209
maridvnvm
RI_064pj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Sestertius - RIC 74342 viewsObv:- L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, Laureate head right
Rev:- P M TR P V COS II P P, S-C, Genius, naked, standing front, head left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over lighted, garlanded altar left and golding two corn ears downwards in left hand
Minted in Rome A.D 197.
Reference:- RIC 743 (Rated Scarce). BMCRE 621 (same reverse die). Cohen 441.
maridvnvm
708_P_Hadrian_Strack31.jpg
067var. Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Genius standing no altar Eastern mint 16 viewsReference.
Strack cf*31; cf RIC 173 (no PP)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COS III
Genius standing left with patera No altar, holding cornucopiae.

2.79 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
Ex maridvnvm
okidoki
RI_068y_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 059a19 viewsObv:– P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, Bare headed, bearded, draped bust right
Rev:– PONTIF COS II, Genius, naked standing left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar and holding corn ears
Minted in Rome. early A.D. 209
Reference:– BMC p.274, 584. RIC 59a. RSC 114. 72 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI_068x_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 059a14 viewsObv:– P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, Bare headed, bearded, draped bust right
Rev:– PONTIF COS II, Genius, naked standing left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar and holding corn ears
Minted in Rome. early A.D. 209
Reference:– BMC p.274, 584. RIC 59a. RSC 114. 72 examples in RD.

BMC and RIC mention that the busts of Geta are bearded for this issue but this example doesn't show any trace of beard.
maridvnvm
RI_068z_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 06717 viewsObv:– IMP CAES P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PONTIF TR P COS II, Genius, naked standing left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar and holding corn ears
Minted in Rome. later A.D. 209
Reference:– BMC p. 359 15. RIC 67. RSC 129. 2 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI_068al_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 06717 viewsObv:– IMP CAES P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PONTIF TR P COS II, Genius, naked standing left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar and holding corn ears
Minted in Rome. later A.D. 209
Reference:– BMC p. 359 15. RIC 67. RSC 129. 2 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI_068ak_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 070a15 viewsObv:- P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– PONTIF TR P II COS II, Genius, naked standing left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar and holding corn ears.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 210
Reference:– RIC 70a. RSC 139. 4 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI_068ah_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 070b12 viewsObv:– IMP CAES P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PONTIF TR P II COS II, Genius, naked standing left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar and holding corn ears.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 210
Reference:– BMC P. 365, 43. RIC 70b. RSC 140. 22 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
518_Hadrian_Strack_31.JPG
068 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Genius standing Eastern mint16 viewsAn unknown variant obverse to Strack *31

Reference.
Strack *31; cf RIC 173 (no PP)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right.

Rev. COS III
Genius sacrificing left from patera over flaming altar, holding cornucopiae.

2.9 gr
18 mm
okidoki
916Hadrian_RIC342.jpg
068 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Genius standing Eastern mint15 viewsReference.
RIC cf342; Strack *31; -- BMC pag. 300

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from front

Rev. COS III
Genius, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over altar and holding cornucopiae in left

3.02 gr
20 mm
6h
okidoki
06c-Constantine-Ser-026.jpg
06c. Constantine as Caesar: Serdica follis.57 viewsFollis, July 306 - Spring 307, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAESAR / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, holding cornucopiae. A in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
8.28 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #26; PBCC #848; Sear #15532.

RIC (vol VI, p. 489) says of this coin: " Rare for the Augusti, and very rare for the Caesars. This was evidently a small issue." This was the first issue to have Constantine on it, and due to political considerations, the last at Serdica. If you want a coin from each of the 19 mints that produced coins for Constantine, Serdica is the hardest to find.
2 commentsCallimachus
06d-Constantine-RIC-Lon-88b.jpg
06d. Constantine as Caesar: London follis.18 viewsFollis, summer 307, Londinium mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: PLN
7.05 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #88b; PBCC #11; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
06f-Constantine-Lug-RIC-213b.jpg
06f. Constantine as Caesar: Lugdunum follis.28 viewsFollis, Spring 307, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS N C / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopia. Lighted altar at left. N in right field.
Mint mark: PLG
6.86 gm., 34.5 mm.
RIC #213b; PBCC #246; Sear #15525.
Callimachus
06g-Constantine-Tre-RIC-719b.jpg
06g. Constantine as Caesar: Treveri follis.39 viewsFollis, Summer 307, Treveri mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopia. S in left field; A in right field.
Mint mark: PTR
7.75 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #719b; PBCC #122; Sear #15520.
1 commentsCallimachus
945_P_Hadrian_Strack30.jpg
070 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Genius-Fortunus standing Eastern mint28 viewsReference.
Strack *32;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COS III
Genius-Fortunus standing front, head to left, holding rudder with her right hand and cornucopiae with her left

3.51 gr
18 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
Traianus-Decius_IMP-C-M-Q-TRAIANVS-DECIVS-AVG_GENIVS-EXERC-ILLVRICIANI_RIC-IV-III-16c-p-122_249-251-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_20,5-21,5mm_3,57g-s.jpg
079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0016c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, #1208 views079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0016c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
revers: GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,57g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 249-251 A.D.,ref: RIC-IV-III-16c, p-122
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus-Decius_IMP-C-M-Q-TRAIANVS-DECIVS-AVG_GENIVS-EXERC-ILLVRICIANI_RIC-IV-III-16c-p-122_249-251-AD_Q-004_0h_20-22mm_4,29g-s.jpg
079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0016c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, #462 views079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0016c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, #4
avers: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
revers: GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20-22mm, weight: 4,29g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 249-251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-16c, p-122
Q-004
quadrans
Traianus-Decius_IMP-CAE-TRA-DEC-AVG_GEN-ILLVRICI_RIC-38a_C-43_251-Rome_Q-001_21-22mm_4_20g-a.jpg
079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0038a, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, GEN ILLVRICI, Genius standing left, #164 views079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0038a, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, GEN ILLVRICI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- IMP CAE TRA DEC AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
revers:- GEN ILLVRICI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 4,2g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-38a, C-43,
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus-Decius_AE-Sest_IMP-C-M-Q-TRAIANVS-DECIVS-AVG_GENIVS-EXERC-ILLVRICIANI_RIC-IV-III-117a-p-122_249-251-AD_Q-001_0h_27,5-30mm_17_8g-s.jpg
079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0117a, Rome, AE-Sestertius, GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, #198 views079 Traianus Decius (249-251 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0117a, Rome, AE-Sestertius, GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
revers: GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; standard to right. S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27,5-30,0mm, weight: 17,8g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 249-251 A.D.,ref: RIC-IV-III-117a, C.53,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
07e-Constantine-Sis-200b.jpg
07e. Constantine as Filius Augustorum: Siscia follis.29 viewsFollis, 309 - 310, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS FIL AVGG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, and holding cornucopiae. Crescent in left field; A in right field.
Mint mark: SIS
6.14 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #200b; PBCC #786; Sear #15581.

The obverse legend shows Constantine as "Filius Augustorum" -- an empty title granted him after the conference at Carnuntum in November 308. Coins with this title were issued for a short time at 5 mints under the control of Galerius (Siscia, Thessalonica, Nicomedia, Antioch, Alexandria). This title was not recognized in the area under the control of Constantine himself, nor in Italy which was under the control of Maxentius.
Callimachus
44Hadrian_RIC88.jpg
088 Hadrian Denarius Roma 122 AD Genius standing25 viewsReference.
Strack 113; RIC 88; C. 1093

Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate head right draped on far shoulder

Rev: P M TR P COS III.
Genius standing left with cornucopia and patera over altar.

3.3 gr
19 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
09-Diocletian-Lon-RIC-28a.jpg
09. Diocletian.25 viewsFollis, ca 300-305 AD, London mint (group III).
Obverse: IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG / Laureate and curriassed bust of Diocletian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
11.20 gm., 28.5 mm.
RIC #28a; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
278Hadrian_RIC90.jpg
090 Hadrian Denarius Rome 119-22 AD Genius45 viewsReference.
Strack 109; RIC 90; RSC 1091; BMCRE 178-180 var.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIA_N HADRIANVS AVG
laureate and cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder

Rev. P M TR P - COS III
Genius standing left, holding patera and corn-ears, altar at his feet.

2.68 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
RI_096g_img.jpg
096 - Trajan Decius - RIC 017b9 viewsObv:– IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI Genius standing front, head to left, holding patera over lighted altar in his right hand and cornucopiae with his left; in left field, standard
Minted in Rome. A.D. 249 - 251
Reference(s) – RIC 17b. RSC 56

4.01 gms, 22.51mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
987_P_Hadrian_RPC986.jpg
0986 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian Ae 33 Distyle temple13 viewsReference
RPC III, 986var (bust);

Issue Bronze; I. 1

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Distyle temple on podium of two steps; within, Capitoline triad: in the centre, Zeus stands facing, resting with r. hand on long sceptre, between Hera, l. standing r. and Athena, r., standing l. Hera rests with l. hand on long sceptre. Athena crowns Zeus and holds an aphlaston in her l. hand; sacrificing Genius over altar with patera in hand, in pediment; Victories on raking cornices and on apex (?)

23.26 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
New bust
Temple like RPC III, 986
Figures like RPC III, 985
okidoki
maximianus_genio_lon_1.png
1 Maximianus 1.01.00521 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP MAXIMINANVS PF AVG
(R. laur)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius standing l, holding patera and cornucopiae)
LON in ex
London
Not in RIC CT 1.01.005 (R)
9.8g
c. 296 AD
(ex Didier Lequetier)
(This coin is the fourth example mentioned in the footnote of CT)
These early coins from the London mint are stylistically similar to coins minted in France at the time, and suggest that an engraver(s) came over with Constantius when Britannia was invaded in 296.
Noviomagus
10-Maximianus-Lon-RIC-6b.jpg
10. Maximianus.20 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate and curiassed bust of Maximian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.63 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #6b; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
1184_P_Hadrian_RPC996.jpg
1013A BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1013A; Rec 43

Issue I. 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Radiate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps, pellet between columns; in pediment sacrificing Genius between two pellets

12.82 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
1152_P_Sabina_RPC1024~0.jpg
1024 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Sabina Ae 32 Octastyle temple15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1024; Rec 53; Paris 815; von Aulock 290; BMC 30; C/M Howgego 64 ( Hadrian Laureate head right)

Obv. СΑΒΕΙΝΑ СΕΒΑΣΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, r., with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; in pediment, sacrificing Genius in pediment; below, prow

25.17 gr
32 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
1152_P_Sabina_RPC1024.jpg
1024 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Sabina, Octastyle temple51 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1024; Rec 53; Paris 815; von Aulock 290; BMC 30; C/M Howgego 64 ( Hadrian Laureate head right)

Obv. СΑΒΕΙΝΑ СΕΒΑΣΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina, r., with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium of two steps; pellet between middle columns; in pediment, sacrificing Genius in pediment; below, prow

