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Search results - "Galerius"
GALERIUS-2.jpg
34 viewsGALERIVS - Silvered AE Follis - 297-298 AD. - Heraclea mint
Obv.: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia, HTΓ in ex.
Gs. 10,5 mm. 27,5
Cohen 78, RIC 20b
Maxentius
galerius_01_t.JPG
14 viewsoa
galerius.jpg
37 viewsObv: Laurelled Bust of Galerius right
Rev: Genius standing left holding a cornucopiae and patera
Heraclea mint
1 commentspaul1888
GaleriusAUGSerdica.jpg
13 viewsSjoerd H
GaleriusVota.jpg
15 viewsSjoerd H
Galerius_final.jpg
18 viewspaul1888
GaleriusVotaX.jpg
13 viewsSjoerd H
GaleriusCaesCyzicus_(2).jpg
12 viewsSjoerd H
GaleriusAUGSerdicaGenius.jpg
12 viewsSjoerd H
GaleriusCaesCyzicus_(1).jpg
12 viewsSjoerd H
rjb_2009_09_13.jpg
Maximianus I44 viewsMaximianus
Siscia mint
MAXIMIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left with patera and cornucopia
-/-//SIS
RIC (VI) Siscia 169b
2 commentsmauseus
Galerius_RIC_Heraclea_59a.jpg
4 Galerius30 viewsGALERIUS
AE Follis, Heraclea, 311 AD
IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG / GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, star in l. field, crescent in r. field, HT epsilon in ex.
RIC VI Heraclea 59a Scarce
Sosius
Galerius_RIC_VI_Nicomedia_54a_66a.jpg
4 Galerius37 viewsGALERIUS
AE Folles, Nicomedia Mint, 307-308 / 310-311

IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, bust l. / GENIO AV-GVSTI CM[H], Genius standing left holding patera and, cornucopiae, SMN delta in ex

RIC VI Nicomedia 54a/66a (identical)

Sosius
Galerius_RIC_VI_Antioch_53b.jpg
4 Galerius25 viewsGALERIUS
AE Follis, Antioch, 299-300 A.D.

GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, bust l. / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left left, holding patera and cornucopia, epsilon in r. filed, ANT in ex

RIC VI Antioch 53b
Sosius
Galerius_RIC_Alexandria_79v_hwflip.jpg
4 Galerius45 viewsGALERIUS
AE Folles, Alexandria, 308 AD

IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, bust l. / GENIO IMPE-RATORIS Genius standing left, holding cornucopia and patera, X in l. field, A over K in r. field, ALE in ex.

RIC VI Alexandria 79v (reverse legend break). VF, die break/chip at 12:00 on reverse.
1 commentsSosius
Galerius_RIC_VII_Heraclea_18b_hwflip.jpg
4 Galerius33 viewsGALERIUS
Silvered Follis, Heraclea, 297-298 AD

GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, head l. / GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing l., holding patera and cornucopiae, HT epsilon in ex.

RIC VI Heraclea 20b
Sosius
rjb_2017_03_02.jpg
Galerius13 viewsGalerius
Trier Mint
MAXIMIANVS NC
Laureate head right
VO/TIS/X/SIC/XX
Wreath
RIC (VI) Trier - (cf 570-1); Zschucke 3.4
mauseus
gm16b.jpg
Galerius Maximian RIC 16b, Heraclea9 viewsGalerius, AE radiate fraction, Heraclea, 295-296 CE.
Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Reverse: CONCORDIA MIL ITVM, Emperor, standing right, receiving victory on globe from Jupiter who is standing left, holding scepter. H gamma in lower center
Heracles mint 21 mm., 2.3 g.
NORMAN K
rjb_2011_02_02.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 17b24 viewsGalerius as Caesar
AE Follis
Obv: C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 17b
mauseus
galerius_genio_imp_0702.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS37 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
305 - 311 AD (as Augustus)
AE Follis 26.5 mm max. 5.20 g
O: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right;
R: GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genio standing left holding patera in right, cornucopia in left, K - Γ/P at sides, ALE in ex
Alexandria
laney
galerius_concordia_070210.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS44 viewsGalerius as Caesar (293 - 305 AD; AVG 305 - 311 AD)
Struck ca 296 AD
AE 20 mm 3.18 g, Post-reform Radiate
O: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA MILITVM, the prince standing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, star over Gamma between
ANT in ex. Antioch
laney
GALER_GENIO.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS46 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
305 - 311 AD (as Augustus)
AE 23 X 25.5 mm 5.66 g
O: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
LAUR HEAD R
R: GENIO IMPERITORIS, K iN LEFT FIELD, T/K IN RIGHT FIELD
GENIUS STANDING L POURING FROM PATERA AND HOLDING CORNUCOPIA
ALE IN EXE
ALEXANDRIA
(JRyan)

laney
galerius_genio.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS24 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
305 - 311 AD (as Augustus)
struck 297 AD
AE 27.4 mm, 10.53 g
O: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOBC CAES laureate head right
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI Genius standing left holding poatera dn cornucopia, crescent over A at right; ANT in exe.
Antioch mint; RIC 49b
(ex-Forum)
laney
galerius_res.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS (as Caesar)19 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
305 - 311 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18 X 20 mm 2.18 g
O: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor receiving Victory from Jupiter
laney
GAL_VAL.jpg
(0308) GALERIA VALERIA22 views(2nd wife of Galerius; daughter of Diocletian)
308 - 310 AD
AE FOLLIS 24 mm
O: BUST R
R:VENERI VICTRICI
VENUS STANDING LEFT HOLDING APPLE AND RAISING DRAPERY OVER SHOULDER
laney
GAL_VAL_VENUS_RES.jpg
(0308) GALERIA VALERIA19 views(2nd wife of Galerius; daughter of Diocletian)
Struck 308 - 309 AD
AE 25 mm, 4.87 g
O: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed draped bust right
R: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left holding apple in right hand, and lifting her veil with left hand, Δ in left field; MKV in exe
Cyzicus RIC 46
laney
rjb_max_lon_04_06.jpg
(VI) 1538 viewsGalerius
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
RIC (VI) 15
mauseus
maj1709_(5).jpg
003 - Galerius (as Caesar 293-305 AD), Follis - RIC 16451 viewsObv: MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae.
Minted in Lugdunum (PLC in exe, B in right field) 301-303 AD.
2 commentspierre_p77
07e-Constantine-Sis-200b.jpg
07e. Constantine as Filius Augustorum: Siscia follis.30 viewsFollis, 309 - 310, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS FIL AVGG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI / Genius standing, chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquid from patera, and holding cornucopiae. Crescent in left field; A in right field.
Mint mark: SIS
6.14 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #200b; PBCC #786; Sear #15581.

The obverse legend shows Constantine as "Filius Augustorum" -- an empty title granted him after the conference at Carnuntum in November 308. Coins with this title were issued for a short time at 5 mints under the control of Galerius (Siscia, Thessalonica, Nicomedia, Antioch, Alexandria). This title was not recognized in the area under the control of Constantine himself, nor in Italy which was under the control of Maxentius.
Callimachus
Personajes_Imperiales_9.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire54 viewsSaturninus, Carus, Carinus, Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius and Galeria Valeriamdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_9~0.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire33 viewsCarinus, Magnia Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius, Galeria Valeria, Severus II and Maxentiusmdelvalle
11-Galerius-Lon-RIC-15.jpg
11. Galerius.21 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate and curiassed bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
10.65gm., 26mm.
RIC #15; Sear #14344.
Callimachus
111a.jpg
111a Galerius Maximianus. AE follis 9.1gm28 viewsobv: CAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES laur; head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -S/ANT*
hill132
111b.jpg
111b Galerius Maximianus. AE radiate fraction22 viewsobv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES rad. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: CONCORDIA MI_LITVM Galerius std. r. receiving victory on globe from Jupiter
fld: KA
hill132
111c.jpg
111c Galerius Maximianus. AE follis 9.2gm25 viewsobv: CAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES laur. head r.
rev: GENIO POPV_L_I ROMANI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: HTA
hill132
111d.jpg
111d Galerius Maximianus. AE follis 48 viewsobv: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES laur. head r.
rev: SACRA MONETA VCC ET CAESS NOSTR Moneta holding scales ad cornucopiae
ex:*-A/SIS
hill132
113a.jpg
113a Galerius. AE follis 6.9gm22 viewsobv: GAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur head r.
rev: GENIO A_VGVSTI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: A//MKV
hill132
113b.jpg
113b Galerius. AE follis 6.2gm26 viewsobv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO IMP_ERATORIS Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: -r/K-P//ALE
hill132
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.32 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
Galerius_AE-Follis_IMP-C-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG_VIRTVS-EX-ERCITVS_I_ANTdot_RIC-VI-92i-p-628_308-AD-Antioch_Sc-Q-001_0h_23,5-24,5mm_6,74g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 092i, -/I//ANT•, AE-Follis, VIRTVS-EXERCITVS, Mars advancing right, Scarce, 128 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Antioch, RIC VI 092i, -/I//ANT•, AE-Follis, VIRTVS-EXERCITVS, Mars advancing right, Scarce,
avers: IMP-C-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers: VIRTVS-EX-ERCITVS, Mars advancing right, holding spear and and shield, and trophy over shoulder.
exergo: -/I//ANT•, diameter: 23,5-24,5mm, weight: 6,74g, axis: 0h,
mint: Antioch, date: 308 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-92, p-628, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Silvered-Follis_MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAES_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_AQ-__RIC-VI-24b-p-314_3rd-off__C-_Aquilea-296-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_27mm_10,41g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 024b, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1316 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 024b, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: AQ Γ, diameter: 27mm, weight: 10,41g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 296 A.D., ref: RICVI-24b, p-314,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maximianus_Q0x1-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 060b, AE-Follis, FIDES-MILITVM-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NN, Fides standing left, #1289 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 060b, AE-Follis, FIDES-MILITVM-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NN, Fides standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- FIDES-MILITVM-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NN, Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand.
exergo: AQ P, diameter: 28-30mm, weight: 10,15g, axis: 6h,
mint: Aquilea, 1st.off., date: 305-06 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-60b, p-319,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximianus_AE-Follis_IMP-MAXIMIANVSP-F-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NN_AQ-P_RIC-VI-61b_2a-C_s_Aquilea_305-06-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_27-30mm_10,15g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 061b, AE-Follis, FIDES-MILITVM-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NN, Fides standing left, #188 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 061b, AE-Follis, FIDES-MILITVM-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NN, Fides standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG, Helmeted, laureate bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield.
revers:- FIDES-MILITVM-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NN, Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand.
exergo: AQ P, diameter: 27-30mm, weight: 10,15g, axis: 6h,
mint: Aquilea, 1st.off., date: 305-06 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-61b, p-319,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAESS_GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN_KA_RIC-VI-11b_p-580_297-9-AD-Cyzicus_Q-001_6h_27,5mm_9,82g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #1291 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right (large head type).
revers:- GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low), holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopiae.
exergo: -/-//KA, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 9,82g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 297-299 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-11b,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAESS_GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN_KA_RIC-VI-11b_p-580_297-9-AD-Cyzicus_Q-002_0h_27,4-27,8mm_10,54g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #2138 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 011b, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right (large head type).
revers:- GENIO-AVGG-ET-CAESARVM-NN, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low), holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopiae.
exergo: -/-//KA, diameter: 27,4-27,9mm, weight: 10,54g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 297-299 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-11b,
Q-002
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG_VIRTVTI-EXERCITVS_B_MKV_RIC-VI-47a-p-_308-9-AD-Cyzicus_Q-001_6h_24,5-25,5mm_6,71g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 047a, AE-Follis, VIRTVTI-EXERCITVS, Mars advancing right,204 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Cyzicus, RIC VI 047a, AE-Follis, VIRTVTI-EXERCITVS, Mars advancing right,
avers: GAL-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers: VIRTVTI-EXERCITVS, Mars advancing right, holding spear and shield, and trophy over shoulder.
exergo: B/-//MKV, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 6,71g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 308-309 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-47a, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_Ar-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Gamma_Rome_RIC-42b_C-_295-297-AD__Q-001_16-17,5mm_3,16g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1111 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 042b,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-C_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_S-A_RIC-VI-81b_Siscia-310-311-AD__Q-001_1h_28-29mm_9,74g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 081bvar., S/A//--, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1148 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 081bvar., S/A//--, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANVS-NOB-C, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. S-A across fields. No mintmark. .
exergo: S/A//--, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 9,74g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 294 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-81b var (unlisted reverse break)
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-AVGVSTI_crescent-stigma_SIS_RIC-207c-6th-off_C-_Siscia-310-311-AD__Q-001_24-25mm_6,35g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 207c, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1118 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 207c, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, crescent left field, stigma right field.
exergo: SIS, diameter: 24-25mm, weight: 6,35g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 310-311 A.D., ref: RIC-207c-6th-officina,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO_FORTI-FORTINAE_A_SIS_RIC-VI-221-p-482_Siscia-311-AD-Scarce_Q-002_11h_24,5mm_6,50g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 221, AE-Follis, FORTI FORTVNAE, Fortuna standing left by wheel, Scarce! #174 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 221, AE-Follis, FORTI FORTVNAE, Fortuna standing left by wheel, Scarce! #1
avers:- DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO, Veiled head right.
revers:- FORTI-FOR-TVNAE, Fortuna standing left by wheel, right holding rudder on globe, left cornucopiae.
exergo: -/A//SIS, diameter: 24,5mm, weight: 6,50g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 311 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-221, p-482, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO_FORTI-FORTINAE_B-over_Mu_SIS_RIC-VI-224-p-483_Siscia-312-AD-Scarce_Q-001_6h_24-26mm_4,68ga-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 224, AE-Follis, FORTI FORT(I)NAE, legend error FORTVNAE!!!,Fortuna standing left by wheel, Rare! #174 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 224, AE-Follis, FORTI FORT(I)NAE, legend error FORTVNAE!!!,Fortuna standing left by wheel, Rare! #1
avers:- DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO, Veiled head right.
revers:- FORTI-FOR-T(I)NAE, legend error FOR-TVNAE!!!, Fortuna standing left by wheel, right holding rudder on globe, left cornucopiae.
exergo: -/B/μ//SIS, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 4,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-224, p-483, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_GAL-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-A-VGVSTI_star-Gamma_dotSMdotTSdot_RIC-VI-30a-p-514_308-10-AD-Thessa_Q-001_axis-0h_23-24,5mm_5,43g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VI 30a, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1229 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VI 30a, AE-Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- GAL-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-A-VGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exerg: */Γ//•SM•TS•, diameter: 23-24,5mm, weight: 5,43g, axes: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 308-310 A.D., ref: RIC VI 30a, p-514,
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AR-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAESAR_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Ticinium_RIC-15b_RSC-220a_294-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5mm_2,68g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,323 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background, with six turrets.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 3rd.off., date: 294 A.D., ref: RIC VI 015b, RSC-220a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG_FIDES-M-I-LITVM_dot-in-left-field_PT_RIC-VI-55b-p-288_Ticinum-305-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_26-26,5mm_9,33g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 055b, AE-Follis, FIDES MILITVM, Fides seating left, #1292 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 055b, AE-Follis, FIDES MILITVM, Fides seating left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-MAXIMIANVS-PF-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- FIDES-M-I-LITVM, Fides seating left, holding standard in each hand.
exergo: -/•//P T, diameter: 26-26,5mm, weight: 9,33g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 305 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-55b, p-288,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_-RIC-VI-63_Heraclea-3rd-off__Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Heracleia, RIC VI 063, -/Crescent//HTΓ, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,132 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Heracleia, RIC VI 063, -/Crescent//HTΓ, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VAL-ERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, Crescent right field.
exergo: -/Crescent//HTΓ, diameter: 26mm, weight: 6,08g, axis: h,
mint: Heracleia, date: 311 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-63, 3rd-off., C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENERI-V-ICTRICI_star-A__SM_SD__Serdica-315-RIC-41_Q-001_26mm_6_08g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, 407 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, * left, A right.
exergo: */A//•SM•SD•, diameter: 26mm, weight: 6,08g, axis: h,
mint: Serdica, date: 307-308 A.D., ref: RIC-41-1st-off., C-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENERI-V-ICTRICI_star-A__SM_SD__Serdica-307-308-RIC-41-1st-off__Q-002_6h_26,5mm_5,37g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #2109 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Serdica, RIC VI 041, */A//•SM•SD•, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #2
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius,.
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, * left, A right.
exergo: */A//•SM•SD•, diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 5,37g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica, date: 307-308 A.D., ref: RIC-41-1st-off., C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-310-311_RIC-211-3rd-off_C-_Q-002_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,142 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Γ right.
exergo: Crescent/Γ// SIS, diameter: 23-25mm, weight: 7,13g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-3rd.off, C-,
Q-002
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-A_SIS_Siscia-310-311_RIC-211-3rd-off_C-_Q-003_5h_24,5-25,5mm_7,09g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/A//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #383 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/A//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, #3
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, E right.
exergo: Crescent/A// SIS, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 7,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, date: 309-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-.off, C-,
Q-003
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VALERIA-AVG_VENER-I-VICTRICI_Crescent-Epsilon_SIS_Siscia-309-310-RIC-VI-211_p-480_5th-off__Q-001_0h_24-26mm_6,61g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/E//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,151 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211, Crescent/E//SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers:- GAL-VALERIA-AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- VENERI-V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising skirt, crescent left, E right.
exergo: Crescent/E// SIS, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 6,61g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 309-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-5th.off, C-,
Q-002
quadrans
Galeria-Valeria_AE-26_GAL-VA-LERIA-AVG_VENERI-VICTRICI_crescent-Gamma_SIS_Siscia-309-310_RIC-211_C--_Q-001_26mm_4,98g-s.jpg
123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,148 views123 Galeria-Valeria (?-315 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 211var Not in RIC, Crescent/Γ// SIS, AE-Follis, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left,
Galeria-Valeria, daughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius, AE-26 Follis
avers: GAL VAL ERIA AVG, Diademed, decorated draped bust right. The robe around the neck of interesting shapes (some of Victoria ??) can be seen.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding the apple and raising skirt, crescent left, Γ right.
exergue: Crescent/Γ// SIS, diameter: 26mm, weight: 4,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 307-310 A.D., ref: RIC-211var-3rd.off, C-, this bust Not in RIC !!!
Q-001
quadrans
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)94 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.59 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
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146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c34 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
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148 - Galerius (as Augustus) - Follis - RIC VI Ticinum 55b16 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate lead right
Rev:– FIDES MILITVS, Fides seated left, holding standard in each hand
Minted in Ticinum (_ | . // ST). 1st May A.D. 305 - 25th July A.D. 306
Reference:- RIC VI Ticiunum 55b
A pleasing blue-black patina.

