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Search results - "GERM"
NeroDrususCaesars1.jpg
165 viewsStruck under Caligula. Nero and Drusus Caesars riding right, cloaks flying, NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around S-C. Rome mint, c. AD 37-38. RIC I 34 (pg. 110).2 commentssocalcoins
Domitas07C00DR.jpg
68 viewsDomitianus - AE as.
D/ IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
R/ FORTVNAE AVGVSTI SC
Cohen 131 - AD 90 or 91
Rugser
Domitas09C131DaR.jpg
59 viewsDomitianus - AE as.
D/ IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
R/ FORTVNAE AVGVSTI SC
Cohen 131 - AD 90 or 91
Rugser
DOMITas10C655D+R.jpg
63 viewsDomitianus - AE as.
D/ IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P
R/ VIRTVTI AVGVSTI SC
Cohen 655 - AD 88
Rugser
Caracalla  198-217 A.D. Denarius RSC302 RIC251.JPG
45 viewsOBV: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
REV: P.M.TR.P.XVIII.COS.IIII.P.P.
Aesculapius standing front head left holding serpent-entwined wand, globe on ground right......R.S.C 302 R.I.C 251
1 commentsnigel nicholson
Domitian 81-96 A.D. Denarius RSC253 RIC138.JPG
63 viewsOBV: IMP.CAES.DOMIT.AVG.GERM.P.M.TR.P.VIII
REV: IMP.XIX.COS.XIIII.CENS.P.P.P.
Minerva on vessel
nigel nicholson
MAXIMIN1-3.jpg
62 viewsMaximinus I - Sestertius - 236/238
Ob.: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM; Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev.: SALVS AVGVSTI S C; Salus seated left, feeding from patera a serpent arising from altar.
gs. 18,6 mm 34
Cohen 92, RIC IV 85
1 commentsMaxentius
NERO-3.jpg
35 viewsNero - As - 65/66 - Mint of Rome
Ob.: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP; laureate head right
Rev.: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S C; janus temple with doors closed.
gs. 10 mm. 27,8
Cohen 171, RIC 306
Maxentius
GERMANIC-1.jpg
35 viewsGERMANICVS - As minted under Caligula - 40/41 AD
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
Rev.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P around large SC.
Gs. 11 mm. 29,1
Cohen 4 RIC 50

Maxentius
TRAIAN-12.jpg
34 viewsTRAJAN - Semis - Mint of Antioch - 115/116 AD.
Obv.: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM, radiate draped bust right
Rev.: DAC PARTHICO P M TR POT XX COS VI P P around SC within oak wreath.
Gs. 4,6 mm. 20,7
RIC 645, Cohen 123.
Maxentius
DOMITIAN-1.jpg
34 viewsDOMITIAN - Æ As - 87 AD.
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PER P P, laureate bust right, with aegis
Rev.: FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S-C, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae.
Gs. 10,5 mm. 29,3
Cohen 126, RIC 353a
Maxentius
DOMIZIAN-3.jpg
40 viewsDOMITIAN - Æ As - 90/91 AD.
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P, laureate head right
Rev.: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, S C across field, Virtus standing right, holding parazonium and sceptre, left foot on helmet.
Gs. 9 mm. 26,8
Maxentius
DOMIZIAN-4.jpg
25 viewsDOMITIAN - Dupondius - 86 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER P P. Radiate head right.
Rev: S C - Shields crossed in front of vexillum.
Gs. 9,7 mm. 27
Cohen 538, RIC 329
Maxentius
heller.jpg
417 viewsGerman states, Hesse-Cassel Friedrich Wilhelm 1847 - 1866 A.D. Crowned German coat of arms, 360 EINEN THALER / 1 HELLER 1866 surrounded by leged: KURHESSISCHE SCHEIDE MUNZE. KM 613 Helleroneill6217
britannicus01.jpg
48 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
MAXIMINUS_I_-_AS,_Rev__SALUS_FEEDING_SNAKE.jpg
63 viewsMaximinus I AE Dupondius,Maximinus I AE Dupondius. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI S-C, Salus seated left, feeding out of patera a snake rising from altar. RIC 86, Cohen 94, BMC 178 sold :o(

3 commentsAntonivs Protti
500mark1923A.jpg
61 viewsGermany. Weimar Republic. 1919- 1933. Aluminum 500 Mark 1923-A. EINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT, Eagle, star below / DEUTSCHES REICH 500 MARK 1923 A.

KM 36
oneill6217
adadd.jpg
25 viewsCeltic, Bastarnae Tribe, Thrace, c. 220 - 160 B.C., Imitative of Macedonian Kingdom Type

The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain, but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian, ethnic origin, who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo, Geography, VII, 3,17) during the last centuries B.C. and early centuries A.D. The etymology of their name is uncertain, but may mean 'mixed-bloods' (compare 'bastard'), as opposed to their neighbours the East Germanic Scirii, the 'clean-' or 'pure-bloods.'

32899. Bronze AE 16, imitative of SNG Cop 1299 (Macedonian Kingdom, time of Philip V and Perseus, 221 - 168 B.C.), Fair/Fine, 2.168g, 16.3mm, obverse Celtic-style bust of river-god Strymon right; reverse Trident
Patrick O3
Domitian_Minerva_spear_left.jpg
105 viewsDOMITIAN. 81-96 AD. AR Denarius (20mm - 3.35 g). Rome mint. Struck 88-9 AD. IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERM P M TR P VIII, laureate head right / IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, holding spear in right hand, left hand on hip. RIC II 662 (R2); BMCRE pg. 330, note; RSC 244a. Very Rare.

Ex: Gemini Auction IX, January 8, 2012, lot 402; Ex: Harry N. Sneh Collection
5 commentspaul1888
Deutschland_Potsdam_Medaille_1924_Schwimmfest_Sieger.jpg
17 viewsDeutschland

Potsdam

Medaille 1924 (Bronze)

II.Preis , gestiftet vom Potsdamer Schwimmclub

Vs.: Schwimmer greifen nach Lorbeerkranz, den Germania hält

Rs.:Gravur

Gewicht: 16,3g

Durchmesser: 35mm

Erhaltung: vorzüglich _591
Antonivs Protti
Domitian_ric_II_272.jpg
19 viewsDOMITIAN
AE As. 85 A.D.
28.3mm, 9.2 grams

OBV: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI, laureate bust right, wearing aegis
REV: SALVTI AVGVSTI, alter
S-C across fields. Rome Mint
RIC-II-272
ziggy9
trajan_ric_II_398.jpg
15 viewsTRAJAN
Dupondius 98-99 A.D.
26.3mm, 9.3 grams

OBV: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM,
Emperor radiate head right.
REV: TR POT COS III PP, Abundance seated left on chair formed of two cornucopiae, holding scepter.
RIC-II-398
ziggy9
maximinus_I_ric_IVb_19.jpg
18 viewsMAXIMINUS I
Denarius. 238 A.D.
22.3mm, 3.3 grams

OBV: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate draped bust right.
REV: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left with branch & sceptre.
RIC-IVb -19
ziggy9
maximusprincCrow.jpg
103 viewsMaximus Crowvs
Maximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Rvssell Crowvs Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV ?
8 commentsNemonater
Trajan_Denarius.jpg
32 viewsTrajan. 98-117AD. AR Denarius (19.5mm, 2.97g). Rome mint. Struck January 101 AD to December 102 AD. IMP CAESAR NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right. / P M TR P · COS · IIII P P, Hercules standing facing on low base, holding club in right hand and lion skin over left arm. RIC II, pg 247, #49. Good VF, attractive blue iridescent toning toning around the devices. NICE EYE APPEAL !!

Ex. Auktion Numismatica Wendt KG, Wien 12 (1976), 256; Ex. Münzen & Medaillen GmbH (DE) 13, #642. Oct. 9, 2003.
1 commentspaul1888
0116prob2.jpg
Probus RIV VII 220, Rome.19 viewsAE Antoninianus,
Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA GERM, Trophy of cuirass, four spears and two shield
stands between two captives bound and seated back to back at the
base.
Mintmark R thunderbolt A.
NORMAN K
Germanicus_As.jpg
4.5 Germanicus18 viewsGERMANICUS
AE As

RI0037
Sosius
Germanicus_Signis_Receptis.jpg
4.5 Germanicus, father of Caligula38 viewsGERMANICUS
AE Dupondius. Struck under Caligula.

GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right / SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter.

RIC 57 [Caligula], Cohen 7, BMC 93 Fine
Ex VAuctions
RI0038
1 commentsSosius
Nero_As_RIC_306.jpg
6 Nero AE As28 viewsNERO
AE As
NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right / PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C, the Temple of Janus, latticed window to l., garland hung across closed double doors on the right.
RIC 306, Sear5 #1974

On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war with a foreign enemy the doors of the 'Twin Janus' temple were ceremonially closed, an event which Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65-67 A.D. -- David R. Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol 1
RI0042
Sosius
Nero_Prov_As.jpg
6 Nero AE As17 viewsNERO
AE As
Moesia or Balkan mint (Perinthus, Thrace?)

O: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M, Laureate head right

R: S-C, Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident.

RPC I 1760; BMCRE 391 note, pl. 48, 11; WCN pg. 245, 1 var. (obverse legend); RIC: not listed but mentioned on pp. 186-187.

Fine/Good
RI0044
Sosius
Vitellius_RIC_42.jpg
9 Vitellius As, 69 AD22 viewsVITELLIUS
Æ As.
Tarraco mint

O: A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate head left

R: FIDES EXERCITVVM, clasped hands.

RIC 42, Sear5 #2217, Cohen 34.
RI0071
Sosius
Vitellius_RIC_110_no_2.jpg
9 Vitellius Denarius, 69 AD48 viewsVITELLIUS
AR Denarius, 69 AD.

[A VITELLIVS] GERM IMP AVG TR P, Bust right / Anepigraphic. Victory seated left, holding patera and palm

RIC 110, BMCRE 043. aVF
RI0070
2 commentsSosius
Vitellius_RIC_73.jpg
9 Vitellius Denarius, 69 AD18 viewsVITELLIUS
AR denarius, Rome Mint (3.13g)
January 2 - December 20, 69 A.D.

O: A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right

R: CONCOR-DIA P R, Concordia seated left holding patera and cornucopia;

RIC I 73 scarce, Cohen 20

I am unsure of authenticity. The only way to determine once and for all will be to clean this one...
RI0072

Sosius
rjb_gal5_09_06.jpg
11730 viewsAntoninianus
Rome
Issue 3
VICTORIA GERM
G 117
mauseus
Domitian_As_RIC_650.jpg
12 Domitian AE As33 viewsDOMITIAN
AE As, 90-92 AD

O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, laureate head right

R: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, Virtus standing right with spear & parazonium.

Cohen 655, RIC 650
RI0029
Sosius
Domitian_Moneta_As.jpg
12 Domitian60 viewsDOMITIAN
AE As, Rome Mint, 92-94 AD

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P, laureate head right/ MONETA AVGVSTI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.