25.17 gr
32 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_GENIVS-AVG_Gamma_RIC-46k_C-109_Roma_348-350-AD__Q-001_20-21mm_2,21g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!73 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!
avers:- IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia, Gamma in right field.
exe: -/Γ//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 2,21g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, iss 2, off 3, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 46k, T-326, C-109,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II_AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG__Error-coin-Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_2,21g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!80 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 AD.) T-0326 , Roma, AE-Antoninianvs, GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, Curious rotated or flipped double strikes, Error-coin, !!
avers:- IMP CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia, Gamma in right field.
exe: -/Γ//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 2,21g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, iss 2, off 3, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 46k, T-326, C-109,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_GENIVS-ILLVR_RIC-V-223v-p-T-Not_in_off-3_iss-2_Siscia_270-AD_Q-001_0h_20-21mm_3,46ga-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T- ???, RIC V-I 223var, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, GENIVS ILLVR, */-//T, Genius standing left,80 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T- ???, RIC V-I 223var, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, GENIVS ILLVR, */-//T, Genius standing left,
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum. (D1)
revers:- GENIVS ILLVR, Genius standing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand; on ground to right, standard. (Genius 1)
exerg: */-//T, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 3,46g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, iss-2, Ph-1, off-3, date: 270 A.D., ref: T-??? (Estiot), RIC V-I 223var.,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_GENIVS-EXERCITI_RIC-V-345-p-RIC-T-Not-in_off-_iss-3_Cyzicus_271-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_20mm_3,88g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2923, RIC V-I 345var, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, GENIVS EXERCITI, -/-//--, Genius standing left,73 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2923, RIC V-I 345var, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, GENIVS EXERCITI, -/-//--, Genius standing left,
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1)
revers:- GENIVS EXERCITI, Genius standing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand; on ground to right, standard. (Genius 1)
exerg: -/-//-, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,88g, axes: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, iss-3, date: 271 A.D., ref: T-2923 (Estiot), RIC V-I 245var,
Q-001
quadrans
106c.jpg
106c Diocletian. AE follis12 viewsobv: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopia
ex: -Z//ANT*
hill132
106d.jpg
106d Diocletian. AE follis 9.8gm21 viewsobv: IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG. laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopia
ex: HT(epsilon)
hill132
106e.jpg
106e Diocletian. AE follis21 viewsobv: IMP C G VAL DIOCLETIANVS F AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI Genius std.l. modius on head, chlamys over l.
shoulder, holding patera and cournucopia
ex: Kr
hill132
RI_107af_img.jpg
107 - Gallienus - RIC 63820 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO AVG, Genius standing left, with right hand sacrificing from patera onto flaming tripod left, with left hand holding cornucopia. Branch in exergue
Minted in Asia.
Reference:– Gφbl 1631c. RIC 638
1 commentsmaridvnvm
109.jpg
109 Domitius Domitianus. AE follis33 viewsobv: IMP C L DOMITVS DOMITIANVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_L_I ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -A//ALE
1 commentshill132
11-Galerius-Lon-RIC-15.jpg
11. Galerius.21 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate and curiassed bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
10.65gm., 26mm.
RIC #15; Sear #14344.
Callimachus
110b.jpg
110b Maximianus Herculius. AE follis24 viewsobv: IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_L_I ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: K(epsilon)
hill132
110c.jpg
110c Maximinus Herculius. AE follis24 viewsobv: IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_L_I ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: HTA
hill132
110d.jpg
110d Maximianus Herculius. AE follis25 viewsobv: IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r
rev: GENIO POPV_L_I ROMANI genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: SMNB
hill132
110e.jpg
110e Maximianvs Herculius. AE follis16 viewsobv: IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera an cornucopiae
ex: K(delta)
hill132
110f.jpg
110f Maximianus Herculius. AE follis16 viewsobv: IMP C CAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO IMPE_RATORIS Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -S/K-P//ALE
hill132
110g.jpg
110g Maximianus Herculius. AE follis17 viewsobv: IP C MA MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: K(epsilon)
hill132
111a.jpg
111a Galerius Maximianus. AE follis 9.1gm27 viewsobv: CAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES laur; head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -S/ANT*
hill132
111c.jpg
111c Galerius Maximianus. AE follis 9.2gm25 viewsobv: CAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_L_I ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: HTA
hill132
112.jpg
112 Constantius I. AE follis34 viewsobv: FL IL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES laur. head r.
rev: GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: KB
1 commentshill132
112b.jpg
112b Constantius I. AE follis18 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTATIVS NOB CAES laur. head r.
rev: GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: KB
hill132
112c.jpg
112c Constantius I. AE follis17 viewsobv: CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. cuir. bust r
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: S-F//PTR
hill132
113- Constantine-21.JPG
113- Constantine The Great -21-S34 viewsAE Follis, 312-313 AD, Alexandria mint.
Obv: F VALER CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius holding the head of Serapis, N left A right, Palm at feet.
ALE in exergue.
20mm
RIC 161.
jdholds
113a.jpg
113a Galerius. AE follis 6.9gm21 viewsobv: GAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur head r.
rev: GENIO A_VGVSTI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: A//MKV
hill132
113b.jpg
113b Galerius. AE follis 6.2gm26 viewsobv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO IMP_ERATORIS Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -r/K-P//ALE
hill132
116a.jpg
116a Maximinus II. AE follis 5.6gm35 viewsobv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO A_VGVSTI Genius l. holding patera and cornucopiae, eagle at feet
ex: -(delta)//SMHT
2 commentshill132
116b.jpg
116b Maximinus II. AE follis 6.0gm23 viewsobv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO IMP_ERATORIS Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -(delta)/K-P//ALE
1 commentshill132
116c.jpg
116c Maximinus II. AE follis 6.6gm23 viewsobv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO AV_GVSTI CNH Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: SMN(EPSALON)
1 commentshill132
116d.jpg
116d Maximinus II. AE follis 5.0gm24 viewsobv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO A_VGVSTI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -A//SMN
hill132
116e.jpg
116e Maximinu II. AE follis 19 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG laur. drp. bust r. as seen from behind
rev: GENIO POP ROM Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: T-F//PTR
hill132
Diocletianus_AE-26_IMP-C-DIO(C)LETIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_XX-A-over-I_ALE_Alexandria_RIC-VI-32a_p-665_301-AD_NF-001_axis-0h_25-27mm_9,78g-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC VI 032a, AE-Follis, XX|A/I//ALE, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1357 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC VI 032a, AE-Follis, XX|A/I//ALE, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- IMP C DIO(C)LETIANVS P F AVG Laureate head right. Legend error !!!,
revers:- GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: XX|A/I//ALE, diameter: 25-27mm, weight: 9,78g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 301 A.D., ref: RIC VI 32a, p-665,
Q-001
quadrans
Diocletianus_AE-Folis_IMP-C-C-VAL-DIOCLETIANVS-PF-AVG-_GENIO-POPV-L-I-ROMANI_HTE_RIC-xxx-p-_-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 017a, AE-Follis, -/-//HTE, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #185 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VI 017a, AE-Follis, -/-//HTE, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POPV L I ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//HTE, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: ,
mint: Heraclea, date: 296-297 A.D., ref: RIC VI 17a, p-531,
Q-001
quadrans
Diocletianus_AE-26_IMP-C-DIOCLETIANVS-PF-AVG-_GENIO-POP_VLI-ROMANI-l_f_gamma_star-SIS_Siscia-xxx-RIC-xxx-_Q-001_26mm_x,xxga-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI , AE-Follis, -/Γ/*SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1147 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI , AE-Follis, -/Γ/*SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: -/Γ/*SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: g, axis: ,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC VI-, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Diocletianus_AE-28_Follis_IMP-C-C-VAL-DIOCLETIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-POP_VLI-ROMANI-S-B_Siscia-RIC-VI-76a_p-464_Q-001_axis-0h_26,5-28mm_8,73g-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 076a, AE-Follis, S/B/--, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1132 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 076a, AE-Follis, S/B/--, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: S/B/--, diameter: 26,5-28mm, weight: 8,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC VI 76a, p-464,
Q-001
quadrans
Diocletianus_AE-27_IMP-C-DIOCLETIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_l_f_S-r_f_B_Siscia-RIC-VI-76a_p-464_Q-002_7h_27mm_10,29g-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 076a, AE-Follis, S/B/--, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #2101 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 076a, AE-Follis, S/B/--, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #2
avers: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: S/B/--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 10,29g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC VI 76a, p-464,
Q-002
quadrans
Diocletianus_AE-28_IMP-C-DIOCLETIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-POP_VLI-ROMANI-S-gamma_Siscia-RIC-VI-79a_Q-001_axis-6h_26,5-28mm_10,18g-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 079a, AE-Follis, S/Γ/--, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1104 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 079a, AE-Follis, S/Γ/--, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: S/Γ/--, diameter: 26,5-28mm, weight: 10,18g,axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305 A.D., ref: RIC VI 79a, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
119b.jpg
119b Licinius I. AE follis 5.6gm26 viewsobv: VAL(DOT)LICINIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENOI A_VGVSTI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: *-A//.SM.TS.
2 commentshill132
119d.jpg
119d Licinius I. AE follis 3.9gm20 viewsobv: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG laur. cuir. bust r.
rev: GENIO POP ROM Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: T-F//ATR
hill132
119j.jpg
119j LiciniusI. AE follis 19 viewsobv: VAL LICINIANVS LICINIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO A_VGVSTI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: A-*//MKV
hill132
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.32 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
Maximianus_Q-005_h_mm_g-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 108b, AE-Follis, -/Γ//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #173 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 108b, AE-Follis, -/Γ//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, Γ in the right field.
exergue: -/Γ//SIS, diameter: 28mm, weight: 10,02g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 299 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-108b, p-467,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-Quarter-Follis_IMP-C-M-A-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI-146-p-471-2a-A-R2-_Siscia_305-AD__Q-001_0h_19mm_2,34g-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #170 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #1
avers: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//SIS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-146, p-471, R2!,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-Quarter-Follis_IMP-C-M-A-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI-146-p-471-2a-A-R2-_Siscia_305-AD__Q-002_0h_19mm_2,xxg-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #272 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 146, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R2!!, #2
avers: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//SIS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-146, p-471, R2!,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximianus-Herculius_AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG(2a,A)_GENIO-POPVLI-ROMANI_Star_PTdot_RIC-VI-33b_Ticinum_p-284_298-9AD_Q-001_0h_27,5-28mm_8,57g-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 33b, AE-Follis, */-//PT•, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1105 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 33b, AE-Follis, */-//PT•, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, * in the left field.
exergue: */-//PT•, diameter: 27,5-28mm, weight: 8,57g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 298-299 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-33b, p-284,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Quarter-Follis_FL-VAL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_4a-A_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_XX_B_I_ALE_RIC-VI-33a_p-665_Alexandria_301-AD_C2_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 033a, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #169 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 033a, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo:XX/B/I// ALE, diameter: 25,5-28,2mm, weight: 9,11g, axis: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 301 A.D., ref: RIC VI 033a, p-665, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_Gamma_SIS_RIC_VI_109a_p-467_Siscia_299-AD_Q-001_11h_28-29mm_9,26g-s~0.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 109a, -/Γ//SIS, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1126 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 109a, -/Γ//SIS, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: -/Γ//SIS, diameter: 28,0-29,0mm, weight: 9,26g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 299 A.D., ref: RIC VI 109a, p-467,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Quarter-Follis_IMP-C-CONSTANTIVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC_VI_167_p-475_Siscia_305-06_AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18-18,5mm_2,57g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 167, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, Rare!!, #1125 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 167, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, Rare!!, #1
avers:- IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: SIS, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305-306 A.D., ref: RIC VI 167, p-475, Rare,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 122c img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 045 21 viewsObv:– IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left with patera & cornucopaie
Minted in Rome. A.D. 268-270
Reference:– RIC 45
maridvnvm
Galerius_AE-Silvered-Follis_MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAES_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_AQ-__RIC-VI-24b-p-314_3rd-off__C-_Aquilea-296-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_27mm_10,41g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 024b, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1316 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 024b, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: AQ Γ, diameter: 27mm, weight: 10,41g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 296 A.D., ref: RICVI-24b, p-314,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAESS_GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN_KA_RIC-VI-11b_p-580_297-9-AD-Cyzicus_Q-001_6h_27,5mm_9,82g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #1291 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right (large head type).
revers:- GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low), holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopiae.
exergo: -/-//KA, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 9,82g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 297-299 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-11b,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAESS_GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN_KA_RIC-VI-11b_p-580_297-9-AD-Cyzicus_Q-002_0h_27,4-27,8mm_10,54g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #2137 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right (large head type).
revers:- GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low), holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopiae.
exergo: -/-//KA, diameter: 27,4-27,9mm, weight: 10,54g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 297-299 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-11b,
Q-002
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-C_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_S-A_RIC-VI-81b_Siscia-310-311-AD__Q-001_1h_28-29mm_9,74g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 081bvar., S/A//--, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1148 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 081bvar., S/A//--, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-C, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. S-A across fields. No mintmark. .
exergo: S/A//--, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 9,74g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 294 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-81b var (unlisted reverse break)
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-AVGVSTI_crescent-stigma_SIS_RIC-207c-6th-off_C-_Siscia-310-311-AD__Q-001_24-25mm_6,35g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 207c, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1118 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 207c, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, crescent left field, stigma right field.
exergo: SIS, diameter: 24-25mm, weight: 6,35g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 310-311 A.D., ref: RIC-207c-6th-officina,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-A-VGVSTI_star-Gamma_dotSMdotTSdot_RIC-VI-30a-p-514_308-10-AD-Thessa_Q-001_axis-0h_23-24,5mm_5,43g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VI 30a, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1229 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VI 30a, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- GAL-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-A-VGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exerg: */Γ//•SM•TS•, diameter: 23-24,5mm, weight: 5,43g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 308-310 A.D., ref: RIC VI 30a, p-514,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-II_AE-Follis_FL-VAL-SEVERVS-NOB-CAES_GENIO-AVG-G-ET-CAESARVM-N-N_KA_RIC-VI-20a-p-582_Cyzicus_305-306-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_26,5-27,5mm_7,46g-s.jpg
127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC-VI 020a, AE-1, GENIO AVG G ET CAESARVM N N, -/-//KA, Genius standing left, #1312 views127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC-VI 020a, AE-1, GENIO AVG G ET CAESARVM N N, -/-//KA, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- FL-VAL-SEVERVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-AVG-G-ET-CAESARVM-N-N, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exerg: -/-//KA, diameter: 26,5-27,5 mm, weight: 7,46g, axes: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 305-306 A.D., ref: RIC VI 20a, p-582,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-II_AE-Follis_IMP-C-FL-VAL-SEVERVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-POPVLI-ROMANI_-_star_KB_RIC-VI-25b-p-582_Cyzicus_307-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_28mm_9,74g-s.jpg
127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC-VI 025b, AE-1, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/*//KB, Genius standing left, #181 views127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC-VI 025b, AE-1, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/*//KB, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-FL-VAL-SEVERVS-P-F-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POPVLI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exerg: -/*//KB, diameter: 28 mm, weight: 9,74g, axes: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 307A.D., ref: RIC VI 25b, p-582,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-II_AE-Follis_FL-VAL-SEVERVS-NOB-CAESAR_GENIO-POPV-L-IROMANI_A_dotSMdotSDdot_RIC-VI-13aA-p-495_Serdica_305-306-AD_Q-001_6h_26-27,5mm_9,68g-s.jpg
127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Serdica, RIC-VI 013aA, AE-1, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/A//•SM•SD•, Genius standing left, #174 views127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Serdica, RIC-VI 013aA, AE-1, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/A//•SM•SD•, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- FL-VAL-SEVERVS-NOB-CAESAR, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POPV-L-I-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exerg: -/A//•SM•SD•, diameter:26-27,5mm, weight: 9,68g, axes: 6h,
mint: Serdica, date: 305-306A.D., ref: RIC VI-13aA, p-495, Sear 14633,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus-II_AE-Quarter-Follis_SEVERVS-NOB-C_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI--p--2a-A-R2-_Siscia_305-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18mm_2,39g-s.jpg
127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC-VI 171a, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/-//SIS, Genius standing left, R!!, #1130 views127 Severus-II. (305-306 A.D. Caesar, 306-307 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC-VI 171a, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, -/-//SIS, Genius standing left, R!!, #1
avers:- SEVERVS-NOB-C, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: -/-//SIS, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,39g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VI-171a, p-475, Rare,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-II_AE-Follis_IMP-C-GAL-VAL-MAXIMINVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-AVGVSTI_star-H_ANT_RIC-VI-164b-p-643_Antiochia_312-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_21mm_5,35g-s.jpg
128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 164b, AE-1, */H//ANT, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,266 views128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 164b, AE-1, */H//ANT, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,
avers:- IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding head of Sol and cornucopia.
exergo: */H//ANT, diameter: 21mm, weight: 5,35g, axis: 0h,
mint: Antioch, date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC VI 164b, p-643,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maximinus-II_AE-Follis_IMP-MAXIMINVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-AVGVSTI_AQS_RIC-VI-130-p-327_Aquilea_312-3AD_Q-001_7h_21,5-22,0mm_4,14g-s.jpg
128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 130, -/-//AQS, AE-1, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,124 views128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 130, -/-//AQS, AE-1, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,
avers:- IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, sacrificing over tripod altar from patera, holding cornucopiae.
exergo: -/-//AQS, diameter: 21,5-22,0mm, weight: 4,14g, axis: 7h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 312-313 A.D., ref: RIC VI 130, p-327,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-II_AE-Quarter-Follis_GAL-VAL-MAXIMINVS-NOB-C_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC-VI-170b-p475-4b-A-R_Siscia_305-6_AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,34g-s.jpg
128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 170b, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R!,131 views128 Maximinus II. "Daia" (305-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 310-313 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 170b, AE-Quarter-Follis, -/-//SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, R!,
avers:- GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: -/-//SIS, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305-06 A.D., ref: RIC VI 170b, p-475, R!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
13-Licinius-I-Lon-RIC-209c.jpg
13. Licinius I.16 viewsFollis, 310-312, London mint.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Licinius I.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae. Star in right field.
Mint mark: PLN
4.41 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #209c; PBCC #41; Sear #15182.
Callimachus
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.34 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Licinius-l__IMP-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-P-OP-ROM_MOST-Q_RIC-VI-75b-p-408_Ostia_3a-B_312-13-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-1h_21-22mm_3,97g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ostia, RIC VI 075b, -/-//MOSTQ, AE-2 Follis, GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left,202 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ostia, RIC VI 075b, -/-//MOSTQ, AE-2 Follis, GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left,
avers:- IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GENIO P OP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//MOSTQ, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,97g, axes: 1h,
mint: Ostia, date: 312-313A.D., ref: RIC-VI-75b, p-408 ,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_VALdotLICINIVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-A-VGVSTI_star-B_dotSMdotTSdot_RIC-VI-30b_0h_25-27mm_5,63g.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 030b, */B//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,61 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 030b, */B//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,
avers:- VAL•LICINIVS P F AVG, (2a, A), Laureate, head right.
revers:- GENIO A VGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; * in left and B in right in field.
exergo: */B//•SM•TS•, diameter: 25-27mm, weight: 5,63g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, 2nd. off., date: 308-310 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-30b typ 2., p-514,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_IMP-C-FL-VAL-CONSTANTINVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-AVGVSTI_star-Delta-I_ANT_RIC-VI-164c-p-643_Antioch_312-AD_S_Q-001_0h_19-21,5mm_4,27ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 164c, AE-2 Follis, */ΔΙ//ANT, GENIO-AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on head, Scarce!67 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 164c, AE-2 Follis, */ΔΙ//ANT, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on head, Scarce!
avers:- IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right.
revers:- GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, naked but for modius on head and chlamys over left shoulder, holding head of Sol and cornucopiae, star to left, ΔΙ to right.
exerg: */ΔΙ//ANT, diameter: 19-21,5mm, weight: 4,27g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-164c, p-643, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
136_Constantinus_I_,_Nicomedia,_RIC_VI_71c,_AE-Follis,_IMP_C_FL_VAL_CONSTANTINVS_P_F_AVG,_GENIO_AVGVSTI,_-B_SMN,_312_AD,_S_Q-001,_0h,_21,5-22,7mm,_6,06g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Nicomedia, RIC VI 071c, AE-Follis, -/B//SMN, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, Scarce!118 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Nicomedia, RIC VI 071c, AE-Follis, -/B//SMN, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, Scarce!
avers: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right.
reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera over altar and cornucopiae, B right.
exergue: -/B//SMN, diameter: 21,5-22,7mm, weight: 6,06g, axis: 0h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC VI 71c, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
antpius_RIC1039.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 159-160 AD38 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII (Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1039 (S), Cohen337 (5frcs)
10.21gms, 23mm
Rare

According to Cohen this temple is a tetrastyle (four columns) design, but just the front columns with the Victories are visible on the coin's reverse. The statue on cippus is maybe Antoninus as personification of Genius?
berserker
antpius-RIC70.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD24 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (bare head right)
rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI (Genius standing front, head right, with scepter & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 70, RSC 405 (6frcs), BMC 207
3.15gms, 18mm

The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. The genius publicus Populi Romani - probably distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was dedicated, stood in the forum near the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem, and carrying a cornucopiae and sceptre. In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly worshipped. The reverse probably commemorate this (the scepter as Genius attributum is unusual).
berserker
14-Maximinus-II-Lon-RIC-209b.jpg
14. Maximinus II.14 viewsFollis, 310-312, London mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINUS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Maximinus II.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae. Star in right field.
Mint mark: PLN
4.69 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #209b; PBCC #40; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141cl_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - AE Follis - RIC VI - London 28a16 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in London (None). from A.D. 303
Reference:– RIC VI London 28a
maridvnvm
RI 141j img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Alexandria 30a19 viewsObv:– IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (XXI in left field, A in right field, ALE in exe.)
References:– RIC VI Alexandria 30
maridvnvm
RI 141i img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Aquilea 25a131 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Aquilea (AQP in exe)
References:– RIC VI Aquilea 25a
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_141cv_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI London 028a10 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in London (None). from A.D. 303
Reference:– RIC VI London 28a