Ex-CNG
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148 - Galerius - AE Follis - RIC VI - Lugdunum 167b 12 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding scepter over right shoulder
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera over altar
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | A / PLC). A.D. 301 - 303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167b
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148 - Galerius - AE Follis - RIC VI - Siscia 98b 10 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Siscia (_ | B / *SIS). A.D. 296
Reference:– RIC VI Siscia 98b
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148 - Galerius - Alexandria, Eirene13 viewsBillon tetradrachm
Obv:– GAL MAXIMIANOC K, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– None, Eirene, standing left, holding olive branch and sceptre..
Minted in Alexandria (L| B). A.D. 293
Reference(s) – Curtis -, BMC -, Milne 5106. Emmett 4219 (Year 2) Rated R5
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RI_148t_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - Antoninianus - RIC V Pt 2, 692 Bust Type C20 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuiarassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGG, Virtus standing left, resting right hand on shield and holding spear
Minted in Lugdunum (// B). 12th issue, second series with short titles. A.D. 294
Reference:- Cohen 211. Bastien 657 (11 examples cited). RIC V Pt. 2 692 Bust Type C
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148 - Galerius - Billon Tetradrachm - Milne 524013 viewsBillon tetradrachm
Obv:– MAXIMIANOC K, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– None, Eagle, standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, Palm in left field..
Minted in Alexandria (L| D). A.D. 295
Reference(s) – Milne 5240
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RI_148y_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 101a20 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right (divergent wreath ties)
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera over lighted altar
Minted in Alexandria (K | G / P // ALE). A.D. 310-311
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 101a
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148 - Galerius - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 43 19 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONS CAES, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right hand, sceptre in left
Minted in Alexandria (S | B / P // ALE). A.D. 304-305
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 43
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148 - Galerius - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 8221 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right (divergent ties)
Rev:– VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Mars advancing right, in military dress, holding transverse spear, shield and trophy.
Minted in Alexandria (X | S / K // ALE). A.D. 308-310
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 82
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RI_148x_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - Follis - RIC VI Antioch 148a 15 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera over lighted altar
Minted in Antioch (Creascent | B / ANT). A.D. 310-311
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 148a

Flan flaw on bust.
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148 - Galerius - RIC V Pt 2 6796 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI AVGG, Jupiter seated left, holding victory on globe in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand
Minted in Lugdunum (//I). Emission 11, Officina 3. November to End A.D. 293
Reference(s) – Cohen 115. Bastien -. Bastien Suppl I -. Bastien Suppl II 537 Alpha (2 examples cited). RIC 679 Bust Type C (C)

Rated common in RIC but only 2 examples cited in Bastien Supplement II.

3.96 gms, 23.38 mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
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148 - Galerius - RIC V pt II 678 Bust Type C24 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORDIA AVGG, Two concordia holding hands, each holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (Club in exe.). Emission 10, Officina 2. 1st March to 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 678 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 494
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148 - Galerius - RIC V pt II 678 Bust Type C36 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORDIA AVGG, Two concordia holding hands, each holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 10, Officina 2. 1st March to 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 678 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 512
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148 - Galerius - RIC V pt II 678 Bust Type C6 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORDIA AVGG, Two concordia holding hands, each holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 10, Officina 2. 1st March to 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 678 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 512

Weight 3.81g. 22.64mm. 180 degrees
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Alexandria 015b12 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right (parallel ties)
Rev:– GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera
Minted in Alexandria (_ | B // ALE). A.D. 294
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 15b
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Alexandria 107a16 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right (parallel wreath ties (round ends))
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera over lighted altar
Minted in Alexandria (K | B / P // ALE). A.D. 310-311
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 107a (C)

Weight 7.55g. 26.06mm. 0 degrees
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RI 148f img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Alexandria 7549 viewsAE Follis
Obverse Legend – IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Reverse Legend – VIRTVS EX-ERCITVS, Mars, advancing right in military dress, right hand holding spear, left hand holding shield and arms over shoulder
Minted in Alexandria (P in left field, Γ over R in right field, ALE in exe.). Mid A.D. 308
Reference:– RIC VI Alexandria 75 (Scarce)
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RI_148ac_img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Antioch 055b12 viewsFollis
Obv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera
Minted in Antioch (K | E / V // ANT). A.D. 300-301
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 55b

Weight 10.44g. 27.01mm. 0 degrees
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Antioch 11616 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– VIRTVS EX-ERCITVS, Virtus walking right, holding transverse spear in right hand, trophy over left shoulder
Minted in Antioch (_ | O / D // ANT.). A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 116

7.05 gms, 23.64 mm. 0 degrees
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RI 148l img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Carthage 39a19 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands
Minted in Carthage (I | _ / B). July A.D. 1st May A.D. 305 to 25th July A.D. 306
Ref:– RIC VI Carthage 39a
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Cyzicus 05929 viewsObverse Legend – GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Reverse Legend – VIRTVTI E-X-ERCITVS, Mars, advancing right in military dress, right hand holding spear, left hand holding shield and arms over shoulder
Minted in Cyzicus (A | * / MKV). A.D. 309-310
References:– RIC VI Cyzicus 59 (Scarce)
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Heraclea 37a85 viewsObv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left
Minted in Heraclea mint (.HTA.) Group IV between A.D. 308-309
References:– RIC Heraclea 37a (Common)
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI London 50 9 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P F IN AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (_). Group II - i. May A.D. 305 - Late A.D. 306 or into Early A.D. 307
Reference(s) – Cohen ?. RIC VI London 50 (R, citing Voetter with a footnote stating that confirmation is needed). LMCC (page 126) 4.03.012

Same die pair as LMCC plate coin and BM example (BM B.54, 9.98g, 6h. ex De Salis 1860)

9.77 gms. 29.01 mm diameter. 180 degree die orientation.
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 017b14 viewsObv:– G VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (No marks).
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 17b (Scarce) (RIC has O/L as C VAL in error). Bastien XI Annex AN9
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RI 148g img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 161b26 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB CS, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, right hand holding patera, left hand holding cornucopiae, altar to left
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe). A.D. 301 - 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 161b (Rare)
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RI 146n img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 164b34 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (B in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164b
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RI 148q img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 164b 13 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164b
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 164b11 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164b

Uneven strike. Patchy silvering.
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RI 148p img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 167b21 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left holding sceptre in right hand
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167b
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 167b reverse enlargement 12 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left holding sceptre in right hand
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera, plain altar beneath
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe.), A.D. 301 – 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167b
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148 - Galerius - RIC VI Nicomedia 54a49 viewsObv:– IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI CMH, Genius standing left
Minted in Nicomedia, (SMNΔ in exe.), Group IVbetween December A.D. 308 and May A.D. 310
References:– RIC VI Nicomedia 54a (Common)
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RI 148o img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Rome 67b var23 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome (R | _ / Retrograde Z). Circa A.D. 296 to A.D. 297
Reference:– RIC VI Rome 67b var (Listed in RIC with Z in exe (Scarce) but not listed with retrograde Z in RIC)
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RI 146t img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Trier 226b32 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureat, cuirassed bust left holding spear and decorated shield
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (A in left field, Γ in right field, TR in exe.) A.D. 296 - 297
References:– RIC VI Trier 226b (R2)
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RI 148i img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Trier 595b52 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in Trier (S | F / PTR). Circa A.D. 303 to 1st May A.D. 305
Reference:– RIC VI Treveri 595b
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RI_148v_img.jpg
148 - Galerius, Antoninianus - RIC V pt II Antioch 719 Bust Type C31 viewsObv:– GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES, Jupiter facing right holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules facing left, holding Victory on globe, club and lion's skin
Minted in Antioch (G // XXI Dot). A.D. 293 - 295
Reference:- RIC V Pt. 719 Bust Type C.
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159. Galerius (293-311 A.D.)21 viewsAv.: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Rv.: GENIO IMPERATORIS
Left: K / Right: digamma over P (6. Officine)
Ex.:ALE

AE Follis Ø25 / 6.4g
RIC VI 101a Alexandria
Juancho
IMG_4391~0.jpg
160. Galeria Valeria (Wife of Galerius)17 viewsAv.: GAL VALERIA AVG
Rv.: VENERI VICTRICI
Left: star / Right: B
Ex.: dot SM dot SD dot

AE Follis Ø27 / 6.2g
RIC VI 41 Serdica
Juancho
DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
Blindado
ConstantiusChlorusFollisGenio.jpg
1du Constantius I17 views305-306

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark: SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

Also known as Constantius Chlorus.

RIC 167

After being names Caesar, according to Eutropius: A battle was fought by Constantius Caesar in Gaul, at Lingonae, where he experienced both good and had fortune in one day; for though he was driven into the city by a sudden onset of the barbarians, with such haste and precipitation that after the gates were shut he was drawn up the wall by ropes, yet, when his army came up, after the lapse of scarcely six hours, he cut to pieces about sixty thousand of the Alemanni. . . .

CONSTANTIUS and GALERIUS were made emperors; and the Roman world was divided between them in such a manner, that Constantius had Gaul, Italy, and Africa; Galerius Illyricum, Asia, and the East; two Caesars being joined with them. [Zosimus adds: Three years after Dioclesian died, and the reigning emperors, Constantius and Maximianus Gallerius declared Severus and Maximinus (who was nephew to Gallerius), the Caesars, giving all Italy to Severus, and the eastern provinces to Maximinus.] Constantius, however, content with the dignity of emperor, declined the care of governing Africa. He was an excellent man, of extreme benevolence, who studied to increase the resources of the provinces and of private persons, cared but little for the improvement of the public treasury, and used to say that "it was better for the national wealth to be in the hands of individuals than to be laid up in one place of confinement." So moderate was the furniture of his house, too, that if, on holidays, he had to entertain a greater number of friends than ordinary, his dining-rooms were set out with the plate of private persons, borrowed from their several houses. By the Gauls1 he was not only beloved but venerated, especially because, under his government, they had escaped the suspicious prudence of Diocletian, and the sanguinary rashness of Maximian. He died in Britain, at York, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
GaleriusFollisGenio.jpg
1dv Galerius21 views305-311

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopotamia, he was welcomed by him with great honour. Subsequently, they conducted several wars both in conjunction and separately, subduing the Carpi and Bastarnae, and defeating the Sarmatians, from which nations he settled a great number of captives in the Roman territories. . . .

Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum.
Blindado
GalValFollis.jpg
1dw Galeria Valeria15 viewsDaughter of Diocletian and wife of Galerius.

Follis, Cyzicus

Diademed & draped bust, right, GAL VALERIA AVG
Venus standing left, holding up apple in right hand & raising drapery over shoulder with left, D left, MKV in ex, VENERI VITRICI

RIC 46
Blindado
SeverusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dx Severus II14 views306-307

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170a

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. . . . Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers. . . .
The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna.
Blindado
MaximinusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dy Maximinus II22 views309-313

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMINVS NOB C
Genius standing left, naked except for modius on head & chlamys over shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, SIS in ex, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170b

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. . . . LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,4) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy. Not long after, too, Maximin, after commencing hostilities against Licinius in the east, anticipated the destruction that was falling upon him by an accidental death at Tarsus.
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MaxentiusFollisRoma.jpg
1dz Maxentius22 views306-312

Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
Blindado
galerius RIC-V-719.jpg
293-305 AD - GALERIUS Caesar AE antoninianus17 viewsobv: GAL.VAL.MAXIMIANVS.NOB.CAES (radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: IOVI.ET.HERCVLI.CONS.CAES / Γ / XXI (Jupiter standing right, holding long sceptre and globe, facing Hercules standing left, holding Victory, club and lion's skin)
ref: RIC Vi 719, Cohen 127
mint: Antiochia, struck 293-295 AD
3.43gms, 22mm
berserker
rjb_fol8_01_09.jpg
30516 viewsGalerius 305-311 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO IMPERATORIS
Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
K/A over P//ALE
Alexandria Mint
RIC (VI) Alexandria 101a
mauseus
rjb_fol7_01_09.jpg
30514 viewsGalerius 305-311 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: FIDES MILITVM
Fides seated left holding two standards
-/-//PT
Ticinum Mint
RIC (VI) Ticinum 59b
mauseus
MaxIIVISis170bvar.jpg
305-308 AD - Maximinus II Daia as Caesar - RIC VI Siscia 170b var - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI28 viewsCaesar: Maximinus II Daia (Caes. 305-308 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: Fine/aEF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB C
Galerius Valerius Maximinus Noble Caesar
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 170b var (P-V listed); VM 14
2.05g; 18.3mm; 180°
Pep
MaxIIVICyz101a.jpg
309-313 AD - Maximinus II Daia - RIC VI Cyzicus 101a - GENIO AVGVSTI25 viewsEmperor: Maximinus II Daia (r. 309-313 AD)
Date: ca. 312-313 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG
Imperator Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Wise and Dutiful Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO AV-GVSTI
Genius of the Emperors.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys (falling low) over left shoulder, right holding patera (from which liquor flows), left cornucopiae; altar to left.
"S" in right field
Exergue: SMK (Cyzicus mint, sixth officina)

RIC VI Cyzicus 101a; VM 8
3.47g; 21.9mm; 30°
Pep
MaxIIVINico74b.jpg
309-313 AD - Maximinus II Daia - RIC VI Nicomedia 074b - GENIO AVGVSTI27 viewsEmperor: Maximinus II Daia (r. 309-313 AD)
Date: ca. 312 AD (later)
Condition: VF/Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG
Imperator Caesar Galerius Valerius Maximinus Wise and Dutiful Emperor
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTI
Genius of the Emperors.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera (from which liquor flows), left cornucopiae; to left, altar.
"*" over "A" in right field
Exergue: SMN (Nicomedia mint, 1st officina)

RIC VI Nicomedia 74b; VM 8
4.21g; 21.3mm; 180°
Pep
coin200.JPG
402. Maximianus53 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. 250 - July, 310), known in English as Maximian, was Roman Emperor (together with Diocletian) from March 1, 286 to 305.

Born to a poor family near Sirmium (city in Pannonia), Maximian made a career in the army until 285, when the new emperor Diocletian, a friend of his, made him caesar (sub-emperor) and the ruler of the western part of the empire. The next year Maximian became augustus next to Diocletian, and in 293, when Diocletian introduced the Tetrarchy, Constantius Chlorus became Maximian's caesar and married Maximian's daughter Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

During his reign, Maximianus had several military successes, against the Alemanni and Burgundians in northern Germany, against the Carpi on the Danube frontier and against Carausius, who had rebelled in Britain and declared himself emperor there. He also strengthened the frontier defenses in Africa.

On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian retired together; it is clear that this was not a voluntary act of Maximian's, but that he was forced to do so by Diocletian. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus became the new emperors; Flavius Valerius Severus and Maximinus Daia became their caesars. When Constantius died the next year, Maximian's son Maxentius took the western emperorship, and named Maximian to be his augustus. Maximian resolved the conflicts around this emperorship by defeating Severus and Galerius in battle and bringing Constantius' son Constantine on his side by having Constantine marry his daughter Fausta.

However, in 308 Maximian rebelled against his own son, and marched upon Rome, but was beaten and forced to find refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In 310 he declared himself emperor for the third time, but was unable to defend himself against Constantine, who forced him to commit suicide.

For his own and his colleagues' victories, Maximian received the titles Germanicus Maximus V, Sarmaticus Maximus III, Armeniacus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus, Persicus Maximus II, Carpicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus.

Maximianus 286-305, Reform Follis - Siscia Mint
9.16g
Obv: Bust of Maximianus right "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG"
Rev: Moneta standing left holding a scale and cornucopiae "SACRA MONET AVGG E CAESS NOSTR" "SIS" in the exergue.
RIC 134b
ecoli
coin220.JPG
405. CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar53 viewsBorn March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son at his side.


CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar. 293-305 AD. Æ Follis (9.24 gm). Lugdunum mint. Struck 301-303 AD. CONSTANTIVS NO[B CAE]S, laureate and draped bust right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield at left / [GENIO POPV]LI ROMANI; altar-B/PLC. RIC VI 136a. VF, brown patina, some silvering. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli
coin221.JPG
406. Galerius40 viewsChristians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to the influence of Galerius. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.

Detail of the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and (Maximinus II Daia), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. Having Constantius' son Constantine as guest at Galerius' court in the east helped to secure his position.

His schemes, however, were defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) upon the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and his son Maxentius, who were declared co-Augusti in Italy.

After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307, he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and moderating his ambition, he retired to the city Felix Romuliana (near present day Gamzigrada,Serbia/Montenegro)built by him to honor his mother Romula, and devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

It was at the instance of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.

Galerius as Caesar, 305-311AD. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse type with Genius standing left holding scales and cornucopia
ecoli
coin223.JPG
406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
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407. Severus II35 viewsFlavius Valerius Severus was of humble origin and from Illyricum. Early in his career he had held a military command. When Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple (Milan) on 1 May 305, they appointed Constantius I and Galerius as Augusti in their place, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. Both Caesars were Galerius' creatures and received their appointment at his hands. Constantius I and Severus ruled the west, while Galerius and Daia controlled the east.

When Galerius learned of the death of Constantius I in August 306 and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, he raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace the dead Augustus. Matters went from bad to worse for Galerius when Maxentius, the son of Maximianus Herculius, was proclaimed emperor at Rome on 28 October 306. Galerius was disturbed when he heard the news of Maxentius' revolt because the usurper seized Rome, then part of Severus' realm. Galerius sent Severus from Mediolanum (Milan) to fight the enemy. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome.

When Maxentius learned about the advance of Severus, he sent his own father the purple and offered to make him Augustus again to win Severus' army to his side; Maximianus accepted his offer. Meanwhile, Severus and his army reached Rome and began to besiege the city; Maxentius, however, bribed Severus' soldiers and, at a set signal, the Augustus' forces joined the usurper. Severus fled ro Ravenna with a few remaining soldiers. Maximianus went to Ravenna and, with false promises of safety, convinced Severus to surrender. He took this action because he realized that Severus' position was impregnable. Under house arrest Severus was brought to Rome and imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. Severus was put to death in 307 under clouded circumstances, when Galerius invaded Italy

Severus II AD 305-306 AE Follis "Genius Serdica" "The genius of the people of Rome." Obv: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C - Laureate head right Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Exe: SIS Siscia mint: AD 305-306 = RIC VI, p. 475, 170a Rare (r)
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
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409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
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41 Galerius as Caesar: Antioch antoninianus.16 viewsAntoninianus, 293 - 295 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Radiate bust of Galerius.
Reverse: IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES / Jupiter and Hercules standing face to face, Jupiter holding globe and sceptre; Hercules holding Victory, club, and lion's skin. Γ between them; XXI . in exergue.
4.68 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #719; Sear #14297.

True antoniniani of Galerius and Constantius I -- with XXI in the exergue instead of a mint mark as found on "post-reform" radiates -- are fairly scarce because within about two years of their appointment as Caesars, Diocletian inaugerated his coinage reform which did away with the antoninianus.
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410. Licinius I43 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

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19-Galerius-Lon-15.jpg
43 Galerius as Caesar: London follis.12 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate and curiassed bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
10.65gm., 26mm.
RIC #15; Sear #14344.
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20-Galerius-Car-32b.jpg
49 Galerius as Caesar: Carthage follis.29 viewsFollis, 299 - 303 AD, Carthage mint.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Galerius.
Reverse: SALVS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART / Carthage standing, dressed in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
Mint mark: Δ
11.02 gm,, 29 mm.
RIC #32b; Sear #14411.
1 commentsCallimachus
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504. Constantius II Campgate Nicomedia18 viewsNicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I dedicated the city anew, gave it his name, made it his capital, and adorned it with magnificent monuments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public edifices of the city — a senate house, an aqueduct which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora by a canal which should follow the river Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost destroyed the town. From Nicomedia perhaps, he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his community warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who opposed the sect of the Ophites (P.L., LIII, 592), seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia was the favorite residence of Diocletian, who built there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an arsenal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop Anthimus and a great many Christians were martyred. The city was then half Christian, the palace itself being filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, delivered a discourse in the presence of the judge before he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly during the fourth century from an invasion of the Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Constantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its ramparts, parts of which are still preserved.