Cohen 333, RIC 756; aVF-rough surfaces
RI0030
2 commentsSosius
Trajan_As_RIC_392.jpg
14 Trajan 16 viewsTRAJAN
AE As
IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M, laureate bust right / TR POT COS II S-C, Pietas standing left by lighted altar, right hand raised.
Cohen 613, RIC 392
sear5 #3240
RI0112
Sosius
Trajan_As_RIC_434.jpg
14 Trajan AE As17 viewsTRAJAN
AE As
IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M, laureate head right / TR POT COS IIII P P, Victory walking left, carrying shield inscribed S P/Q R.
Cohen 640, RIC 434
RI0113
Sosius
Trajan_RIC_402.jpg
14 Trajan AE As17 viewsTRAJAN
AE As. 98-99 AD.
IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M, laureate head right / T R POT COS II P P S-C, Victory walking left, holding palm-branch & shield inscribed SPQR.
Cohen 617, RIC 402
RI0124
Sosius
Trajan_Den_RIC_318.jpg
14 Trajan Denarius26 viewsTRAJAN
AR Denarius, 3.1g
IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM DAC, laureate draped bust right / P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, FORT RED in ex.
RIC 318; Sear'88 #984; RSC 154; Fine+
Ex-Ancient Coin Society “3 Caesars” folder coin
RI0116
1 commentsSosius
rjb_car_178cf_09_05.jpg
178cf58 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS P.....”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VICTORIA GERM”
Trophy of arms, two captives beneath
Uncertain mint,
mintmark off flan
RIC - (cf 178?)
1 commentsmauseus
Marcus_Aurelius_Sest_RIC_1205.jpg
18 Marcus Aurelius Sestertius25 viewsMARCUS AURELIUS
AE Sestertius
Struck 177 AD.
M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TR P XXXI, laureate head r. / LIBERALITAS AVG VII IMP VIII COS III PP SC, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae.
Cohen 422, RIC 1205
RI0105
Sosius
Caracalla_RIC_283b~0.jpg
25 Caracalla37 viewsCARACALLA
AR Antoninianus, Rome, 216 AD, 4.72g

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate and draped bust right / PM TRP XVIIII COS IIII PP, radiate lion with thunderbolt left

RIC 283b, C 368. VF
Ex-Harlan J. Berk
1 commentsSosius
rjb_nero_06_09.jpg
5431 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 306
mauseus
rjb_2012_05_32.jpg
5420 viewsNero 54-68 AD
AE as
Obv "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP"
Laureate head right
Rev "PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT SC"
Temple of Janus with doors closed
Rome mint
RIC 300
mauseus
rjb_vit_02_06.jpg
69a82 viewsVitellius 69 AD
AR denarius
Lugdunum mint
Obv "A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN"
Laureate bust left
Rev "CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM"
Mars walking left
Lugdunum mint
RIC - (cf 51)
3.2 grammes, die axis 240 degrees
5 commentsmauseus
rjb_dom_02_06.jpg
81100 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER PP"
Laureate bust right
Rev "SC"
Mars advancing left
Rome mint
3 commentsmauseus
rjb_2016_12_03.jpg
819 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP VIII CENS PER PP"
Laureate bust left
Rev "COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC SC"
Emperor left sacrificing in front of temple with two musicians right
Rome mint
RIC 385b
mauseus
rjb_2019_08_02.jpg
814 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS X"
Laureate bust right, aegis on shoulder
Rev "SALVTI AVGVSTI SC"
Tetrastyle altar precinct with closed doors
Rome mint
RIC 224
mauseus
rjb_gal7_09_06.jpg
87221 viewsAntoninianus
Gaul
Issue 1
GERMANICVS MAX V
G 872
mauseus
rjb_gal6_09_06.jpg
87215 viewsAntoninianus
Gaul
Issue 1
GERMANICVS MAX V
G 872
mauseus
rjb_gal9_09_06.jpg
872cf17 viewsAntoninianus
Gaul
Issue 1
GERMANICVS MAX
G - (cf 872)
mauseus
rjb_mine_02_09.jpg
9827 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD
AE semis?
Obv "IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM"
Laureate bust left
Rev "DARDANICI"
Woman standing left holding corn ears
Rome mint?
RIC 703
mauseus
76893q00[1].jpg
Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 669 (C3); BMCRE II 153; BnF III 147; RSC II 25132 viewsSilver denarius
Obverse: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII, laureate head right.
Reverse: IMP XIX COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, helmeted and draped, thunderbolt in right hand, spear vertical behind in left hand, grounded shield at feet behind.
2.85 g., 18.7 mm, Rome mint
sold 4-2018
1 commentsNORMAN K
sia_059~0.JPG
Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, Pax, 235-238 A.D.89 viewsRef Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, 235-238 A.D.
Maximinus I Thrax Æ Sestertius. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped bust right / PAX AVGVSTI S-C, Pax standing left with branch and scepter. Cohen 38, RIC 81, BMC 148. Rome mint.
29.8mm, 19.34gr. Green Patina.
Antonio Protti
philadelphiaClaudius.jpg
#Lydia, Philadelphia. Claudius AE1824 viewsObv: T KLAYDIOS GERMANIKOS KAISAR. Laureate bust r.
Rev: P'ILADELP'EWN NEOKAISAREWN C'ONDROS. Four grain-ears bundled together.
ancientone
GermePseudo.JPG
#Mysia, Germe, Conventus of Cyzicus. Pseudo-autonomous AE20 33 viewsBetween 138 and 192 AD.
Obverse: ΙΕΡΑ Σ ΥΝΚΗ[ΤΟΣ], draped bust of the Senate (youthful), r.
Reverse: [ΓΕΡ]Μ ΗΝΩΝ, Nude Heracles standing, facing, head, l., resting arm on club, holding lion-skin
BMC 16 S80,6(1); Lindgren III, Addendum A 726A
ancientone
germe.jpg
#Mysia, Germe. Pseudo-autonomus Æ1544 viewsMysia, Germe, Pseudo-autonomus Æ15. Time of the Antonines. IERA SUNKLHTOC. Youthful, draped bust of the Roman Senate right / GERMH-NEN, laureate & draped bust of Apollo right, spray of laurel before. Sear 5016. ancientone
Sklavengeld_Karneol.jpg
'Slave money', carnelian66 views25,4x13.60x11.90mm, 7.87g

This so-called 'slave money', part of a chain, was made in the first half of the 19th century in Idar-Oberstein/Germany for London. From London it was shipped to West Africa to buy black slaves.
Jochen
image02453.jpg
30 viewsROME. Germanicus. Died AD 19.
Æ Tessera (21mm, 3.72 g, 2 h)
Cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; all within wreath
Large III; all within wreath
Buttrey 17/III

Ex Alberto Campana Collection (Numismatica Ars Classica 64, 17 May 2012), lot 2453
Ardatirion
Augustus_quadrans,_Northern_Gaul_under_Germanus_Indutilli,_c_10_BC.jpg
50 viewsGAUL, Uncertain mint (Treveri?). Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14
Æ Quadrans(?) (17mm, 2.7g)
Germanus Indutilli L(ibertus), magistrate. Struck circa 10 BC.
Diademed male head right
Bull butting left
RPC I 506; RIC I 249; Scheers, Traite" 216
Ardatirion
arsinoe.jpg
45 viewsEGYPT, Arsinoe (Krokodilopolis).
PB Tessera (24mm, 4.89 g)
Head of Pharoah right; papyrus branch before
ΑΡCΙΝΟЄΙΤωΝ Φ ΠΟΛЄωC (retrograde)
Sobek (crocodile) right on a pedestal, solar disk above; all within laurel wreath tied at the bottom
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6423; Köln 3495

From a German collection, with a mid-1970's Galiere Antiker Kunst ticket.
Ardatirion
00040x00~0.jpg
10 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Aachen
FE 25 Pfennigen (24mm, 5.08 g, 12h)
Dated 1920
Dog seated right; 1920 in exergue
STADT/ 25/ –AACHEN–
Ardatirion
00037x00~2.jpg
9 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Berleberg
FE 10 Pfennigen (20mm, 2.39 g, 12h)
Dated 1917
STADT BERLEBURG, civic coat-of-arms; below, *1917*
KRIEGSNOTGELD/ 10/ * PFENNIG *
Ardatirion
00038x00~1.jpg
11 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Bottrop
FE 10 Pfennigen (21mm, 4.08 g, 12h)
Dated 1919
STADT BOTTROP, tower of Bottrop City Hall
KRIEGSGELD 1918/ 10/ * PFENNIG *
Ardatirion
louis1-denier-melle-lin.JPG
D.609 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)49 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.48 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ META / . / LLVM

Louis' deniers correspond to his father's (Charles the Great) ``novus denarius'', whose weight is supposed to be near 1.7 g with a certain variability.

This denier is typical of Class 2 of Louis' coinage (819-822).
A circular inscription of the name of the ruler surrounds a cross pattée on the observe. The quite surprising Hlvdovvicvs initially comes from the germanic name Chlodowig ("Clovis"). This one was first transcribed to latin as Chlodowicvs. The initial C then disappeared, which explains the H at the beginning. The w(=vv) finally became a standard v, which gave Lvdovicvs (Louis). The imperial title imp is also given.

The reverse consists of the mint name, in field. The mint name may be split in 2 or 3 lines.
Droger
00035x00~1.jpg
11 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Lembeck
FE 10 Pfennigen (18mm, 2.99 g, 12h)
Dated 1919
"1000 Jährige Vehm-Eiche * zu Erle *", oak tree
"Herrlichkeil Lembeck"/ 19 5 19/ " * Pfennig *"
Ardatirion
00034x00~2.jpg
12 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Münster.
FE 25 Pfennigen (23mm, 5.15 g, 12h)
Dated 1918
STADT MÜNSTER I/W, civic coat-of-arms; * KRIEGSGELD * below
25/ PFENNIG/ 1918 within ornamented square tablet
Ardatirion
00036x00~2.jpg
8 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Siegen.
FE 10 Pfennigen (22mm, 4.07 g, 12h)
Dated 1918
Civic coat-of-arms; STADT SIEGEN below
KRIEGSGELD 1918/ 10/ * PFENNIG *
Ardatirion
00039x00~0.jpg
14 viewsGERMANY, Kriegsgeld. Uncertain. Kantine Schürmeyer.
ZN 50 Pfennigen Token (23mm, 3.30 g, 1h)
"Kantine/ (rosette)/ Schürmeyer"
Large 50
Menzel 16660.1; TC 208156