10.72 gms, 27.29mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI 141y img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI London 28a36 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in London (No marks) c. A.D. 303 onwards
References:– RIC VI London 28a

Nice example which is just about fully silvered.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 141p img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Lugdunum 029a29 viewsObv:– IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field, LP in exe) A.D. 298
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 29a (Scarce). Bastien Volume XI 84 legend break ii (6 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 141t img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Lugdunum 108a19 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera over altar and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe) A.D. 301-303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 113a. Bastien Volume XI 316
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 141o img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Lugdunum 113a21 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera over altar and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in right field, PLC in exe) A.D. 301-303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 113a. Bastien Volume XI 338
maridvnvm
RI 141h img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Siscia 085a17 viewsObv:– IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Siscia (B in right field, *SIS in exe) A.D. 295
References:– RIC VI Siscia 85a
maridvnvm
RI_146dp_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 85 17 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding club over right shoulder and lion's skin in left hand
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath.
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | A //PLC). Officina 1. Spring A.D. 300 – A.D. 302
Reference(s) – Bastien 148 (8). RIC VI Lugdunum 85 (Rated S)
maridvnvm
RI 146bx img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI London 1738 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (No Marks). Spring A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI London 17.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 146ah img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI London 23a21 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in London (No marks), From A.D. 300
References:– RIC VI London 23a
maridvnvm
RI 146aa img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI London 6b28 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in London (No marks), From A.D. 300
References:– RIC VI London 6b

Lots of residial silvering remaining.
maridvnvm
RI 146bw img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 043 var (B | _ //PL)23 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (B | _ //PL). A.D. 296
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum - (RIC 43 var officina not listed in RIC). Bastien XI 63 ii (2)
maridvnvm
RI 146r img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 092b32 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (B in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 92b. Bastien XI 339 (3 examples)
maridvnvm
RI_146af_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 108b (_|A)17 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 108b . Bastien Volume XI 322
maridvnvm
RI 146q img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 108b (_|B)25 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (B in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 108b . Bastien Volume XI 342
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RI 146bv img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 20313 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | N //PLC). Spring A.D. 307
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 203. Bastien XI 392 (15 examples cited)
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RI 146ag img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 234 (Senior Augustus)15 viewsObv:– DN MAXIMIANO P F S AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, right hand holding patera, left hand holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (N in right field, PLG in exe). November to December A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 234 (S) Bastien Volume XI 427 (5 examples)
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RI 146u img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 253 (Senior Augustus)21 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, right hand holding patera, left hand holding cornucopiae, altar to left
Minted in Lugdunum (// PLC). Autumn A.D. 307 to Summer A.D. 308
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 253 (S) Bastien Volume X1 468
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RI 146bu img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 288 (Senior Augustus) 8 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, right hand holding patera, left hand holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI in left field, H over S in right field, PLC in exe).
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 288
maridvnvm
RI_146df_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Lugdunum 288 (Senior Augustus)24 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, right hand holding patera, left hand holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI in left field, H over S in right field, PLC in exe).
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 288
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 146f img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Serdica 3b34 viewsObv:– IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust facing right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Serdica (Δ in right field, •SM•SD• in exe.), A.D. 303 – 305
References:– RIC VI Serdica 3b

Nearly fully silvered.
maridvnvm
RI 146g img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC VI Trier 16589 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Laureate bust facing right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Trier (A in left field, Γ in right field, TR in exe.) A.D. 296 - 297
References:– RIC VI Trier 165 (Rare)

Nearly fully silvered
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_146dk_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 34b 14 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (S | E / P //ALE). A.D. 305 to A.D. 306
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 34b
maridvnvm
RI_146dj_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - Follis - RIC VI London 17b21 viewsObv:- IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in London, A.D. 298-300
Reference:- RIC VI London 17b
28mm, 8.3 grams
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_146cg_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 108b16 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | B / PLC). A.D. 289
Reference:– Bastien XI 342 ii (61). RIC VI Lugdunum 108b Bust type B

Weight 9.67g. 28.65mm.
maridvnvm
RI_146ch_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 23713 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera.
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | N / PLC). A.D. 307 - 310
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 237 (Scarce)
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RI_146dr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c33 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_146ak_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Lugdunum 014b12 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (None). c. A.D. 296
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 14b. Bastien XI Annex AN3
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RI_146cy_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 253 18 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera.
Minted in Lugdunum (// PLC). A.D. 307 - 310
Reference:– Bastien XI 468 . RIC VI Lugdunum 253 (Scarce)
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RI_146cx_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Follis - RIC VI Trier 721 16 viewsObv:– D N MAXIMIANO P F S AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO PO ROM, Genius standing left, holding patera in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Trier (S-A//PTR). A.D. 307
References:– RIC VI Trier 721
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_147ac_img.jpg
147 - Constantius Chlorus - AE Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 187a13 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | * / PLG). May A.D. 305 to Early A.D. 307 (Bastien 1st May A.D. 305 – 25th July A.D 306)
Reference:– Bastien XI 369 iii (71). RIC VI Lugdunum 187a.

Somewhat overcleaned. Let's see what it looks like in a few years time when nature has had some time to work on it.
maridvnvm
RI_147aa_img.jpg
147 - Constantius Chlorus - AE Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 6 13 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (//LB). c. A.D. 295
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (Rated scarce)
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RI 147b img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Alexandria 15a note57 viewsObv:– FAL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV - L - I ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (Γ in right field, ALE in exe.) in A.D. 294
References:– RIC VI Alexandria 15a note. (FAL VAL legend variety noted in the Vienna collection)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_147ag_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Alexandria 33a11 viewsObv:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES; Laureate head right
Rev:- GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI; Genius of the Roman People standing facing, head left, holding cornucopia and pouring libation from patera
Minted in Alexandria (XX | E/I //ALE). A.D. 301
Ref:- RIC VI Alexandria 33a

10.35g, 27.21mm, 180o

Slight double strike on reverse
maridvnvm
RI_147af_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Cyzicus 11a10 viewsAE Follis
Obv:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head of Constantius right.
Rev:= GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia, KB in exergue.
Ref:- RIC VI Cyzicus 11a

10.01g, 27.82mm, 180o
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RI 147t img~0.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI London 14a29 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera
Minted in London (No marks). c. A.D. 300 onwards
Ref:– RIC VI London 14a (R)
maridvnvm
RI 147p img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI London 1635 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera
Minted in London (No marks) c A.D. 300 onwards
References:– RIC VI London 16 (S)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 147c img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 00636 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (LA in exe). A.D. 295
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (scarce). Bastien XI 16 legend break i
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RI 147k img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 00622 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (LA in exe). A.D. 295
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (scarce). Bastien XI 16 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI_147z_img.JPG
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 00614 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (LB in exe). A.D. 295
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (scarce)
180 degrees.

Flat strike on head of emperor and legs of Genius.
maridvnvm
RI_147q_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 017a14 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTNTIVS NOB C, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (-). c. A.D. 296
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 17a. Bastien XI Annex AN8
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RI 147e img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 053a35 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field, PL in exe). A.D. 298
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 53a. Bastien XI 68 legend break iii (9 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 147x img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 053a 22 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field, PL in exe). A.D. 298
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 53a. Bastien XI 68 legend break iii (9 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 147o img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 164a (_|A)16 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | A /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164a. Bastien XI 326 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI 147g img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 164a (_|B)28 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | B /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164a. Bastien XI 346 legend break ii
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 147f img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 167a23 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, with sceptre over right shoulder
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | B /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167a. Bastien XI 311 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI 147y img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 167a14 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, with sceptre over right shoulder
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | B /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167a. Bastien XI 311 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI_147ad_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 167a12 viewsObv:- CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, with sceptre over right shoulder
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | A /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167a.
maridvnvm
RI 147m img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 187a19 viewsObverse Legend – IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (* in right field, PLG in exe). 1st May A.D. 305 – 25th July A.D 306
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 187a. Bastien XI 369 legend break iii
maridvnvm
RI 147j img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 187a20 viewsObverse Legend – IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (* in right field, PLG in exe). 1st May A.D. 305 – 25th July A.D 306
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 187a. Bastien XI 369 legend break iii
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RI 147h img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Treveri 160a29 views Obverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate, bust left
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Treveri (A in left , TR in exe). c. A.D. 295
Reference:– RIC VI Treveri 160a (Rated Scarce)

It should also be noted that the usual reverse break for these coins is PV-LI and RIC notes that the OP-VL break occurs but very rarely.

Weight 11.21 gms which is heavier than expected for this issue with RIC noting a weight range of 8.5gms to 10.5 gms.

Size 25.39mm on Obv. X-Axis, 25.46mm in Obv. Y-Axis.
maridvnvm
147.jpg
147 Eugenius. AR iliqua 1.5gm20 viewsobv: DN EVGENI_VS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VIRTVS RO_MANORVM roma seated l. on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear
ex: TRPS
1 commentshill132
RI_148v_img~0.jpg
148 - Galerius - AE Follis - RIC VI - Lugdunum 167b 12 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding scepter over right shoulder
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera over altar
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | A / PLC). A.D. 301 - 303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167b
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RI_148w_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - AE Follis - RIC VI - Siscia 98b 10 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Siscia (_ | B / *SIS). A.D. 296
Reference:– RIC VI Siscia 98b
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RI_148y_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 101a20 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right (divergent wreath ties)
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera over lighted altar
Minted in Alexandria (K | G / P // ALE). A.D. 310-311
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 101a
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RI_148x_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - Follis - RIC VI Antioch 148a 14 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera over lighted altar
Minted in Antioch (Creascent | B / ANT). A.D. 310-311
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 148a

Flan flaw on bust.
maridvnvm
RI_148ab_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Alexandria 015b11 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right (parallel ties)
Rev:– GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera
Minted in Alexandria (_ | B // ALE). A.D. 294
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 15b
maridvnvm
RI_148af_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Alexandria 107a15 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right (parallel wreath ties (round ends))
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera over lighted altar
Minted in Alexandria (K | B / P // ALE). A.D. 310-311
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 107a (C)

Weight 7.55g. 26.06mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_148ac_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Antioch 055b12 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera
Minted in Antioch (K | E / V // ANT). A.D. 300-301
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 55b

Weight 10.44g. 27.01mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 148b img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Heraclea 37a85 viewsObv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left
Minted in Heraclea mint (.HTA.) Group IV between A.D. 308-309
References:– RIC Heraclea 37a (Common)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_148ai_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI London 50 7 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F IN AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (_). Group II - i. May A.D. 305 - Late A.D. 306 or into Early A.D. 307
Reference(s) – Cohen ?. RIC VI London 50 (R, citing Voetter with a footnote stating that confirmation is needed). LMCC (page 126) 4.03.012

Same die pair as LMCC plate coin and BM example (BM B.54, 9.98g, 6h. ex De Salis 1860)

9.77 gms. 29.01 mm diameter. 180 degree die orientation.
maridvnvm
RI_148k_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 017b14 viewsObv:– G VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (No marks).
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 17b (Scarce) (RIC has O/L as C VAL in error). Bastien XI Annex AN9
maridvnvm
RI 148g img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 161b26 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB CS, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, right hand holding patera, left hand holding cornucopiae, altar to left
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe). A.D. 301 - 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 161b (Rare)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 146n img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 164b34 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (B in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164b
maridvnvm
RI 148q img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 164b 13 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164b
maridvnvm
RI_148u_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 164b11 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164b

Uneven strike. Patchy silvering.
maridvnvm
RI 148p img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 167b21 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left holding sceptre in right hand
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167b
maridvnvm
RI 148p genius.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 167b reverse enlargement 12 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left holding sceptre in right hand
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167b
maridvnvm
RI 148a img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Nicomedia 54a48 viewsObv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI CMH, Genius standing left
Minted in Nicomedia, (SMNΔ in exe.), Group IVbetween December A.D. 308 and May A.D. 310
References:– RIC VI Nicomedia 54a (Common)
maridvnvm
RI 148o img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Rome 67b var23 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome (R | _ / Retrograde Z). Circa A.D. 296 to A.D. 297
Reference:– RIC VI Rome 67b var (Listed in RIC with Z in exe (Scarce) but not listed with retrograde Z in RIC)
maridvnvm
RI 146t img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Trier 226b32 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureat, cuirassed bust left holding spear and decorated shield
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (A in left field, Γ in right field, TR in exe.) A.D. 296 - 297
References:– RIC VI Trier 226b (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 148i img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Trier 595b52 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Trier (S | F / PTR). Circa A.D. 303 to 1st May A.D. 305
Reference:– RIC VI Treveri 595b
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_150b_img.jpg
150 - Severus II - Follis - RIC VI Cyzicus 20a52 viewsObv:– FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM N N, Genius standing left holding patera & cornucopia
Minted in Cyzicus (//KA). A.D. 305-306
Reference:– RIC VI Cyzicus 20a

A nice big fully silvered follis.
maridvnvm
RI_150c_img.jpg
150 - Severus II - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum199a24 viewsFollis
Obv:– SEVERVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | * //PLG). 1st May A.D. 305 - 26th July A.D. 306
Reference(s) – Cohen 43. RIC VI Lugdunum199a (C). Bastien 377 (46 examples cited)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 151f img.jpg
151 - Maximinus Daia - RIC VI Lugdunum 21526 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMINVS N C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera over altar
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | N / PLC). Spring A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 215 (rated R). Bastien XI 396 (18 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_151p_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 071 21 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO CAESARIS, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Alexandria (P / D | R // ALE). Mid A.D. 308.
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 71 (Common - this has one of the listed mintmark arrangements)
maridvnvm
RI_151q_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 099a17 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO CAESARIS, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Alexandria (K | S / P // ALE). Late A.D. 308 - A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 99a (Common)
maridvnvm
RI_151u_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 099a22 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO CAESARIS, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Alexandria (K | B / P // ALE). Late A.D. 308 - A.D. 310
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 99a (Common)

Weight 6.44g. 23.84mm. 180 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_151r_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 107c 26 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right (parallel wreath ties with rounded ends)
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Alexandria (K | S / P // ALE).
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 107c (Common)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_151t_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 149b16 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENI-O AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (X | A // ALE). A.D. 312
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 149b (Common)

5.10gms. 20.87 mm. 0 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_151k_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 144b31 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GALER VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding patera in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (Crescent / K | Gamma / X // ALE).
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 144b (Rated Common)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_151s_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 152b30 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right (parallel wreath ties with rounded ends)
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (Crescent / X | B // ALE). A.D. 312
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 152b (Common)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_151h_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 160b42 viewsAe Follis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (* / N / Branch | B / ALE). A.D. 312-313
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 160b
maridvnvm
RI_151j_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 160b18 viewsObv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (* / N / Branch | S // ALE).
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 160b
maridvnvm
RI_151m_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 160b20 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (* / N / Branch | G // ALE).
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 160b
maridvnvm
RI_151i_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 162b 29 viewsObv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (* / N / Branch | Z / Wreath // ALE).
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 162b
maridvnvm
RI_151g_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Antioch 164b 19 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding head of Sol
Minted in Antioch (* | AI / ANT). A.D. 312
Reference – RIC VI Antioch 164b
maridvnvm
RI_151l_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Antioch 164b 40 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding head of Sol
Minted in Antioch (* | E/D / ANT). A.D. 312
Reference(s) – RIC VI Antioch 164b