RIC VII Nicomedia 158 R2

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508. Julian II VOTA Sirmium9 viewsSirmium

Sirmium was one of the oldest cities in Europe. Archaeologists have found a trace of organized human life dating from the 5000 BC.

When the Romans conquered the city in the 1st century BC, Sirmium already was a settlement with a long tradition.

In the 1st century, Sirmium gained a status of a colony of the citizens of Rome, and became a very important military and strategic location in Pannonia province. The war expeditions of Roman emperors Traian, Marcus Aurelius, and Claudius II, were prepared in Sirmium.

In 103, Pannonia was split into two provinces: Upper Pannonia and Lower Pannonia, and Sirmius became the capital city of Lower Pannonia.

In 296, Diocletian operated a new territorial division of Pannonia. Instead of previous two provinces, there were four new provinces established in former territory of original province: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda. Capital city of Pannonia Secunda was Sirmium.

In 293, with the establishment of tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts; Sirmium become one of the four capital cities of Roman Empire, the other three being Trier, Mmediolanum, and Nicomedia. During the tetrarchy, Sirmium was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium. Sirmium was capital of this prefecture until 379, when the prefecture was divided politically into Eastern and Western Illyricum. The western part (including Sirmium) was included into prefecture of Italia. The eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture with the capital in Thessalonica.

The city also was an important Christian centre. Several Christian councils were held in Sirmium.

008. Julian II Sirmium

RIC VIII Sirmium 108 ASIRM???

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54 Galerius as Augustus: Nicomedia follis.22 viewsFollis, 308 - 310 AD, Nicomedia mint.
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Galerius.
Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI CMH / Genius standing, pouring from patera and holding cornucopiae.
Mint mark: SMND
6.61 gm., 24.5 mm.
RIC #54a; PBCC #964; Sear #14508.

The meaning of the CMH ligature in the reverse inscription is a mystery. It is found on coins from the mints of Nicomedia and Cyzicus. It is generally thought to refer to the value of the coin. One possible suggestion is that it means 100 (C) sestertii struck at a new weight of 48 to the pound (Greek M = 40; Greek H = 8).
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57- Galerius Posthumous104 viewsAE Follis, 311 AD, Thessalonica mint.
Obv: DIVO MAXIMIANO, Veiled head right.
Rev: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI, Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors, (Gamma) in right field. SMTS in exergue.
23mm , 4.9gm
RIC 48 variant, Very Rare!
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59 Galeria Valeria: Serdica follis.16 viewsFollis, 307 - 308 AD, Serdica mint.
Obverse: FAL VALERIA AVG / Bust of Galeria Valeria.
Reverse: VENERI VICTRICI / Venus standing, holding up apple, raising drapery over left shoulder, * in left field, Δ in right field.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
7.07 gm., 26.5 mm.
RIC #41; PBCC #852; Sear #14591.

She was the daughter of Diocletian and Prisca. Her father married her off to his colleague Galerius.
This coin is from the last group of coins issued from the Serdica mint before it was closed in 308.
Callimachus
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61 Constantius I as Caesar: Antioch antoninianus.12 viewsAntoninianus, 293 - 295 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES / Radiate bust of Constantius.
Reverse: IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES / Jupiter and Hercules standing face to face, Jupiter holding globe and sceptre; Hercules holding Victory, club, and lion's skin. S between them; XXI in exergue.
4.35 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #673; Sear #13985.

True antoniniani of Galerius and Constantius I -- with XXI in the exergue instead of a mint mark as found on "post-reform" radiates -- are fairly scarce because within about two years of their appointment as Caesars, Diocletian inaugerated his coinage reform which did away with the antoninianus.
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62 Constantius I as Caesar: Cyzicus post reform radiate.14 views"Post-Reform Radiate," ca 295 - 299 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES / Radiate bust of Constantius.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM / Galerius standing, receiving globe (surmounted by Victory) from Jupiter, also standing and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: K B
3.71 gm gm., 22 mm.
RIC #18a; Sear #14104.
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A113-18 - GALERIO Como Cesar de Diocleciano (293 - 305 D.C.)50 viewsAE Follis 26 x 25 mm 6.5 gr.

Anv: "MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "TR" en exergo, "B" en campo izquierdo y " * " en campo derecho.

Acuñada 298/9 D.C.
Ceca: Trier (Off.2da)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Trier) #357b Pag.289 - Cohen Vol.VII #78 Pag.109 - DVM #29 Pag.281 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7169. Pag.65 – Sear RCTV (1988) #3708
mdelvalle
Follis Galerio RIC Antiochia 59b.jpg
A113-20 - GALERIO Como Cesar de Diocleciano (293 - 305 D.C.)70 viewsAE Follis 27 x 25 mm 9.3 gr.

Anv: "GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "ANT·" en exergo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 304 - 305 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.2da)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Antiochia) #59b Pag.621 - Cohen Vol.VII #78 Pag.109 - DVM #29 var Pag.281 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7169.m. Pag.65
mdelvalle
Follis Galerio RIC Antiochia 95.jpg
A113-25 - GALERIO (305 - 311 D.C.)46 viewsAE Follis 25 x 24 mm 6.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO IMPERATORIS" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido, de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "A" en campo izquierdo, "NT·" en exergo, y "Creciente (media luna)/ε" en campo derecho. Nótese la falla de acuñación: la "A" que debería encontrarse en el exergo como parte del nombre de la ceca "ANT", se encuentra en el campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 308 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.5ta)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Antiochia) #95 Pag.629 - Cohen Vol.VII #47 Pag.107 - DVM #28a var Pag.281 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7269.j. Pag.75
mdelvalle
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A113-26 - GALERIO (305 - 311 D.C.)41 viewsAE Follis 25 x 24 mm 5.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido, de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "A" en campo izquierdo, " • HTΓ •" en exergo, y "Creciente (media luna)/ε" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 308/9 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.3ra)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Heraclea) #37a Pag.535 - Cohen Vol.VII #47 Pag.107 - DVM #28a var Pag.281 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7269. Pag.75
mdelvalle
galerius AElaureate.jpg
AE laureate GALERIUS - 305-306 AD45 viewsobv:MAXIMIANVS.AVG
rev:GENIO.POPVLI.ROMANI (Genius of the Roman People standing holding a cornucopia and pouring a sacrifice from a patera) / SIS
ref:RIC VI-Siscia169b (R2)
2.30gms, 18mm
Very rare
berserker
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AE radiate GALERIUS - 305-306 AD28 viewsobv:IMP.C.MAXIMIANVS.PF.AVG (radiate, draped bust right)
rev:CONCORDIA.MIL-ITVM (Galerius standing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter) / A / [ALE]
ref:RIC VI-Alexandria59b
2.87gms, 21mm
berserker
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BCC LR2546 viewsLate Roman
Galerius 305-311 CE
AE post-reform radiate
Obv:IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed? bust right.
Rev: CONCORDIA MI-LITUM
Galerius standing right receiving Victory
on globe from Jupiter.
In field: Δ, In ex: ALE
19x22mm 2.71gm. Axis:180
RIC VI Alexandria 59b, Sear (1981) 3622
1 commentsv-drome
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Bronze Follis of Galerius20 viewsA Roman bronze follis of Galerius, minted in Heraclea between 308-309 AD. 25.2 mm, 5.248 g.

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right

Reverse: GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, nude but for cloak over shoulder, patera in right, cornucopia in left, •HT*G*• in ex

Attribution: RIC VI 37a
chuy1530
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Campgate: Galerio Cesare a nome Massimiano, follis zecca di Cyzicus14 viewsGalerius, AE Follis (c. 307 AD), Cyzicus, I officina
AE, gr. 5,9, mm. 28, BB, R
D/ IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right
R/ VIRTVS MILITVM, campgate surmounted by four turrets. MKA in ex
Ric VI 39
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, numero catalogo 266, 14 gennaio 2017); ex collezione C.F., Nemo Nostrum (Milano, Italia, ante 1990, fino al 13 gennaio 2017)
paolo
1campgate_Galerio_unita.jpg
Campgate: Galerio, AE follis (ca 307 d.C.), zecca di Cyzicus14 viewsGalerius, AE Follis (c. 307 AD), Cyzicus
AE, gr. 4,32, mm. 23,8, qMB, R
D/ IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right
R/ VIRTVS MILITVM, campgate surmounted by four beacons or turrets. Mintmark MK?
Ric VI 39, Cohen 228/229
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, numero catalogo 267, 4 gennaio 2017); ex Tintinna numismatica, asta 60 (Deamoneta) del 4 gennaio 2017, lotto 2203
paolo
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
max pagan com.JPG
Civic Issue under Maximinus II 23 viewsAE 14.8 mm 1.33 grams 310-312 AD
1/4 Nummus
OBV :: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI. Zeus sitting left on throne holding scepter in left and glode in right hands
REV :: VICTOR-IA AVGG. Nike walking left holding wreath in right hand, palm in left. Delta in left , Epsilon in right fields
EX :: unknown
Minted in Antioch ?
Vagi 2955, Sear ( under Julian II) 4080
purchased 04/2008

Note: The Civic Issues of Antioch, Alexandria and Nicomedia were thought to have been produced by Julian II when RIC VI was written, therefore the entire series is missing. This series was produced during the period of Christian persecution by Maximinus II, Diocletian and Galerius and the Antioch issues portray important local statues: the Tyche erected by Eutychides (a pupil of Lysippus), the Apollo by Bryaxis of Athens and possibly the Zeus Nikephoros of the Temple of Apollo at Daphne which Antiochos IV commissioned for his great festival of 167 BC.

Historical information taken from Coinage of the Roman Empire, Vol II, p.516 by David Vagi
Johnny
civic issue.jpg
Civic Issue under Maximinus II49 viewsAnonymous Civic Issue during the time of Maximinus II, AE Quarter Follis, c.310-312, Antioch, Officina 10
GENIO AN_TIOCHENI
Tyche, turreted and veiled, seated facing on rock, river-god Orontes swimming in front
APOLLONI-SANCTO
Apollo standing facing, head left, patera in right hand, lyre in left
I in right field
SMA in exergue
16mm x 17mm, 1.65g
RIC VI, --; Vagi 2954
purchased 09/09/2007
Note: The Civic Issues of Antioch, Alexandria and Nicomedia were thought to have been produced by Julian II when RIC VI was written, therefore the entire series is missing. This series was produced during the period of Christian persecution by Maximinus II, Diocletian and Galerius and the Antioch issues portray important local statues: the Tyche erected by Eutychides (a pupil of Lysippus), the Apollo by Bryaxis of Athens and possibly the Zeus Nikephoros of the Temple of Apollo at Daphne which Antiochos IV commissioned for his great festival of 167 BC.

Historical information from Coinage of the Roman Empire, Vol II, p.516 by David Vagi
Johnny
coin_5_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG (the 1st) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3/4 follis (306-337 A.D.)19 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, (laurel and?) rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers standing inward facing each other, holding spears, shields and two standards between them, "dot" (clearly filled) on banners. Mintmark: SMNE (?) in exergue.

AE3/4, 16.5-17mm, 2.46g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

MAX AVG = Maximus Augustus, the Great Emperor, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMNE = Sacra Moneta Nicomedia, "officina epsilon", i. e. workshop#5.

Limiting information to only what is known for sure: the legends with the particular breaks, two standards and four-letter mintmark starting with SM, we conclude that this is definitely Constantine I, and only 3 mints are possible: SMN... Nicomedia (RIC VII Nicomedia 188), SMH... Heraclea (RIC VII Nicomedia 111) and SMK... Cyzicus (RIC VII Cyzicus 76-79). All are minted in 330-335 A.D. If the mintmark is indeed SMN..., two variations are listed: rosette-diademed and laurel- and rosette-diademed (laurels typically designated by longish shapes and rosettes as squares with dots). Since the obverse is worn, it is difficult to judge which one is the case here. One can definitely see the rosettes, but as for laurels... probably, not. Officina may be E or S, but I think E fits better.

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, aka Constantine the Great, aka Saint Constantine, born 27 Feb c. 272 to Flavius Valerius Constantius (aka Constantius I), a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins, and a Greek woman of low birth Helena (aka Saint Helena). His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius raised himself to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, and he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. He did so many a great deed that there is no point to list them here. Best known for (having some sort of Christ-related mystical experience in 312, just before the decisive Battle of the Milvian Bridge with Maxentius) being the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity and for being a champion of this faith, in particular, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire, and called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 that produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed. Died 22 May 337, famously being baptized on his deathbed. Succeeded by his 3 sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.
Yurii P
Constantius_RIC_38a.JPG
Constantius (as Caesar), 293 - 305 AD43 viewsObv: CONSTANTIVS CAES, laureate bust of Constantius I facing right.

Rev: VICTORIA SARMAT, the tetrarchs, (Diocletian, Maximianus, Constantius I and Galerius) sacrificing over a tripod altar in front of a camp gate with six turrets; Z in exergue.

Silver Argenteus, Rome mint (officina 7), 295 - 297 AD

2.9 grams, 19 x 17 mm, 0°

RIC VI 38a, RSC 286†d, VM 9
1 commentsSPQR Coins
1.jpg
Constantius Chlorus52 viewsRoman Empire
Constantius Chlorus (the Pale)
(Reign as 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire May 305-July 306AD) (Ruled the Western part of the Empire while Galerius was Augustus of the Eastern part)
(b. 250 AD, d. 306 AD)


Obverse: IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate and Cuirassed bust of Constantius facing left

Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing facing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia

Mintmark * PLG


Bronze Follis
Minted in Lugdunum May 305-July 306 AD



Translations:

IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG = Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Constantius Emperor
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI = Protector of the Roman People
* PLG = The first officina in Lugdunum (Lyons, France)


References:
RIC 187a
2 commentsSphinx357
constantiusI_673var.jpg
Constantius I RIC VI, 673 var.100 viewsConstantinus I Chlorus, Caesar 293 - 305, father of Constantin I
AR - Antoninianus, 4.45g, 22.4mm
Antiochia AD 293
obv. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
draped, cuirassed bust, seen from behind, radiate head r.
rev. IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES
Jupiter standing r., holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules standing l.,
holding victory, club and lion's skin.
field: dot above S
exergue: XXI
RIC V/2, 673 var., unlisted in RIC
R5(?); about EF
added to www.wildwinds.com
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

1. These Antoniniani are very scarce in anticipation of the currency reform AD 294. Coins in circulation were withdrawn and melted down (Forum)
2. This type is known for Diocletian (A - Z) and Galerius (Gamma) and was expected for Constantius too (S), but not yet known (Curtis Clay)
Jochen
vcoin6050.jpg
Diocletian Argenteus34 viewsDenomination : Silver Argenteus. Mint : Rome.

Size : 17.5 x 18.6 mm. Weight : 3.34 grams.

Reference : RIC VI 43a. RSC-516fm. Sear-3503 var.

Obverse : Head of Diocletian right, with DIOCLETIANVS AVG around.

Reverse : Diocletian, Maximianus, Constantiuus and Galerius, standing in front of a camp gate, sacrificing, with VIRTVS MILITVM around.
4 commentsTLP
diocletian_siscia36~0.jpg
Diocletian RIC VI, Siscia 36496 viewsDiocletian 284 - 305
AR - Argenteus, 2.84g, 19mm
Siscia ca. 294/5
obv. DIOCLETI - ANVS AVG
laureate head r.
rev. VICTORIA - SARMAT
The 4 emperors Diocletian, Constantius, Maximianus and Galerius
sacrificing over tripod before archway in six-turreted enclosure
RIC VI, Siscia 36; cf. C.488
R5 (before finding of the Sisak hoard!); EF uncirculated, from Sisak hoard(1953)
Referred clearly to Galerius' Danubian activities 293/6, struck for use by
military recipients above all (RIC)
added to www.wildwinds.com

From RIC: The reverse type exemplifies the times of Diocletian with symbolic accuracy, for the Empire was in many parts reduced to walled cities and fortresses, and it was ruled by 4 men who recognized that in those desperate times their strength was derived from their conformity!



11 commentsJochen
diocletian.JPG
Diocletian/Genio Large Follis48 viewsLarge Follis of Diocletian, Antioch Mint Sear 3434
o: IMP DIOCLETIANUS PF AVG ; r: GENIO POPULI ROMANI ; ex: ANT and 'H' in right.

The "Genio" reverses were adopted by Diocletian and Galerius to counter the growing influence of Christianity as a force in society - countering it with the traditional "spirit of the Roman people"- Mattingly

From Baltimore Coin show 2010
daverino
Divo_Galerius.jpg
Divus Galerius7 viewsDivus Galerius

A.D. 311, 23x25mm 4.5gm
DIVO MAXIMIANO; veiled head right.
MEM DIVI M-AXIMIANI; Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors. B in right field.
In ex. •SM•TS•
RIC VI Thessalonica 48
Posthumous issue struck under Licinius
Ancient Aussie
EB0748_scaled.JPG
EB0748 Galerius / Carthago11 viewsGalerius as Caesar 293-305, AE Follis, Carthage 298-299.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right (large head type).
Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left with fruits in both hands. Mintmark (officina) Δ.
References: RIC VI Carthage 32b; Cohen 191; Sear 14411.
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 7.697g.
EB
EB0749_scaled.JPG
EB0749 Galerius / Genio Populi14 viewsGalerius as Caesar 293-305, AE Follis, Rome 299 AD.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark Q star.
References: RIC VI Rome 95b.
Diameter: 29.5mm, Weight: 12.599g.
EB
EB0750_scaled.JPG
EB0750 Galerius / GENIO IMPERATORIS14 viewsGalerius 293-305, AE Follis, Alexandria 308-310 AD.
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right, parallel wreath with rounded ends.
Reverse: GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, K left, Δ over P right. Mintmark ALE.
References: RIC VI Alexandria 107a; Sear 14524.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 7.609g.
EB
EB0750_ring_scaled.JPG
EB0750b Galerius / GENIO IMPERATORIS10 viewsGalerius 293-305, AE Follis, Alexandria 308-310 AD.
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right, parallel wreath with rounded ends.
Reverse: GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, K left, Δ over P right. Mintmark ALE.
References: RIC VI Alexandria 107a; Sear 14524.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 7.609g.
Note: uploaded twice with different lighting.
EB
EB0751_scaled.JPG
EB0751 Galerius / Genio Populi10 viewsGalerius as Caesar 293-305, AE Follis, Alexandria 295-296 AD.
Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-[L]-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, eagle at feet, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae. A in right field, mintmark ALE.
References: Cf. RIC VI 23b (star-B across fields), RIC 21b (head towered, Γ in right field).
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 9.933g.
EB
EB0752_scaled.JPG
EB0752 Galeria Valeria / Venus12 viewsGaleria Valeria (wife of Galerius), AE Follis, Heraclea 308-311 AD.
Obverse: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Reverse: VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery, star in left field. Mintmark HTΔ(A?).
References: Cf. RIC VI Heraclea 50 (mintmark HTA).
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 7.204g.
EB
EB0874_scaled.JPG
EB0874 Galerius / Africa10 viewsGalerius 305-311, AE Follis, Carthage circa 298 AD.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: FELIX ADVENT AVGG N N, Africa standing facing, head left, in long drapery with elephant-skin headdress, holding standard and tusk, at feet to left, lion with captured bull, I to left. Mintmark PKΔ.
References: RIC VI Carthage 26b; Sear 14336.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 9.462g.
EB
Galerius_01.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 293-294, Galerius, Elpis11 viewsGalerius Caesar
Egypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΓΑΛ ΜΑΞΙΜΙΑΝΟC Κ, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: Elpis advancing left, holding flower (L-B in fields left and right)
AE, 7.81g, 18.5mm
Ref.: Kampmann/Ganschow 122.15, D 6124
shanxi
Faustina_Galerius.jpg
Faustina I and M. Annius Galerius Antoninus - Cyprus or Rome16 viewsAE (as)
147-161 AD
draped bust of Faustina I right
ΘEA ΦAY_CTEINA
draped bust of M. Annius Galerius Antoninus right
M ΓAΛEPIOC ANTWNINOC AYTOKPATOPOC ANTWNINOY YIOC
Overbeck, Galerius 6; Parks 22; Vagi 1517; Lindgren III 940
11,7g 27mm
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
U809F1KHTHNLYB.jpg
Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, AE Follis.49 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right

CONCORDIA MILITVM, Galerius standing, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing

Minted in Cyzicus (KA). A.D. 295 -299

RIC VI Cyzicus 19 (Rated Scarce).