Not properly a "kriesgeld," but possibly a token with military connections, perhaps for an officer's mess. Listed as a 'maverick' in Menzel.
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa35 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
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(0198) CARACALLA30 views198-217 AD
AE As 24 mm, 9.57 g
O: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Laureate head right
R: P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory and spear, helmet under feet, kneeling figure of German before; SC in exe
Rome; cf RIC IV 533, Cohen 264; scarce
laney
max_thrax.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS I (THRAX)49 views235 - 238 AD
AE Sestertius 30X32mm 20.55 g
o:MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Laureate draped bust r
R: FIDES MILITVM S-C
Fides standing head left, holding military standard in each hand
laney
caligulacombinedhoriz.jpg
(04) CALIGIULA39 viewsCALIGULA
37 - 41 AD
Struck Ca 37/38 AD
AE As
O C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT Barehead left, dated TR POT
R: VESTA S C Vesta seated left, pouring from a patera
Rome RIC 38
laney
caligula.jpg
(04) CALIGULA42 viewsSTRUCK 37 - 38 AD
AE As 25.5 mm 11.85 g
O: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
BARE HEAD LEFT
R: VESTA/SC
VESTA SEATED L HOLDING PATERA & SCEPTER
ROME
laney
caligula_vesta.jpg
(04) CALIGULA29 views37-41 AD
Struck 37-38 AD
AE as 26 mm. 9/7 g
O: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left.
R: VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
Rome; Cohen 27. RCV 1803.
1 commentslaney
caligula_denarius_augustus_bbb.jpg
(04) CALIGULA21 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm, 3.53 g
37 - 41 AD
Struck 37-38 AD
O: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT [COS] Bare head of Caligula right
R: Radiate head of Divus Augustus right, flanked by stars
Rome; RIC 2; RSC 11; BMCRE 4
ex. Roma Numismatics Auction
2 commentslaney
nerocombined.jpg
(06) NERO41 views54 - 68 AD
STRUCK Ca 66 AD
AE As
O: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM
LAUR HEAD OF NERO, RIGHT
R: VICTORY, LEFT, HOLDING INSCRIBED SHIELD - SC
laney
NERO_RED.jpg
(06) NERO42 views 06. NERO
54 - 68 AD
STRUCK Ca 66 AD
AE As
O: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM
LAUR HEAD OF NERO, RIGHT
R: VICTORY, LEFT, HOLDING INSCRIBED SHIELD - SC
laney
nero_janus.jpg
(06) NERO49 views54-68 AD
struck ca 65 AD
Æ As 29.5 mm 9.38 g
O: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right
R: Temple of Janus, doors to the right; S/C
RIC I 306
laney
nero_vict_shield_res2.jpg
(06) NERO34 views54 - 68 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.75 g
O: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right.
R: Victory flying left, holding a shield inscribed S P Q R, S-C in fields
laney
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(06) NERO19 views54 - 68 AD
AE 27 mm; 11.38 g
O: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TRP, laureate head left
R: S-C across fields, large altar with two doors and surmounted by ornaments, PROVIDENT in ex.
Balkan mint, possibly Perinthos
RIC (1923) 440; RPC 1761; Cohen 255; WCN p. 245, Moesia 2
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VITELLIUS_RED.jpg
(09) VITELLIUS31 views VITELLIUS
69 AD
AE As
O: A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate bust left
R: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, S-C across field, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand and scepter in left.
Spanish, Tarraco?
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(09) VITELLIUS33 views69 AD
3.110g, maximum diameter 18.8mm
O: A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head right
R: CONCOR-DIA P R, Concordia enthroned left, patera in right, cornucopia in left
Rome mint; RIC I 66, RSC II 21, BMCRE I 1, BnF III 3 (Scarce)
(ex-Forum)
1 commentslaney
vitellius_libertas_denarius.jpg
(09) VITELLIUS10 views69 AD
AR Denarius 17 mm, 3.00 g
O: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right
R: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long staff.
Rome; RIC 105; RSC 47
ex. Roma Numismatics auction
laney
DOMITIAN_RED.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN48 viewsDOMITIAN
81 - 96 AD
Struck 86 AD
AE As
29.5 MM 10.4 G
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PER P P, Laureate bust right
R:VIRTVTI AVGVSTI S C, Virtus standing right
RIC II 340
laney
DOMITIAN_FORTUNA_2_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN30 views81 - 96 AD
AE As 27 mm 11.72 g
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS -- Laureate bust right
R: FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S-C Fortuna standing left with rudder and cornucopia
laney
DOMITIAN_FORTUNA_1.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN25 views81 - 96 AD
AE As 27 mm 11.32 g
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER PP Laureate head right
R: FORTVNA [AVGVSTI] S-C Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
laney
DOMITIAN_MONETA_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN32 views81 - 86 AD
Struck 85 AD
AE As 28.5 mm 8.81 g
O: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI Laureate head right
R: MONETA AVGVST--S-C Moneta standing left holding scales and cornucopiae
laney
domitiam_virtus_res.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN31 views81 - 96 AD
AE As 27 X 28 mm 7.17 g
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS VX CENS PER PP Laureate bust right
R: Virtue standing right holding spear and parazonium S-C
Rome RIC 393
laney
domitian_athena_owl_denarius_B_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN36 views81-96 AD
(Struck 88 AD)
AR Denarius 18mm, 3.41 gm
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII, laureate head right
R: IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing right on galley, brandishing spear and shield; at her feet, owl standing right.
RIC II 108a; BMCRE 117; RSC 236.
laney
domitian_quad.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN--QUADRANS57 views81 - 96 AD
AE QUADRANS 18.5 mm 2.68 g
Obverse: 'S C' in field:round edge 'IMP DOMIT AVG GERM'
Reverse: Rhinoceros left.
RIC-435

laney
Caligula.jpg
*SOLD*26 viewsCaligula AE/AS

Attribution: RIC 38, Cohen 27, BMCRE 46
Date: AD 37-38
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head l.
Reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated l., holding patera and scepter, large S-C in across fields
Size: 27.4 mm
1 commentsNoah
Domitian_1.jpg
*SOLD*22 viewsDomitian AE As

Attribution: RIC 546, Cohen 329
Date: AD 87
Obverse: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PER P P, laureate bust r.
Reverse: MONETA AVGVST SC, Moneta stg. l. with scales & cornucopia
Size: 26 mm
Noah
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*SOLD*22 views Nürnberg - 1 Kreuzer

Attribution: KM #367; 'Stadtansichtskreuzer von Nürnberg' (city-view Kreuzer of Nuremberg) is the specific type
Date: AD 1773
Obverse: View of Nuremberg in Bavaria/Germany, Providence of God above, 1773 below
Reverse: Three Coat of Arms of Nuremberg – 1) Top is 'Freie und Reichsstadt' ('Free city and city of the German Empire), the meaning is that Nuremberg has no other ruler above it than
the Emperor himself; 2) right is a half eagle, black on golden field, in the l. half, and six red and six silver oblique stripes in the r. field; 3) left shows a golden harpyia (mythic bird) on a blue field, has a female head and is crowned.
Noah
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0011 - Denarius Trajan 101-2 AC23 viewsObv/IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Trajan laureate head r., togate l. shoulder.
Rev/(PM TR P) COS IIII PP, Victory standing to front, head turned l., half-draped, holding wreath and palm.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.32g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/58 [C] - BMCRE 115 - RSC 240
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils
dafnis
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002 - Trajan (98-117 AD), denarius - RIC 4961 viewsObv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right.
Rev: P M TR P COS IIII P P, Hercules, nude, standing facing on pedestal with club, apple and lion skin.
Minted in Rome 101-103 AD.
1 commentspierre_p77
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002. Augustus (31 BC- 14 AD)48 viewsAugustus

He suffered but two severe and ignominious defeats, those of Lollius [15 B.C.] and Varus [9 A.D.], both of which were in Germany. Of these the former was more humiliating than serious, but the latter was almost fatal, since three legions were cut to pieces with their general, his lieutenants, and all the auxiliaries. In fact, they say that he was so greatly affected that for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying: "Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!" And he observed the day of the disaster each year as one of sorrow and mourning.

Lyons mint, 2 BC - ca 13 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). BMC 533, RSC 43

This is one of my first 12 caesar coins. I got this from an all text list from M&R coins.
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0023.jpg
0023 - Denarius Trajan 98-9 AC25 viewsObv/IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Trajan laureate head r.
Rev/PM TR P COS II PP, Abundantia seated l., holding sceptre, on chair with crossed cornucopiae arms; fold of drapery over lap.

Ag, 18.9mm, 3.10g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/1 [C] - RSC 206 - BMCRE 36
ex-Meister & Sonntag, auction S2, lot 225
dafnis
Augustus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-AVG-GERMANICVS-PON-M-TR-POT_PROVIDEx_S-C_RIC-xx_BMC-xx_C-xx_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_h_29mm_9,88gx-s.jpg
002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #385 views002a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 081, Rome, AE-As, PROVIDENT, Postumus, Under Tiberius, #3
avers:- DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-:-PATER, Radiate head left.
revers:- PROVIDENT, Altar large S-C on either side.
exe: S/C//PROVIDENT, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 9,85g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC-I-81, C-228,
Q-003
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003b. Nero & Drusus Caesars33 viewsNero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula.

There father Germanicus was Heir Apparent to his own adoptive father Emperor Tiberius, but Germanicus predeceased the Emperor in 19. He was replaced as heir by Julius Caesar Drusus, son of Tiberius and his first wife Vipsania Agrippina. But he too predeceased the Emperor on July 1, 23.

Nero and his younger brother Drusus were the oldest adoptive grandsons of Tiberius. They jointly became Heirs Apparent. However, both were accused of treason along with their mother in AD 32. Nero was exiled to an island and Drusus in a prison where they either starved to death or was murdered by order of the emperor in AD 33.

Dupondius. Rome mint, struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
Cohen 1. RIC 34

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0047.jpg
0047 - Denarius Domitian 85 AC45 viewsObv/IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P V, Domitian laureate head r.
Rev/IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P, Minerva standing r. on Columna Rostrata, holding shield and brandishing javelin, owl at feet.

Ag, 20.9mm, 3.45g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IIa/343 [R2] - Cohen 187
ex-Forum Ancient Coins, art.#15705
1 commentsdafnis
Augustus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-AVG-GERMANICVS-PON-M-TR-POT_VESTA_S-C_RIC-xx_BMC-xx_C-xx_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_h_27-30mm_6,95g-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 082 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, (Commemorative by Tiberius) Eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides,96 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 082 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, (Commemorative by Tiberius) Eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides,
avers:- DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, Radiate head left.
revers:- Eagle standing facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 27-30mm, weight: 6,95 g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 21-22 A.D., ref: RIC I 82 (Tiberius), Cohen 247(Augustus), BMC 155
Q-001
quadrans
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm201 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
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005.Domitian 81-96 AD47 viewsAR Denarius
Mint: Rome, Date: 95 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIIII- laureate head right.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS PPP-Minerva advancing right, with spear and shield,standing on a base.
Size: 18mm; 3.37gms
Ref: RIC II,186; (2008 RIC 766) C. 288
brian l
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005b. Britannicus126 viewsBritannicus (son of Claudius) AE17. Ionia, Smyrna

Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. His original name was "Germanicus" but was changed in honor of his father's conquest of Britain in 43 AD.

Nobody is sure why Claudius made Nero his successor and not Britannicus, although the fact that Britannicus may have been Caligula's son is a factor. Britannicus was killed by (partisans of) his step-brother (and brother-in-law) Nero so that Nero could become emperor of Rome.

His sister Octavia is the heroine of the play written at some time after the death of Nero. It's title is titled her name, but its central message is the wrong done to the Claudian house because of the wrong done to its last male member and its last hope.

Britannicus. Before 54 AD. AE 17mm (4.31 g), Minted at Ionia, Smyrna. Bare head right 'ZMYP' below bust / Nike flying right. cf S(GIC) 516. Scarce. Some dirt and patina chipping.

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005c. Germanicus48 viewsGermanicus

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16.

Germanicus died in Alexandria, Egypt. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius.

AS, struck under Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC. Cohen 1.

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005c. Germanicus24 viewsGermanicus AS / SC

Attribution: RIC(Claudius) 106

Date: 19 AD
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head right
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANI IMP P P around large SC
Size: 28.73 mm
Weight: 11.6 grams
Description: A decent and scarcer bronze

ecoli
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005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

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Nero_janus.jpg
006 - Nero (54-68 AD), As - RIC 34738 viewsObv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right.
Rev: PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S - C in fields, temple of Janus with closed doors on right.
Minted in Rome c. 66 AD.

(Sold)
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006. Nero28 viewsNero Æ As. IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, laureate head right. / Victoria, personifying victory, flying right, holding a shield inscribed S P Q R, S C at sides

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006. Nero32 viewsAE Dupondius
Date: 54-68 AD
Obverse: NERO CLAVDI CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P- Laureate head left.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGVSTI S C - Victory flying left, holding wreath and palm.
Mint: Rome
Reference: RIC I, 199 - BMC 219
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006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

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99101.jpg
007. Galba (68 AD - 69 AD)154 viewsGALBA. 68-69 AD.

Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards.