Flan flaw on eye of bust on pbverse otherwise a pleasing example
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_151o_img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - Follis - RIC VI Nicomedia 71b 6 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys at waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, from which liquid is flowing, sacrificing over lighted altar
Minted in Nicomedia (_ | E // SMN).
Reference(s) – RIC VI Nicomedia 71b (Rated C)
maridvnvm
RI 151b img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - RIC Alexandria 099a111 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO CAESARIS, Genius standing left
Minted in Alexandria (K in left field, Δ over P in right field, ALE in exe), Group IV, 4th Officina between December 308 –310 A.D.
References:– RIC Alexandria 99a (Common)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 151e img.jpg
151 - Maximinus II Daia - RIC London 209b39 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (_ | * / PLN). From mid A.D. 310, to Late A.D. 312
Reference:– RIC VI London 209b
maridvnvm
RI_155ai_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 101b 9 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO IMPE-RATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (K | S/ P // ALE). A.D. 308-310
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 101b (Rated C for IMP-ER but noted as occurring rarely for IMPE-R)
maridvnvm
RI_155ar_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VI Antioch 162a25 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C LIC LICINNIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, nude but for a chlamys hanging low from his left arm, modius on head, standing facing, head left, holding up a figurine of Victory in his righ hand and a cornucopia in his left arm
Minted in Antioch (* | H // ANT). A.D. 311-312
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 162a (S)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_155aq_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII London 03120 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (S | F / MSL). A.D. 315
Reference(s) – RIC VII London 31 (R1).
maridvnvm
RI_155am_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Trier 119 12 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 119 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI_155am_img~0.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Trier 119 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 119 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI_155w_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - RIC VII Lugdunum 4821 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (TF | * / PLG). A.D. 315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 48 (R4). Bastien XI 598 (8 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI_155y_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - RIC VII Lugdunum 50 corr.25 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (TF | * / PLG). A.D. 315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 50 corr (R5). Bastien XI 600 (6 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI_155ac_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VI Trier 845b21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 845b
maridvnvm
RI_155ao_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VI Trier 845b12 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 845b
maridvnvm
RI_155af_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII London 209c 15 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (_ | * / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VII London 209c
maridvnvm
RI_155z_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 11918 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 119

Weight 4.40g. 21.17mm.
maridvnvm
RI_155ae_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 11917 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 119
maridvnvm
RI_155aa_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 12114 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 121
maridvnvm
RI_155ab_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 12118 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 121
maridvnvm
RI_155ad_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 12119 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 121
maridvnvm
RI_155v_img.jpg
155 - Maximinus II - RIC VI Alexandria 099a19 viewsFollis
Obv:- GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:- GENIO CAESARIS, Genius standing left
Minted in Alexandria, (K | D / P). Group IV. December A.D. 308 - 310
Reference(s) – RIC Alexandria 99a

Weight 7.43g. 23.83mm. 0 degrees
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_155w_img~0.jpg
155 - Maximinus II - RIC VI Alexandria 149b12 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (X / G // ALE). Minted in A.D. 312
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 149b

Weight 4.53g. 22.72mm. 180 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
04-Diocletian-Ant-52a.jpg
16 Diocletian: Antioch follis.14 viewsFollis, 299 - 300 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Diocletian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from a patera, and holding cornucopiae. S in right field.
Mint mark: ANT
9.88 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #52a; Sear #12796.
Callimachus
RI_160gc_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great (as Caesar) - AE3 - RIC VII Lugdunum 32715 viewsFollis
Obv:– FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left by lighted altar, modius on head, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (_|N// PLC). Spring A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI Lyons 211 (S). Bastien 399 (19)
maridvnvm
RI_160gf_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI 138 var. (unlisted officina).18 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– FL VALERIVS CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– BONO GENIO PII IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (crescent / K | G / P //ALE)
Reference:– RIC VI 138 var. (unlisted officina).

26.94 mm, 6.05g, 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_160ez_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 25529 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left before lighted altar in turreted crown, left shoulder & loins draped, holding patera & cornucopia.
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLC)
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 255. Bastien XI 470 (122)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160fs_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Alexandria 161 16 viewsFollis
Obv:– FL VALER CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, naked but for chlamys fastened at his right shoulder and hanging from his left shoulder, standing facing, head left, wearing modius, holding head of Serapis, which faces him, in right hand and ornate cornucopia in left arm behind
Minted in Alexandria (* / N / Palm | A // ALE). A.D. 312 - 313
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 161 (S)
maridvnvm
RI 160aa img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Cyzicus 077b48 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI CMH, Genius standing left
Minted in Cyzicus (MKVA), Mid A.D. 311.
Reference:– RIC VI 77b

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_160dk_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 28755 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160ew_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 28721 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
maridvnvm
RI_160dk_revb.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 287 (Genius - FULL SIZE)48 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.

Click on the image to see Genius full size.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_160dk_obva.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 287 (Portrait - FULL SIZE)30 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.

Click on the image to see this portrait full size.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
rjb_gal_1630_03_06.jpg
163121 viewsAntoninianus
Antioch
Issue 11
GENIO AVG
G 1631
mauseus
617_Eastern_RSC335d.jpg
167 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Genius standing Eastern mint31 viewsReference.
RIC -; Strack-; BMCRE pg. 379, 22, pl. 69, 20 (same dies) Paris.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P,
Laureate head right

Rev. COS III
Genius standing left, sacrificing from patera over lighted altar, holding cornucopia in left arm.

2.57 gr
17 mm
7h
1 commentsokidoki
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932033 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
3Hadrian__RIC173.jpg
173 Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-128 AD Genius24 viewsReference.
RIC 173; BMC 396.

Obv. HADRIANVS - AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right of Hadrian with drapery on left shoulder.
Rev. COS III
Genius sacrificing left out of patera over altar; holds cornucopiae.

3.33 gr
19 mm
okidoki
497Hadrian_RIC173.jpg
173 Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-128 AD Genius standing17 viewsReference.
Strack 168; C. 336; RIC 173; BMC 396.

Obv. HADRIANVS - AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right of Hadrian with drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. COS III
Genius sacrificing left out of patera over altar; holds cornucopiae.

3.12 gr
17 mm
okidoki
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius270 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
1789_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY_CYPHER.JPG
1789 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.115 viewsObverse: MACCLESFIELD. Ornamental cypher of “R & Co” (Roe & Company), surmounted by a beehive and six bees.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and an eight spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1789.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 13
RARE

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
1791_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.71 viewsObverse: CHARLES ROE ESTABLISHED THE COPPER WORKS 1758 • Bust of Charles Roe, facing right.
Reverse: MACCLESFIELD HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and a six spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1791.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 55

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
1 commentsBlindado
TranquillinaProv.jpg
1cm Tranquillina72 viewsAE Deultum, Thrace

Draped bust, right, SAB TRANQVILLINA AVG

Deultum, Thrace, COL FL PAC DEVLT, Genius naked holding Patera and branch

Moushmov 3745
Blindado
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus21 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
Blindado
ConstantiusChlorusFollisGenio.jpg
1du Constantius I17 views305-306

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark: SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

Also known as Constantius Chlorus.

RIC 167

After being names Caesar, according to Eutropius: A battle was fought by Constantius Caesar in Gaul, at Lingonae, where he experienced both good and had fortune in one day; for though he was driven into the city by a sudden onset of the barbarians, with such haste and precipitation that after the gates were shut he was drawn up the wall by ropes, yet, when his army came up, after the lapse of scarcely six hours, he cut to pieces about sixty thousand of the Alemanni. . . .

CONSTANTIUS and GALERIUS were made emperors; and the Roman world was divided between them in such a manner, that Constantius had Gaul, Italy, and Africa; Galerius Illyricum, Asia, and the East; two Caesars being joined with them. [Zosimus adds: Three years after Dioclesian died, and the reigning emperors, Constantius and Maximianus Gallerius declared Severus and Maximinus (who was nephew to Gallerius), the Caesars, giving all Italy to Severus, and the eastern provinces to Maximinus.] Constantius, however, content with the dignity of emperor, declined the care of governing Africa. He was an excellent man, of extreme benevolence, who studied to increase the resources of the provinces and of private persons, cared but little for the improvement of the public treasury, and used to say that "it was better for the national wealth to be in the hands of individuals than to be laid up in one place of confinement." So moderate was the furniture of his house, too, that if, on holidays, he had to entertain a greater number of friends than ordinary, his dining-rooms were set out with the plate of private persons, borrowed from their several houses. By the Gauls1 he was not only beloved but venerated, especially because, under his government, they had escaped the suspicious prudence of Diocletian, and the sanguinary rashness of Maximian. He died in Britain, at York, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
GaleriusFollisGenio.jpg
1dv Galerius21 views305-311

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
Blindado
SeverusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dx Severus II14 views306-307

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170a

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. . . . Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers. . . .
The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna.
Blindado
MaximinusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dy Maximinus II22 views309-313

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMINVS NOB C
Genius standing left, naked except for modius on head & chlamys over shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, SIS in ex, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170b

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. . . . LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,4) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy. Not long after, too, Maximin, after commencing hostilities against Licinius in the east, anticipated the destruction that was falling upon him by an accidental death at Tarsus.
Blindado
ProcopiusAEChiRo.jpg
1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
Blindado
ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
Blindado
EugeniusSiliquaRoma.jpg
1ex Eugenius25 views392-394

AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
Blindado
ArcadiusAE4GlorRom.jpg
1ey Arcadius20 views383-408

AE4

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
Emperor advancing right, seizing bound captive by the hair & carrying labarum, BSISC in ex., GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 38c2

Zosimus recorded, [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. After they had amassed immense wealth, Rufinus began to concert the means of becoming emperor, by making his own daughter, who was now marriageable. . . . [A different cabal persuaded Arcadius to marry a different girl.]. . . .

Before this juncture a report had been circulated at Rome, that the emperor Arcadius was dead, which was confirmed after the departure of Arcadius for Ravenna. Stilico being at Ravenna while the emperor was at a city of Aemilia, called Bononia, about seventy miles distant, the emperor sent for him to chastise the soldiers, who mutinied amongst each other by the way. Stilico, therefore, having collected the mutinous troops together, informed them that the emperor had commanded him to correct them for their disobedience, and to punish them by a decimation, or putting to death every tenth man. At this they were in such consternation, that they burst into tears, and desiring him to have compassion on them, prevailed on him to promise them a pardon from the emperor. The emperor having performed what Stilico had promised, they applied themselves to public business. For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise.
Blindado
HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
Blindado
maximianus_1_01_006.png
2 Maximianus 1.01.00615 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP MAXIMINANVS PIVS AVG
(R. laur)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius standing l, holding patera and cornucopiae)
LON in ex
London
RIC VI 3 CT 1.01.006 (R)
8.48g
c. 296 AD
(ex Antonio Pareja)
(Three other examples are listed in CT)
These early coins from the London mint are stylistically similar to coins minted in France at the time, and suggest that an engraver(s) came over with Constantius when Britannia was invaded in 296.
Noviomagus
geta_RIC59a.jpg
209 AD - GETA Caesar denarius18 viewsobv: P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES (draped, slight bearded bust right)
rev: PONTIF COS II (Genius standing left, holding patera over lit altar & corn ears)
ref: RIC IVi 59a, RSC 114a, BMC 584
mint: Rome, struck early 209
3.3gms, 20mm
berserker
11-Maximianus-Lon-6b.jpg
23 Maximian: London follis.12 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate and curiassed bust of Maximian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.63 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #6b; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
rjb_2010_05_11.jpg
24912 viewsTrajan Decius 249-51 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG"
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev "GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI SC"
Genius standing left holding patera and standard
Rome mint
RIC 117b
mauseus
rjb_2010_05_10.jpg
2498 viewsTrajan Decius 249-51 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG"
Radiate and cuirassed bust right
Rev "GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI"
Genius standing left holding patera and standard
Rome mint
RIC 16c
mauseus
rjb_2019_08_01.jpg
2491 viewsTrajan Decius 249-51 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "GENIVS EXERC ILLVRICIANI"
Genius standing left holding patera over altar, and standard and cornucopia
Rome mint
RIC 118b
mauseus
4462b.jpg
249-251 AD., Trajan Decius, AR Antoninianus, mint of Rome, RIC 17b var.61 viewsTrajan Decius, AR Antoninianus, 3,10 g., mint of Rome, 249-251 AD.
Obv.: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG , Radiate and cuirassed bust right, rear view.
Rev.: GENIVS EXERC ILLYRICIANI , Genius of the army of Illyria standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, standard and altar at left.
RIC IV, part III, p. 122, #17b var. (not draped) ; C. 56 (var.?).

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
Trajan Deicus--Ric16b.jpg
250 AD - Trajan Decius - 249-251 - Ric 016b - Genius51 viewsIMPCMQTRAIANVSDECIVSAVG - Radiate, draped, and curaissed bust right
GENIVSEXERCILLVRICIANI - Genius standing Left, holding patera and cornucopia, standard on right.

Rome Mint, RIC 16(b)
1 commentsjimwho523
10885311_769549229748657_2090406297486556920_n.jpg
260 Claudius II18 viewsClaudius Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Rome, AD 268-270. IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right / GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left, by altar, holding patera and cornucopiae. RIC 45Randygeki(h2)
664_P_Hadrian_RPC2807.jpg
2807 PISIDIA, Cremna. Hadrian Ae. 20 Genius standing5 viewsReference. Very rare
RPC 3, 2807; SNG von Aulock 5083.

Obv: ADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Laureate and draped bust right.

Rev: GENIO COL CRE.
Genius of the colony standing facing, head l., wearing kalathos and long chiton, holding patera in his r. hand, l. on his hIp; in r. field, vexillum.

4.92 gr
20 mm
h
okidoki
rjb_fol1_01_09.jpg
28421 viewsDiocletian 284-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left, altar to left
-/B//PLC
Lugdunum Mint
RIC (VI) Lyon 103a
mauseus
rjb_dio1_08_06.jpg
28419 viewsDiocletian 284-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left, altar to left
-/A//PLC
Lugdunum Mint
RIC (VI) Lyon 113a
mauseus
DioVIHera19a.jpg
284-305 AD - Diocletian - RIC VI Heraclea 19a - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI30 viewsEmperor: Diocletian (r. 284-305 AD)
Date: ca. 297-298 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Imperator Caesar Caius Valerius Diocletian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera (from which liquor flows), left cornucopiae.
Exergue: HTΓ (Heraclea mint, third officina)

RIC VI Heraclea 19a
7.87g; 26.6mm; 345°
Pep
rjb_fol2_01_09.jpg
28615 viewsMaximian 286-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left, altar to left
-/A//PLC
Lugdunum Mint
RIC (VI) Lyon 113b
mauseus
maximianus_trab.png
3 Maximianus Herculius 1.03.00715 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG (R.laur, trabea or mantle)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
Not in RIC CT 1.03.007 (R)
London 10.3g
(ex Victor's Imperial Coins)

(7 examples of this coin were recorded in the two hoards (upper and lower) at Market Stainton (discovered in 1915 and 1938). Few other examples are known. )
Noviomagus
rjb_fol8_01_09.jpg
30515 viewsGalerius 305-311 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO IMPERATORIS
Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
K/A over P//ALE
Alexandria Mint
RIC (VI) Alexandria 101a
mauseus
ConClVISis169a.jpg
305-306 AD - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Siscia 169a - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI38 viewsEmperor: Constantius I Chlorus (r. 305-306 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS AVG
Emperor Constantius
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 169a
2.38g; 18.7mm; 165°
Pep
MaxIIVISis170bvar.jpg
305-308 AD - Maximinus II Daia as Caesar - RIC VI Siscia 170b var - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI28 viewsCaesar: Maximinus II Daia (Caes. 305-308 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: Fine/aEF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C
Galerius Valerius Maximinus Noble Caesar
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 170b var (P-V listed); VM 14
2.05g; 18.3mm; 180°
Pep
rjb_fol3_01_09.jpg
305b10 viewsConstantius I as Caesar 293-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate, cuirassed bust left with sceptre over shoulder
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left, altar to left
-/B//PLC
Lugdunum Mint
RIC (VI) Lyon 167a
mauseus
MaxIIVICyz101a.jpg
309-313 AD - Maximinus II Daia - RIC VI Cyzicus 101a - GENIO AVGVSTI25 viewsEmperor: Maximinus II Daia (r. 309-313 AD)
Date: ca. 312-313 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG
Imperator Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Wise and Dutiful Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO AV-GVSTI
Genius of the Emperors.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys (falling low) over left shoulder, right holding patera (from which liquor flows), left cornucopiae; altar to left.
"S" in right field
Exergue: SMK (Cyzicus mint, sixth officina)

RIC VI Cyzicus 101a; VM 8
3.47g; 21.9mm; 30°
Pep
MaxIIVINico74b.jpg
309-313 AD - Maximinus II Daia - RIC VI Nicomedia 074b - GENIO AVGVSTI27 viewsEmperor: Maximinus II Daia (r. 309-313 AD)
Date: ca. 312 AD (later)
Condition: VF/Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG
Imperator Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Wise and Dutiful Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTI
Genius of the Emperors.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera (from which liquor flows), left cornucopiae; to left, altar.
"*" over "A" in right field
Exergue: SMN (Nicomedia mint, 1st officina)

RIC VI Nicomedia 74b; VM 8
4.21g; 21.3mm; 180°
Pep
12-Maximianus-Cyz-12b.jpg
35 Maximian: Cyzicus follis.25 viewsFollis, 297 - 299 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Maximian.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, and holding cornucopiae.
Mint mark: K Δ
8.46 gm., 28.5 mm.
RIC #12b; Sear #13269.
1 commentsCallimachus
14-Maximianus-Tre-721.jpg
39 Maximian: Treveri 2nd reign follis.17 viewsFollis, summer 307 AD, Treveri mint.
Obverse: DN MAXIMIANO P F S AVG / Laureate bust of Maximian.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae. S A in fields.
Mint mark: PTR
8.14 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #721; Sear #13446; PBCC #188.
Callimachus
maximianus_genio_a.png
4 Maximianus 2.01.00710 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
(R, laur, cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius standing l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 6b CT 2.01.007 (C)
11.1g
(ex Roma Numismatics)
Noviomagus
coin199.JPG
401. Diocletian30 viewsThe Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

AE Follis. IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with chlamys, patera from which liquor flows & cornucopiae
ecoli
coin264.JPG
403. Carausius36 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
ecoli
coin221.JPG
406. Galerius40 viewsChristians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to the influence of Galerius. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.