Ex M Griffiths, photo M Griffiths.
GaiusCaligula
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Galeria Valeria (wife of Galerius) 11 viewsSemi-Cleaned Follis. Will update after I have it cleaned.Chris C2
Galeria Valeria.jpg
Galeria Valeria - AE Follis 26 viewsGaleria Valeria, wife of Galerius. AE Follis, 26mm., mint of Anthioch.

Obv.: Her diademed and draped bust to right.

Rev.: VENERI VICTRICI. Venus standing left, holding apple.
Marjan E
GalVal_b.jpg
Galeria Valeria follis43 viewswife of Galerius
VENERI VICTRICI
Tibsi
galeria valeria-.jpg
GALERIA VALERIA follis AD308-30910 viewsobv:GAL.VALERIA.AVG (diademed & draped bust right)
rev:VENERI.VICTRICI / Δ / MKV (Venus standing left, holding up apple in right hand & raising drapery over shoulder with left)
ref:RIC VI-Cyzicus46
mint:Cyzicus, 5.63g, 24mm
Diocletian's daughter and Galerius's wife. They married in June 293, and Valeria followed her husband to East provinces. When Galerius died (312 AD) she was banished by Maximinus II (Daza). After hidden for years she (and her mother) was captured and brutally executed at Thessalonica in 315 AD.
berserker
galeria_valeria_thessalonica_36.jpg
Galeria Valeria RIC VI, Thessalonica 3634 viewsGaleria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, 2nd wife of Galerius. killed AD 315 by Licinius I
AE - AE 3, 6.39g
Thessalonica 2nd officina, AD 308-310
obv. GAL VALE - RIA AVG
bust, draped and diademed, r.
rev. VENERI V - ICTRICI
Venus Victrix, draped, stg. l., holding up apple with r. hand, and raising hem of
her skirt over l. shoulder
star in l. field, B in r. field
in ex.: dot SM dot TS dot
RIC VI, Thessalonica 36
VF

I think this is one of the last depictions of Venus on Roman coins!
1 commentsJochen
gv58.jpg
Galeria Valeria, AE follis 309-310 C.E., Second wife of Galerius 9 viewsObverse: GAL VAL ERIA AVG, diademed AND DRAPED BUST RIGHT.
Reverse: VENERI V ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand and drapery over shoulder with left hand. D * in field
Mintmark MKV RIC VI 58 Cyzicus, 27.3 mm., 5.6 g.
NORMAN K
GALVALER-1.jpg
Galeria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, wife of Galerius. Augusta, 293(?)-311 CE.176 viewsÆ Follis (26 mm, 6.64 gm). Nicomedia mint, 308-310 CE.
Obv: GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right.
Rev: VENERI VI-CTRICI CMH, Venus standing facing, head left, holding apple and drapery; in exergue, SMNA.
RIC VI 57; Sear 3730 var.
EmpressCollector
coins233.JPG
Galerius13 viewsMAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI
RIC VI Trier 158b C

Check
ecoli
Galerius.jpg
Galerius32 viewsAE Follis
Obv: GAL VL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
Rev: VOT / X / FK ; legend in wreath

RIC 35b
Tanit
Maximianvs.jpg
Galerius50 viewsGAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
laureate head right

GENIO AVGVSTI
Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae
star left B right SMSD in exe

Ric 35
Serdica 305 AD
1 commentsTitus Pullo
00345-Galerius.JPG
Galerius19 viewsGalerius Follis
21 mm 3.1 gm
O: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head right
R: GENIO IMPERATORIS
Genius Standling Left
John Campbell
100_5517.JPG
Galerius40 viewsGalerius AE Follis. 311 AD. GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, llaureate head right / GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius pouring libation from patera, S to left, three vertical dots in right field, MKV in ex. ric 651 commentsRandygeki(h2)
100_5517~0.JPG
Galerius100 viewsGalerius AE Follis. 311 AD. GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, llaureate head right / GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius pouring libation from patera, S to left, three vertical dots in right field, MKV in ex. ric 65 Cyzicus3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
19576.jpg
Galerius13 viewsGALERIUS, as Caesar. 293-305 AD. Æ Follis (27mm - 8.66 g). Ticinum mint. Struck 298-9 AD. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; *//PT•. RIC VI 35b.1 commentsTLP
maximianus5.jpg
GALERIUS19 viewsAE follis. 302-303 AD. Rome,4th officina. 30mm, 10.29 gr, 12h. Laureate head right. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. / Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. Star in field. SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS N N. In exergue RQ. RIC VI 106b benito
00galerius2.jpg
GALERIUS15 viewsAE follis. Treveri 303-305 AD. 9,90 grs. 6h. Laureate and cuirassed bust right . MAXIMIANVS NOB C. / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. GENIO POPULI ROMANI. SF in fields. In exergue PTR.
RIC VI 602b.
benito
00galeriusmoneta.jpg
GALERIUS24 viewsAE follis. 302-303 AD. Rome,4th officina. 30mm, 10.29 gr, 12h. Laureate head right. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. / Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae. Star in field. SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS N N. In exergue RQ. RIC VI 106b benito
00galerius2~0.jpg
GALERIUS46 viewsAE follis. Treveri 303-305 AD. 9,90 grs. 6h. Laureate and cuirassed bust right . MAXIMIANVS NOB C. / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. GENIO POPULI ROMANI. SF in fields. In exergue PTR.
RIC VI 602b.
benito
lklklkpp.JPG
Galerius18 viewsGalerius, 305-311 AD, AE Follis, Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius with Q* below. Sear 3708.
Molinari
Galerius.jpg
Galerius82 viewsIMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
laureate head right

SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
R wreath S in ex.
Moneta standing left with scales and cornucopiae

9.32g
30 mm
EF
Scarce
Rome 306 AD
Rome RIC VI 132b
See notes below

This is the Wildwinds example! Thanks Dane.

Notes: RIC lists these types as being produced in two periods,
the second period (coins are identical in all respects) being struck in Autumn 306, and also listed as RIC 158a and
159a.
2 commentsJay GT4
1452181_647023925334522_1266992174_n.jpg
Galerius17 viewsGalerius, as Caesar, AE Post-Reform Radiate Fraction. 297-298 AD. MAXIMIANVS NOB C draped & curiassed bust right, VOT XX & officina letter [?] within laurel wreath. Cohen 247. Rome RIC VI 87b Randygeki(h2)
00377q00.jpg
Galerius9 viewsAE-Quinarius
MAXIMIANVS NO C; Laureate and cuirassed bust to right.
VIRTVS AVGG; Emperor on horseback galloping right, sparing enemy.
Ex:-
Siscia
RIC -; King 10var. (bust and obverse legend)
Julianus of Pannonia
00321q00.jpg
Galerius7 viewsAE-Antoninianus
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
PRINCIPI IVVENTVT; Galerius stg. right, holding spear and globe.
Ex: XXIT
Ticinum
RIC 715
Julianus of Pannonia
00313q00.jpg
Galerius5 viewsAE-Antoninianus
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
VIRTVS AVGG; Hercules stg. right, supporting on club and holding bow and lion skin.
Ex: III
Lugdunum
RIC
Julianus of Pannonia
00312q00.jpg
Galerius5 viewsAE-Antoninianus
MAXIMIANVS NOB C; Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right.
VIRTVS AVGG; Virtus standing left, right hand resting on shield, left holding spear.
Ex: B
Lugdunum
RIC 692; B.657 pl. LXVI (9 ex.)
Julianus of Pannonia
00323q00.jpg
Galerius6 viewsAE-Antoninianus
MAXIMIANVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
ORIENS AVGG; Sol stg. left raising arm and holding globe, at feet two prisoners.
Ex: B
Lugdunum
RIC
Julianus of Pannonia
00378q00.jpg
Galerius6 viewsAe-Quinarius
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
PRINCIP IVVENTVT; Emperor standing r., holding spear and globe
Rome
RIC 710; King: 418/53
Julianus of Pannonia
galerius_1.JPG
Galerius (293-311 AD)19 viewsFollis (308-310 AD)
Obv. GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Rev. GENIO A-VGVSTI
*A/SMdotTS
mint: Thessalonica
RIC VI Thessalonica 30a
Misak33
GALERIUS-1.jpg
Galerius RIC VI 429 viewsObv: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
laureate head right
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI
Genius standing left with
patera & cornucopiae
A left
MKV in ex.
27mm 6.9gm
OWL365
Galerius_(293-305_as_caesar)_radiatus_(AE).png
Galerius (293-305 as caesar) radiatus (AE)11 viewsObv.: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES (Emperor with radiate crown) Rev.: CONCORDIA MILITVM (Galerius receiving Victoria on globe from Jupiter) Field: KA Diameter: 21 mm weight: 2,33 g RIC VI 18b, A

Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum provides a gruesome account of Galerius' death, who apparently had some sort of gangrenous affliction. On his deathbed, though having been a ruthless persecutor, he asked the Christians to pray for his health and even issued an edict that provided freedom of religion (before the Edict of Milan by Licinius and Constantine in 313). The condition of this coin reflects Galerius' general physical state at time of his death.
Nick.vdw
galer.jpg
Galerius (305 - 311 A.D.)80 viewsÆ(S) Follis
O: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
R: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia, SIS in exergue, star in left field, B in right field.
Siscia 301 A.D.
10.08g
28mm
RIC VI 135b Siscia
5 commentsMat
max_7.jpg
Galerius (305 - 311 A.D.)46 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Potin Tetradrachm
O: GAL MAXIMIANOC K; Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
R: Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm. L - Γ across fields.
Alexandria mint, AD 294/295
22mm
8.15g
Emmett 4230(3)a, Dattari 6150

Scarce

Published on Wildwinds
1 commentsMat
TC-04.jpg
Galerius (A.D. 305-311)18 viewsAE Follis, A.D. 308-309, Antioch, 25.7mm, 6.83g, 180°, RIC VI 112a.
Obv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO IMPERATORIS. Genius standing left, patera in right, cornucopia in left; O/H in field, ANT• in ex.
Joseph D5
galerius follis~0.jpg
GALERIUS (as Caesar) AE follis - 300-303 AD22 viewsobv:MAXIMIANVS.NOB.CAES (laureate head right, smaller portrait-head)
rev:SACRA.MONET.AVGG.-ET.CAESS.NOSTR (Moneta standing left holding scales & cornucopiae) / PT°
ref:RIC VI-Ticinum44b
9.16gms, 27mm
berserker
00781.jpg
Galerius (RIC 105a, Coin #781)9 viewsRIC 105a, AE Follis, Alexandria, 308 - 310 AD
OBV: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
REV: GENIO IMPERATORIS (ALE), Genius standing left, cornucopia in left hand, pouring libations from patera in right, K left, delta / P right.
SIZE: 26.4mm, 6.30g
MaynardGee
00092.jpg
Galerius (RIC 169b, Coin #92)14 viewsRIC 169b, Quarter Follis, Siscia, 305-306 AD.
Obv: MAXIMIANVS AVG Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (SIS) Genius standing left holding patera in right, cornucopia in left.
Size: 18.5mm 2.14gm
MaynardGee
00214.jpg
Galerius (RIC 26b, Coin #214)12 viewsRIC 26b (C), AE Follis, Aquileia, 297-298 AD.
Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (AQ gamma) Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Size: 27.9mm 11.08gm
MaynardGee
00469.jpg
Galerius (RIC 54a, Coin #469)14 viewsRIC 54a, AE Follis, Nicomedia, 308 - 310 AD.
Obv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI CMH (SMNA) Genius standing right, patera in right and cornucopiae in left.
Size: 26.5mm 6.30gm
MaynardGee
00190.jpg
Galerius (RIC 55b, Coin #190)13 viewsRIC 55b, AE Follis, Antioch, 300-301 AD.
Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (ANT) Genius standing left holding cornucopia and pouring libation from patera, K in left field, G and V in right field.
Size: 22.4mm 9.82gm
MaynardGee
00359.jpg
Galerius (RIC 59b, Coin #359)15 viewsRIC 59b, AE Follis, Antioch, 304-305 AD.
Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (ANT•) Genius standing left holding cornucopia and pouring libation from patera, gamma right.
Size: 27.6mm 10.54gm
MaynardGee
00312.jpg
Galerius (RIC 98b, Coin #312)11 viewsRIC 98b (C), AE Follis, Siscia, 296 AD.
Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (*SIS) Genius standing left holding cornucopia and pouring libation from patera. Gamma right.
Size: 27.4mm 10.56gm
MaynardGee
135_Galerius_Heraclea.jpg
Galerius - AE follis7 viewsHeraclea
308-309 AD
laureate head right
IMP GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, pouring out patera and holding cornucopia
GENIO IMP_E_RATORIS
·HTA·
RIC VI Heraclea 37a
8,43 g 25 mm
Johny SYSEL
390_Galerius_Siscia.jpg
Galerius - AE follis6 viewsSiscia
309-311 AD
laureate head right
IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, wearing chalmys, holding cornucopia, pouring libations from patera
GENIO A_VGVSTI
crescent _A
SIS
RIC VI Siscia 198a/207a
5,84g
Johny SYSEL
898_Galerius_Antioch~0.jpg
Galerius - AE follis6 viewsAntioch
299-300 AD
laureate head right
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Genius standing left, wearing modius and chalmys, pouring libations from patera, holding cornucopia
GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI
Γ
ANT
RIC VI Antioch 53b
ex Gitbud Naumann
Johny SYSEL
853_Galerius_Carthage.jpg
Galerius - AE post-reform radiate6 viewsCarthage
303 AD
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
VOT / X / F K
within wreath
RIC VI Carthage 36
ex Lucernae

scarce
Johny SYSEL
Galerius_40b.jpg
Galerius - AE reduced antoninianus24 viewsTicinum
299 AD
radiate, cuirassed bust right
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
VOT / . / X / T - within wreath
RIC VI Ticinum 39b
3,73 g 21,5-19,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Galerius_Antioch-.jpg
Galerius - follis16 viewsAntioch
304-305 AD
laureate head right
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Genius standing left, wearing modius and chalmys, pouring libations from patera, holding cornucopia
GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI •
Z
ANT
RIC VI Antioch 59b
ex Gitbud Naumann
Johny SYSEL
Galerius RIC 9b.jpg
Galerius - follis RIC 9b17 viewsAE Follis, RIC 9b, 10.78g; minted in Cyzicus, 295-296 A.D.; obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse: GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM N N, Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopiae, KG(Gamma) in ex.Priscian
GAlerius1.jpg
Galerius - RIC VI 4a63 viewsTicinum 300-303 AD.
Galerius, as Caesar, AE Follis.
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES Laureate head right /
SACRA MONETA AVGG ET CAESS NOSTRA, Moneta standing left, holding scales & cornucopiae,
PT• in ex.
2 commentsxokleng
galerius-cartago.jpg
Galerius -RIC VI 36.13 viewsCarthago - 303 AD.
23 mm, 3.4 g.
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
VOT/X/FK
xokleng
galerius_genio_1.png
Galerius 2.01.01413 viewsGalerius Maximian
Obv C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
RIC VI 14b LMCC 2.01.014 (R)
9.7g
Noviomagus
galerius_genio_2.png
Galerius 2.01.01521 viewsGalerius Maximian
Obv MAXIMIANVS NOB C
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 15 LMCC 2.01.015 (C)
8.5g
1 commentsNoviomagus
Galerius_12S[1].jpg
Galerius 293-305 C.E. as Caesar - Antoninianus 12 viewsGalerius, AE radiate fraction, Heraclea, 295-296 C.E.
Obverse - GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Reverse - CONCORDIA MIL ITVM. Emperor, standing right, receiving victory on globe from Jupiter, standing left, holding scepter.
H gamma in lower center
NORMAN K
galerius_genio_1~0.png
Galerius 3.01.03112 viewsGalerius Maximian
Obv MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C
(R. laur. dr.cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 33 LMCC 3.01.031 (C)
9.4g
Noviomagus
galerius__genio_3.png
Galerius 5.01.00215 viewsGalerius Maximian (as Augustus)
Obv IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
(R. laur. cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
PLN in ex
London 8.26g
RIC VI 84 & 86 LMCC 5.01.002 (S)
(When Maximian Galerius was Caesar, it was easy to distinguish him from Maximian Herculius, as he was given the rank of Caesar on coins and Maximian Herculius was referred to as Augustus. During this time (perhaps towards the end of 307 AD) they were both Augustus. Maximianus Galerius is afforded a more modest legend of IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, whereas Maximian Herculius is given the grander legend of DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG.)
Noviomagus
galerius_genio.png
Galerius 5.02.00117 viewsGalerius Maximian
Obv IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
(R, laur, cuir)
Rev GENIO POP ROM
(Genius stg left, right hand holding patera, left cornucopiae)
No mintmark
London
RIC VI 78
LMCC 5.02.001 (R)
6.52g
Noviomagus
Galerius1106.jpg
Galerius AE Follis21 viewsGalerius AE Follis
AD 308-309
Ob: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rv: GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS, Genius standing left pouring liquid from patera & holding cornucopaie
Ex: HTdelta
Heraclea
RIC 37a (?)
Scotvs Capitis
roman20.jpg
Galerius AE Follis13 views302-303 AD. Trier mint.
Obv.: MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C - Laureate and cuirassed bust of Galerius.
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius holding patera and cornucopiae. ITR in ex., S F in fields.
RIC 530b.
Minos
roman34.jpg
Galerius AE Follis35 views298-299 AD. Carthage mint.
Obv.: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Laureate head of Galerius.
Rev.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthage holding fruits in each hands. Delta in ex..
RIC 32b.
Minos
076.jpg
Galerius AE Follis58 viewsRIC VI 42 Cyzicus, 308-309 A.D.
6.46 g, 26 mm
GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
GENIO A-VGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiaee.
B in left field. MKV in exergue
2 commentsMark Z2
Galerius_2.jpg
GALERIUS AE Follis16 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right
REVERSE: GENIO AVGVSTI CMH, Genius standing left, modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae, SMNA in ex
Struck at Nicomedia 295 AD
7.6g, 26mm
RIC VI 54a, A
Legatus
Galerius_3.jpg
GALERIUS AE Follis8 viewsOBVERSE: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
REVERSE: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left, TT. in ex.
Struck at Ticinum 300-3 AD
12.3g, 27mm
RIC 46b
Legatus
galerius-genius-07-02-2018.jpg
Galerius AE Follis (302-303 AD), Trier mint11 viewsRoman Imperial, Galerius AE Follis (302-303 AD), Trier mint

Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right.

Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, head towered, naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae, A left field. Mintmark LITR.

Reference: RIC VI Trier 535b

Ex: Sphinx Numismatics
Gil-galad
galerius RIC81a.jpg
GALERIUS AE follis - 305-306 AD - struck by Severus II30 viewsobv: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG (helmeted, laureate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield)
rev: VIRTVS AVGG ET CAESS NN / AQS (Galerius riding horse right, spearing barbarian; second barbarian lying down [Augustorum et Caesarum Nostrorum])
ref: Aquilea RIC 81a (S), C.616 (5frcs)
mint: Aquilea
11.61gms, 28mm
When Severus II was appointed Caesar in 305, the Aquilea mint passed to his control, and the Moneta theme was replaced by openly military themes, foreshadowing the impending conflict with Maxentius.
berserker
galerius-genius-cyzicus-65.jpg
Galerius AE Follis, (311 AD) Cyzicus mint9 viewsRoman Imperial, Galerius AE Follis, (311 AD), Cyzicus mint

Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.

Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, B to left, three dots vertically in right field. Mintmark MKV.

Reference: RIC VI Cyzicus 65
Gil-galad
galerius-reshoot-1.jpg
Galerius AE Follis, Nicomedia mint, 305-311 AD19 viewsRoman Imperial, Galerius AE Follis, Nicomedia mint, 305-311 AD, 5.7g, 27.45mm

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.

Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI CMH, Genius standing left, holding cornucopiae and patera, SMNA or SMNΔ in ex. RIC 54a of Nicomedia, Cohen 42. Note: RIC 54a/66a for officinae A and Δ are identical. Only coins from officinae B, Γ, Ɛ and ς were struck later.

Reference: RIC VI Nicomedia 54a/66a
Gil-galad
AAEFb_small.png
Galerius AE Post-reform Radiate16 viewsGalerius (as Caesar). 293-305 AD as Caesar. 305-311 AD as Augustus.

Antioch. 296 AD.

20mm., 2.52g.

GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Bust of Galerius, radiate, draped, cuirassed, right

CONCORDIA MIL-ITVM. Galerius, draped, cuirassed, standing right, receiving small Victory on globe from Jupiter; Jupiter, standing left, leaning on sceptre with left hand. Officina Mark: Γ, star above. Mintmark ANT

Reference: RIC VI Antioch 61b

AAEF
1 commentsRL
Galerius.png
Galerius Antoninianus29 viewsGalerius Antoninianus
295-296 AD.

Obverse:
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Bust Radiate, draped, cuirassed, right.

Reverse:
CONCORDIA MILITVM
Emperor, standing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter.
2 commentsHarry G
85001190.jpg
Galerius Argenteus38 viewsGalerius. As Caesar, AD 293-305. AR Argenteus (19mm, 3.10 g, 12h). Ticinum mint. Struck circa AD 294. Laureate head right; outer wreath tie curves upward / VIRTVS MILITVM, tetrarchs sacrificing over tripod before city enclosure with six turrets. RIC VI 15b; Jelocnik 30 var. (wreath ties); RSC 220a.1 commentsTLP
Galerius_.jpg
Galerius as Caesar14 viewsObv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding cornucopia in left and pouring libations from patera in right, G right, TS in ex
Size: 9.576g, 27.6mm Mint: Thessalonica, 1 March302-303 AD
Id: Silvered Follis RIC VI24b
Notes: Ex-Forum
ickster
29919_0.jpg
Galerius as Caesar, 293-305. circa 299-303.5 viewsFollis Carthage. Æ 28mm., 9.56g. Laureate head r. Rev. Carthago standing facing, head l., holding fruits in both hands; in exergue, Δ. RIC 32b.
Ruslan K
gal_genio_k.jpg
Galerius as Caesar, AD 293-30523 viewsAE Follis, 27mm, 10.3g, 12h; Trier mint, AD 295
Obv.: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES; Laureate head right.
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopia; A in left field // TR
Ref.: RIC VI Treveri 158b, p. 180. 16-195-55
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Galerius_Trier.png
Galerius as Caesar, Trier mint12 viewsGalerius as Caesar
Reigned as Caesar 293-305
Trier Mint

O: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate bust right

R: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius naked with chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae, B in left field, gamma in right, TR mintmark in exergue



RIC VI Trier 213b
Gao
Galerius_Concordia_Militum.JPG
Galerius Concordia Militum34 viewsGalerius, AD 295 - 299, AE Post Reform Fractional Radiate, RIC VI Cyzicus 19B, SEAR 3713
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: CONCORDIA MILITVM - Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Galerius.  Exe: above the line KB

SCARCE
Romanorvm
Coin1001_quad_sm.jpg
Galerius Concordia Militum Ӕ post-reform radiate fraction (295 - 299), Cyzicus mint6 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped (?) and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MI-LITVM + KB in lower centre, Prince (the left figure) standing right in military dress, holding parazonium or baton of imperium, receiving small Victory with a wreath and palm branch on globe from naked Jupiter (the right figure) standing left holding tall scepter.

Ӕ, 20mm, 2.36g, die axis 6h, base metal seems red, high copper content.

Galerius ruled as Caesar from 293 to 305, but most sources give minting years for this type of coin as 295-299.

RIC VI Cyzicus 19b (18b?), Sear 3713. 19b has cuirassed and draped bust, 18b -- only cuirassed. I think the edge of the military cape on the shoulder means it is draped in this case, but distinction seems very vague to me. Looking at coins identified as 18b and 19b I cannot see any clear pattern, it seems that many are confused in this respect just like myself.

GALerius VALerius MAXIMIANUS NOBilitas CAESar (in this era the title of "junior" emperor while Augustus was a "senior" one), CONCORDIA MILITVM = [Dedicated to] harmony with the soldiers, K = Kysikos (Cyzicus) mint, B = officina Beta (workshop #2). The figure to the right is naked except for a cape, so it is a god, the sceptre points to him being Jupiter, the ruler of gods. Jupiter is also typically associated with Victory, he was often depicted with Victory in the right hand and sceptre in the left. The line across his head probably designates a wreath, also a common feature of Jupiter. Victory holds her common attributes, the triumphal wreath and a palm branch, the orb she stands on represents the world (thus meaning dominion over it). Round Earth was a firmly established concept in Roman times. The left figure, the prince (Galerius in this case) is identified by his full battle dress and the hand-held short elongated shape, which is either the ivory baton of imperium (the high command) or, more likely, a parazonium, a long triangular dagger, typically cradled in the bearer's left arm. A Roman parazonium blade tended to be leaf shape and approximately 15"-19" long. It was a ceremonial weapon, a mark of high rank, used to rally the troops.

GALERIUS, * c. 250, near Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) or in a Dacian place later called Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) † late Apr or early May 311 (aged ~60), Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) ‡ 1 Mar or 21 May 293 – 1 May 305 (as Eastern Caesar, under Diocletian), 1 May 305 – late Apr or early May 311 (as Eastern Augustus with many co-emperors).

Galerius was born of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by Diocletian, the supreme ruler of the empire, to help him govern the East. Galerius divorced his wife and married Diocletian’s daughter, Valeria. After ruling from Egypt from 293 to 295, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanians in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence with Diocletian. Galerius next proceeded to the Balkans and won numerous victories in the region. A staunch pagan, he persuaded the emperor to initiate the persecution of the Christians at Nicomedia in 303.

When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia. Since Galerius had arranged the appointment of two of his favourites, Maximinus (his nephew) and Flavius Valerius Severus, to be Caesars in both East and West, he was in effect the supreme ruler. When Constantius Chlorus died in 306, Galerius insisted that Severus govern the West as Augustus, but he grudgingly conceded the subordinate title of caesar to Chlorus’s son, Constantine, who was correctly suspected of Christian sympathies. Galerius’s supremacy was, however, short-lived. Severus was soon overthrown (306) and killed by Maxentius (son of the former emperor Maximian). Galerius invaded Italy but was forced to retreat. In 308 he induced Diocletian and Maximian to meet him at Carnuntum on the Danube and to declare Maxentius a usurper. On November 11, Galerius proclaimed as Augustus of the West his friend Licinius, who had effective control only in the region of the Danube.

A ruthless ruler, Galerius imposed the poll tax on the urban population and maintained the persecution of the Christians. In the winter of 310–311, however, he became incapacitated with a horrible disease. Fearing, perhaps, that his illness was the vengeance of the Christian God, he issued on April 30, 311, an edict grudgingly granting toleration. Shortly afterward he died. He was succeeded by his nephew Maximinus Daia.

Diocletian's money reform of 293.

Trying to fight the runaway inflation that he did not understand and to return people's faith in Roman coins, Diocletian did a complete overhaul of the Roman monetary system. He introduced a new theoretical base monetary unit called the denarius communis or d.c. (only rarely represented by actual coins, one example being old pre-Aurelian antoniniani still in circulation, valued now at 1 d. c., another – minted only on a small scale 1.5g coin with the reverse legend VTILITAS PVBLICA, "for public use"). Then he started minting new types of coins including a gold aureus of new purity and weight standard (1/60 pound of pure gold), a quality silver coin, argenteus, roughly similar to the early imperial denarius in size and weight, a new billon coin, of a copper alloy but with a small fraction of silver mostly in the form of coating, roughly similar to the old antoninianus when it was just introduced, however bearing now a laureate rather than a radiate bust. This type of coin is now commonly referred to as a follis or a nummus. Finally, a new radiate bronze coin, now referred to as a "radiate fraction" or a radiatus was introduced, similar to the early imperial aes in value, but much smaller in weight and size. There were also rare issues of ½ and ¼ nummus coins, mostly in connection to some celebration. Interestingly, the obverses of these new coins were chosen to represent some identical "generic" image of a "good emperor" independent of the actual likeness of the August or Caesar in whose name they were issued, thus affirming the unity of all the tetrarchy rulers. Very roughly one may think of a new radiatus as a price of one loaf of bread, a new argenteus as a very good daily wage, and a new aureus as a price of a good horse. An approximate relationship between these units was as follows: 1 aureus ≈ 20 argentei ≈ 1000 d.c. (some scholars prefer 25 argentei and 1250 d.c.); 1 argenteus ≈ 5 nummi ≈ 50 d.c.; 1 nummus ≈ 5 radiati ≈ 10 d.c.; 1 radiatus ≈ 2 d.c. Of course we know that this reform was ineffective and inflation continued, so all these values were constantly shifting due to changing markets. Diocletian himself stopped minting argenteus in c. 305, and Constantine in his monetary reforms only re-established a new and highly successful gold standard, solidus (1/72 pound of pure gold, surprisingly actually first introduced also by Diocletian in 301, but only as a pilot version). As for billon and bronze coins, "folles" or "nummi", they were minted in all shapes and sizes all over the 4th century, often horribly debased by inflation, and their values at each point can only be guessed. It seems that in later times up to 1000 small bronze coins were sealed in a leather pouch to produce a reasonable unit of payment, thus giving rise to the name follis (lit. "bag" in Latin), which is now anachronistically applied to many billon and bronze coins of the late 3d and 4th century.
Yurii P
Galerius D 1.jpg
Galerius Follis32 viewsGalerius AE28 Follis. c 298 AD. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / FELIX ADVENT AVGG N N, Africa standing facing, head left, in long drapery with elephant-skin headdress, holding standard & tusk, at feet to left, lion with captured bull .

RIC 26b
Tanit
Maximianus D 1.jpg
Galerius Follis38 viewsGalerius Æ Follis. 299-303 AD. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthage standing left with fruits in both hands, DELTA in ex.

RIC VI 32b of Carthage, Cohen 191.

Tanit
005 Galerius.jpg
Galerius Follis26 viewsAE Follis.
Obv.:MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES ;
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI ; Genius stg. l.
Tanit
Galerius_2b.jpg
Galerius follis49 viewsGENIO IMPERATORISTibsi
Galerius~0.jpg
Galerius Follis19 viewsAE Follis.
Obv.:MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C ;
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI ; Genius stg. l.
Tanit
Galerius1.jpg
Galerius Follis18 viewsObv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Laureate head right

Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - (Dot)TS(Dot) in exergue - Genius standing holding patera and cornucopia
BamaCS
Galerius_Genio.jpg
Galerius follis38 viewsGENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM N N / KATibsi
galerius follis-.jpg
GALERIUS follis - 305-306 AD11 viewsobv: IMP.MAXIMIANVS.PF.AVG (laureate head right)
rev: FIDES.MILITVM.AVGG.ET.CAESS.NN / AQP (Fides standing left, holding a standard in each hand)
ref: RIC VII-Aquilea60b
7.20g, 26x28mm
The reverse legend translates as, "The loyalty of the soldiers of our Emperors and Caesars." Considering that Severus' troops ultimately did in fact desert him, this was not an idle concern as war with Maxentius loomed.
berserker
galval.JPG
Galerius Follis 308-309 AD46 viewsOBV: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANUS PF AVG; Laureate head rt.
REV: GENIO IMPERATORIS; Genius standing left with modius on head pouring liquid from a patera, holding cornucopia w/chlamys over left arm.
EXERGUE; dot HT (gamma) dot, Heraclea Mint
RIC VI 37a,G (Ref: Wildwinds)
daverino
galerius.JPG
Galerius Follis 308-9 AD, Heraclea Mint45 viewsObv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANUS PF AVG; Laureate head rt. Rev: GENIO IMPERATORIS; Genius stnding left holding patera with modius on head and chlamys and cornucopia. .HT gamma. in Exergue
RIC VI 37 a,G (Wildwinds)
daverino
galerius_210408_70e_topcoins.jpg
GALERIUS Follis Trier40 viewsMAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Laureated head right - H - at neckbase
R/ GENIO POPV - LI ROMANI
Genius standing left
B | // TR

Follis struck 296 - 297 in Trier ( Treveri )
26,5 mm ; 10,4 gr.

RIC. 214 b

the H is probably for Herculis
1 commentsgb29400
galerius_RIC6_Trier_644b.jpg
Galerius Follis, Genius (RIC Trier 644b)4 viewsTrier mint, 1st officina, 305-307. 27 mm, 8.82 g, 180º.

Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG Laureate, cuirassed bust, looking right.

Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopia, wearing mural crown. S in left field, C in right.

Exergue: PTR

Reference: RIC VIII Trier 644b var.
Manuel
Galerius1_opt.jpg
GALERIUS Follis, RIC 46b, Moneta35 viewsOBV: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
REV: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left, ST. in ex.
8.5g, 25mm

Minted at Ticinum, 300-3 AD
1 commentsLegatus
Galerius_Genius_RIC_11b.JPG
Galerius Genius RIC 11b23 viewsGalerius follis as caesar, Struck by Diocletian, Cyzicus, 297 - 298 AD, 28 mm and 10.71 grams, RIC VI pg 580 11b
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
REV: GENIO AVGG ET-CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, modius on head,
naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low),
holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopiae. KA in ex.
Romanorvm
DSCN6929.JPG
Galerius Maximian Augustus. 312 - 313. Aquileia mint. AE Folles 22mm7 viewsGalerius Maximian Augustus. 312 - 313. Aquileia mint,

Obv. IMP MAXIMINVS PF AVG . Laureate head right

Rev. GENIO A-VGVSTI . Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera over tripod altar, cornucopiae . AQS in Ex.

Ref. RIC VI Aquileia 130
Lee S
galeriusheraclea~0.jpg
Galerius Maximian RIC 16b, Heraclea17 viewsGalerius, AE radiate fraction, Heraclea, 295-296 CE.
Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Reverse: CONCORDIA MIL ITVM, Emperor, standing right, receiving victory on globe from Jupiter who is standing left, holding scepter. H gamma in lower center
Heracles mint 21 mm., 2.3 g.

NORMAN K
galnew_together.jpg
Galerius Maximianus as Caesar AE Follis minted 297 AD.20 viewsGalerius Maximianus as Caesar AE Follis minted 297 AD.

11,46 g. 25 mm.

Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Laureate Head right

Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI/ (crescent)/ D// ANT. Genius standing left, holding cornucopiae and patera.

RIC VI 49b Antioch

From an old collection formed in the 1920s. Ex Münzhandlung Kallai, Vienna.
Paul R3
galerio.jpg
Galerius Maximianus caesar, frazioni radiate post riforma (Gaviller & Boyd collection)110 viewsGalerio Massimiano, cesare (293-305 d.C.), due frazioni radiate post riforma
La prima (297-298 d.C.) zecca di Roma, II officina
AE, 3.26 gr., mm. 19,0; MB (F)
D/GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, busto radiato e drappeggiato di Galerio a dx
R/ VOT XX B in una corona
RIC 6 Roma 87b (var: officina non menzionata), Cohen 247 (var: idem)
o RIC 6 Roma 82 (Massimiano Erculeo, co-augusto con Diocleziano)
La seconda: zecca di Cartagine
AE, 2.31 gr., 20,0 mm; MB (F)
D/ GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, busto radiato e drappeggiato di Galerio a dx
R/ VOT XX FK in una corona
RIC 36b
Provenienza: entrambe collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (30 aprile 2008, numero catalogo 29 e 29bis), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2005), ex Baldwin's Auctions 42 (London, 26 settembre 2005, entrambe nel lotto 684), ex W.C.Boyd collection (London, prima del 1906). I primo esemplare ex George Henry Gaviller collection (London, fino al 1886), ceduta per legato testamentario al nipote W. C. Boyd alla morte avvenuta a Londra il 28 febbraio 1886.
paolo
Combined~12.jpg
Galerius Maximianus GENIO AUGUSTI25 viewsGalerius, AE Follis, c.December 308-c.May 310, Group II, Thessalonica, Officina 2

GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head right, divergent wreath ties

GENIO A_VGVSTI
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left
* | B across fields . SM . TS . in exergue


RIC VI, 30a (C2)
24 mm, 6,4g
Flamur H
combined~6.jpg
Galerius Maximianus GENIO POPVLI28 viewsGalerius as Caesar follis Heraclea. AD 296-297; 27mm, 7,3 g.

GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding cornucopiae
and patera

Mintmark HT Epsilon.