AR Denarius (18mm, 2.97 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Legend in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167; RSC 287. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
009.jpg
008 VITELLIUS35 viewsEMPEROR: Vitellius
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: A VITELLIVS GERMANICVS IMP, laureate head right
REVERSE: CONCORDIA P R, Concordia seated left, holding patera & cornucopiae
DATE: AD April - December 69
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.14 g
RIC: I.66 (S)
1 commentsBarnaba6
0080~0.jpg
0080 - Denarius Trajan 114-7 AC12 viewsObv/IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate head of Trajan r., with aegis.
Rev/PHARTICO PM TR P COS VI PP SPQR, Felicitas standing l., holding caduceus and cornucopiae.

Ag, 19.2mm, 3.30g
Mint: Rome
RIC II/333 - Cohen 294
ex-Numismática Ramos
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Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_S-dot-C_RIC-50_BMC-74_C-4_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_30mm_11,12g-s.jpg
009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,610 views009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N, Bare head of left.
revers:- C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 11,12g, axis:- h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC-50 (Caligula), BMC-74 (Caligula), C-4,
Q-001
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Germanicus_AE-Dup_GERMANICVS-CAESAR_SIGNIS-RECE-DEVICTIS-GERM_S-C_RIC-57_-7_BMC-94_40-41-AD_Q-001_27mm_12,77g-s.jpg
009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 057, Rome, AE-Dupondius, SIGNIS RECEPT/DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus advancing left, 703 views009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 057, Rome, AE-Dupondius, SIGNIS RECEPT/DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus advancing left,
"My Father received the title as conqueror of Germany from the Senate and people of Rome".
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right.
revers:- SIGNIS-RECEPT/DEVICTIS-GERM, large S-C across field, Germanicus advancing left holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
date: Struck under Caligula 40-41AD.
mint: Rome
diameter: 27mm
weight: 12,77g
ref: RIC-57, C-7, BMC-94,
Q-001
12 commentsquadrans
9.jpg
009 Nero Claudius Drusus. AE sest. 39 viewsobv: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICUS IMP bare head l.
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP Claudius seated l. on curule chair,
weapons and armer lying around
"brother of Tiberius"
1 commentshill132
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009. Vitellius 69 AD155 viewsVITELLIUS. 69 AD.

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68.

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

AR Denarius (20mm, 3.24 gm). Rome mint. Laureate head right / Tripod-lebes; dolphin above, raven below. RIC I 109; RSC 111. Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
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009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #188 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #1
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-001
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009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2147 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 29,5-30,5mm, weight: 11,03g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire86 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
1-Maximinus-I-RIC-06.jpg
01. Maximinus I / RIC 6.26 viewsDenarius, 238 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: P M TR P IIII COS P P / The emperor standing between two standards, holding spear and raising right hand.
2.62 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC #6; Sear 8314.

This coin dates from January 1 to March 19, 238, at which time Gordian I was proclaimed emperor and the mint at Rome stopped coining for Maximinus. It was not until June 24, however, that he was murdered by his soldiers.
1 commentsCallimachus
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010 - Germanicus AS - RIC 10698 viewsObv:– GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head of Germanicus right
Rev:– TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S C
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – 50-54 A.D.
Reference – RIC 106
maridvnvm
Trajan_denar3.jpg
010 - Trajan (98-117 AD), denarius - RIC 5929 viewsObv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right, slightly draped on left shoulder.
Rev: P M TR P COS IIII P P, Victory standing right on galley prow, holding wreath and palm.
Minted in Rome 101 - 102 AD.
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0107 - As Caligula 37-38 AC28 viewsObv/ C CAESAR AVG GERMANIC IMP PM TR P COS, laureate head of C. r.
Rev/ PM CN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q VINC, Salus (Cesonia?) r.; SAL - AVG in field.

AE, 29.0 mm, 14.76 g
Mint: carthago Nova.
APRH/185
ex-Numismática Hinojosa – eBay, art. #290555714886
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011 - Trajan (98-117 AD), denarius - RIC 5850 viewsObv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, draped bust right.
Rev: P M TR P COS IIII P P, Victory standing facing, head turned right, holding wreath and palm.
Minted in Rome 100 AD.
1 commentspierre_p77
017.jpg
011 DOMITIAN15 viewsEMPEROR: Domitian
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P X, laureate head right
REVERSE: IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, holding spear and shield, owl at feet
DATE: Ad 90-91
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.29 g
RIC: II.720
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Caligula_AE-As_C-CAESAR-AVG-GERMANICVS-PON-M-TR-POT_VESTA_S-C_RIC-38_BMC-46_C-27_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_27mm_10,34g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 038, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne, #1367 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 038, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne, #1
avers: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 10,34g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 40-41, ref: RIC I 038, BMC-46, C-27,
Q-001
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011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,304 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,
avers: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 10,25g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 39-40, ref: RIC I 054, BMC-73, C-29,
Q-001
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011. Domitian, 81-96AD. AE Dupondius.124 viewsDomitian. AE Dupondius. 10.08g, 28.3mm, 180o, Rome mint, Apr - Nov 85 A.D.;
Obverse IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P, radiate head right with aegis.
Reverse FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S C, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia. scarce. choice gVF. RIC 293, Cohen 121.
2 commentsLordBest
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011a Germanicus. AE As 10.96gm39 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII PP/SC
"son of N.C.Drusus and Antonia"
1 commentshill132
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011b Germanicus. AE AS 10.26m16 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT/SC
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012. Domitian28 viewsDomitian Æ As. Struck 87 AD. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PERP P, laureate bust right wearing aegis / VIRTVTI AVGVSTI S-C, Virtus standing right, left foot on a helmet, with spear & parazonium. Cohen 650.

Uncleaned, Flaky patina prevents anymore cleaning.

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012. Domitian51 viewsDupondius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P, laureate head right / VIRTVTI AVGVSTI S-C, Virtus standing right with spear & parazonium. Cohen 657.

3 commentsecoli
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012. Domitian32 viewsDomitian Æ Sestertius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, laureate head right / IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter seated left, SC in exergue. RIC 388.

Pre Zapped again from uncleaned lot.

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12a.jpg
012a Aggrippna Sr. sestertius 27.8gm45 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA MF MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI drp. bust r.
rev: MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE SPQR above, capentum drawn l. by two mules
"wife of Germanicus, mother of gaius"
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012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC I 1578, AE-21, ΘEΣΣAΛONEIKEON ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Radiate head of Augustus right, #1133 views012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC I 1578, AE-21, ΘEΣΣAΛONEIKEON ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Radiate head of Augustus right, #1
avers: ΤΙ ΚΛΑΥ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΓΕΡΜ, Laureate head of Claudius left.
reverse: ΘEΣΣAΛONEIKEON ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Radiate head of Augustus right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0-21,5mm, weight: 9,86g, axis: 6h,
mint: City: Thessalonica, Region: Macedonia, Province: Macedonia,
date: 41-45 A.D.,
ref: RPC I 1578, Varbanov 4235-38, Touratsoglou, Claudius 1-8, 11-23 (?41),
Q-001
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013. Trajan, 98-117AD. AE Aes.31 viewsAE Aes. Rome mint. 101-103AD.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM.
Rev. Victory advancing left holding palm branch and shield inscribed with SPQR TR POT COS IIII PP.

RIC II 434.
LordBest
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013a Caligula. AE AS 11.3gm51 viewsobv: C AESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT bare head l.
rev: VESTA/SC Vesta veiled and drp., seated l. on ornamental throne,
holding petera l. long scepter
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013b Caligula. AE AS 10.86gm40 viewsobv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANCVS PON M TR POT bare head l.
rev: VESTA/SC vesta veiled and drp. seated l. on ornamental throne,
holding patera, l. long sceptre
1 commentshill132
Nero_AE-AS_IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM_PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT_S-C_RIC-348_C-_Rome_66-AD_Q-001_6h_27mm_11,14g-s.jpg
014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,118 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0348, Rome, AE-As, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, S-C,
avers: IMP-NERO-CAESAR-AVG-GERM, Laureate head left.
revers: PACE-PR-VBIQ-PARTA-IANVM-CLVSIT, View of one front of the temple of Janus, with latticed window to left, and garland hung across closed double doors on the right, S C across fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 11,14g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 66 AD., ref: RIC-348, C-,
Q-001
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014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0351, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Victory flying left,99 views014 Nero (54-68 A.D.), RIC I 0351, Rome, AE-As, S-C, Victory flying left,
avers: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG GERM, Laureate head right.
revers: Victory flying left, holding shield inscribed SPQR. S C across fields.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 66A.D., ref: RIC-351, BMCRE 246, WCN 296,
Q-001
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0142.jpg
0142 - Denarius Caracalla 213-17 AC15 viewsObv/ ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head of C. r.
Rev/ VENUS VICTRIX, Venus standing l., draped, r. breast naked, holding Victory and transverse scepter, leaning l. shoulder on shield over helmet on ground.

Ag, 20.8 mm, 3.10 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/85 – RIC IV.1/311b [C]
ex-Global Aste, auction 5, lot 248
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0145 - Denarius Vitellius 69 AC25 viewsObv/ (A VITE)LLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate bust of V. r.
Rev/ XV VIR SACR FA(C), tripod-lebes with dolphin on top and raven below.

Ag, 18.1 mm, 3.38 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC I/109 [S]
ex-Stack’s Bowers, auction 94, lot 1103
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0157 - Antoninianus Caracalla 213-17 AC25 viewsObv/ ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiated and togate bust of C. r.
Rev/ VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing l., hlding helmet and scepter, leaning on shield; captives to the l. and r.

Ag, 24.9 mm, 5.04 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/86 – RIC IV.1/312a [S]
ex-Auctiones, auction e2, lot 102 (T.Kunsch Caracalla colln.)
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016. Germanicus, son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius (15 B.C.–19 A.D.) 19 viewsAv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III PP / S-C

AE As Ø27 / 11.6g
RIC 43 Rome, BMC 60, BN 106
Juancho
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016a Aggrippina jr. AE14 2.1gm26 viewsobv: drp. bust r.
rev: cult statue of Artemis
"mother of Nero, doughter of germanicus,
sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius"
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019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0066, Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA PR, Concordia seated left,145 views019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0066, Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA PR, Concordia seated left,
avers:- A-VITELLIVS-GERMANICVS-IMP, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONCOR-DIA-PR, Concordia seated left, holding patera & cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 2,42g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 69 A.D., ref: RIC-I-066_p-271,
Q-001
quadrans
Vitellius_AR-Den_A-VITELLIVS-GERMAN-IMP-TR-P_CONCOR-DIA-PR_RIC-I-73_p-272_Rome_69-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5-19mm_3,30g-s.jpg
019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0073, Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA PR, Concordia seated left,192 views019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0073, Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA PR, Concordia seated left,
avers:- A-VITELLIVS-GERMAN-IMP-TRP, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONCOR-DIA-PR, Concordia seated left, holding patera & cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,30g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 69 A.D., ref: RIC-I-073_p-272,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Vitellius_AR-Den_A-VITELLIVS-GERMAN-IMP-TR-P_XV-VIR-SACR-FAC_RIC-I-86_p-272_Rome_69-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_17-19mm_2,72g-s.jpg
019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0086, Rome, AR-Denarius, XV VIR SACR FAC, Tripod and dolphin,187 views019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0086, Rome, AR-Denarius, XV VIR SACR FAC, Tripod and dolphin,
avers:- A-VITELLIVS-GERMAN-IMP-TR-P, Laureate head right.
revers:- XV-VIR-SACR-FAC, Tripod-lebes with dolphin lying right on top and raven standing right below.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,72g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 69 A.D., ref: RIC-I-86_p-272,
Q-001
quadrans
Vitellius_AR-Den_A-VITELLIVS-GERM-IMP-AVG-TR-P_XV-VIR-SACR-FAC_RIC-I-109_p-273_Rome_69-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_18mm_3,23g-s.jpg
019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0109, Rome, AR-Denarius, XV VIR SACR FAC, Tripod and dolphin,352 views019 Vitellius (69 A.D.), RIC I 0109, Rome, AR-Denarius, XV VIR SACR FAC, Tripod and dolphin,
avers:- A-VITELLIVS-GERM-IMP-AVG-TR-P, Laureate head right.
revers:- XV-VIR-SACR-FAC, Tripod-lebes with dolphin lying right on top and raven standing right below.
exerg: - , diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,23g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 69 A.D., ref: RIC-I-109_p-272,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
0190.jpg
0190 - Denarius Trajan 98-99 AC28 viewsObv/IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureated head of Trajan r.
Rev/PM TR P COS II PP, Victory draped and seated l., holding patera and palm.