Detail of the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and (Maximinus II Daia), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. Having Constantius' son Constantine as guest at Galerius' court in the east helped to secure his position.

His schemes, however, were defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) upon the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and his son Maxentius, who were declared co-Augusti in Italy.

After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307, he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and moderating his ambition, he retired to the city Felix Romuliana (near present day Gamzigrada,Serbia/Montenegro)built by him to honor his mother Romula, and devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

It was at the instance of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.

Galerius as Caesar, 305-311AD. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse type with Genius standing left holding scales and cornucopia
ecoli
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407. Severus II35 viewsFlavius Valerius Severus was of humble origin and from Illyricum. Early in his career he had held a military command. When Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple (Milan) on 1 May 305, they appointed Constantius I and Galerius as Augusti in their place, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. Both Caesars were Galerius' creatures and received their appointment at his hands. Constantius I and Severus ruled the west, while Galerius and Daia controlled the east.

When Galerius learned of the death of Constantius I in August 306 and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, he raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace the dead Augustus. Matters went from bad to worse for Galerius when Maxentius, the son of Maximianus Herculius, was proclaimed emperor at Rome on 28 October 306. Galerius was disturbed when he heard the news of Maxentius' revolt because the usurper seized Rome, then part of Severus' realm. Galerius sent Severus from Mediolanum (Milan) to fight the enemy. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome.

When Maxentius learned about the advance of Severus, he sent his own father the purple and offered to make him Augustus again to win Severus' army to his side; Maximianus accepted his offer. Meanwhile, Severus and his army reached Rome and began to besiege the city; Maxentius, however, bribed Severus' soldiers and, at a set signal, the Augustus' forces joined the usurper. Severus fled ro Ravenna with a few remaining soldiers. Maximianus went to Ravenna and, with false promises of safety, convinced Severus to surrender. He took this action because he realized that Severus' position was impregnable. Under house arrest Severus was brought to Rome and imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. Severus was put to death in 307 under clouded circumstances, when Galerius invaded Italy

Severus II AD 305-306 AE Follis "Genius Serdica" "The genius of the people of Rome." Obv: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C - Laureate head right Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Exe: SIS Siscia mint: AD 305-306 = RIC VI, p. 475, 170a Rare (r)
ecoli
coin225.JPG
409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
ecoli
19-Galerius-Lon-15.jpg
43 Galerius as Caesar: London follis.12 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate and curiassed bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
10.65gm., 26mm.
RIC #15; Sear #14344.
Callimachus
46- Diocletian Follis-1.JPG
46-Diocletian Follis #1-S159 viewsAE Follis, 296-297 AD, Heraclea Mint.
Obv:IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia.
HT(delta) in exergue
25mm, 9.2gm
RIC 019a, VM 41
1 commentsjdholds
Diocletian_Black.jpg
49 Diocletian RIC 2928 viewsDIOCLETIAN 284-305 AD. AE large silvered follis. Nicomedia mint, 303-304 AD. (28mm, 8.6g) Obv: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right. Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, pouring a libation from patera & holding cornucopiae, SMN in exergue.
RIC 29

Ex: Incitatus Coins
Paddy
Constantinus_Caesar.jpg
51 Constantius I Chlorus RIC 055a28 viewsConstantius I Caesar 293-305. Ζ Follis. Antioch Mint. 300-301 AD. (26mm,12.29g,7h) Obv: F L VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right. Rev: Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia; K-Γ/V//ANT.
RIC 55a
1 commentsPaddy
12509977_971701676246844_1250419116_o.jpg
51 Constantius I Chlorus RIC 59a24 viewsConstantius I Chlorus (293-305 AD as Caesar)305-306 AD. AE Large Follis. Antioch Mint. 304-305 AD. (28mm, 11.02g) Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right. Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopia.
RIC 59a

Ex: Holding History, Agora Auction
1 commentsPaddy
coin394.JPG
514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
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s54.JPG
515. Theodosius I37 viewsSon of a senior military officer, Theodosius the Elder, Theodosius accompanied his father to Britannia to help quell the Great Conspiracy in 368. He was military commander (dux) of Moesia, a Roman province on the lower Danube, in 374. However, shortly thereafter, and at about the same time as the sudden disgrace and execution of his father, Theodosius retired to Cauca. The reason for his retirement, and the relationship (if any) between it and his father's death is unclear. It is possible that he was dismissed of his command by the emperor Valentinian I, after the loss of two of Theodosius' legions by the Sarmatians in late 374.

In 378, after the death of the emperor Valens at the Battle of Adrianople, the emperor Gratian appointed Theodosius co-augustus for the East. After 392, following the death of Valentinian II, whom he had supported against a variety of usurpations, Theodosius ruled as sole emperor, defeating the usurper Eugenius on September 6, 394, at the Battle of the Frigidus.


RIC IX Constantinople 88a C
ecoli
coin216.JPG
515d. EUGENIUS. 392-394 AD31 viewsEUGENIUS. 392-394 AD. Ζ 14mm. Struck 393-394 AD. Aquileia
mint. Diademed, draped, cuirassed and bearded bust right / Victory
advancing left, holding wreath and palm; AQP. RIC IX 59;
ecoli
636_P_Hadrian_Emmett803_5.jpg
5270 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Agathodaemon27 viewsReference.
Emmett 803.5; Kφln 805; Dattari 1547; Milne 982; RPC III, 5270

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ΑΔΡΙΑ CEB
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder; crescent before.

Rev. L E below
Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils.

12.24 gr
24 mm
12h

notes.
Agathodaimon:
In ancient Greek religion, Agathos Daimon or Agathodaemon (Greek: ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, "noble spirit") was a daemon or presiding spirit of the vineyards and grainfields and a personal companion spirit,[2][3] similar to the Roman genius, ensuring good luck, health, and wisdom.

source:
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins at FORVM
Skhent:
The crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.
1 commentsokidoki
53- Maximianus-6.JPG
53-Maximianus #6-S37 viewsAE Follis, 294 AD, Siscia mint.
Obv: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, Laureate head right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI-Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia, modius on head.
S left A right
27mm, 9.1gm
RIC 76b
jdholds
21-Galerius-Nic-54a.jpg
54 Galerius as Augustus: Nicomedia follis.22 viewsFollis, 308 - 310 AD, Nicomedia mint.
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI CMH / Genius standing, pouring from patera and holding cornucopiae.
Mint mark: SMND
6.61 gm., 24.5 mm.
RIC #54a; PBCC #964; Sear #14508.

The meaning of the CMH ligature in the reverse inscription is a mystery. It is found on coins from the mints of Nicomedia and Cyzicus. It is generally thought to refer to the value of the coin. One possible suggestion is that it means 100 (C) sestertii struck at a new weight of 48 to the pound (Greek M = 40; Greek H = 8).
Callimachus
55- Maximianus -2.JPG
55-Maximianus #2-S23 viewsAE Follis, 296-297 Ad , Treveri Mint.
Obv: IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia, modius on head. B(gamma) in field.
TR in Exergue
26mm, 9.6gm
RIC 181b
jdholds
Licinius_Black~0.jpg
57 Licinius RIC 77b16 viewsLicinius I. 308-324 AD. Ae Follis. Ostia 312 - 313 AD (4th officina)(23 mm. 4,33 g) Obv: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: GENO P-OP ROM, Genius standing left, patera with flowing water in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand, chlamys over shoulder.

RIC VI, Ostia 77b
Paddy
180_P_Hadrian__Emmett1014.jpg
5717 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 127-28 AD Nilus reclining on crocodile Genius38 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5717; Emmett 1014.12; Kφln 991; Dattari (Savio) 1806; K&G 32.461; BMC 784, p.92

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. AVTKAI - TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind.

Rev. Iς above, L ΔωΔЄK (date) in exergue
Nilus reclining left on crocodile, holding reed in left and cornucopia in right hand, from which emerges a Genius.

25.94 gr
35 mm
11 h
okidoki
473_P_Hadrian_Emmett1015.jpg
5717 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 127-28 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus 46 viewsReference.
Emmett 1015.12; RPC III, 5717 Dattari 7750. BMC 787, p.92; Milne 1267; Kφln 992

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔWΔƐΚ(Α)
Nilus reclining left on hippopotamus, holding reed in left and cornucopia with small Genius in right hand; above ΙϚ

26.69 gr
35 mm
12h
Note Jay gt4
The Greek numeral sixteen (Iς) above Nilus refers to what was considered the ideal height of the annual Nile flood, sixteen cubits. Less could mean drought or famine. Even in modern times grand celebrations were held when the flood reached 16 cubits. In years when the flood failed to reach 16 cubits, the celebrations were canceled, and prayers and fasting were held instead. The peak flood occurred at the end of August, which explains why the Egyptian year began on 29 August.
1 commentsokidoki
58- Gallerius.JPG
58- Gallerius-2-S32 viewsAE Follis, 308-313 AD,Cyzicus mint
Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO AVGGET CAESARV NN, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia.
KA in exergue
27mm , 9.9gm
RIC 7b (Rare), Sear (1988) 3707
jdholds
maximianus_genio_27_1.png
6 Maximianus 3.01.0139 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
(R. laur. dr. cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 25 CT 3.01.013 (S)
10.5g
(ex Den of Antiquity)
Noviomagus
60- Gallerius.JPG
60- Gallerius-3-S40 viewsSilvered AE Follis, 297 AD, Heraclea mint.
Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia.
HT(gamma) in exergue.
26mm, 9.3gm
RIC 20b
jdholds
27-Constantius-I-Lon-14a.jpg
63 Constantius I as Caesar: London follis.39 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C / Laureate and curassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71 gm., 27 mm.
RIC #14a; Sear #14034 (this coin).

This very coin is pictured in Sear vol. IV at the listing of #14034.
1 commentsCallimachus
64-Constantius I.JPG
64-Constantius I-4-S36 viewsAE Follis, Heraclea mint, 296-297 AD
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing with Modius on head, holding cornucopia and patera.
HT(Delta) in exergue
28mm , 11.1 gm
RIC 18a, Sear (1988) 3673.
jdholds
65-Constantius I.JPG
65-Constantius I-5-S26 viewsAE Follis, Heraclea mint, 305-307 AD
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES , Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia.
HT(gamma) in exergue
25mm, 7.8gm
jdholds
66-Constantius I.JPG
66-Constantius I-6-S31 viewsAE Follis, Treveri mint, 296-297 AD
Obv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia. A left, gamma right. TR in exergue.
25mm, 9.1gm
RIC 213a
jdholds
67-Constantius I.JPG
67-Constantius I - 7-S34 viewsAE Follis, Lugdunum mint, 298 AD
Obv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia, B in left field. LP in exergue.
27mm, 9.0gm
RIC 38a
jdholds
28-Constantius-I-Cyz-11a.jpg
75a Constantius I as Caesar: Cyzicus follis.18 viewsFollis, 297 - 299 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantius.
Reverse: GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, and holding cornucopiae.
Mint mark: K B
10.46 gm., 27.5 mm.
RIC #11a; Sear #14032.
Callimachus
29-Constantius-I-Cyz-21a.jpg
75b Constantius I as Augustus: Cyzicus follis.12 viewsFollis, Cyzicus mint, 305-306 AD.
Obverse: IMP GAL VAL CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, pouring from patera and holding cornucopiae.
Mint mark: K B
7.91 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #21a; Sear #14182; PBCC unlisted.
Callimachus
77- Licinius-4.JPG
77- Licinius-4-S32 viewsAE Follis, 311 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: IMP C LIC LICINNIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left holding Victory and cornucopia, Star left , I Right.
ANT in exergue
21mm
RIC 162b
jdholds
maximianus_shield_1.png
8 Maximianus 3.01.01914 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG
(L, laur, cuir, spear over right shoulder, shield on left arm)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius standing l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 29b CT 3.01.019 (RR)
9.4g
(ex Victors Imperial Coins)
Noviomagus
39-Maximinus-II-Lon-209b.jpg
83 Maximinus II as Augustus: London follis.13 viewsFollis, 310 - 312AD, London mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae. Star in right field
Mint mark: PLN
4.69 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #209b; PBCC #40; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
40-Maximinus-II-Ale-139b.jpg
84 Maximinus II as Augustus: Alexandria follis.19 viewsFollis, 311 AD, Alexandria mint.
Obverse: IMP C GAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: GENIO IMPERATORIS / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Cresent and K in left field; B and P in right field.
Mint mark: ALE
7.12 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #139b; Sear #14853; LRBC #1181.
Callimachus
33-Severus-II-Tre-654.jpg
88 Severus II as Augustus: Treveri follis.14 viewsFollis, 306 - 307 AD, Treveri mint.
Obverse: IMP SEVERVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, loins draped, chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. S in left field; F in right field.
Mint mark: PTR
10.65 gm., 26 mm.
RIC #654; PBCC #97; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
manuel_111106.jpg
9. Trebizond - Manuel I Comnenus53 viewsEmpire of Trebizond
Manuel I Comnenus
1238-1263
AR asper
21 mm, 2.90 gm

obv. OAGI EVGENI, St. Eugenius
rev. Emperor standing MNA OKH
Zam
44-Licinius-I-Lon-209c.jpg
91 Licinius I: London follis.13 viewsFollis, 310-312, London mint.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Licinius I.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae. Star in right field.
Mint mark: PLN
4.41 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #209c; PBCC #41; Sear #15182.
Callimachus
2550377.jpg
93. Manuel I Comnenus28 viewsEMPEROR OF TREBIZOND
Manuel I Comnenus.
1238-1263. AR Asper (20mm, 2.41 g, 7h).
O: Manuel st. facing, wearing crown and loros and holding labarum and akakia; (star) /M/И/ (star) to outer l., two stars to inner l., star to inner r., O/K/H to outer r; above to r., crowning manus Dei R: St. Eugenius standing facing, wearing nimbus crown and holding long cross; O/A/ΓI to outer left, star to inner left, (star)/ЄV/ΓЄ/(NH) to right.

Cf. Retowski 91-2; SB 2601.

Near EF, toned, a few light scratches.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
RIC_345_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-22 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)8 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 x 20 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIVS EXERCITI" – Genio desnudo, vistiendo Modius en la cabeza, de piι a izquierda, portando una Patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y una cornucopia en izquierda. Detrαs de Ιl un estandarte militar .

Acuρada 3ra. Emisiσn Fin 271 D.C.
Ceca: Cyzicus (1ra.Off) - Balkiz Turquνa.