Light Silvering.
Flamur H
Galerius_Follis.jpg
Galerius Moneta Follis 104b18 viewsGalerius
Reigned as Caesar AD 293-305
Reigned as Augustus AD 305-311
Coin Struck AD 302-303
Silvered AE 1 Follis
Rome Mint
RIC VI Rome 104b

O: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate bust right

R: SACRA MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN, Moneta standing left holding scales & cornucopiae, star in field, R Q in exergue
Gao
Galerius_OBV.JPG
Galerius Obv11 viewsGalerius; AD 295-299
Bronze; AE Post Reform
Radiate Fraction 21mm/3.9g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUS NOB CAES
Radiate draped & cuirassed, Bust R
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Maximianus standing right receiving Victory on a globe from Jupiter standing left, KA between
Philip G
Galerius_OBV_(2).JPG
Galerius Obv9 viewsGalerius; AD 297-298
Bronze; AE Follis, Heraclea mint; 29mm/9.2g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUSNOB CEAS; Laureate Head R
REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI; Genus standing Left holding patera and cornucopia
(RIC VI 20 b, G)
Philip G
garicviale59bOR1.jpg
Galerius Radiate fraction, RIC VI Alexandria 59b74 viewsAlexandria mint, Galerius Radiate fraction, 305-306 A.D. AE, 20/21mm 2.93g, RIC VI Alexandria 59b
O: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA MIL-ITVM, Prince standing right in military dress, receiving small Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, leaning on sceptre left, B in center field
Ex: ALE

For those of you in my boat (Galerius? But it says IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG...that should be Maximian...shouldn't it??), it seems that these guys had a complicated ruling relationship. When Diocletian institued the Tetrarchy, Maximian was given the rule of the Western Empire which he ruled from 286-305. He was forced to abdicate (along with Diocletian) in 305, but somehow (I am sure if I read further it would be explained)...he de-abdicated himself in 306 to rule with his boy Maxentius until 308. He was once again forced to give up the purple, but I guess he couldnt sit still because in 310 he made one last play and got his butt kicked by Constantine I and was "forced to commit suicide".

Ex Bourne (FORVM: Mauseus)
A big thanks to Curtis Clay for pointing out my attribution problems! I really appreciate. For more info on the coinage oddities of the period, check out Doug Smith's writeup at: http://dougsmith.ancients.info/max.html


1 commentscasata137ec
galerius02.jpg
GALERIUS red. follis - AD31018 viewsobv:IMP.C.GAL.VAL.MAXIMIANVS.PF.AVG
rev:GENIO.IMP-ERATORIS / K / Δ-P/ ALE (Genius standing left with modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, holds cornucopia and patera from which liquor flows, K left, A over P right, ALE in ex.)
ref: RIC VI-Alexandria101a, C.48
7.35gms, 24mm
berserker
galerius01-.jpg
GALERIUS red. follis AD309-31027 viewsobv:IMP.MAXIMIANVS.PF.AVG
rev:GENIO.AVGVSTI / SIS (Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia, crescent to left)
ref:RIC VI-Siscia198a
mint:Siscia, 7.31gms, 24mm
Scarce
berserker
galerius03-.jpg
GALERIUS red.follis - AD309-310 39 viewsobv: IMP.MAXIMIANVS.PF.AVG
rev: GENIO.AVGVSTI / Є / SIS (Genius standing left, holding patera & cornucopia)
ref: RIC VI-Siscia198a
mint: Siscia, 6.98g, 24mm
Scarce
1 commentsberserker
Galerius_REV.JPG
Galerius Rev12 viewsGalerius; AD 295-299
Bronze; AE Post Reform
Radiate Fraction 21mm/3.9g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUS NOB CAES
Radiate draped & cuirassed, Bust R
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Maximianus standing right receiving Victory on a globe from Jupiter standing left, KA between
Philip G
Galerius_REV_(2).JPG
Galerius Rev9 viewsGalerius; AD 297-298
Bronze; AE Follis, Heraclea mint; 29mm/9.2g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUSNOB CEAS; Laureate Head R
REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI; Genus standing Left holding patera and cornucopia
(RIC VI 20 b, G)
Philip G
galerius_ric_54_a_delta.jpg
Galerius RIC 54 a D11 viewsNicomedia
24 mm, 4.9 g.
MP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
GENIO AVGVSTI CMH
SMND in ex.
xokleng
galerius-ric_54_a_Gama.jpg
Galerius RIC 66 G15 viewsNicomedia
23 mm, 6.7 g.
IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
GENIO AVGVSTI CMH
SMNG in ex.
xokleng
galerius_-ric_101.jpg
Galerius RIC 729 viewsIMP C GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG.
GENIO IMP-ERATORIS/
P|(gamma)/R//
ALE in ex.
xokleng
gallerius_ric_20b.jpg
Galerius RIC IV 20b12 views
Galerius AE Follis.
Heraclea 297-298 AD.
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right /
GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae,
HTB in ex.
xokleng
maximianus_lugdunum.png
Galerius RIC VI 17b11 viewsGalerius Maximian
Obv C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
(R. laur)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
RIC VI 17b
Lugdunum 10.16g
(ex London Ancient Coins)
(These coins were probably minted by Constantius to equip himself with sufficient folles to serve the needs of his forces during the invasion of Britannia in AD 296 - RIC Volume VI page 231.)
Noviomagus
GALERIUS-2.jpg
Galerius RIC VI 4815 viewsObv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
laureate head right
Rev: GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS
Genius standing left with
patera & cornucopiae
star left
HTA in ex.
25mm 4.8gm
OWL365
redmax_com.JPG
Galerius RIC VI Cyzicus 19B145 viewsAE 20 mm 2.3 grams
OBV :: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: CONCORDIA MI-LITVM. Emperor, leaning on sceptre receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter. KA in center
EX :: none
RIC VI Cyzicus 19B
RIC rated S
from uncleaned lot 06/2008
Johnny
Galerius.jpg
Galerius RIC VI Siscia 198a33 viewsobv. IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
laureate head right
rv. GENIO AV-GVSTI, genius standing left, modius on head, naked
except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and
cornucopiae, crescent in left field, A in right field
ex. SIS
mint Siscia
Struck 309-311 AD
Holger G
galerius_carthago_26(b).jpg
Galerius RIC VI, Carthago 26(b)83 viewsGalerius AD 305 - 311
AE - Follis, 11.36g, 28.5mm
Carthago 4th officina, c. AD 298
obv. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
laureate head r.
rev. FELIX A - D - VENT AVGG NN
Africa stdg. facing, head l., in long drapery with elephant-skin head-dress, r.
holding standard, l. tusk; at feet to l., lion with captured bull.
in l. field: I
exergue: PK Delta
RIC VI, Carthago 26(b)
VF
added to www.wildwinds.com
2 commentsJochen
galerius_trier_594b.jpg
Galerius RIC VI, Trier 594(b)10 viewsGalerius as Caesar, AD 293-305
AE - Follis (AE 2), 10.61g, 28.15mm, 345°
Trier, 1st officina, c. 303-1. May 305
obv. MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. GENIO POPV - LI ROMANI
Genius, nude except chlamys, wearing mural crown, stg. r., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and in extended
r. hand patera
in l. and r. field S - F
in ex. PT[R]
ref. RIC VI, Trier 594b
VF
Jochen
galerius_79.jpg
Galerius RIC VII, Alexandria 7932 viewsGalerius 305 - 311
AE - AE 2, 6.25g, 24mm
Alexandria 5. officina, after AD 306
obv. IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
laureate head r.
rev. GENIO IMP - ERATORIS
Genius of the emperor standing l., chlamys over l. shoulder, modius on head,
l. holding cornucopiae, r. holding patera and pouring libation
field: l. X, r. B above K
exergue: ALE
RIC VI, Alexandria 79; C.47
VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

GENIVS IMPERATORIS, spirit of the emperor. The importance of this personification lies in the fine distinction between worshipping of the emperor as a god (not accepted in the western half of the empire during his lifetime) and worshipping this aspect of him.
Jochen
roman21.jpg
Galerius Silvered Follis22 views305-306 AD. Serdica mint.
Obv.: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG - Laureate bust of Galerius.
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius holding patera and cornucopiae. [dot]SM[dot]SD in ex. D in r. field.
RIC 12b.
Minos
galerius_sacra.jpg
Galerius Sisca AE Follis 300 A.D.9 views Obv. MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate bust right
Rev. SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta holding patera and cornucopiae.
star in left field,
starSIS in extruge, Gamma in right field, RIC 135b-G
Skyler
coin298.JPG
Galerius VIRTVTIE_XERCITVS17 viewsGalerius, AE Follis, 308-309, Group IV, Class I, Cyzicus, Officina 2
GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head right, parallel laurel ties
VIRTVTI E_XERCITVS
Mars advancing right, naked but for floating chlamys, spear pointing forward in right hand, trophy over shoulder in left hand
B in left field
MKV in exergue
25mm x 28mm, 6.86g
RIC VI, 47

Check
ecoli
Galerius_VOT_X_FK_Carthage.JPG
Galerius VOT X FK Carthage31 viewsGalerius, Carthage, 306 AD, 21.5mm, 2.87g, RIC VI 35b,
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust at right
REV: VOT X FK in three lines within wreath
1 commentsRomanorvm
Galerus_follis.jpg
Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D56 viewsBronze follis, RIC VI 18b, VF, Heraclea mint, weight 10.085g, maximum diameter 26.6mm, die axis 180o, as Caesar 296 - 297 A.D.; obverse GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia, HTA in ex; nice round flan;

In Roman religion every man has a genius, a presiding spirit. In De Die Natali, Censorinus says, from the moment we are born, we live under the guard and tutelage of Genius. Cities, organizations, and peoples also had a genius. On coins we find inscriptions to the Genius of the Army, of the Senate, of the Emperor, etc. The legend GENIO POPVLI ROMANI dedicates this coin to the Genius of the Roman People. Genius' image is of a man with a cloak half covering the shoulders leaving the rest of his body naked, holding a cornucopia in one hand, and a simpulum or a patera in the other.
Philoromaos
galerius.jpg
Galerius, 305-31119 viewsÆ Follis; 27mm, 9.7g, 12h; Siscia mint, AD 295.
Obv.: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES; Laureate bust right.
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius holding patera and cornucopiae / B // star SIS.
Reference: RIC VI Siscia 90b (p. 464).
Notes: eBay sale, coin.ages, 3/15/15, 78.
John Anthony
42.jpg
Galerius, AD 305-31131 viewsAE Follis, 27.08mm (6.46 gm).

IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI CMH (monogram), Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; SMNA in exergue. Nicomedia mint, struck AD 307.

RIC VI, 51 Nicomedia (pg. 561).
socalcoins
Galerius,_AE_Antoninianus,_CONCORDIA_MILITVM,_Cyzicus,_295-299_AD.jpg
Galerius, AE Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Cyzicus, 295-299 AD 14 viewsRIC VI Cyzicus 18B
2.5g / 21.5mm _634
Antonivs Protti
galerius-reshoot.jpg
Galerius, AE follis, Heraclea, 305-311 AD18 viewsRoman Imperial, Galerius AE follis, Heraclea mint, (305-311 AD), 6.1g, 24mm

Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.

Reverse: GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS, Genius standing left, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low), holding patera from which liquid flows, and cornucopiae. Crescent in right field. Mintmark HTB. "Genius of the Emperor"

Reference: RIC VI Heraclea 53a
Gil-galad
z7.jpg
Galerius, Alexandria, AE Follis 21 viewsObv: IMP C GALER VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate Head right.
Rev: BONO GENIO PII - IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, patera in right hand, from which liquid flows, cornucopiae in left. K in left field, Γ over X in right field. Mintmark ALE.
1 commentsancientone
4001_73_43_1.jpg
Galerius, as Caesar, AE1, Treveri, AD 302-303.8 views11.14g, 30mm, 6h. MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust right /
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder,
holding patera and cornucopiae; S-F across fields, ITR in exergue.
RIC 508b; Downside hoard 91.
Ruslan K
4001_214_20_1.jpg
Galerius, as Caesar, Æ 1 Large Follis. AD 302-303.4 viewsTreveri mint, (10.40g, 30mm.) MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, wearing modius, holding patera and cornucopiae; S-F across fields; ITR in exergue. RIC 508b.

From the inventory of Roma Numismatics Ltd.
Ruslan K
044-3-horz.jpg
Galerius, BI Nummus, Heraclea, 10 viewsAD 305 - 311
9.84 grams
Obv. GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate bust of Galerius bust right
Rev. GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, HTΔin ex.
RIC VI 20b,D (A common variety), Sear #14542
Purchased on eBay
NGC Ch AU - Strike 5/5 - Surface 4/5: Silvering
Richard M10
Galerius_Genio.jpg
Galerius, Cyzicus, AE Follis, 297-299 AD16 views Obv. GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev. GENIO AVGG ET-CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low), holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopiae.
KA in exergue
1 commentsSkyler
0590-320np_noir.jpg
Galerius, Follis50 viewsLyon mint (Lugdunum), 1st officina, AD 303-305
MAXIMIANVS NOB C, Laureate and cuirassed bust of Galerius rigtht
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding cornucopia and wreath, before him an altar. PLG at exergue, star in right field
10.01 gr
Ref : Cohen #92, RCV # 14356 (100), RIC VI # 178b
Potator II
0590-330.jpg
Galerius, Follis 78 viewsTrier mint, c. AD 303-305
MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, head towered, wearing chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, left cornucopiae; S | F in field, PTR at exergue
8.41 gr 28 mm
Ref : RCV # 14349 (90), C # 83, RIC VI, Trier, 594b

2 commentsPotator II
maximianus.jpg
Galerius, Follis12 viewsStruck at Londinium
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.

300-303AD.

Ref: RIC 15
1 commentsbyzancia
0590-310np_noir~0.jpg
Galerius, Follis - *83 viewsHeraclea mint, 5th officina, c. AD 296-298
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust of Galerius right
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, , Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, HTE at exergue
10.58 gr
Ref : RCV # 14372 (90), Cohen #78
Potator II
6380_6381.jpg
Galerius, Follis, GENIO IMPERATORIS9 viewsAE Follis
Galerius
Caesar: 293 - 305AD
Augustus: 305 - 311AD
Issued: 308 - 310AD
25.0mm 5.60gr 0h
O: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: GENIO IMP-ERATORIS; Genius standing left, pouring out patera and holding cornucopia. Not, divergent hair ties on bust.
Exergue: K, left field; B over P, right field; ALE, below line.
Alexandria Mint
RIC VI Alexandria 101a; Sear 14524; Aorta: 471: B18, O17, R39, T45, M1.
numis-kimel 282859359701
3/6/18 4/24/18
Nicholas Z
4698_4699.jpg
Galerius, Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI6 viewsAE Follis
Galerius
Augustus: 305 - 311AD
Issued: May, 305 - July, 306AD
28.5mm
O: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, pouring out patera and holding cornucopia.
Exergue: HTε
Heraclea Mint
RIC 24b.
Aorta: 622: B18, O17, R42, T45, M5.
3/8/17
Nicholas Z
4594_4595.jpg
Galerius, Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI 10 viewsAE Follis
Galerius
Caesar: 293 - 305AD
Augustus: 305 - 311AD
28.0mm
O: IMP C VAL GAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI; Genius standing left, holding patera in right hand, cornucopia in left hand.
Exergue: ε, right field; SMSΔ, below line.
RIC VI Serdica 12b; Sear 14539.
Aorta: 629: B18, O17, R42, T45, M12.
4/3/17
Nicholas Z
6259_6260-1.jpg
Galerius, Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI10 viewsAE Follis
Galerius
Caesar: 293 - 305AD
Augustus: March 1, 205 - May 5, 311AD
Issued: 300 - 301AD
27.0mm 9.60gr 6h
O: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES; Laureate head, right.
R: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Exergue: (Dot) TSA (Dot)
Thessalonica Mint
RIC VI Thessalonica 22b, A.
Aorta: B18, O13, R42, T43, M14.
sjbcoins/Stoian Belkin 162939022023 Inv. # M2324
3/18/18 3/26/18
Nicholas Z
GALERIUS-3-ROMAN~0.jpg
Galerius, Heraclea RIC VI-016(Γ)17 viewsAE Post-Reform Radiate
Heraclea mint, 295-296 A.D.
21mm, 3.37g
RIC VI-16

Obverse:
GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
CONCORDIA MILITVM
HΓ in center field
Prince standing right in military dress receiving small victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, leaning on sceptre.
rubadub
Galerius_RIC_61.JPG
Galerius, RIC 6110 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
CONCORDIA MILITVM
AE Post reform radiate, 20mm, 3.23g
Radiate bust right draped and cuirassed
Jupiter standing right presenting Victory to Galerius, */Gamma between
ANT in ex.
Antioch mint
novacystis
100 Galerius RIC VI 37a.jpg
Galerius, RIC VI 37a, Heraclea39 viewsObv: IMP C GAL V MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Bust: Laureate head right
Rev: GENIO IMPERATORIS
Genius standing left, wearing modius, emptying
patera and holding cornucopia.
Exe: (dot) HTA (dot)
Date: Dec. 308 - May 310 (Heraclea)
RIC VI 37a
Denom: Follis
Rated "C"

Bluefish
GALERIUS-2-ROMAN.jpg
Galerius, Serdica RIC VI-035(A)21 viewsAE Folles
Serdica mint, 307-308 A.D.
26mm, 5.76g
RIC VI-35

Obverse:
GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
GENIO AVGVSTI
* in left field
A in right field
.SM.SD. in exergue
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
rubadub
GALERIUS-1-ROMAN~0.jpg
Galerius, Siscia RIC VI-169b18 viewsAE Quarter-Folles
Siscia mint, 305-306 A.D.
19mm, 2.02g
RIC VI-169b

Obverse:
MAXIMIANVS AVG
Laureate head right

Reverse:
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
SIS in exergue
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
rubadub
GALERIUS-2-ROMAN~0.jpg
Galerius, Thessalonica RIC VI-030a(B)14 viewsAE Folles
Thessalonica mint, 308-310 A.D.
27mm, 5.36g
RIC VI-30a

Obverse:
GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
GENIO AVGVSTI
* in left field
B in right field
.SM.TS. in exergue
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
rubadub
GALERIUS-5-ROMAN.jpg
Galerius, Ticinum RIC VI-032b18 viewsAE Folles
Ticinum mint, 296-297 A.D.
29mm, 10.42g
RIC VI-32b, RCVv.414358

Obverse:
MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
* in left field
P T in exergue
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
Will J
Galerius- GENIO AVGVSTI CMH new.jpg
Galerius- Genio49 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.

Obverse:Laureate head right
IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG

IMP: Imperator,
C: Caes,
GAL: Galerius
MAXIMIANVS: Maximianus
PF: Pius Felix
AVG: Agustus

Reverse:
GENIO AVGVSTI CMH

Genio: Genius
AVGVSTI: Agustus
CMH: ??

Showing:Genius standing left holding patera in right and cornucopia in left


Domination: Follis, Bronze, size 25 mm

Mint: SMN (Nicomedia) A (alpha)

CMH:

In his book Roman Bronze Coins From Paganism to Christianity, 294-364 AD., Failmezger proposes the following definition for CMH:

"At the same time, the weight of the bronze coins dropped and 48 coins are now struck to the pound. The mint of Nicomedia issues coins with CMH added as a suffix to the legend on the reverse. This may be interpreted taht this coin has a value of 100 (C- centum) sestertii struck at a new weight of 48 to the pound (Greek letter M for 40, Greek letter H for. This may further support the 25 DC value of the coin theory (see #'s 191, 192, 199, 200, 211, 213). The continued use of CMH at the mint of Cyzicus in the year 311 AD may mean that even thought the weight of the nummus was reduced again from 48 to 72 to the pound, the value remianed constant at 100 sestertii or 25 DC (#192)."