Ag, 19.5mm, 3.47g
Mint: Rome
RIC II/10 [C] - BMCRE III/45
ex-NAC, auction 78, lot 2191
dafnis
20.jpg
020 Vitellus. AR Denarius 3.2gm12 viewsobv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P laur. head r.
rev: XV VIR SACR FAC tripod-lebes with dolphin lying r.
on top and ravin stg. r. below
hill132
IMG_4932.JPG
020. Gaius "Caligula" (37-41 A.D.)41 viewsAv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Rv.: VESTA / S - C

Ae As Ø28 / 10.9g
RIC 38 Rome, Cohen 27
Juancho
027.jpg
021 CARACALLA11 viewsEMPEROR: Caracalla
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right
REVERSE: P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis, wearing polos on head, standing left, holding wreath of corn-ears(?) and sceptre
DATE: 217 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 2.33 g
RIC: 289c
Barnaba6
24.jpg
024 Domitian. AR Denarius 3.2gm33 viewsobv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VIII laur. head r.
rev: IMP XXI COS XV CENS PPP Minerva std. l. holding
spear in r. hand
2 commentshill132
quadrans-Q-002_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0236, RIC II(1962) 0427, AE-Quadrans, Rome, S C within laurel wreath, #166 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0236, RIC II(1962) 0427, AE-Quadrans, Rome, S C within laurel wreath, #1
avers:- IMP DOMIT AVG GERM, helmeted and draped bust of Minerva right.
revers:- S C within laurel wreath.
diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,95, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 84-85 A.D., ref: RIC 0236, RIC II(1962) 0427 p-207, BMCRE 484, CBN 520,
Q-001
quadrans
quadrans-Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0250, RIC II(1962) 0435, AE-Quadrans, Rome, Rhinoceros walking left, Scarce!, #189 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0250, RIC II(1962) 0435, AE-Quadrans, Rome, Rhinoceros walking left, Scarce!, #1
avers: Rhinoceros walking left.
reverse: IMP DOMIT AVG GERM around large SC.
diameter: 16,518mm, weight: 2,24, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 84-85 A.D., ref: RIC 0250, RIC II(1962) 0435 p-208, BMCRE 498, C-674,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-DOMITIAN-AVG-GERM-COS-XI_MONETA-AVGVST_RIC-new-303-Rome-85-AD_Q-001_26-28mm_11,34g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0303, RIC II(1962) 0270, AE-As, Rome, MONETA AVGVST, S-C, Moneta standing left, #1320 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0303, RIC II(1962) 0270, AE-As, Rome, MONETA AVGVST, S-C, Moneta standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMITIAN-AVG-GERM-COS-XI, Laureate head of Domitian right, wearing aegis.
revers:- MONETA-AVGVSTI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae, S-C across the field.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 11,34g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 A.D., ref: RIC 0303, RIC II(1962) 0270 p-188, C-325 corr.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XI-CENS-PER-P-P_FORTVNAE-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-II-299bvar-Rome-85-AD-Rare_Q-001_axis-7h_26-28mm_9,87g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0415, RIC II(1962) 0299b, (revers legend var.), AE-As, Rome, FORTVNA(E)-AVGVSTI (!!!), S-C, Rare !!!,338 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0415, RIC II(1962) 0299b, (revers legend var.), AE-As, Rome, FORTVNA(E)-AVGVSTI (!!!), S-C, Rare !!!,
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XI-CENS-PER-P-P, Laureate head of Domitian right, wearing aegis.
revers:- FORTVNA(E)-AVGVSTI (!!!), Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae, S-C across the field.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 A.D., ref:RIC 0415, RIC II(1962) 0299b p-192, (revers legend var.), Rare!,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XII-CENS-PER-P-P_MONETA-AVGVSTI_RIC-493-Rome-86-AD_Q-001_26-28mm_10,20g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0493, RIC II(1962) 0335, AE-As, Rome, MONETA AVGVSTI, S-C, Moneta standing left, #1319 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0493, RIC II(1962) 0335, AE-As, Rome, MONETA AVGVSTI, S-C, Moneta standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XII-CENS-PER-P-P, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- MONETA-AVGVSTI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae, S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 10,20g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 86 A.D., ref: RIC 0493, RIC II(1962) 0335 p-196, C-327,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-VII_IMP-XIIII-COS-XIIII-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC-_new-576-_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0576, RIC II(1962) 0108a, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP•XIIII•COS•XIIII•CENS•P•P•P•, Minerva standing right,142 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0576, RIC II(1962) 0108a, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP•XIIII•COS•XIIII•CENS•P•P•P•, Minerva standing right,
avers:- IMP•CAES•DOMIT•AVG•GERM•P•M•TR•P•VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP•XIIII•COS•XIIII•CENS•P•P•P•, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing thunderbolt and shield; owl at her feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 88 A.D., ref: RIC 0576, RIC II(1962) 0108a p-166, C-236,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-VIII_IMP-XVII-COS-XIIII-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC(62)-_RIC-new-661_RSC_244_88-89_AD_R_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,40g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0661, RIC II(1962) 0134, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva left with spear, #1256 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0661, RIC II(1962) 0134, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XVII COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva left with spear, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-VIII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XVII-COS-XIIII-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing left, holding spear.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,40g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 88-89 A.D., ref: RIC 0661, RIC II(1962) 0134, RSC-244, Rare !
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-VIIII_IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC-148-new-690-_Q-001_19mm_3,25g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0690, RIC II(1962) 0148, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #1222 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0690, RIC II(1962) 0148, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-VIIII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing thunderbolt and shield; owl at her feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 89 A.D., ref: RIC 0690, RIC II(1962) 0148 p-171, C-262,
Q-001
quadrans
Domitian_AE-Sester_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XV-CENS-PER-P-P_No-legend_SC_RIC-390-Rome-90-91-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_32-34mm_17,80g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0703, RIC II(1962) 0390, AE-Sestertius, Rome, No legend, Domitian and Victory, -/-//S C, #1243 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0703, RIC II(1962) 0390, AE-Sestertius, Rome, No legend, Domitian and Victory, -/-//S C, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XV-CENS-PER-P-P, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- No-legend, Domitian standing l., holding sceptre and parazonium, crowned by Victory behind him; in exergue, S C.
exer: -/-//S-C, diameter: 32-34mm, weight: 17,80g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 90-91 A.D., ref: RIC 0703, RIC II(1962) 0390 p-203, C-513,
Q-001
quadrans
Domitian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XV-CENS-PER-P-P_VIRTVTI-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-II-397_RIC-New-709_C-656_Rome-90-91-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_26,5-28mm_11,48g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0709, RIC II(1962) 0397, AE-As, Rome, VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, S-C, Virtus standing right, #1272 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0709, RIC II(1962) 0397, AE-As, Rome, VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, S-C, Virtus standing right, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XV-CENS-PER-P-P, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- VIRTVTI-AVGVSTI, Virtus standing right, holding parazonium and sceptre, left foot on helmet, S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 26,5-28mm, weight: 11,48g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 90-91 A.D., ref: RIC 0709, RIC II(1962) 0397 p-203, C 656, BMC 452
Q-001
quadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-X_IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC-153-new-720_Rome-90-91-AD_Q-001_axis-h_18,5mm_3,16g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #1136 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-X, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing thunderbolt and shield; owl at her feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 90-91 A.D., ref: RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153 p-172, RSC 266, BMC 179,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-X_IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC-153-new-720_Rome-90-91-AD_Q-002_6h_17,5-19mm_3,37g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #2105 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #2
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-X, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing thunderbolt and shield; owl at her feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,37g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 90-91 A.D., ref: RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153 p-172, RSC 266, BMC 179,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
RICc_0720_RIC-II_0153,_024_Domitian_(69-81ADCaes__81-96ADAug_),_AR-Den,_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-X,_IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-PPP,_Roma,_90-91-AD_Q-003_6h_18mm_3,09g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #3174 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, #3
avers:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P X, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing thunderbolt and shield; owl at her feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,8-18,8mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 90-91 A.D., ref: RIC 0720, RIC II(1962) 0153 p-172, RSC 266, BMC 179,
Q-003
6 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-TMTRP-X_IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC-154-new-721-92-93-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0721, RIC II(1962) 0154, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, #1177 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0721, RIC II(1962) 0154, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-X, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear, shield at feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 91A.D., ref: RIC 0721, RIC II(1962) 0154 p-172, RSC 264,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-XI_IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC--new-_Rome-90-91-AD_Q-002_7h_18mm_3,00g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0725, RIC II(1962) 0157, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right#1138 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0725, RIC II(1962) 0157, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing right#1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-XI, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XXI-COS-XV-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing thunderbolt and shield; owl at her feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 91-92 A.D., ref: RIC 0725, RIC II(1962) 0157 p- , RSC-270, BMCRE-183,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-XII_IMP-XXII-COS-XVI-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC-173-new-741-92-93-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_3,50g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0741, RIC II(1962) 0173, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, #1222 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0741, RIC II(1962) 0173, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMI-TAVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-XII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XXII-COS-XVI-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear, shield at feet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 5 h,
mint: Rome, date: 92-93 A.D., ref: RIC 0741, RIC II(1962) 0173 p-173, BMCRE 205, RSC 279,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XVI-CENS-PER-P-P_MONETA-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-II-408_RIC-New-756_C-333_Rome-92-94-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_27-28mm_10,84g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0756, RIC II(1962) 0408, AE-As, Rome, MONETA AVGVSTI, S-C, Moneta standing left, #1287 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0756, RIC II(1962) 0408, AE-As, Rome, MONETA AVGVSTI, S-C, Moneta standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XVI-CENS-PER-P-P, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- MONETA-AVGVSTI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae, S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 10,84g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 92-94 A.D., ref: RIC 0756, RIC II(1962) 0408 p-205, C-333,
Q-001
quadrans
RICc_0773,_024c_Domitian,_AR-Den,_IMP_CAES_DOMIT_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_XIIII,_IMP_XXII_COS_XVII_CENS_P_P_P,_Roma,_95,_AD,_Q-001,_6h,18-18,5mm,_3,06g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0773, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P, Minerva left with the spear, #1180 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0773, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P, Minerva left with the spear, #1
avers: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIIII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
reverse: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, holding a spear.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 95 A.D., ref: RIC 0773, RSC-286, BMC 226,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-XI_IMP-XXII-COS-XVII-CENS-P-P-P_Roma-RIC--new-_Rome--AD_Q-001_6h_18-18,5mm_2,80g-s.jpg
024ci Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0000, RIC II(1962) 0000, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P, Minerva standing right, 99 views024ci Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0000, RIC II(1962) 0000, AR-Denarius, Rome, IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P, Minerva standing right,
Unofficial, (Plated /Subaerate/Fouree)
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-(P)-X"I", Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- IMP-XXII-COS-XVII-CENS-P-P-P, Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, brandishing thunderbolt and shield.
The right combination would be TR P XV - COS XVII.
A double engravers's error (missing P and I vs. V)
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 2,80g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 89 A.D., ref: RIC--p-, (New-), C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
024_Domitian_(69-81_A_D__Caesar,_81-96_A_D__Augustus),_Thrace,_Philippopolis_AE-18,_Artemis,_Varbanov_619corr_,_RPC_II_354,_88-89AD,_Q-001,_7h,_17,5-18mm,_3,18g-s.jpg
024p Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), Thrace, Philippopolis, RPC II 354, AE-18, ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN, Artemis advancing right, Rare!149 views024p Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), Thrace, Philippopolis, RPC II 354, AE-18, ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEITΩN, Artemis advancing right, Rare!
avers:- IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERM COS XIIII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟ ΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ, Artemis advancing right with bow and arrows.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,0mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 7h,
mint: Thrace, Philippopolis, date: 88-89 A.D., ref: Varbanov 619corr., RPC II 354 (3 pieces), Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
031.jpg
025 MAXIMINUS I TRAX9 viewsEMPEROR: Maximinus I Trax
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust rt.
REVERSE: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left with baton over a globe & cornucopiae
DATE: 235-238 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.29
RIC: 20
Barnaba6
Nerva_AE_As_IMP-NERVA-CAES-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM-PM_TR-POT-COS-II_S-C_RIC-393-C-612_98-AD_Q-001_6h_27,5-28,5mm_12,25g-s.jpg
026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 393, Rome, AE-As, S/C//--, TR POT COS II, Pietas veiled and draped standing left, Rare!185 views026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 393, Rome, AE-As, S/C//--, TR POT COS II, Pietas veiled and draped standing left, Rare!
avers: IMP NERVA CAES TRAIAN AVG GERM P M, Laureate head right.
reverse: TR POT COS II, Pietas veiled and draped standing left, sacrificing over a lighted altar. S-C across the field.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 27,5-28,5mm, weight:12,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 98 A.D., ref: RIC II 393, p-, C-612, Rare!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Traianus_IMP-CAES-NERVA-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM_P_M_TR_P_COS_II_P-P__RIC-6_Rome_98-99-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,17g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0006, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P P•, Pax standing left, #1203 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0006, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P P•, Pax standing left, #1
avers: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P P•, Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,17g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 98-99 A.D., ref: RIC II 6, RSC 209,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
027_Traianus_(98-117_A_D_),_RIC_II_0010,_AR-Den,_IMP_CAES_NERVA_TRAIAN_AVG_GERM,_P_M_TR_P_COS_II_P_P,_98-99AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19mm,_3,27g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0010, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P•P•, Victory seated left, #173 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0010, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P•P•, Victory seated left, #1
avers: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Laureate, head right.
reverse: P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P•P•, Victory seated left holding patera and palm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,27g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 98-99 A.D., ref: RIC II 10, RSC 213,
Q-001
quadrans
027_Traianus_(98-117_A_D_),_RIC_II_0032,_AR-Den,_IMP_CAES_NERVA_TRAIAN_AVG_GERM,_P_M_TR_P_COS_III_P_P,_100AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-19mm,_3,13g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0032, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P•P•, Abundantia seated left, #180 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0032, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P•P•, Abundantia seated left, #1
avers: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Laureate, head right, drapery on the far shoulder.
reverse: P•M•TR•P•COS•II•P•P•, Abundantia seated left on chair of crossed cornucopiae, holding sceptre.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,13g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 100 A.D., ref: RIC II 32, RSC 219,
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-NER-TRAIAN-OPTIM-AVG-GERM-DAC_PARTHICO-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P-S-P-Q-R_RIC-II-334var-p-268_114-117-AD_Q-001_7h_17,5-18,5mm_3,37g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0334., Rome, AR-Denarius, PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Virtus standing right, Legendvariation,336 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0334, Rome, AR-Denarius, PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P S P Q R, Virtus standing right, Legendvariation,
avers: IMP-CAES-NER-TRAIAN-OPTIM-AVG-GERM-DAC, Laureate, draped bust right.
revers: PARTHICO-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P-S-P-Q-R, Virtus standing right, holding spear and parazonium, foot on helmet.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight:3,37g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 114-117 A.D., ref: RIC-334, p-268, C-, Legend variation!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Traianus_Denarius_IMP-CAES-NER-TRAIAN-OPTIM-AVG-GERM-DAC_PARTHICO-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P-S-P-Q-R_PRO-VID_RIC-363_RSC-314_Q-001_7h_18-219mm_3,02g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0363, Rome, AR-Denarius, PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, PRO/VID//--, Providentia standing left,86 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0363, Rome, AR-Denarius, PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, PRO/VID//--, Providentia standing left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NER-TRAIAN-OPTIM-AVG-GERM-DAC, Laureate, draped bust right.
revers:- PARTHICO-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P-S-P-Q-R, Providentia standing left, holding scepter and pointing with wand to globe at feet,.
exerg: PRO/VID//--, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight:3,02g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 114-117 A.D., ref: RIC-363, RSC-314,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-NERVA-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM-PM_TR-POT-COS-III-P-P_S-C_RIC-687-C_Rome-107-AD_Q-001_axis-xh_28mm_x,xxg-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0417, Rome, AE-As, TR POT COS III P P, SP/QR, /S-C, Victoria,115 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0417, Rome, AE-As, TR POT COS III P P, SP/QR, /S-C, Victoria,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVA-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM-PM, Laureate, head right.
revers:- TR-POT-COS-III-P-P, Victoria, advancing left, carrying shield inscribed SP/QR, S-C across the field.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 28mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 99-100 A.D., ref: RIC-II-417-p-274, C-628,
Q-001
quadrans
Traian_AE-Dup_IMP_CAES_NERVAE_TRAIANO_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_COS_V_P_P_SPQR_OPTIMO_PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-505_BMC-891_Rome-AD_Q-001_6h_28-29mm_13,24g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0505var., Woytek 206cB, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Pax standing left, Rare!180 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0505var., Woytek 206cB, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Pax standing left, Rare!
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate head right, with Aegis on the left shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and cornucopia, her foot on the shoulder of a captive Dacia.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 13,24g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-II-505var.-p-, C-, Woytek 206cB, (6 specimens!!), Rare !
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-4_Quadrans_IMP-CAES-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM_Boar_walking_right_S-C_RIC-702-C-341_BMC-1062_Rome-98-102-AD_Q-001_6h_14,5-15,5mm_g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0702, Rome, AE-Quadrans, Boar walking right, S C in exergue, Scarce !, #176 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0702, Rome, AE-Quadrans, Boar walking right, S C in exergue, Scarce !, #1
avers:- IMP-CAES-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM, Diademed bust of Hercules right with lion-skin on neck.
revers:- Boar walking right, S C in exergue.
exe: -/-//SC, diameter:14,5-15,5mm, weight: 2,91g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-II-702, BMC 1062, C-341, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-NERVA-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5-19,5mm_3_01g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II ???, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS-IIII•P•P, Victory advancing right,101 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II ???, Rome, AR-Denarius, P•M•TR•P•COS-IIII•P•P, Victory advancing right,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVA-TRAIAN-AVG-GERM, Laureate bust right.
revers:- P•M•TR•P•COS-IIII•P•P, Victory advancing right, holding patera and palm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18,519,5mm, weight: 3,01g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
27a.jpg
027a Trajan. AR Denarius 3.0gm23 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIN AVG GERM laur. head r.
rev: PONT MAX TR POT COS II Vesta seated l.
hill132
27d.jpg
027d Trajan. AE quadrant 1.5gm26 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GERM bust of Hercules, laur.drp. r.
rev: SC eather side of club
hill132
Traianus_AR-Den_AVT_KAIC_NEP_TPAIANOC_CEB_GERM_DHMEX_UPAT_B_BMC-39_11_Lycia_98-117AD_Q-001_7h_17,5mm_2,70ga-s.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Lycia, BMC-11, SGI 1046, AR-Drachm, Οwl and two lyres, 84 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), AR-Drachm, Lycia, BMC-11, SGI 1046, Οwl and two lyres,
avers:- AVT-KAIC-NEP-TPAIANOC-CEB-ΓERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- ΔHMEΞ-YΠAT•B, Οwl standing right, one leg on each of two lyres, pellet between.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight:2,70g, axis: 7h,
mint: Lycia, date: 98-99 A.D., ref: BMC-11, SGI 1046, SNG von Aulock 4268,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 028a img.jpg
028 - Vitellius Denarius - RIC 6259 viewsObv:– A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory with shield advancing left, S P Q R on shield
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 69
References:– RIC I 62 (Scarce)