Referencias: RIC Va #345 P.304, RIC2 Temp.#2923, Sear RCTV III #11540 P.423, Cohen VI #100 P.186, CBN #1113, MIR #315, Hunter #121corr., Gφbl#315 a0, La Venera 10080/90, BNC Paris #1115/31
mdelvalle
1270Hadrian_RIC968.jpg
968 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian with Roma and Senate33 viewsReference.
RIC 968; Banti 193; BMC 1364; C. 352; Hill 388; Strack 632

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III / S C
Genius of the Senate, togate on the left, and Hadrian, togate on the right, holding a volumen, standing facing each other, clasping their right hands; behind them, Roma standing right, holding spear in her left hand and resting her right on the others' clasped hands.

25.00 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
The Romans often staged events in which the emperor was accompanied by actors dressed to personify symbolic personalities such as Annona, Liberalitas, Roma, et al. Here we see the emperor clasping the hand of the Senate in the presence of Roma, who stands behind them confirming their cooperative spirit by resting her hand on theirs.

This reverse type, representing "Concordia Senatus," likely commemorates the conferring of the title pater patriae upon Hadrian by the Senate in 128 AD.
1 commentsokidoki
98-Constantine-8.JPG
98-Constantine The Great -8-S26 viewsAE Follis, 312-313 AD, Ticinum mint.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius left holding patera and cornucopia, Modius on head.
TT in exergue
20mm, 3.6gm
RIC 117, S
jdholds
constantiusI AElaureate.jpg
AE laureate CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS) - 305-306 AD85 viewsbv:CONSTANTIVS.AVG
rev:GENIO.POPVLI.ROMANI (Genius of the Roman People standing holding a cornucopia and pouring a sacrifice from a patera) / SIS
ref:RIC VI-Siscia169a (R2)
2.41gms, 18mm
Very rare
The coinage reform of 294 AD had been issued several new coins. One of them called the AE laureate or denarius communes.
denarius communes = 1/5 follis = 1/25 denarius argenteus
berserker
galerius AElaureate.jpg
AE laureate GALERIUS - 305-306 AD45 viewsobv:MAXIMIANVS.AVG
rev:GENIO.POPVLI.ROMANI (Genius of the Roman People standing holding a cornucopia and pouring a sacrifice from a patera) / SIS
ref:RIC VI-Siscia169b (R2)
2.30gms, 18mm
Very rare
berserker
maximianus AElaureate.jpg
AE laureate MAXIMIANUS - 305 AD43 viewsbv:IMP.C.M.A.MAXIMIANVS.PF.AVG
rev:GENIO.POPVLI.ROMANI (Genius of the Roman People standing holding a cornucopia and pouring a sacrifice from a patera) / SIS
ref:RIC VI-Siscia146 (R2)
2.08gms, 18mm
Very rare
berserker
maximinusII AElaureate.jpg
AE laureate MAXIMINUS II (DAIA) - 305-306 AD49 viewsobv:GAL.VAL.MAXIMINVS.NOB.C
rev:GENIO.POPVLI.ROMANI (Genius of the Roman People standing holding a cornucopia and pouring a sacrifice from a patera) / SIS
ref:RIC VI-Siscia170b (R)
1.92gms, 18mm
Rare
berserker
severusII AElaureate.jpg
AE laureate SEVERUS II - 305-306 AD45 viewsobv:FL.VAL.SEVERVS.NOB.C
rev:GENIO.POPVLI.ROMANI (Genius of the Roman People standing holding a cornucopia and pouring a sacrifice from a patera) / SIS
ref:RIC VI-Siscia170a (R)
2.02gms, 18mm
Rare
berserker
Alexander_III_Tetradrachm2.jpg
Alexander III Posthumous Tetradrachm -- Amphipolis -- ~323 BC19 views16.80 g, 25 mm, 270°
Amphipolis Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Alexander III; Posthumous
Price 104

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of Alexander), Zeus Aλtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. He is further recognized for spreading Greek culture, language, and thought from Greece throughout Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiating the era of the Hellenistic World.
___________________
What a nose.
Hydro
Alexander_III_Tetradrachm_3.jpg
Alexander III Posthumous Tetradrachm -- Arados -- 328-323 BC23 views16.03 g, 26 mm, 90°
Arados Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Alexander III; Posthumous
Price 3325

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of Alexander), Zeus Aλtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. He is further recognized for spreading Greek culture, language, and thought from Greece throughout Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiating the era of the Hellenistic World.
Hydro
Alexander_III_Tetradrachm.jpg
Alexander III Posthumous Tetradrachm -- Phocis -- ~323 BC25 views16.95 g, 30 mm, 100°
Phocis Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Minted during reign of Alexander III; Posthumous
Price 834; Muller 750

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of Alexander), Zeus Aλtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. He is further recognized for spreading Greek culture, language, and thought from Greece throughout Asia Minor, Egypt, and Mesopotamia to India and thus initiating the era of the Hellenistic World.
________________________
A nice coin, but a past owner was way too harsh in chemically cleaning this. On the obverse, the lower jaw of the lion and Herakle's cheek contains a thin line of what I believe to be black chemical burn.
Hydro
ATG_bust_Pergamon.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C.143 viewsAlexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC), better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

"Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.
Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr Joann Fletcher (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml)
Cleisthenes
ATGlifetimeDrachmLydiaSardes.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue104 viewsSilver drachm, Price 2553, VF, 4.297g, 16.4mm, 0o, Lydia, Sardes mint, c. 334 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue; Obverse: Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; Reverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, eagle in right, scepter in left, EYE monogram left, rose under throne. Ex FORVM.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the 13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AlexTheGreatMemphisTet.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Possible Lifetime Issue103 viewsThis is the same coin in my collection, different picture, as the Alexander tetradrachm listed as [300mem].

Silver tetradrachm, Price 3971, VF, 16.081g, 26.1mm, 0o, Egypt, Memphis mint, c. 332 - 323 or 323 - 305 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, legs crossed, eagle in right, scepter in left, rose left, DI-O under throne. Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou. Ex FORVM, "The Memphis issues are among the finest style Alexander coins. Experts disagree on the date of this issue. Some identify it as a lifetime issue and others as a posthumous issue (Joseph Sermarini).

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsJames Fitzgerald
1376_Alexander_Severus_Caesarea2.jpg
Alexander Severus - Caesarea4 views224-225 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind; countermark - radiate head of Helios-Genius Argaeei
AV K CEOV__AΛEΞAN
Mount Argaeus agalma, wreath above
(MH)TPO__KAIC / ET Δ
Volume VI, № 6784, S 555; SM 556b corr.; countermark: GIC 12
Johny SYSEL
Alexius_II_SBCV2619.JPG
Alexius II of Trebizond, SBCV 261935 viewsAlexius on horse walking right, B right, M above horse to right, quatrefoil ornament below horse
A in circle, EVΓ - N
St. Eugenius on horse walking right, B right, quatrefoil ornament below horse
Empire of Trebizond
AR asper, 22mm, 2.05g
novacystis
Alexius3_Sear2628.jpg
Alexius III, Sear 262830 viewsAεv - retrograde NI
St. Eugenius seated on horse advancing right and holding long Cross, two dots right, lis below
A/Λε, solar device to upper right
Alexius seated on horse advancing right and holding lis-topped scepter, retrograde N right, lis below
AR asper of Trebizond
23.5mm, 2.02g
novacystis
alexius_IV_SBCV2641.jpg
Alexius IV, SBCV 264127 viewsAεΓ / M-N B
St. Eugenius seated on horse walking right, holding long cross, * below
AΛε / M-N B
Alexius seated on horse walking right, * below
Trebizond
AR asper, 14.5 mm, 0.88 g
novacystis
!BTnmbFg!2k~_(KGrHgoOKigEjlLmbZRpBKJZM3jLbg~~_1.jpg
An antoninianus of Trajan Decius24 viewsIMP TRAIANUS DECIUS AVG radiate head right obverse, GENIUS EXERC ILLVRICIANI, Genius standing left with patera and cornucopiae, standard to right reverse. RIC 16cRyan C
coins359.JPG
Antoninus Pius14 viewsAntoninus Pius AE As. 160-161. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP, laureate head right / TR POT XXIIII COS IIII S-C, Genius standing left sacrificing over altar from patera and holding sceptre. Cohen 1052.ecoli
Antoninus_Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.12 viewsAntoninus Pius (138-161), Dupondius, Rome, AD 140-144, Ae 21.9~22.9mm. 11.08g. Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS - P P TR P COS III, radiate head r. Rev: GENIO - SE - NATVS, the Genius of the Senate standing l., holding sceptre and branch in field, S - C. RIC 660a C 403.ddwau
Antoninus_1014v.jpg
Antoninus Pius - AE dupondius48 viewsRome
157-158 AD
radiate head right
ANTONINVS AVG__PIVS P P TR P XXI
distyle shrine with arched roof containing statue of the Genius of the Senate, togate, raising hand, holding eagle-tipped scepter, standing on pedestal
COS__IIII
S C
RIC 989
13,04g 24,5-23,5 mm
2 commentsJohny SYSEL
antioch-pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius AE 24 - Antiochia16 viewsAntiochia
Pisidia
Antoninus Pius
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS IIII
Laureate head right
Rev.: GENIO COLONIAE ANTIOCH
Genius standing facing, head left, emptying cornucopia over lighted altar, holding long scepter
24 mm, 6.46 gr, 6 h
Kryzyzanowska XI/20; SNG France 1079; SNG von Aulock 4920
Vladimir P
Antoninus_Pius_Genio_Senatvs.JPG
Antoninus Pius Genio Senatus126 viewsAntoninus Pius, denarius, RIC III 69, Rome 2.96g, 17.9mm, die axis 180o, 140 - 144 AD
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right;
REV: GENIO SENATVS, the Genius of the Senate standing left, branch in right, scepter in left; well centered and scarce variety (laureate bust) of an uncommon type;

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins
Romanorvm
Antoninus_Pius_Sest_RIC_999.JPG
Antoninus Pius Sest RIC 999 Temple of the Genius of the Senate33 viewsAntoninus Pius, Rome, Sestertius, 153 - 154 AD, 30.24mm, 24.1g, RIC 999,
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head right
OBV: COS IIII, Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple, SC in exergue

Rare issue commemorating the Temple of the Genius of the Senate, of which little is known
Per Curtis Clay, probably RIC 999 (XXII)
Romanorvm
Antoninus_Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius23 viewsAntoninus Pius AE Sestertius. 153-154 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, laureate head right
Rev: COS IIII S C, Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple.
Rare
RIC 999, Cohen 332.


Tanit
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_285.JPG
Antoninus Pius, 138 - 161 AD46 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XXII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.

Rev: COS IIII, distyle shrine with an ornate arched roof, containing a statue of the Genius of the Senate standing left on a low base.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 158 - 159 AD

3.27 grams, 19 mm, 180°

RIC III 285, RSC 331, S4077, VM 18/19
SPQR Coins
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_69.JPG
Antoninus Pius, 138 - 161 AD34 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.

Rev: GENIO SENATVS, Genius of the Senate standing left, holding a branch and a scepter.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 142 AD

3.3 grams, 17 mm, 180°

RIC III 69, RSC 399, S4084, VM 24
1 commentsSPQR Matt
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_69a.JPG
Antoninus Pius, 138 - 161 AD38 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III, bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.

Rev: GENIO SENATVS, Genius of the Senate standing left, holding a branch and a scepter.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 142 AD

3.2 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC III 69a, RSC 398, S4084 (var.), VM 24
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_70a.JPG
Antoninus Pius, 138 - 161 AD19 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III, bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.

Rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI, Genius of the Roman People standing front, head turned right, holding a scepter and a cornucopia.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 141 AD

3.2 grams, 17.11 mm, 180°

RIC III 70a, RSC 405, S4085, VM 25
SPQR Coins
AntoSef1-3.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 605 var., Sestertius of AD 142 (Genius of the senate)34 viewsΖ Sestertius (23,09g, Ψ 33mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 142.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head left.
Rev.: GENIO SENATVS around, S C across field, Genius of the Senate, togate, standing facing, head left, holding branch and short sceptre.
RIC 605 var. (head right); BMCRE 1241 var. (idem); Cohen 400 var. (idem); Strack 834v. (none for head left); Banti 164 var. (head right)
Ex Sondermann Numismatics (April, 2015).

extremely rare, unlisted, left-headed variety
Charles S
Antose44.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 605, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Genius of the Senate)59 viewsΖ Sestertius (27.6g, Ψ34mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-44.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: GENIO SENATVS (around) S C (in field), Bearded and togate Genius of the Senate, standing left, holding branch and sceptre.
RIC 605; BMCRE IV 1241; Cohen 400; Strack 834 (6 coll.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 164 (35 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4177
Charles S
AntoSe12-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 999, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Statue in tetrastyle shrine) 43 viewsΖ sestertius (22.5g, Ψ30mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII , laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: COS IIII (around) S C (in field), statue holding a branch and a standard standing on a short column in terastyle shrine.
RIC 999 (S); BMC 2053-57; Cohen 332; Foss (RHC) 132:87
found in Louth (Lines, UK).

According to Foss (Roman Historic Coins), this coin was issued at the twentieth anniversary of the reign when a statue of Antoninus Pius was dedicated. Jencek on the other hand argues that the statue is not the emperor but the Genius of the Senate, honoured by a ciborium or aedicula, a four columned open structure with a highly ornamented dome. This issue thus could perhaps commemorate the 900th anniversary of the Roman Senate, 10 years after the foundation of Rome.

(I'm looking for a more attractive example!)

Charles S
apdrachmOR.jpg
Antonius Pius drachm, FΓΆrschner #64236 viewsAlexandria mint, Antonius Pius drachm, 149-150 A.D. AE, 34mm 23.46g, Fφrschner #642, Dattari - , cf. 2754 (obv. diff. legend); SNG Copenhagen -, cf. 506 (year 16); Geissen 1638
O: AVTKTAIΛAΔP ANTΩNINOC CEB EVC, laureate bust r.,
R: TPICKAI, in front L, Nilus recumbent l., crowned with lotus, wears himation over lower limbs and left arm, holds cornucopiae, from which springs infant genius, offering him wreath, and in left, reed; beneath, crocodile right; above Iς
* Iς (16) is the desirable height of the river Nile
3 commentscasata137ec
SB2601.jpg
AR Asper Manuel I Comnenus (1238-1263 CE) sb260142 viewsObverse: OA(gamma)I-EV(gamma)ENI, St Eugenius stg. holding long cross.
Reverse: MNA-OKH Manuel stg. holding labarum and akakia, MANUS DEI upper r.
Mint:Trebizond
Date: 1238-1263 CE
SB 2601
22mm, 2.82g
1 commentswileyc
ASP.jpg
Asper60 viewsByzantine silver, Trebizond Empire, John II, 1280-1297 AD, AR Asper

Obverse: St. Eugenius stanidng holding long cross

Reverse: John standing holding labarum and akakia

Diameter approx 23.5 mm,


EMPIRE of TREBIZOND. John II. 1280-1297. AR Asper (2.75 g, 7h). Imitative issue. St. Eugenius, nimbate, standing facing, holding long cross with cross bar on shaft / John standing facing, holding lily-headed sceptre and globus cruciger. Cf. Retowski 16 (same obverse die); cf. SB 2609. Good VF, typical weak strike. ($200)

Retowski's aspers of his group B, section 1 have several anomalous features that set them apart from the normal series. On this one example, the cross held by St. Eugenius has a lower cross bar, not seen on any other example. Most of the Group B, 1 specimens have the saint's name ending in IOV, rather than the IOC or IO seen on standard varieties. On the reverse the emperor's cloak is shown as a single cross-hatched panel lacking the normal decorated chlamys end tied around his waist. In addition, on this unique example the emperor holds a lily-headed sceptre, rather than one with a labarum as on every other type. The lily sceptre does not appear elsewhere in the Trebizond series, but does occasionally show as an attribute in the Bulgarian royal series. See a bronze of Mitso Asen (1256-1263), Radishev p. 93. This coin, and others in group B, 1 are probably imitative issues copying Trebizond types, and may have been struck anywhere along the north shore of the Black Sea, where the Tartar Khanates ruled, occasionally holding the Bulgarian kings as their vassals.

http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=107443&AucID=121&Lot=1136
1 comments Alexios
Augustus_Secular_games_17_BC.jpg
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.99 views Silver denarius, RIC I 340 (R2), RSC I Julius Caesar 6, BnF I 273, BMCRE I 70, SRCV I 1622, VF, scratch on cheek, pitting, 3.572g, 19.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, moneyer M. Sanquinius, 17 B.C.; obverse AVGVST DIVI F LVDOS SAE (Augustus son of the divine [Julius Caesar], [has made the] secular games), Herald standing left, wearing helmet with two feathers and long robe, winged caduceus in right hand, round shield decorated with six-pointed star on his left arm; reverse M SANQVINIVS III VIR, youthful laureate head (the deified Julius Caesar or Genius Saeculari Novi?) right, above, four-rayed comet (sidus Iulium) with tail; ex CNG auction 145 (9 Aug 2006), lot 254. Very rare.