He does say that this is just speculation and that alternative views may be possible.
John Schou
Galerius- Sacra Monet AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR.jpg
Galerius- Sacra Monet AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR49 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.


Obverse:
Laurete head right

MAXIMIANVS NOB CAESS, Maximianus Noble Ceasar

MAXIMIANVS: Maximianus, in reality Galerius
NOB: Noble
CAESS: Caesar

Reverse:
SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, The emperors sacred money and our Caesars

SACRA : Sacred
MONET: Money
AVGG: Emperors
ET: And
CAESS: Caesars
NOSTR: Our

Moneta standing left holding scales in right and cornucopia in left. * in right field

Domination: Bronze Follis, size 27mm,

Mint: RQ in exe, Rome. * in right field. Dating to c. 302-3. RIC VI Rome 106b.



Explanation why this is Galerius, and not Maximianus. Doug Smith wrote a very good explanation, read this link: http://dougsmith.ancients.info/max.html
John Schou
20190225t9levB5agAW66TM7_5omF7_large__#1086;_#1073;_#1088;_#1072;_#1073;_#1086;_#1090;_#1072;_#1085;_#1086;.jpg
Galerius. BI Post-Reform Radiate. AD 305-306.95 viewsAlexandria mint, (2,5g.;21 mm.) IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, Galerius standing right, holding short sceptre, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, standing left holding long sceptre; Г between, ALE in exergue. RIC 48Г. Ruslan K
galerius.jpg
Galerius: GENIO IMPERATORIS10 viewsGalerius; A bronze Follis. Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right. Reverse: GENIO IMPERATORIS, Genius standing left. Minted in Heraclea mint (•HTA•) Group IV. 308-309 A.D.; RIC VI Heraclea 37a; Item ref: RI148b. ex MaridvnvmPodiceps
PC200061_mod_frag.jpg
Generic Emperor of Late Diocletian Era7 viewsEnlarged bust from http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-155064

Although taken from a coin bearing the name of Galerius, this is in fact a "generic good emperor" portrait, that has nothing to do with the actual likeness of Galerius. To emphasize the universality of his tetrarchy, Diocletian minted the same portraits on all coins all over the empire, were they issued in his name, his co-Augustus Maximian, or their two junior co-emperors, Galerius and Constantius Chlorus.
Yurii P
galerius_cyzikus_65.jpg
GENIO A-VGVSTI, MKV in ex. RIC VI 65 Cyzicus11 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC VI 65, aVF, Cyzicus mint, 8.128g, 25.6mm, 180o, 311 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO A-VGVSTI, Genius standing left, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, modius on head, cornucopia in right, patera in left, officina letter left, three pellets right, MKV in ex. Ex FORVMPodiceps
VI-15.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Galerius24 viewsAE Follis, London, 300 - 305
9.52gm, 26mm
Ox: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
O: Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rx: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
R: Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

RIC VI.15 (C2), ex. Wayne Phillips
Paul DiMarzio
galerius_trier.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, II TR in ex. Trier5 viewsGalerius AE Follis. Trier. MAXIMIANVS NOB C, laureate, cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae, S-F across fields, II TR in ex. Ex Rutten & WielandPodiceps
galerius_serdica_39.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, RIC 39 Serdica7 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC VI 39, F, Serdica mint, 5.519g, 26.5mm, 180o, 307 - 308 A.D.; obverse GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing half left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, pouring liquor from patera in right, cornucopia in left, star left, A right, •SM•SD• in ex; scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
galerius_169b.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, RIC VI 169b Siscia7 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. Bronze quarter-follis, RIC VI 169b, VF, Siscia mint, 2.193g, 19.1mm, 0o, 305 - 306 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding patera in right, cornucopia in left, SIS in ex. This type is no longer considered rare (R2) due to significant finds. Ex FORVMPodiceps
galerius_heraklea_24b.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, RIC VI 24b Heraclea11 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. Silvered follis, RIC VI 24b, VF, Heraclea mint, 9.336g, 27.4mm, 180o, 1 May 305 -25 Jul 306 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, head laureate right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left holding cornucopia in left and pouring libations from patera in right, HTE in ex. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Galerius_antioch_74b.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, RIC VI 74b Antioch4 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC VI 74b, VF, Antioch mint, 10.181g, 28.1mm, 0o, c. 306 A.D.; obverse IMP C GAL V MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genio standing left, pouring libations from a patera in right, cornucopia in left, “Γ” right, ANT: in ex. Ex. FORVMPodiceps
ArchofGalerius5.jpg
Greece, Thessaloniki - Arch of Galerius340 viewsBohemond
ArchofGalerius4.jpg
Greece, Thessaloniki - Arch of Galerius362 viewsBohemond
ArchofGalerius3.jpg
Greece, Thessaloniki - Arch of Galerius366 viewsBohemond
ArchofGalerius2.jpg
Greece, Thessaloniki - Arch of Galerius372 viewsBohemond
ArchofGalerius1.jpg
Greece, Thessaloniki - Arch of Galerius360 viewsBohemond
Maximinus_II_Daia_39.jpg
I135 viewsMaximinus II AE Follis

Attribution: RIC 66c Nicomedia
Date: AD 309-313
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: GENIO AV-GVSTI CH, nude Genius standing l. pouring out patera w/ r. hand and holding cornucopia w/ l., SMNA in exergue
Size: 22 mm
Weight: 5.7 grams

“But Daia, who had only recently been picked up from looking after cattle in the forests, had at once become a guardsman, then an officer of the guard, soon afterwards a tribune, and then the next day a Caesar, and he now received the east to crush and trample underfoot… He would squander money too on anything, without discrimination or limit… He would also take away people’s goods while they were still alive and give them to any of his own followers who sought other people’s property. But his capital vice, in which he surpassed all who have ever lived, was his appetite for seduction… By the end, he had introduced the practice of allowing no one to marry a wife without his permission, so that he himself could sample every marriage in advance…” – Lactantius On the Deaths of the Persecutors 19, 37-38

After the suicide of Maximian and, later, the death of Galerius, Maximinus Daia made a bid for emperor. He and his primary rival, Licinius I came to terms and decided to divide the provinces. Licinius was to control the Balkans, while Maximinus was given Asian Minor and the eastern provinces. Maximinus then resumed the persecution of Christians which had ceased under Galerius’ orders only six months before. In AD 313, however, Maximinus found himself in a final confrontation with his rival Licinius. They met on the plain of the River Ergenus, near Hadrianopolis in Thrace. Constantine (the Great) joined forces with Licinius for the battle. Although Maximinus’ forces numbered over twice as many as his opponents’ (70,000 men), he was not the superior tactician. Maximinus fled the battle dressed as a peasant and headed to Tarsus. This was to no avail, for a few months later, he was under siege by land and sea. Poison proved to be Maximinus Daia’s choice to avoid capture. He drank a poison which was slow acting and took four days of pain and suffering to kill him.
5 commentsNoah
1472_L__Memmius_Gallus.jpg
L. Memmius Galeria - AR serratus denarius13 viewsTransalpine Gaul or Sardinia
Roma
¹103 BC
²106 BC
laureate head of Saturn left harpa
ROMA
Venus in slow biga right holding scepter and reins; above Cupid flying left, holding wreath
· / Q
L·(ME)MMI
GAL
¹Crawford 313/1c; BMCRR I 1353 (also pellet / Q); Sydenham 574a; RSC I Memmia 2a
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Bertolami
Johny SYSEL
16710q00.jpg
Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.21 viewsBronze follis, RIC 8, aVF, Siscia mint, 3.409g, 22.0mm, 180o, 313 - 315 A.D.; obverse IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CON-SERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, B right, SIS in ex;

Licinius I was a comrade of emperor Galerius in the Tetrarchic period. Following the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus, Licinius was raised to the rank of Augustus despite never having held the position of Caesar. After Maximinus II invaded his territories, Licinius marched against him and defeated him soundly. Over the next few years, relations between Licinius and Constantine I deteriorated. Armed conflict broke out several times and Licinius was defeated. Only through the intervention of Licinius' wife, Constantine`s sister, was his life spared. However, shortly after he was executed for additional political machinations against Constantine.

cwonsidler
11997q00.jpg
Licinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D.47 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 30, aVF, Rome mint, 3.69g, 20.6mm, 180o, 314 - 315 A.D.; obverse IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, raising right hand and globe in left, RX and F at sides, RT in ex;
Licinius I was a comrade of emperor Galerius in the Tetrarchic period. Following the abdication of Diocletian and Maximianus, Licinius was raised to the rank of Augustus despite never having held the position of Caesar. After Maximinus II invaded his territories, Licinius marched against him and defeated him soundly. Over the next few years, relations between Licinius and Constantine I deteriorated. Armed conflict broke out several times and Licinius was defeated. Only through the intervention of Licinius` wife, Constantine`s sister, was his life spared. However, shortly after he was executed for additional political machinations against Constantine.


cwonsidler
Galerius_Shrine_2_.JPG
MAUSOLEUM or SHRINE, GALERIUS79 viewsAE Follis of Thessalonica, struck A.D.311 under Licinius.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI. Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors; in right field, A; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 48 (r5).
EXTREMELY RARE
*Alex
maximianus_p_avg.png
Maximian 1.03.0082 viewsMaximian Herculius
Obv IMP C MAXIMIANVS P AVG (R.laur, cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
Not in RIC LMCC 1.03.008 (RRR)
London 10.3g
(ex Zeus Gallery)
The obverse legend on this coin only appears once more in London coins, and this is on RIC VI 45 (LMCC 4.03.010), which was minted in the name of Galerius, once he was bestowed the title Augustus. LMCC suggests that the engraver for this coin was the same as for 1.03.007.

Noviomagus
maximvict.JPG
Maximian AE Antoninianus, Siscia Mint 291 AD55 viewsObv: IMP C M A VAL MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate head rt.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGG, Maximian facing left, holding sceptre receiving Victory on globe from Diocletian, facing rt, B between; XXI in exergue (Wildwinds) RIC v.2 586 Rated Rare
Added to the Wildwinds database
A pre-reform radiate.

Issued between the time that Maximian was made co-Augustus of the Western Empire (286 AD) and the time that the Tetrarchy was formally set up by Diocletian appointing Galerius and Constantius Chlorus as Caesars of East and West in 293 AD.
daverino
maximfollis.jpg
Maximianus Herculius (286-305 AD) Silvered AE Follis ca. 300AD32 viewsOBV. Maximian's Laureate head right. IMP MAXIMIANUS PF AVG
REV: Moneta standing left holding scales and cornucopia. SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR with star in left field and G(amma) in right. SIS in exergue

A common coin but nicely silvered. Moneta was the representation of the mint which conferred many benefits and was justly managed. The "sacred money of our Augusti and Caesars" referring to the two Augusti, Diocletian and Maximian, and their two Caesars, Constantius and Galerius. Minted at Siscia
RIC 134
Diameter ~ 26 mm, weight 10.1 gm
daverino
maximinus_genio_1a.png
Maximinus 4.03.02411 viewsMaximinus Daia
Obv MAXIMINVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES
(R. laur. dr. cuir)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l. holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 59b LMCC 4.03.024 (S)
9.5g
(ex Steve Thomas)
(ex Steve Thomas)
(When Diocletian and Maximian Herculius retired on 1st May 305, Constantius and Galerius were elevated to the level of Augustus. At the same time two new Caesars were appointed by Diocletian to keep the pattern of the Tetrachy. Severus became Caesar to Constantius and Maximinus (also known as Maximinus Daia or Daza) became Caesar to Galerius. Galerius also gave Licinius the rank of Augustus in 308. When Galerius died in 311, Licinius and Maximinus divided the eastern empire between them. Maximinus formed an alliance with Maxentius (the son of Maximian Herculius) and fought Licinius at the battle of Tzirallum in April 313. He suffered a crushing defeat and died in the August at Tarsus.)
Noviomagus
CollageMaker_20180702_192533433.jpg
Maximinus II Daia13 viewsAE2 Follis, Struck Dec. 308 - May 310 AD, Thessalonica Mint
Obverse: MAXIMINVS • FIL • AVGG, Head of Maximinus Daia, laureate, right.
Reverse: GENIO CA-ESARIS, Genius, wearing modius, sometimes radiate, nude, chlamys draped over left shoulder, standing left, pouring liquid from patera in right hand and holding cornucopiae in left hand, SMTS in ex.
References: RIC VI 32a, Cohen 42
Size: 24mm, 6.3g

The empty title 'Filius Augustorum" was bestowed upon Constantine I and Maximinus II in AD 308 to placate them. Licinius I was promoted to Augustus without holding the rank of Caesar bypassing Maximinus II. This was all established at the conference held by Galerius at Carnuntum. The titles did nothing to improve relations and were quickly dropped from the coinage as the situation deteriorated. A very scarce and historical issue!
Justin L
RIC_Maximinus_II_Daia_RIC_VI_36.JPG
Maximinus II Daia (Caesar, 305-308 A.D.; Filius Augustorum, 308-309 A.D.; Augustus, 309-312 A.D.) (Caius Galerius Valerius Maximinus)27 viewsRIC VI 36

AE follies, 27 mm., die orientation 0°

Heraclea mint, 4th officina

Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMINUVS NOB CAES, laureate head, right.

Rev: GENIO CA—ESARIS, Genius standing left holding patera & cornucopiae, •HTdelta• in exergue.
Stkp
GALERIA_VALERIA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Galeria Valeria14 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Galeria Valeria, Augusta (293-311 AD) Follis “Venus” Diocletian’s ill-fated daughter, wife of Galerius. Obv: GAL VALERIA AVG – Draped bust right Rev: VENERI VICTRICI – Venus standing left, holding apple and scepter. , 5.8 g. I believe it is Heraclia Mint, RIC 63.
dpaul7
GALERIUS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - GALERIUS25 viewsGalerius, AD 305-311 Denomination AE Follis Date Struck c. 308-311 Mint Nicomedia, 4th officina. Obverse IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG. Laureate head right. Reverse GENIO AV-GVSTI CMH. Genius standing left, pouring liquid from patera and holding cornucopiae; in ex., SMND. Weight 6.19gm Diameter 24mm Reference RIC VI, 54a/66a. Grade VF+.dpaul7
21-Galerius_1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Galerius Maximian15 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Galerius Maximian as Augustus (305-311) AE Follis, minted 307-308 AD. Obv.: Laureate bust right, GAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG Rev.: Genius standing left; modius on head, naked, chlamys over left shoulder, in right hand holding patera from which liquid flows, cornucopiae in left hand. GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI. Mintmark . SM . SD . in exergue. Star in field left, B in field right. Serdica mint. Reference: RIC VI Serdica 39. EX CNG 242 Lot 554. dpaul7
Galerius_As_Caesar__BI_Numms_Heraclea.jpg
Roman Empire / Galerius As Caesar AD ( 305- 311 )45 viewsGalerius As Caesar BI Numms
Obverse : IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right
Reverse : GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, wearing modius on head, chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera (from which liquor flows) and cornucopiae; HTS in exergue.
RIC VI 24b, Cohen 81, SRCV IV 14542,

Silvered ( 9.97 gr)
Heraclea mint

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
constantiusI_673var~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantius I Chlorus RIC V, 673 var.540 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, Caesar 293 - 305, father of Constantin I
AR - Antoninianus, 4.45g, 22.4mm
Antiochia AD 293
obv. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
draped, cuirassed bust, seen from behind, radiate head r.
rev. IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES
Jupiter standing r., holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules standing l.,
holding victory, club and lion's skin.
field: dot above S
exergue: XXI
RIC V/2, 673 var., unlisted in RIC
Rarity?; about EF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
added to www.wildwinds.com

From Curtis Clay: This type is known for Diocletian from officinae 1-2, 4-5 and 7. For Galerius there are coins from officina 3 (added: 'Known also for Maximian, RIC'!). For Constantius coins from officina 6 (S) were expected but not yet known.This can be changed when more coins are coming out of Turkey or Syria
1 commentsJochen
Galerius-moeda1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius 260-311 AD.15 viewsAE Follis of Galerius 260-311 AD.

Weight: 8gr
Ø: 28mm

Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOC CAES - Galerius right.

Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left holding a cornucopia and patera.