Ex-Forvm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
28.jpg
028 Plotna. AR Denarius 3.2gm27 viewsobv: PLOTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI bust r.
rev: CAES AVG GERMA DAC COS I PP Vesta seated l.,
holding Palladium and scepter
"wife of Trajan"
2 commentshill132
caligula 1.jpg
03 Caligula156 viewsCaligula (Gaius) & Augustus AR Denarius. C. CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right / Augustus head, radiate, r., between two stars. BMC 4, RIC 2, RSC 11, BMC 10. Weight 3.56. Die Axis 4 hr.
5 commentsmix_val
__57(1)-1.jpg
03 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - VENUS VICTRIX - Frontal bust9 viewsCaracalla AR Antoninianus.

obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing holding victory and sceptre, shield by her side.

5.1 gr, 28mm
rexesq
__57(1).JPG
03 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - VENUS VICTRIX - Frontal bust27 viewsCaracalla AR Antoninianus.

obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing holding victory and sceptre, shield by her side.

5.1 gr, 28mm
2 commentsrexesq
027.JPG
030 Caligula38 viewsGaius Caligula Æ As. Struck 37-8 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. Cohen 27.RIC 38 sear5 #1803

New photo
Randygeki(h2)
002~3.JPG
031 Germanicus60 viewsAE AS
Germanicus AE As. Struck under Caligula, 39-40 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P around large SC. Cohen 4 var.

RIC 43 (Caligula) ex Zizum
Fine+, 27.5mm, 10.18gram
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Vitelius-RIC-20.jpg
033. Vitellius.9 viewsDenarius, July - Dec. 69 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TRP / Laureate bust of Vitellius.
Reverse: PONT MAXIM / Vesta seated, holding patera and sceptre.
3.42 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #20; Sear #3300.
Callimachus
RI_035l_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II 385a79 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC - SC, Domitian , togate,standing left, sacrificing from patera over garlanded altar, on the other side of which are two flute players facing the emperor, one of which is partly obscured by the altar, hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in background.

This variety, not distinguished in the catalogues, where the second musician's lower body is obscured by the large altar. see BMC pl. 79.3, with obv. portrait left, is from the same rev. die. On other dies, apparently the normal variety, the altar is narrower and you see the second musician's legs descending to the ground.

Celebrates the Secular Games
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_035k_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II new 50049 viewsObv:– IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XII CENS PER PP, laureate bust right with aegis
Rev:– VIRTVTI AVGVSTI S-C, Virtus standing right, holding spear & parazonium
Minted in Rome. A.D. 86
Reference:– RIC II new 500

Somewhat corroded reverse otherwise a pleasing example.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_035h_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II new 64742 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- FIDEI PVBLICAE, Fides standing right with corn ears and plate of fruit
Minted in Rome. A.D. 88-89.
Reference:- BMCRE P. 390 *. RIC II old 370. RIC II new 647 (Rated R). Cohen 115.