This type was struck to commemorate the Ludi Saeculares, the Secular Games held by Augustus in 17 B.C. to mark the commencement of a new age inaugurated by the divine Julius Caesar and led by his heir Augustus. The reverse portrait is traditionally identified as the head of a youthful divine Julius Caesar, however, it actually resembles Augustus and may be Genius Saeculari Novi, the personification of the new age.

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Per FORVM ; an EF example of this type recently sold on 26 May 2014 for 20,000 CHF (approximately $25,575) plus fees.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
4 commentsSam
Augustus_RPC_I_1627.jpg
Augustus, AE22, RPC I 16273 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE 22

Obverse: AMΦIΠO-ΛEITΩN, bust of Artemis Tauropolos, facing right, her Bow and Quiver over her left shoulder.
Reverse: KAIΣAP - ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Augustus, raising his right hand in salutation, standing, facing left, upon a Dais, decorated with three Bucrania, being crowned with a Wreath by Genius.

Weight: 12.08 g, Diameter: 22 x 24 x 2.5 mm, Die axis: 40°, Mint: Amphipolis, Macedonia, Reference: RPC I 1627

Rated Scarce
Masis
896_Aurelian_Genius_Illur.jpg
Aurelian - AE antoninianus7 viewsSiscia
XI 270 AD
radiate and cuirassed bust right
IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopia
GENIVS IL_LVR
* / S
Issue 2, Phase 2
LV 6046-7; RIC1st 223 var. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/2017
ex Gitbud and Naumann
Johny SYSEL
714559.jpg
Aurelian Antoninianus - Finest known of type7 viewsAurelian, 270-275, Antoninianus
Siscia mint, struck c. November 270.
Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian to right.
Rev. GENIVS ILLVR / T (outer, lower-right field), Genius standing, head to left, holding patera and cornucopiae, standard to right.
As RIC 223; BNC 715; RIC V online 2020 (5 recorded therein).
Same dies as the Paris and Vienna specimens, this being the best preserved of the three.
OldMoney
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius.jpg
Barbarous Denarius of Trajan33 viewsObv: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GIR (?) DAC
Rev: COIS C IIIV (?)
Personification holds Patera and Rudder, looks like a merger of a Genius with Fortuna to me.
20mm, 4.09g

Lovely!
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Faustina_I__POP_ROMANI.jpg
Barbarous Faustina I21 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA
Rev: [GENIVS] POP PAMANI (blundered)
Genius of the Roman people, standing front, head r., holding sceptre and cornucopiae. (Cf. Antoninus Pius RIC 70, for an Aureus).

1.96g, 17mm
klausklage
Basil-SBCV2622.JPG
Basil of Trebizond, SBCV 262225 viewsAEVΓ retrograde N
St. Eugenius stated on horse walking right
BA M
Basil stated on horse walking right
AR asper, 23mm, 1.98g
novacystis
Licinius_I_Gen.jpg
BCC Lr735 viewsLate Roman AE Follis BCC Lr7
Licinius I 308-324CE
Alexandria mint
Obv:IMP C LIC LICINNIVS P F AVG
Laureate head right.
Rev:GENIO AVGVSTI
Genius standing left, nude except
for pallium hanging from shoulder,
wearing modius, holding bust of Serapis
and cornucopia. Palm branch in front.
In field, N - A, in exergue. ALE (dot),
above, star. Black patina, as found.
20mm 4.98gm. Axis:180
Possible ref: RIC 157 a. Rarity: R1
v-drome
domitian_corinth_1.jpg
BCC rgp724 viewsRoman Provincial - Patras (Achaea)
Caesarea Maritima
Domitian 81-96 C.E.
Obv: IMP CAES DOM A[...]
Laureate bust right.
Rev:GEN COL A PA[T]RTNS
Genius of the colony, standing left,
holding phiale and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar.
AE 21.5mm 8.21gm. Axis:180
BCD Peloponnesos 551.3; RPC II 237
Surface find, 1972
v-drome
871.jpg
bmc14 viewsElagabalus
Raphanea, Syria

Obv: AVT K M AV ANTΩNεINOC, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PЄΦANЄΛITΩN, Genius, turreted seated left, holding cornucopiae and patera; eagles across fields; at feet, bull standing left..
23 mm, 10.49 gms

BMC 1 (as Caracalla), CNG e405, 350; CNG e353, 324 and other electronic auctions (see acsearch).
Charles M
884.jpg
bmc33 viewsElagabalus
Raphanea, Syria

Obv: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: In exergue, BΛΘ. turreted Genius stands facing, head left, wears himation around hips and legs and over left shoulder, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, bull left, two eagles flanking in upper field.
25 mm, 5.32 gms

BMC 3 (as Caracalla), Mionnet V, p. 268, 831, CNG Electronic Auction 345, lot 429.
Charles M
maximinusII.jpg
Bronze coin of Maximinius II16 viewsA Roman bronze coin of Maximinius II, minted in Siscia between 309-310 AD. 25 mm, 5.08 g.

Obverse: MAXIMINVS FIL AVGG, laureate head right

Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTI, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae, crescent in left field, G in right field, SIS in ex

chuy1530
Galerius.jpg
Bronze Follis of Galerius20 viewsA Roman bronze follis of Galerius, minted in Heraclea between 308-309 AD. 25.2 mm, 5.248 g.

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right

Reverse: GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, patera in right, cornucopia in left, •HT*G*• in ex

Attribution: RIC VI 37a
chuy1530
john2.jpg
BYZANTINE, John II, Sear 260995 viewsTREBIZOND. John II. 1280-1297. AR Asper (22mm, 2.69 g, 6h). St. Eugenius standing facing, holding long cross; star to upper right / John standing facing, holding labarum-headed scepter and globus; Manus Dei to upper right. Retowski 58; SB 2609. Good VF, toned, typical flat spots1 commentsW. Kutschenko
Theodosius_I_37.jpg
C104 viewsTheodosius I AE4

Attribution: RIC IX 26a, Heraclea
Date: AD 379-395
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG; diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE; Victory advancing l. dragging captive,
SMHA in exergue
Size: 13.1 mm
Weight: 1.6 grams

Emperor Gratian appointed Theodosius as co-emperor of the East until Gratian’s death in AD 383 during a rebellion. He then appointed his eldest son as co-emperor of the East, and later, after the death of Valentinian II, his son Honorius as co-emperor in the West. The reign of Theodosius was marked by dealing with the Goths, who now resided within the borders of the empire. The Goths within the Empire had, as a result of the treaties, military obligations to fight for the Romans as a national contingent, as opposed to being fully integrated into the Roman forces. However, many Goths would serve in Roman legions and others, as foederati, for a single campaign, while bands of Goths switching loyalties became a destabilizing factor in the internal struggles for control of the Empire. In AD 390 the population of Thessalonica rioted in complaint against the presence of the local Gothic garrison. The garrison commander was killed in the violence, so Theodosius ordered the Goths to kill all the spectators in the circus as retaliation; Theodoret, a contemporary witness to these events, reports:

“the anger of the Emperor rose to the highest pitch, and he gratified his vindictive desire for vengeance by unsheathing the sword most unjustly and tyrannically against all, slaying the innocent and guilty alike. It is said seven thousand perished without any forms of law, and without even having judicial sentence passed upon them; but that, like ears of wheat in the time of harvest, they were alike cut down.”

Interestingly, despite his often ruthless policies against rebellious groups and persons, Theodosius promoted Nicene Trinitarianism within Christianity and Christianity within the Empire. On February 27, AD 380, he declared "Catholic Christianity" the only legitimate imperial religion, ending state support for the traditional Roman religion.Theodosius I was the last emperor of a unified Roman Empire. He reunited the Easter and Western empires, yet they were split again upon his death. Towards the end of his reign, Theodosius saw the rise of a Gothic leader named Alaric. Alaric had participated in Theodosius’ campaign against the usurper Eugenius in AD 394, but rebelled against Arcadius soon after the death of the emperor.
2 commentsNoah
00766.jpg
Caracalla (RIC 246, Coin #766)13 viewsRIC 246, AR Denarius, Rome, 214 AD
OBV: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right.
REV: P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Genius of the Senate standing facing, head left, branch in right hand, short scepter in left.
SIZE: 19.2mm, 3.30g
MaynardGee
Caracalla_Genius_of_the_Senate.JPG
CARACALLA AR Denarius Rev: P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P; RIC-24657 viewsCaracalla 198 - 217AD. AR Denarius. 3.3 grams, 19.5 mm, Sear 6833, RIC 246, C 247
Obverse: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right
Reverse: P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Genius of the Senate, togate, standing facing w/head left, holding branch and short sceptre. _14050
Antonivs Protti
CaracallaGenius1.jpg
Caracalla denarius110 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Laur. bearded bust right

PM TR P XVII COS IIII PP
Genius standing left with branch and baton


Rome 215 AD

3.29g

Sear 6833; RIC 246
5 commentsJay GT4
11i.jpg
CARINO Augusto (R/ GENIVS EXERCITI), 283-285 d.C33 viewsCarino Augusto (283-285 d.C.), antoniniano di bronzo.
Zecca di Roma, I officina
AE, 2.1685 gr, 21.3 mm, 0°, MB (F)
D/ IMP CARINVS P F AVG, busto radiato e corazzato a dx
R/ GENIVS EXERCITI, Genius stante a sin, nudo ma con mantello, regge cornucopia e patera, KAA in ex
RIC V 256
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (27 giugno 2008, numero catalogo 96); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2008)
paolo
Carinus_RIC256C-1.JPG
Carinus Rome10 viewsIMP CARINVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
GENIVS EXERCITI, Genius standing left, holding Patera an Cornucopia.
RIC256C

Ex. KAA

21mm, 4.6gr, Die 165.

4th emission Aug. 283
Ed D
Spain_carteia_dolphin.jpg
Carteia, Hispania18 views Obv. [CARTEIA] turreted head of city goddess right
Rev. Winged Genius riding dolphin right. EX D dot D in exergue
Sear 68
Skyler
trajse29.jpg
CAST COPY OF: Trajan, RIC 577, Sestertius of AD 107 (Octastyle temple flanked by porticoes)82 viewsCast copy of
Ζ Sestertius (26.4g, Ψ33mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 107.
Obv/ IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan facing right.
Rev/ S·P·Q·R· OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around] S C [in ex.], Octastyle temple with porticoes on either side with steps between them leading to the central temple; A seated cult figure in centre of the temple; tympanon with seated figure in the centre flanked by reclining figures; on the roof top a central figure flanked by winged Victories on the corners.
RIC 577 [R]; Cohen 549 (20 Fr.); BMC 863; Strack 393; Foss 102:44
(Netherlands, 2001)

In the absence of any specific reverse legend, it is difficult to know for sure which temple is depicted on this coin. According to Clive Foss (1990) it is the temple of Venus Genetrix of the Forum of Julius Caesar. Since the statue in the centre of the building appears to be that of Jupiter, most assume that it is the temple of Jupiter Victor. In that case, this issue could celebrate the restoration of that temple by Trajan which event was celebrated in conjunction with the tenth anniversary of his reign. Later this temple was rededicated to Divus Traianus, and later still by Elegabalus to Sol-Elagabal. Strack however carefully studied all evidence and examined the best preserved specimens of this and related issues and concludes that the best guess is that the central figure represents the Genius Augusti and that the temple is dedicated to Divus Nerva.
3 commentsCharles S
CLAUD2-2.jpg
Claudius II RIC V-1 4913 viewsObv: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: GENIVS EXERCI
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding
patera and cornucopiae. Z in right field
19mm 3.5.7gm
OWL365
Claude II 3.jpg
Claudius II - antoninianus23 viewsIMP. C. CLAVDIVS AVG.
GENIVS EXERCI. , Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae

RIC 48
Ginolerhino
claudius.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus14 viewsAE Antoninianus, 20mm, 3.47g, 12h; Rome mint: 269-70
Obv.: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG; radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: GENIO EXERCI; Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Reference: RIC 5a 48 (p. 215)
John Anthony
goth.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus.26 viewsIMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate draped bust right

GENIVS EXERCI, Genius standing left with patera & cornucopaie.

RIC 48, Cohen 114 Rome.
2 commentsGaiusCaligula
combined~2.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus GENIVS AVG31 viewsObv: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GENIVS AVG, Genius standing left by altar, holding
patera and cornucopiae.


Flamur H
claudius_k.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-2706 viewsBillon Antoninianus, 19mm, 3.6g, 12h; Rome mint, AD 268-9.
Obv.: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG; radiate bust right.
Rev.: GENIVS AVG; Genius standing left, by altar, holding patera and cornucopia, Γ in right field.
Reference: RIC Va 45, p. 215
John Anthony
Claudio_II_Genius_exerci.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, Rome mint, R/GENIVS EXERCI (Braithwell hoard)32 viewsClaudio II il Gotico, antoniniano, zecca di Roma
AE , 2.101 gr, 19.6 mm, 180°, F
D/ IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, busto a dx radiato (e drappeggiato?)
R/ GENIVS EXERCI, Genius stante a sx, con patera nella dx e cornucopia nella sx
RIC V 48
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (30 aprile 2011, numero catalogo 136), ex FAC (Morehead City NC Usa, 2010); ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, Londra-New York, 2007); ex CNG (London, 2007); ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
UNKNOWN_CLAUDIUS_i.JPG
Claudius II RIC V-1 Rome 4522 viewsAE 17 mm 2.1 grams 269 AD
OBV :: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust right
REV :: GENIVS AVG . Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae, altar at foot on left , Gamma in right fields
EX :: none
REF :: RIC V-1, Rome 45
Johnny
unknown_claud_3.JPG
Claudius II RIC V-1 Rome 4823 viewsAE 19-22 mm 2.8 grams 269 AD
OBV :: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust right
REV :: GENIVS EXERCI. Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae
EX :: none
REF :: RIC V-1, 48 Rome
Johnny
claudius_II_genivs_exerci_com.JPG
Claudius II RIC V-1 Rome 48 var (unlisted in RIC)18 viewsAE 19 mm 2.8 grams
OBV :: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed seen from rear
REV :: GENIVS EXERCI. Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae
EX :: none
REF :: RIC V-1, Rome 48 var
variation due to bust seen from rear
Johnny
CLAUD2-2-ROMAN~0.jpg
Claudius II, RIC V(1)-048 Rome11 viewsAntoninianus
Rome mint, 268-270 A.D.
20mm, 4.07g

Obverse:
IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
GENIVS EXERCI
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.
rubadub
Cn__Lentulus.jpg
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus - Cornelia-5579 viewsROMAN REPUBLICAN, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus. 76-75 B.C. AR denarius (3.80 g, 17.7 mm). Spanish (?) mint. G. P. R - Diademed and draped bust of Genius right, scepter over shoulder / LENT CVR ӿ F Scepter with wreath, globe, and rudder; EX to left; S.C to right. Crawford 393/1b; Sydenham 752a; RSC Cornelia 55; SRCV 324. banker's mark on cheek.2 commentsBud Stewart
0050.jpg
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus, Denarius13 viewsRRC 393/1a
76-75 b.c.
Ex HDRauch Auktion 86, lot 499

Struck during the war against Sertorius. Therefore the possibly minting location in Spain.