Exergue: ??

gF/gF

Sear 4th 3708 - VM 29.
Jorge C
076A.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius AE Follis53 viewsRIC VI 42 Cyzicus, 308-309 A.D.
6.46 g, 26 mm
GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
GENIO A-VGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiaee.
B in left field. MKV in exergue
Mark Z
bpTetGaleriusAug.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius as Augustus, AE Follis58 viewsReduced follis 5.8 gm 24.5 mm
Obv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Laureate head, right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing, left, holding patera and cornucopiae
Minted in 307 at Heraclea. mm: H•T•Γ RIC VI, 33. Rare.
Massanutten
Galerius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius as Augustus, AE Follis11 viewsFollis Galerius AD 305
RIC 55b Sear 14498
Karsten K
maximianus_ae21.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius as Caesar24 viewsGalerius Valerius Maximianus

ae 21mm
1 commentsseaotter
bpTetGaleriusCaes.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius as Caesar, AE Follis57 viewsFollis 9.9 gm 27.5 mm
Obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES
Laureate head, right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing, left, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Minted in 297/8 at Heraclea. mm: HTΔ RIC 20b
Massanutten
normal_Galerius_sacra_moneta~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius Follis292 viewsIMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
laureate head right

SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
R wreath S in ex.
Moneta standing left with scales and cornucopiae

EF
Scarce
Rome 306 AD
Rome RIC VI 132b
See notes below

This is the Wildwinds example

Notes: RIC lists these types as being produced in two periods,
the second period (coins are identical in all respects) being struck in Autumn 306, and also listed as RIC 158a and
159a.
3 commentsJay GT4
moneta 639.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius Follis, Antioch51 viewsobv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head right
rev: VIRTVS EXERCITVS. Virtus advancing right, in military dress, holding spear, shield and trophy over shoulder.
right field: S
exergue: ANT dot
Struck 308 A.D. at Antioch
RIC VI 92 (scarce)
Van Meter 38a
Jericho
moneta 592.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius Follis, Thessalonica58 viewsobv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Laureate bust right.
rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius standing left, chlamys over shoulder, holding cornucopiae and patera, from which liquid flows.
exergue: dot TSA dot
Struck 300-301 A.D. at Thessalonica
RIC VI 22b
Jericho
Galerius_AE-Follis_DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO_FORTI-FORTINAE_B-over_Mu_SIS_RIC-VI-224-p-483_Siscia-312-AD-Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_24-26mm_4,68g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), AE-Follis, RIC VI 224, Siscia, FORTI FORT(I)NAE, legend error FORTVNAE!!!,Fortuna standing left by wheel,390 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), AE-Follis, RIC VI 224, Siscia, FORTI FORT(I)NAE, legend error FORTVNAE!!!,Fortuna standing left by wheel,
avers:- DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO, Veiled head right.
revers:- FORTI-FOR-T(I)NAE, legend error FOR-TVNAE!!!, Fortuna standing left by wheel, right holding rudder on globe, left cornucopiae.
exergo: -/B/μ//SIS, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 4,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-224, p-483,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Galerius_AE-Silvered-Follis_MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAES_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_AQ-__RIC-VI-24b-p-314_3rd-off__C-_Aquilea-296-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_27mm_10,41g-s~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Galerius Maximianus (305 - 311 A.D.), AE-Follis, RIC VI 024b, Aquilea, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, 495 views122 Galerius Maximianus (305 - 311 A.D.), AE-Follis, RIC VI 024b, Aquilea, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI,
avers:- MAXIMIANVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: AQ Γ,
diameter: 27mm,
weight: 10,41g,
axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off.,
date: 296 A.D.,
ref: RICVI-24b, p-314,
Q-001
quadrans
maximinus_ae~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, AE Follis, Cyzicus13 viewsMaximinus

AE 22mm
seaotter
moneta 639 smaller.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, Antioch - RIC VI 9252 viewsGalerius Follis
obv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head right.
rev: VIRTVS EXERCITVS. Virtus advancing right, in military dress, holding spear, shield and trophy over shoulder.
right field: S
exergue: ANT dot
Struck 308 A.D. at Antioch
RIC VI 92 (Scarce)
Van Meter 38a (VB2)
Jericho
044-3-horz~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, BI Nummus, Heraclea46 viewsAD 305 - 311
9.84 grams
Obv. GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate bust of Galerius bust right
Rev. GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, HTΔin ex.
RIC VI 20b,D, Sear #14542
Richard M10
moneta 29 b.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, Cyzicus - RIC VI 1136 viewsGalerius Follis
obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Laureate head right.
rev: GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN. Genius, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over shoulder, holding corn. & pouring liquid from patera.
exergue: KA
Struck 297-299 A.D. at Cyzicus
RIC VI 11b
Jericho
moneta 678.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, Cyzicus - RIC VI 19b56 viewsGalerius Post-Reform Radiate
obv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
rev: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Prince standing right in military dress, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, leaning on scepter.
center field: KA
Struck 295-299 A.D. at Cyzicus
RIC VI 19b
Jericho
moneta 32.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, Cyzicus - RIC VI 4731 viewsGalerius Follis
obv: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head right.
rev: VIRTVS EXERCITVS. Mars advancing right, naked but for floating chalmys, transverse spear in right hand and spear over left shoulder.
left field: A
exergue: MKV
Struck 308-309 A.D. at Cyzicus
RIC VI 47
Jericho
galeriof.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, Follis15 viewsFollis, Heraclea
Obv: IMPCGALVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG - Laureate, draped bust right.
Rev: GENIOPOPVLIROMANI Exe: HT - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
anthivs
moneta 31.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, Lugdunum43 viewsGalerius Follis
obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB C. Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over shoulder, holding cornucopiae and patera over altar.
exergue: PLC
Struck 301-303 A.D. at Lugdunum
Note: Right field letter/mark unknown. IF star in right field, its RIC VI 178b, 303-305. If A or B, its 164b, 301-303. Seems a star is unlikely, thus making it RIC 164b
Jericho
moneta 30 b.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galerius, Rome - RIC VI 112b 37 viewsGalerius Follis
obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Laureate bust right.
rev: SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN. Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae.
exergue: R half-crescent Q
Struck 303-305 A.D. at Rome
RIC VI 112b
Jericho
GALERIUS_DIVO_FORTUNA_SISCIA.JPG
Roman Empire, GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Siscia. Struck A.D.312 under Licinius17 viewsObverse: DIVO GAL VAL MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: FORTI FORTVNAE. Fortuna standing facing left holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, wheel behind at her feet; in right field, star on crescent over B; in exergue, SIS.
Weight: 4.75gms
RIC VI : 226
RARE
1 comments*Alex
Galerius_Divo_Shrine_Thessalonika.JPG
Roman Empire, GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Thessalonica. Struck A.D.311 under Licinius11 viewsObverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI. Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors; in right field, A; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
RIC VI : 48
EXTREMELY RARE
*Alex
Galerius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximianus Herculeus10 viewsCyzicus, 297-299 AD

IMP C MA MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate head r.
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / KD
Genius standing face to l. with the r. and cornucopia in l

RIC 12b
Michael V
Maximianus__Argenteus_Ric_43b.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximianus, Argenteus Ric 43b33 viewsObverse: MAXIMIANVS AVG. Laureate head right.
Reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM. Diocletian, Maximianus, Constantius and Galerius sacrificing in front of camp-gate.
Sisca Mint.
3.53 grams.
1 commentsRichard T3
Divo-Galerius_Temple~0.JPG
Roman Empire, MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia. Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius20 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Weight: 5.2gms
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312.
*Alex
Maximinus_II_as_FIL-AVG_SMTS.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, MAXIMINUS II as Filius Augustorum. AE Follis (Nummus) of Thessalonika. Struck A.D.308 - 30927 viewsObverse: MAXIMINVS • FIL • AVGG. Laureate head of Maximinus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO CAESARIS. Genius standing facing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; in left field, star; in right field, delta; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
RIC VI : 32a
RARE

Maximinus Daia was the nephew of Galerius, who made him Caesar in A.D.305. He then changed his name to Galerius Valerius Maximinus and ruled over the East and Egypt from his headquarters at Antioch. When Licinius was made Augustus in A.D.308, Maximinus demanded the title also, especially since it had been usurped by Constantine in the West. Instead, both he and Constantine received the novel rank of Filius Augustorum in late A.D.308 or early 309. Galerius though finally acceded to Maximinus' demands and he was promoted to Augustus in May, A.D.310.
This coin bears the new (and short lived) Filius Augustorum title which only appears on some coins struck for Maximinus in the West. The issues of his capital, Antioch, only stress his position as Caesar until his promotion to Augustus.
1 comments*Alex
First_Tetrarchs_Lead_Seal_FAC.jpg
Roman Imperial Lead Seal, The First Tetrarchy, Diocletian and Maximian, Galerius and Constantius131 viewsRoman imperial lead Seal
The first Tetrarchy, 293-305 AD

Obverse: Diocletian and Maximian Augusti and Galerius and Constantius Caesari.
Radiate and draped busts of the two Augusti, confronted, above, the two Caesari, confronted, below.
Weight: 7.42 g, Dimensions: 19.8 x 24 x 7 mm, Period: 293-305 AD
Likely that Coins issued from the Imperial mints would have been put into bags using Seals such as this.
Masis
seal009.jpg
ROMAN IMPERIAL LEAD SEAL-FIRST TETRARCHY166 viewsFirst Tetrarchy, Diocletian and Maximian augusti and Galerius and Constantius caesares Roman imperial lead seal (bulla)

The two augusti face to face, the two caesares face to face below, all draped and wearing radiate crowns

16x20x6mm

6.10g; Leukel N17-N23; Conical shape, extremely fine

AD 293-305.

From the Gert Boersema files
2 commentsJay GT4
Screenshot_2019-08-22_11_09_20.png
Roman Imperial, Galerius Maximian as Augustus, AE Follis.11 viewsCyzicus 311 A.D. 6.36g - 26mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: GAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG - Laureate head right.

Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, Ɛ to left, ● ● ● vertically in right field. Mintmark MKV.

RIC VI 65,E.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2018-09-17_14_24_36.png
Roman Imperial, Galerius Maximian as Augustus, AE Follis.9 viewsCyzicus 311 A.D. 5.30g - 26mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: GAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG - Laureate head right.

Rev: GENIO AVGVST - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, S to left, ● ● ● vertically in right field. Mintmark MKV.

RIC VI 65, S.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2017-10-16_23_10_38.png
Roman Imperial, Galerius Maximian as Caesar, AE Follis.18 viewsLyons 304 A.D. 8.53g - 27mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB C - Laureate, cuirassed bust right.

Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left sacrificing from patera over flaming altar and holding cornucopiae, B to right. Mintmark PLG.

RIC VI 164, B.
scarli
Screenshot_2017-08-20_12_26_53.png
Roman Imperial, Galerius Maximian as Caesar, AE Follis.15 viewsLyons 304 A.D. 8.53g - 27mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB C - Laureate, cuirassed bust right.

GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left sacrificing from patera over flaming altar and holding cornucopiae, B to right. Mintmark PLG.

RIC VI 164, B.
1 commentsChristian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2018-12-18_11_14_57.png
Roman Imperial, Galerius Maximian as Caesar, AE Follis.10 viewsTrier 303-305 A.D. 12.04g - 28.6mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOBIL C - Laureate, cuirassed bust right.

Rev: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI - Genius standing left, tower on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae, S-F across fields. Mintmark PTR.

RIC VI 594b.
Christian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2017-04-21_15_55_37.png
Roman Imperial, Galerius Maximian as Caesar, AE Follis.16 viewsCarthage 299-303 A.D. 11.39g / 29.4mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Laureate head right.

Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthago standing front, looking left, holding fruit in both hands. Mintmark Δ.

RIC VI 32b.
1 commentsChristian Scarlioli
Tetrarchy_Seal.jpg
Roman Imperial: First Tetrarchy Lead Seal - Diocletian and Maximian augusti and Galerius and Constantius caesares (Leukel N17-N23)227 viewsObv: The two augusti face to face, the two caesares face to face below, all draped and wearing radiate crowns
Rev: Blank
2 commentsSpongeBob
Galerius_RIC-54a.jpg
Roman Imperial: Galerius (305-311 CE) Æ Follis, Nicomedia (RIC 54a)27 viewsObv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; laureate head of Galerius right
Rev: GENIO AV-GVSTI; Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopiae; SMNA in exergue
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Galerius_RIC-61b.jpg
Roman Imperial: Galerius, as Caesar (293-305) Æ Post-reform Radiate, Antioch (RIC 61b)11 viewsObv: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES; radiate, draped and cuirasseed bust of Galerius, Caesar right
Rev: CONCORDIA MIL-ITVM; Galerius in military garb standing right holding short scepter and receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, standing left and holding scepter; Γ, star above; ANT in exergue
Quant.Geek
RIC-166b.jpg
Roman Imperial: Galerius, as Caesar (305-311 CE) BI Follis, Lugdunum (RIC-166b)7 viewsObv: MAXIMIANVS NOB C; Laureate, cuirassed bust left, seen from front
Rev: GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI; Genius standing left before phallus, shoulder draped, holding patera and cornucopiae; PLC in exurge, officina B in right field
SpongeBob
ROMAN_EMPIRE__Galerius_as_Caesar.jpg
Roman, Galerius as Caesar 234 viewsROMAN EMPIRE / Galerius, as Caesar (AD 293-305) Argenteus
Obverse : Laureate head of Galerius right
Reverse : Tetrarchs sacrificing before six-turreted enclosure, Gamma in exe.
Rome mint, 3rd officina Struck AD 295-297
MS (according to auction house), RIC 35b. RSC 183b.


**I believe there is an unusual misspelling of reverse legend.

From the Sam Mansourati collection.
2 commentsSam
Galerius_Ar-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Gamma_Rome_RIC-42b_C-_295-297-AD__Q-001_16-17,5mm_3,16ga-s.jpg
Rome, 122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #197 viewsRome, 122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), RIC VI 042b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Γ, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 042b,
Q-001
quadrans
4-Caesar-Tetrarchy-lead-Q-001_22mm-s.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #01, 4-Caesar, Tetrarchy, 190 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #01, 4-Caesar, Tetrarchy,
"Roman imperial lead conical seal. 1st tetrarchy, Diocletian and Maximian augusti and Galerius and Constantius caesares, AD 293-305, The two augusti face to face, the two caesares face to face below, all draped and wearing radiate crowns
16x20mm; 6.10g; Leukel N17-N23; Extremely fine" by Gert; thank you Gert
diameter: 22mm
Q-001
quadrans
4-Caesar-Tetrarchy-lead-seal_Q-001_22mm-s.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #01, 4-Caesar, Tetrarchy,182 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #01, 4-Caesar, Tetrarchy,
"Roman imperial lead conical seal. 1st tetrarchy, Diocletian and Maximian augusti and Galerius and Constantius caesares, AD 293-305, The two augusti face to face, the two caesares face to face below, all draped and wearing radiate crowns
16x20mm; 6.10g; Leukel N17-N23; Extremely fine" by Gert; thank you Gert
diameter: 22mm
Q-001
quadrans
galerius_3711.jpg
SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, SRCV 3711 5 viewsGalerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D. Bronze follis, SRCV 3711, Fair, 10.007g, 29.2mm, 0o, obverse MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; reverse SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left holding scales in right, cornucopia in left, mintmark in ex (obscured). Ex FORVMPodiceps
severus_1~0.png
Severus 4.02.01716 viewsObv SEVERUS NOBILISSIMVS C
(R. laur. dr. cuir from front)
Rev GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
(Genius stg l holding patera and cornucopiae)
No mint mark
London
RIC VI 60 LMCC 4.02.017 (R)
10.1g
c. 305 - 306 AD
(eBay)

(When Diocletian and Maximian Herculius retired on 1st May 305, Constantius and Galerius were elevated to the level of Augustus. At the same time two new Caesars were appointed by Diocletian to keep the pattern of the Tetrachy. Severus became Caesar to Constantius and Maximinus became Caesar to Galerius. When Constantius died on 25th July 306, Severus became Augustus, although Constantine was also proclaimed as Augustus by Constantius' troops. Maximian's son and Galerius's son in law, Maxentius, was not happy that he had not been elevated to the rank of Caesar. He took over Italy and was joined by his father when Severus, the new Augustus, sought to take it back. Many of Severus' army had fought in the past for Maximian and abandoned their new leader, once he started besieging Rome leading to his capture. Severus was executed, perhaps shortly after his capture or when Galerius invaded Italy in September 307.)
Noviomagus
Galarius_as_Caesar_CONC-MIL_KGamma.JPG
Struck A.D.295 - 299. GALERIUS as Caesar. AE Post-reform radiate of Cyzicus8 viewsObverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Radiate and draped and cuirassed bust of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Constantius standing facing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing facing left; in field between figures, KΓ.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 4.1gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 18b
*Alex
Galerius_as_Caesar_Follis_ST.JPG
Struck A.D.300 - 303. GALERIUS as Caesar. AE Follis of Ticinum8 viewsObverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR. Moneta standing facing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; in exergue, ST•.
Diameter: 27mm | Weight: 8.4gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 46b
*Alex
GALERIUS_POP_ROM_KE.JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 306. GALERIUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Cyzicus4 viewsObverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius standing facing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; in exergue, KE.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 8.7gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 21b
*Alex
MAXIMINUS_II_AS_FIL-AVG.JPG
Struck A.D.308 - 309. MAXIMINUS II as Filius Augustorum. AE Follis (Nummus) of Thessalonika7 viewsObverse: MAXIMINVS • FIL • AVGG. Laureate head of Maximinus II facing right.
Reverse: GENIO CAESARIS. Genius standing facing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; in left field, star; in right field, delta; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
RIC VI : 32a
RARE

Maximinus Daia was the nephew of Galerius, who made him Caesar in A.D.305. He then changed his name to Galerius Valerius Maximinus and ruled over the East and Egypt from his headquarters at Antioch. When Licinius was made Augustus in A.D.308, Maximinus demanded the title also, especially since it had been usurped by Constantine in the West. Instead, both he and Constantine received the novel rank of Filius Augustorum in late A.D.308 or early 309. Galerius though finally acceded to Maximinus' demands and he was promoted to Augustus in May, A.D.310.
This coin bears the new (and short lived) Filius Augustorum title which only appears on some coins struck for Maximinus in the West. The issues of his capital, Antioch, stress his position as Caesar and member of the imperial Jovian family.
*Alex
Divo-Galerius_Temple.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius. DIVUS MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia7 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Shrine or temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312. The original bronze doors of the Temple of Divus Romulus still survive and are pictured below. They are set between two porphyry columns that support a reused marble architrave and open into a rotunda fifty Roman feet in diameter covered by a cupola which is accessible from the rear through the Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. The temple was converted into a vestibule for the church early in the 6th century.
*Alex
CITYCOM_APOLLO.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 313 under Maximinus II. CITY COMMEMORATIVE AE3/4 of Antioch23 viewsObverse: GENIO ANTIOCHENI. The Tyche of Antioch seated facing with the river-god Orontes swimming facing below.
Reverse: APOLLONI SANCTO. Apollo standing facing left, holding lyre in his left hand and patera in his right; in right field, A; in exergue, SMA.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.6gms | Die Axis: 12
Vagi 2954

This coin, often called a quarter nummus or twelfth follis, the exact denomination being uncertain, is assigned to the time of the great persecution of Christians under Galerius and Maximinus II.
The obverse of the coin shows the famous Tyche of Antioch which was made by Eutychides of Sikyon in the second half of the 4th century B.C. The reverse possibly represents the statue of Apollo of Antioch which was made my Bryaxis around 400-350 B.C.
The statue below is a late Roman marble copy of the original Greek bronze statue of the Tyche of Antioch by Eutychides and it is now in the Vatican Museum (Galleria dei Candelabri).
3 comments*Alex
DIV_MAX_GAL_FOLLIS_SMTS.JPG
Struck A.D.311 under Licinius. DIVUS GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Thessalonica. 5 viewsObverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI. Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors; in right field, A; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 48 (r5).
EXTREMELY RARE
*Alex
DIV-GAL_FORTUNA-NEMESIS.JPG
Struck A.D.312 under Licinius I. DIVUS GALERIUS. Commemorative AE Follis of Siscia12 viewsObverse: DIVO GAL VAL MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: FORTI FORTVNAE. Fortuna standing facing left holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, wheel with cubit rule leaning against it (the attributes of Nemesis), behind at her feet; in right field, star on crescent over B; in exergue, SIS.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.75gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 226
EX FORVM
RARE
1 comments*Alex
GALERIUS_SHRINE_1.JPG
TEMPLE, GALERIUS77 viewsCommemorative Follis of Ostia, struck A.D.311 under Maxentius.
Obverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO SOCERO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 31
SCARCE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312.
*Alex
DSC00070.JPG
Tetrarchy Imperial Lead Seal118 viewsTwo augusti Diocletian and Maximian face to face.
Below the two Caesares Galerius and Constantius face to face.
Dolphin between


17.79g

Sold to Calgary Coins 2015
4 commentsJay GT4
Galerius_AR-Argenteus_MAXIMIANVS-CAESAR_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Ticinium_RIC-15b_RSC-220a_294-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5mm_2,68g-s~0.jpg
Ticinum, 122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,90 viewsTicinum, 122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), RIC VI 015b, AR-Argenteus, -/-//--, VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod,
avers: MAXIMIANVS CAESAR, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background, with six turrets.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 3rd.off., date: 294 A.D., ref: RIC VI 015b, RSC-220a,
Q-001
quadrans
Tray2.jpg
Tray251 viewsLate Roman and Byzantine from Galerius to Manuel IPekka K
ant-test.jpg
Two Ants - Maximianus or Galerius and Probus10 viewsHaven't attributed first coin yet, the second is Probus before I started working on the coin uncleaned.Gil-galad
     
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