According to Crawford the choice of the Genius populi Romani with dominiation "terra marique" (to land and water) should be read as a public statement to claim the power of Rome over the rebel state of Sertorius.

described:
RΦMISCHE REPUBLIK
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus
(D) Denarius (3,98g), Roma oder Heeresmόnzstδtte in Spanien 76/75 v.Chr. Av.: G P R, Bόste des Genius Populi Romani mit Diadem und Drapierung n.r., dahinter Szepter. Rv.: CN LEN Q (im Abschnitt) / EX - S C (in den Feldern), Globus zwischen Szepter mit Kranz und Ruder. -- Winzige Randkerben. Cr 393/1a, Albert 1288. Geringer Stempelglanz.
s.sch.-vzgl./s.sch.
Norbert
cornelia.jpg
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus, 76 - 75 B.C.210 viewsSilver denarius, S 324, BMC 57, Crawf. 393/1b, Syd. 752a, EF, 3.918g, 19.5mm, 180o, Spanish mint, 76 - 75 A.D.; obverse G•P•R•, diademed bust of Genius of the Roman People right, scepter across shoulder; reverse EX S C, wreathed scepter, globe and rudder, LENT CVR X FL below;

CVR X FL is the abbreviation for "Curator denariorum flandorum" meaning "Curator of the casting of denarii".
b70
P1018885.JPG
Cn. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Marcellinus, Quaestor (76-75 B.C.), Denarius, AR 19mm.7 viewsCn. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Marcellinus, Quaestor (76-75 B.C.)

Obv. Diademed and draped bust of Genius Populi Romani right, sceptre over shoulder, G P R above.
Rev. wreathed sceptre, globe, and rudder, EX SC, CN LEN Q below.
Lee S
Cn__Lentulus_Q.jpg
Cn. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Marcellinus -AR denarius11 views²Taras or Brundisium
ΉSpain
²late 75 BC
Ή76-75 BC
diademed bust of Genius Populi Romani right, scepter across shoulder
G·P·R
wreathed scepter, globe, rudder
EX _ S·C
CN·LEN·Q
ΉCrawford 393/1a; SRCV I 323; Sydenham 752, RSC I Cornelia 54, Russo RBW 1432
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Roma Numismatics

Moneyer struck this coin as questor of proconsul Pompey when he was sent to support Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius in lenghty war against Sertorius in Spain. Moneyer became consul in 56 BC.
Johny SYSEL
IMG_4338.JPG
Collage16 viewsDiocletianus Follis
Genius standing left,
wearing modius and chlamys over shoulder,
holding patera and cornucopiae.
Juancho
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-KoutjfGaeGOz-Commodus_sestertius.jpg
Commodus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 3 viewsM COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT - Laureate head right
PIETATI SEN-ATVS - Emperor, holding volumen, and the Genius of the Senate, holding scepter, standing vis-ΰ-vis and clasping hands; S C in field, COS V P P in exergue.
Exergue: COSVPP



Mint: Rome (186-189 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.50g / 28mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC III 549
MIR 18, 760-33/30
Banti 236
Mazzini 410
Acquisition/Sale: Centsles eBay $0.00 02/19
Notes: Feb 9, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The Passage of Commodus:
The upper foundation of the Colosseum is crossed by five tunnels, with the four main tunnels, contemporary to the construction, located along the two main axes of the monument, while the fifth tunnel was built later. The four main tunnels divide the upper foundation into four sectors, which in turn were possible sub-divided along radial and elliptic directions by formworks during the construction phase.

The fifth tunnel, named "Passage of Commodus", was dug under Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD), as a private passage for the emperor, directly connected to the imperial residence. The passage is radial-directed and extends for about 60 m from the arena towards south, with a final east-directed part out- side the foundation.

The ceilings are brick-made barrel vaults and both walls and ceilings were originally covered with a thick layer of mortar. However, over time it has been partially removed [La Regina 2001] and nowadays the walls are rough surfaces. Two major earthquakes which occurred in 1349 and 1703 [Molin and Guidoboni 1989], caused the collapse of a large part of the external ring in the southern sector of the Colosseum above the area where the Passage of Commodus is located'
Gary W2
404_Commodus_Genius.JPG
Commodus - AR denarius7 viewsRome
190-191 AD
laureate head right
M COMM ANT P F_EL AVG BRIT P P
Genius standing left, sacrificing out of patera over altar, holding cornucopia
GEN AVG F_ELIC COS VI
SRCV II 5643, RIC III 227, BMCRE IV 289, RSC II 172
2,61g
Johny SYSEL
Comm_den_1.jpg
Commodus Denarius43 viewsAR Denarius
Obv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT PP; laur. hd. r.
Rev: GEN AVG FELIC COS VI; Genius stg. l., sacrificing from a patera over an altar.
Refers to the genius of Commodus, in celebration of the emperor's thirtieth birthday, in 190 AD .

Cohen 172
1 commentsTanit
Commodus_Denarius.jpg
Commodus Denarius40 viewsSilver denarius, VF Rome mint, 180 - 192 A.D.; obverse M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT, laureate head right; reverse PM TRP XIII IMP VIII COS V PP, Genius standing left, patera in right hand, corn ears in left;
1 commentsPhiloromaos
Commodus.jpg
Commodus Sestertius29 viewsAE Sestertius
OBSERVE: M. COMMOD. ANT. P. FELIX AVG. BRIT. P.P. Laureate head to the right.
REVERSE: GEN. AVG. FELIC. P.M. TR. P. XV. IMP. VIII. COS. VI. At the field S.C. Genius standing to the left, altar at his feet.
RIC 561
Tanit
c4469.JPG
Constantine71 viewsConstantine I. AE (21mm) Follis. IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG laureate cuirassed bust right/ GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, head turreted/towered?, loins draped, holding patera & cornucopiae.
RS in ex

RIC VI Rom 294a
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
constantine_0804x.png
Constantine 08.04.x17 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS P AVG
(R. laur, Trabeate)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg left, modius on head, right hand holding patera, left cornucopiae)
S | F(P)
MSL
Not in RIC CT 8.04.x (RRR)
3.1 g
Londiniium
(CT plate coin)
CT notes say, "A number of coins have been reported for this mintmark with right, or, more often, left facing trabeate busts. In all of the cases, the F in the right field on the reverse is indistinct. These ... (are) ... presumed to be a P with a "square" rather than "curved" upper part.

My view is that this coin is S P / MSL as CT concludes. An added reason is that GENIO POP ROM coins with S F/MSL reverses do not have trabeate types, whereas S P / MSL coins do. I think this coin belongs to the series of coins in CT 8.07.001 - 8.07.009, but with an unrecorded bust/legend combination.
Noviomagus
constantine_27_1.png
Constantine 5.01.00810 viewsConstantine
Obv FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C
(R. laur. DR. cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg l. holding patera and cornucopiae)
PLN in ex
London
RIC VI 89B CT 5.01.008 (C)
6g
Noviomagus
constantine_2.png
Constantine 5.04.00310 viewsConstantine
Obv IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
(R.laur.cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
PLN in ex
London
RIC VI 103 CT 5.04.003 (C)
7g
Noviomagus
constantine_genio_msl~0.png
Constantine 8.04.0029 viewsConstantine
Obv IMP CONSTANTINVS AG
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM (Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
S | F
MSL
RIC VII 30 CT 8.04.002 (R)
London
3.3g
Noviomagus
constantine_genio.png
Constantine 8.05.0029 viewsConstantine
Obv IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
(R, laur, cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg l, right hand holding a patera, left cornucopiae)
S | F
MLN in ex
RIC VII 37
CT 8.05.002(S)
London
Noviomagus
constantine_genio_sf_mln.png
Constantine 8.05.00312 viewsConstantine
Obv IMP CONSTANTINVS AG
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
S | F
MLN in ex
London
RIC VII 38 CT 8.05.003 (RR)
3.5g
Noviomagus
constantine_genio_sp_mln.png
Constantine 8.06.0018 viewsConstantine
Obv IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM (Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
S | P
MLN in ex
London
RIC VII 50 CT 8.06.001 (S)
3.2g
Noviomagus
constantine_sp_mln_genio.png
Constantine 8.06.0039 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
S | P
MLN in ex
London
Not in RIC CT 8.06.003 (RR)
2.9g
ex Christian Dezegue
Noviomagus
constantine_genio_sp.png
Constantine 8.07.0047 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS P AVG
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
S | P
MSL in ex
London
RIC VII 65 CT 8.07.004 (RR)
3.3g
Noviomagus
constantino_I.jpg
CONSTANTINE I38 viewsAE Follis. 307 AD. Treveri. 8.78 gr, 6h. Laureate and cuirassed bust right. FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C. / Genius standing front, head left, holding patera and cornucopiae. GENIO POP ROM. In fields S A. In exergue PTR. RIC VI 719b1 commentsbenito
00constantinogen.jpg
CONSTANTINE I28 viewsAE Follis. 307 AD. Treveri. 8.78 gr, 6h. Laureate and cuirassed bust right. FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C. / Genius standing front, head left, holding patera and cornucopiae. GENIO POP ROM. In fields S A. In exergue PTR. RIC VI 719b
benito
IMG_2964.JPG
Constantine I20 viewsConstantine I
A.D. 307- 310
IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right/ GENIO-POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae. In ex. PLN in ex
RIC VI London 104
ex Jamesicus
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Clipboardr4.jpg
Constantine I AE Follis. 312 31 viewsAD. IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right / GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, naked but for modius on head and chlamys over left shoulder, holding head of Sol and cornucopiae, star to left, Epsilon to right. Mintmark ANT. ancientone
Constantine I GENIO AVGVSTI RIC164.jpg
Constantine I GENIO AVGVSTI RIC VI Antioch 16450 viewsFollis, 20mm, 4.89g.

Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate head R.

Reverse: GENIO-AVGVSTI, Genius standing R wearing modius, with head of Sol, chlamys, cornucopia. Star in L field, eta in R.

Exe ANT.

RIC Vi 164c, Antioch, 312. Scarce.
Robert_Brenchley
Constantine_I_Genio_Popvli~0.JPG
Constantine I Genio Popvli23 viewsConstantine I, as Caesar, AE Follis, 305 - 307, 28mm, 7.2g
OBV: F L VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, head turreted, loins draped, holding patera & cornucopiae

Mint unreadable
Romanorvm
con200.jpg
Constantine I, RIC 200b Sisica, Emperor 307-337 CE9 views
CONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200b Siscia, Emperor 307-337 CE


CONSTANTINE The Great, RIC 200(b)
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureated head right
Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTA, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding paters and cornucopia. No field marks
in exergue: SIS, 18.4 mm., 1.6 g.
NORMAN K
0640-310np_noir.jpg
Constantine the Great, as Ceasar, Follis113 viewsFollis struck in Trier, 1st officina, in 306-307 AD
FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, Laureate and draped bust of Constantine right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia. S A in field, PTR at exergue
9.21 gr, 29 mm
Ref : RC #3833, Cohen #218
Potator II
popromOR.jpg
Constantinopolis mint, Anonymous Issue, RIC VIII 2121 viewsConstantinopolis mint, Anonymous Issue during the reign of Constantine, 330 A.D. AE, 12mm 0.42g, RIC VIII 21; Vagi 3043
O: POP ROMANVS, Laureate, draped bust of the Genius of the Roman People left, cornucopia on left shoulder
R: Milvian(?) Bridge with towers at each end surmounted by three round objects, CONS / S above, waves and pylons below
1 commentscasata137ec
constantinus_i-_ric_56.jpg
Constantinus I - RIC VI 5611 viewsNicomedia 308-10 AD
Constantine, as Filius Augustorum, AE Follis. 308-10 AD.
VAL CONSTANTINVS FIL AVG, laureate head right /
GENIO CAESARIS CMH, Genius standing left, pouring liquor from patera,
SMNS in ex.
xokleng
ConstantinusGenioAugustiBar.jpg
Constantinvs BARB from Alexandria62 viewsReduced follis from Alexandria for Constantinus I

MP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
laureate head right
R/ GENIO AVGVSTI [To the spirit of the Emperor] Genius, modius on head standing left, chalmys across left shoulder, Serapis head in right hand, cornucopia in left hand.
X/A/ALE

22 mm -- 4,69 g
1 commentsgb29400
constantius_4a.png
Constantius 1.01.00811 viewsConstantius
Obv FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
(R. laur cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius standing l holding patera and cornucopiae)
LON
London
RIC VI 4a CT 1.01.008 (R)
9.4g
(Ex Silbury Coins)
These early coins from the London mint are stylistically similar to coins minted in France at the time, and suggest that engravers came over with Constantius when Britannia was invaded in 296.
Noviomagus
constantius_1~1.png
Constantius 2.01.01012 viewsConstantius
Obv FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 14a CT 2.01.010 (C)
10.8g
(ex John Le Fevre)
Noviomagus
constantius_2.png
Constantius 2.01.01114 viewsConstantius
Obv FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
(R.laur.draped)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mintmark
London
Not in RIC CT 2.01.011 (R)
9.5g
(ex Steve Thomas)
Noviomagus
constantius_3.png
Constantius 2.01.01311 viewsConstantius
Obv CONSTANTIVS NOB C
(R. laur cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 16 CT 2.01.013 (C)
9.8g
(ex Susan Stephens)
Noviomagus
constantius_4~0.png
Constantius 4.02.00410 viewsConstantius (as Augustus)
Obv IMP CONSTANTIVS PIVS F AVG
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 48 CT 4.02.004 (S)
9.4g
(ex Zeev Haimovici)
Noviomagus
constantius_1~0.png
Constantius 4.02.00813 viewsConstantius (as Augustus)
Obv IMP CONSTANTIVS P FEL AVG
(R. laur cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 49a CT 4.02.008 (S)
9.3g
(ex London Ancient Coins)
Noviomagus
092006_03.jpg
Constantius Chlorus72 viewsI think it is:
Constantius Chlorus
305-306 AD
Siscia RIC 167
Constantius I AE Denarius or quarter follis.
Ob: IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Rv: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI SIS, Genius standing left with modius on head with clamys over shoulder, holds patera and cornucopuia
Ex: SIS
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
1.jpg
Constantius Chlorus52 viewsRoman Empire
Constantius Chlorus (the Pale)
(Reign as 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire May 305-July 306AD) (Ruled the Western part of the Empire while Galerius was Augustus of the Eastern part)
(b. 250 AD, d. 306 AD)


Obverse: IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate and Cuirassed bust of Constantius facing left

Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing facing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia

Mintmark * PLG


Bronze Follis
Minted in Lugdunum May 305-July 306 AD



Translations:

IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG = Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Constantius Emperor
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI = Protector of the Roman People
* PLG = The first officina in Lugdunum (Lyons, France)


References:
RIC 187a
2 commentsSphinx357
Constantius_Chlorus_(293-305_as_caesar)_follis_(AE).png
Constantius Chlorus (293-305 as caesar) follis (AE)15 viewsObv.: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C (Laureate bust of emperor) Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopia, wearing modius on his head, chlamys draped over his shoulder) Field: R Exergue: Γ Diameter: 26 mm Weight: 7,96 g RIC 66a

The genius is a very old Roman concept. Originally, the genius represented something like the lifeforce and procreative power of a man (the female version being the iuno). It later turned into a guardian spirit of sorts. It is unknown when exactly the genius of the Roman people as a whole appeared, but the concept of the genius was expanded to a variety of things like guilds, armies and even provinces. A good example is the coinage of Traianus Decius which features types like the genius of the army in Illyria and the province of Illyria.
Nick.vdw
00constantiusI.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I30 viewsAE follis. Lugdunum, 305-306 AD. 9.38 grs. Laureate and cuirassed bust right. IMP CONSTANTIUS AVG. / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; altar left field, star right. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. In exergue PLQ.
RIC VI 186a. Bastien 368.
EX Barry P.Murphy.
benito
00constantiusI~0.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I28 viewsAE follis. Lugdunum, 305-306 AD. 9.38 grs. Laureate and cuirassed bust right. IMP CONSTANTIUS AVG. / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; altar left field, star right. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. In exergue PLQ.
RIC VI 186a. Bastien 368.
benito
CONSTANTIUS_CHLORUS_GENIO.JPG
Constantius I39 viewsConstantius I - Ticinium Mint - Officina 2 - AE Follis - RIC VI 35a

O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right

R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius standing left with modius on head,naked but for chlamys over shoulder, patera & cornucopiae, star left, ST dot in exergue

8.5g, 27/28mm, 180 degree die axis, 298-299AD
BiancasDad
CONSTANTIUS_GENIO.JPG
Constantius I42 viewsConstantius I - Lyons Mint - Officina 3 - AE Follis - RIC VI 167a

O: CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding sceptre over right shoulder

R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera over altar and cornucopie. A in right field, PLG in exergue

10.5g, 26.5/28.5mm, 180 degree die axis, 301-303AD
BiancasDad
chlorus.jpg
Constantius I "Chlorus"19 viewsAE Follis, 7.9g, 29mm; Antioch mint: AD 300-301
Obv.: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES; Laureate bust right.
R