This example seems to read FIDES but the lettering is small and likely reads FIDEI.

29.06 mm. 13.72 gms.
maridvnvm
RI_035m_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae quadrans - RIC II new 24327 viewsAe quadrans
Obv:- IMP DOMIT AVG GERM, Bust of Ceres left
Rev:- S-C, Bundle of three poppies and four corn ears
Reference:– RIC II new 243 (R). Cohen 17
maridvnvm
RI_035o_img.jpg
035 - Domitian AE Sestertius - RIC II 39814 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P, Laureate head of Domitian to left
Rev:- IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter seated left, holding Victory & sceptre; SC in ex.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 85
Reference:– RIC 388.
maridvnvm
RI_035b_img.jpg
035 - Domitian As - RIC 39742 viewsObv:– IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P, Laureate head Right
Rev:– VIRTVTI AVGVSTI, S C, Virtus standing right, holding parazonium and sceptre, left foot on helmet
Minted in Rome. A.D. 91
Reference:– BMC 452. Cohen 656. RIC 397
maridvnvm
RI_035e_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Denarius - RIC II (Old) - Addenda (L. A. Lawrence Coll.) would be after 10678 viewsObv:– IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII, Laureate Head Right
Rev:– COS - XIIII, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, shield at side
Minted in Rome. A.D. 88
Reference:– BMC P. 324 Note (L. A. Lawrence Coll.). RIC II (Old) Addenda (L. A. Lawrence Coll.) would be after 106. RSC 66a. RIC II (New) 554 (R2), citing Madrid and Helbing 63, 1931, 537, no photo in RIC. (Thanks to Curtis Clay for the RIC II (New) reference.)
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_035g_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Denarius - RIC II old 78724 viewsObv:– IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV, Laureate head right
Rev:– IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P Minerva advancing r. brandishing spear and holding shield
Minted in Rome. A.D. 95-96
Reference:– RIC II old 787.

Weight 3.24g. 18.62mm.
maridvnvm
35b.jpg
035b Marcus Aurelius. AE Dupondus22 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TR P XXXI rad. head r.
rev: IMP VIII COS III PP/SC two german captives bound to trophy
ex: DEGERM
hill132
IMG_5163.JPG
036. Vitellius (69 A.D.) 28 viewsAv.: A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN
Rv.: CONSENSVS EXERCITVVM / S-C

AE As Ø25-27 / 7.4g
RIC I 40 Tarraco, Cohen 25
Juancho
CalI38.jpg
037-041 AD - Caligula - RIC I 38 - Vesta Reverse48 viewsEmperor: Caligula (r. 37-41 AD)
Date: 37-38 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Consul Caesar Augustus Germanicus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head left

Reverse: VESTA (above)
The Emperor looks after the state.
S - C to left and right
Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, right holding patera, left long transverse sceptre.

Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 38; VM 9
5.61g; 26.0mm; 180°
Pep
037b_Marc-Aurelius_AR-Den_M-ANTONINVS-AVG-TR-P-XXVIII_IMP-VI-COS-II_RIC-289-p-234_C-298_Rome-173-74-AD_Q-001_0h_18,0mm_2,84g-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0289, Rome, AR-Denarius, IMP VI COS III, German seated right at foot of trophy,65 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0289, Rome, AR-Denarius, IMP VI COS III, German seated right at foot of trophy,
avers:- M-ANTONINVS-AVG-TR-P-XXVIII, Laurate head right.
revers:- IMP-VI-COS-III, German seated right at foot of trophy, surrounded by various weapons.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date:173-174 A.D., ref: RIC-III-289, p-234, C-298,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Marc_Aurelius_AE-Sest_M-AVREL-ANTONINVS-AVG-ARM-PARTH-MAX_VICT-AVG-TR-POT-XX-IMP-IIII-COS-III_S-C_RIC-942_C-_Rome-166-AD_xxxxxxx_axis-h_mm_21,xxg-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1176, Rome, AE-As, TR P XXX IMP VIII COS III, Clasped hands holding caduceus and two corn-ears, Scarce!77 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1176, Rome, AE-As, TR P XXX IMP VIII COS III, Clasped hands holding caduceus and two corn-ears, Scarce!
avers:- M-ANTONINVS-AVG-GERM-SARM, Laureate head left.
revers:- TR-P-XXX-IMP-VIII-COS-III, Clasped hands holding caduceus and two corn-ears, S-C in exergue.
exerg: -/-//S-C, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 10,59g, axis:0h,
mint: Rome, date:175-76 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1176, p-305, C-940, Sear-, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Marc_Aurelius_AE-Dvp_M-ANTONINVS-AVG-GERM-SARM-TRP-XXXI_VICT-AVG-TR-POT-XX-IMP-IIII-COS-III_S-C_RIC-942_C-_Rome-166-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_21,xxga-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1186, Rome, AE-Dupondius, IMP-VIII-COS-III•P•P•, Trophy, at base a seated Sarmatian woman and man, S-C/ DE SARM, Rare !!!142 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1186, Rome, AE-Dupondius, IMP-VIII-COS-III•P•P•, Trophy, at base a seated Sarmatian woman and man, S-C/ DE SARM, Rare !!!
Sarmatian victory commemoration for Marcus Aurelius.
avers:- M-ANTONINVS-AVG-GERM-SARM-TRP-XXXI, Radiate head right.
revers:- IMP-VIII-COS-III•P•P•, Trophy, at base a seated Sarmatian woman and man, S-C across the field, DE SARM in exergue.
exerg: S/C//DE SARM, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 10,10g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:176-77 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1186, p-306, C-168, Sear-, Rare!!!,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Gallienus2.JPG
038 - Gallienus (253-268), Antoninianus - RIC 18(J)43 viewsObv: GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: GERMANICVS MAX V, two captives seated back-to-back flanking the foot of a trophy of captured arms, their arms tied behind their backs.
Minted in Cologne, 258-259 AD
Ca 20 mm in diam; 3,1 g.
1 commentspierre_p77
RI_039i_img.jpg
039 - Trajan Denarius - RIC 01719 viewsObv:– IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right
Rev:– PONT MAX TR POT COS II, Pax standing left with branch and cornucopia
Minted in Rome. A.D. 98-99.
Reference:– BMCRE 14ff. RIC II 13.

An interesting coin from the first issue.
maridvnvm
RI 039d img.jpg
039 - Trajan denarius - RIC 05233 viewsObv:– IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P COS IIII P P, Mars walking right holding trophy and spear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 98-111
Reference(s) – BMC 94. Strack 41. RIC 52. RSC 228.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 039c img.jpg
039 - Trajan Denarius - RIC 05867 viewsObv:– IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P COS IIII P P, Victory standing left holding patera and palm
Reference RIC 58
maridvnvm
RI_039j_img.jpg
039 - Trajan denarius - RIC 33215 viewsObv:– IMP CAES NER TRAIAN OPTIM AVG GERM DAC, laureate & draped bust right
Rev:– PARTHICO P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Felicitas standing left with caduceus & cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 116
Reference:– BMCRE 626. RIC II 332. RSC 191
maridvnvm
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04 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - 'Venus Victrix'120 viewsCaracalla AR Antoninianus.

obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing holding victory and sceptre, shield by her side.

5.2 grams - 26mm.

*Notes: Well struck and well centered coin on a very large flan.
Take a look at the detail on the
shield Venus is standing next to on the reverse.
4 commentsrexesq
caracalla_AD214_AR-antoninianus_venus-victrix_bust-close.JPG
04 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Frontal bust close40 viewsCaracalla AR Antoninianus.

obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from front.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing holding victory and sceptre, shield by her side.
5.2 grams.
rexesq
D717sm.jpg
04 Diva Julia Titi RIC 76035 viewsÆ Sestertius, 24.33g
Rome mint, 92-94 AD (Domitian)
Obv: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F above; S P Q R in exergue; Carpentum drawn r. by two mules
Rev: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P; S C, large, in centre
RIC 760 (R). BMC 471. BNC 502.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2020. Ex Agora Auctions Sale 84, 4 September 2019, lot 187. Ex CNG E314, 6 November 2013, lot 364.

Titus' daughter Julia Titi was granted the title Augusta sometime in 80 or 81 during his reign. After Titus' death she lived with her uncle Domitian at the imperial residence. In 90 or 91 AD she died and was deified by Domitian, this was commemorated on the coinage. The ancient sources are quick to malign her reputation in the name of smearing Domitian. It is said she had an ongoing affair with Domitian and became pregnant. She then was forced by Domitian to abort the baby and died during the attempted abortion sometime in 90 or 91. The Flavian historian Brian Jones has called the supposed affair between Domitian and his niece Julia (some ten or eleven years his junior) and the subsequent forced abortion which killed her as "implausible" and "nonsense". Further he wrote "Scholars seem not to have stressed one of the most significant factors in assessing the rumour's accuracy - Martial's epigram 6.3, written not long after Julia's death and deification. In it, he expresses the hope that Domitian will produce a son, implies that the baby's name will be Julius (6.3.1) and states that (the now deified) Julia will be able to watch over him (6.3.5). Martial was neither a hero or a fool. Had there been the slightest hint of an affair between emperor and niece, he would hardly have written those lines; had Julia's recent death been caused by an abortion forced on her by Domitian, would Martial have so far neglected the bounds of 'safe criticism' and common sense as to humiliate Domitia publicly, urging her to become pregnant, to give the child a name reminiscent of her husband's mistress and finally to remember that same mistress, now dead and deified (thanks to her husband), would be able to protect the child?" No doubt, the Diva coins testify that Domitian felt great affection towards his niece, however, there is no evidence that they had an illicit love affair. The incestuous rumour was spread after Domitian's death.

This sestertius struck for Diva Julia Titi between 92 and 94 copies an early carpentum and mules type struck under Tiberius for Diva Livia and another under Titus struck for her grandmother Domitilla. It is the second issue of this type struck under Domitian and is slightly rarer than the earlier one produced in 90-91. In the early empire the carpentum was granted to ladies of the imperial house by the Senate as an imperial honour. It was frequently used to convey an image of the deceased Divae and to symbolise the event on the coinage. The style of the Diva Julia Titi sestertii are so similar to those of the earlier Memoriae Domitilla sestertii that the RIC authors speculate a few of the older Domitilla dies were recut for Julia's issues (p. 317, note). It's astonishing to think that the mint still had access to dies that were nearly a decade old and were able to re-use them for a new issue!

Dark brassy tone with some minor pitting.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
gaius_RIC_I_14.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 014122 viewsGaius (Caligula). 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 37-38 A.D. (3.55g, 19.1m, 5h). Obv: [C CAE]SAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, laureate head right. Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, Agrippina, bust, draped right, hair falling in queue down her neck. RIC I 14 (R), RSC 2. Ex personal collection Steve McBride.

Agrippina “the elder” was Gaius’ mother. Falsely accused of wrongdoing by Tiberius, Agrippina was exiled and died of starvation, whether self-imposed or at the orders of Tiberius, is not clear. Upon ascending the throne, Gaius, recovered his mother’s ashes, and restored her name. This coin commemorates the veneration of his mother.
10 commentsLucas H
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2224 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
caligulacombinedhorizmargin.jpg
04. CALIGULA26 views37 - 41 AD
Struck Ca 37/38 AD
AE As
O C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT Barehead left, dated TR POT
R: VESTA S C Vesta seated left, pouring from a patera
Rome RIC 38
laney
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
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041 Germanicus17 viewsGermanicus, Caesar
Died 10 Oct 19 A.D.

Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C

Fair, 8.138g, 27.4mm, 180*, Rome min, 42 A.D., S 1905, RIC 106, BMC 215 ex Forvm ex Bill D.

"Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor, but died of and unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula ontain the throne after Tiberius died."

-----

"Such virtuous conduct brought Germanicus rich rewards. He was so deeply respected and loved by all his kindred that Augustus - I need hardly mention his other relatives - wondered for a long time wether to make him his successor, but at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him."
Randygeki(h2)
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
Domitian-RIC-109.jpg
041. Domitian.29 viewsDenarius, 88 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP VII / Laureate bust of Domitian.
Reverse: IMP XIIII COS XIIII CENS PP P / Minerva standing, holding thunderbolts and spear, shield at her feet.
3.13 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #109.
1 commentsCallimachus
Commodus_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-L-AVREL-COMMODVS-GERM-SARM_TR-POT-II-COS_RIC-626-Marc_Aur_Rome_177AD_Q-001_axis-11h_17,5-18mm_3,04g-s~0.jpg
041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0626 (M.Aurel.), Rome, AR-denarius, TR POT II COS, Salus standing left,302 views041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0626 (M.Aurel.), Rome, AR-denarius, TR POT II COS, Salus standing left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-L-AVREL-COMMODVS-GERM-SARM, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:- TR-POT-II-COS, Salus standing left, feeding serpent held in arms, & holding staff.
exrg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18 mm, weight: 3,04 g, axis: 11 h ,
mint: Rome, date: 177 A.D., ref: RIC-III-626 (Marc.Aurel.), p-264,
Q-001
quadrans
Commodus_AR-Den_L-AVREL-COM-MODVS-AVG_TR-P-IIII-IMP-III-COS-II-P-P_RIC-III-661v-p-267-Marc_Aur_Rome_179_AD_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5-19mm_3,54g-s.jpg
041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0661var. (M.Aurel.), Rome, AR-denarius, TR P IIII IMP III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left,375 views041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0661var. (M.Aurel.), Rome, AR-denarius, TR P IIII IMP III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-L-AVREL-COMMODVS-GERM-SARM, Laureate cuirassed (!) bust right, seen from the back.
revers:- TR-P-IIII-IMP-III-COS-II-P-P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair.
exerg: , diameter: 18,5-19 mm, weight: 3,54 g, axis: 6 h ,
mint: Rome, date: 179 A.D., ref: RIC-III-661var. (Marc.Aurel), p-267, Cuirassed bust !,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Commodus_AE-As_COMMODO-CAES-AVG-FIL-GERM-SARM_SPES-PVBLICA_S-C_R_RIC-M-Aur-1544_C-710_Q-001_axis-5h_24-25mm_9,70g-s.jpg
041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1544 (M.Aurel.), Rome, AE-As, SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, Scarce!,103 views041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1544 (M.Aurel.), Rome, AE-As, SPES PVBLICA, Spes advancing left, Scarce!,
avers:- COMMODO-CAES-AVG-FIL-GERM-SARM, Bare headed, draped right.
revers:- SPES-PVBLICA, S-C, Spes advancing left, holding flower and rising skirts.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24-25 mm, weight: 9,70 g, axis: 5 h,
mint: Rome, date: 175-176 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1544, p-336, (Marc. Aurelius), C-710,
Q-001
quadrans
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042 Nero Claudius Drusus26 viewsNero Claudius Drusus AE Sestertius. NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head left / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.




"When, three months after her marriage to Augustus, Livia gave birth to Decimus (later Nero) Drusus - the father of the future Emperor Claudius - people naturally suspected that he was the product of adultry with his stepfather."
Randygeki(h2)
IMG_3958~0.jpg
042. Domitian (81-96 A.D.)42 viewsAv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PER P P
Rv.: IOVI VICTORI
Ex.: SC

AE Sestertius Ø35-36! / 27.8g!
RIC 527 Rome (old RIC II 342a)
Juancho
IMG_4158~0.jpg
047. Trajan (98-117 A.D.)18 viewsAv.: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M
Rv.: TR POT COS IIII P P
Ex.: SC

AE Sestertius Ø34 / 23.5g
RIC II 431 Rome, Cohen 637 var. (head right)
Juancho
48d.jpg
048d Caracalla. AR antoninianus14 viewsobv: ANTONINIVS PIVS AVG GERM radiate drp. cuir. bust r
rev: VENVS VICTRIX Venus std. l. holding victory and spear,
leaning on shield set in helmet
hill132
caracalla_silver-ant_serapis_pmtrp-xviiii-cos-iiii-pp_001.jpg
05 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Serapis 'P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP'59 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (AD 198 - 217)
Silver Antoninianus (double denarius) Rome Mint

obv: ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped. Seen from behind.

rev: P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP - Serapis standing with raised hand and holding a sceptre in other.

5.03 Grams
5 commentsrexesq
caracalla_silver-ant_serapis_pmtrp-xviiii-cos-iiii-pp_obv_03_rev_04.JPG
05 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Serapis 'P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP' .29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (AD 198 - 217)
Silver Antoninianus (double denarius) Rome Mint

obv: ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped. Seen from behind.

rev: P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP - Serapis standing with raised hand and holding a sceptre in other.

5.03 Grams

**Slightly off color due to new lighting setup**
rexesq
caracalla_silver-ant_serapis_pmtrp-xviiii-cos-iiii-pp_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
05 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Serapis 'P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP' .44 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (AD 198 - 217)
Silver Antoninianus (double denarius) Rome Mint

obv: ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped. Seen from behind.

rev: P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP - Serapis standing with raised hand and holding a sceptre in other.

5.03 Grams

**Slightly off color due to new lighting setup**
1 commentsrexesq
caracalla_silver-ant_serapis_pmtrp-xviiii-cos-iiii-pp_25c_obv_02.jpg
05 - Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Serapis 'P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII PP' . US Quarter.28 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (AD 198 - 217)
Silver Antoninianus (double denarius) Rome Mint

obv: ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped. Seen from behind.

rev: P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP - Serapis standing with raised hand and holding a sceptre in other.

5.03 Grams

**Slightly off color due to new lighting setup**
rexesq
RI_051y_img.jpg
051 - Marcus Aurelius Denarius - RIC II Marcus Aurelius 29113 viewsObv:– M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVIII, Laureate, cuirassed bust right (Seen from rear)
Rev:– IMP VI COS III, Trophy of arms, German captive at foot, teo curved swords to right
Minted in Rome. Dec. A.D. 173 – Jun. 174
Reference:– BM 599. RIC II Marcus Aurelius 291
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_051t_img.jpg
051 - Marcus Aurelius Sestertius - RIC III 107826 viewsObv:– M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII, laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder
Rev:– RESTITVTORI ITALIAE IMP VI COS III / S C, Aurelius standing left holding sceptre and raising kneeling figure of Italia who holds a globe
Minted in Rome mint. Dec. A.D. 172 - Dec. A.D. 173
Reference:– BMCRE 1449 note (light drapery). RIC III 1078. Both cite Bement Coll. 1031 (rated Scarce).

Commemorating the successes of the Quadic war on the northern edges of Italy with the Germans.

27.27g, 34.27mm, 180o
maridvnvm
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-IV-I-240-p-246_C-239_Rome_214-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_18-18,5mm_3,57g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 240, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Jupiter standing left, #1109 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 240, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Jupiter standing left, #1
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, eagle to left at foot.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 3,57g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 214 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-240, p-246, C-239,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Denar_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVII-COS-IIII-P-P_Roma-RIC-240_RSC-239_AD_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,23g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 240, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Jupiter standing left, #265 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 240, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Jupiter standing left, #2
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter, eagle to left at foot.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,23g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 214 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-240, p-246, C-239,
Q-002
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Denar_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_Roma-RIC-251_RSC-302_215-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-19,5mm_2,77-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 251, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Aesculapius standing front, #185 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 251, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Aesculapius standing front, #1
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Aesculapius standing front, head left, leaning on serpent-entwined staff left.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,77g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-251, p-248, C-302, BMC-103,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-IV-I-254-p-248_C-282_Rome_215-AD_Scarce_Q-001_0h_18,5-19mm_3,21g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 254, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Apollo standing left, #1153 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 254, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Apollo standing left, #1
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on column.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: 01h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-254, p-248, C-282,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-IV-I-254-p-248_C-282_Rome_215-AD_Scarce_Q-002_6h_18,5-19mm_3,30ga-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 254, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Apollo standing left, #2300 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 254, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Apollo standing left, #2
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Apollo standing left, holding branch and lyre on column.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 3,30g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-254, p-248, C-282,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-260b_Roma_215-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_23mm_4,69g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #1180 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #1
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter seated left holding Victory and sceptre at his feet eagle.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,69g, axis:- 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-260v, p-249,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC_IV_260b(v)_Hill_1519__RSC_277_Roma_215-AD_Q-002_h_mm_g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #276 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 260v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter seated left, #2
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter seated left holding Victory and sceptre at his feet eagle.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,53g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-260v, p-249, Hill-1519, RSC-277b
Q-002
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC_261c,_RSC_299a,_BMC_124_Roma_216-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 261c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis/Pluto seated left, #177 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 261c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis/Pluto seated left, #1
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Serapis/Pluto seated left wearing polos, holding scepter, and reaching toward three-headed dog Cerberus seated to left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,33g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-261c, RSC-299a, BMC-124
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-263_Q-001_23mm_4_90g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 263, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, #0180 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 263, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, #01
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Serapis standing, facing, raising hand and holding scepter.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,90g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-263, p-250, C-295-6,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-263_Q-002_24mm_5_14g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 263, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, #0272 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 263, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, #02
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Serapis standing, facing, raising hand and holding scepter.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 5,14g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-263, p-250, C-295-6,
Q-002
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-264c_Q-001_24mm_4_85g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #0177 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #01
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 4,85g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-264c_Roma_215-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #01148 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #01
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axis:- 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-264c_Q-002_24mm_4_51g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #0269 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #02
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 4,51g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-002
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-264c_Q-003_24mm_4_96g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #0374 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #03
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 4,96g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-003
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-264c_Q-004_24mm_4_02g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #0475 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #04
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 4,02g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-004
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_215_Roma-RIC-264c_Q-005_24mm_3_74g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #0567 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 264c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol, #05
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol standing, facing, raising hand and holding globe.(Double strike!).
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 3,74g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-264c, p-250,
Q-005
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-IV-I-267-p-251_C-316_Rome_215-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18-19mm_1,83g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 267, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Fides standing left, 99 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 267, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Fides standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Fides standing left, between two standards.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 1,83g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-267, p-251, C-316,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIIII-COS-IIII-P-P_216_Roma-RIC-275b_Q-001_23mm_4_22g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 275b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter Standing, Scarce!,91 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 275b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter Standing, Scarce!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Jupiter standing, facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,22g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 215-216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-275b, p-252,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P_217_Roma-RIC-289d_Q-001_23mm_5_08g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 289d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing left, Scarce!,83 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 289d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing left, Scarce!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P, Serapis, wearing polos on head, standing left, holding corn-ears, in wreath and sceptre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 5,08g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-289d, p-255,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P_217_Roma-RIC-xxxx_Q-001_23mm_4_79g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #0187 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #01
avers:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from the back.
revers:- P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left, raising right hand and holding the whip.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,79g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-293e, p-256, RSC-390,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_293e_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_P_M_TR_P_XX_COS_IIII_P_P,_RSC_390,_Roma,_217_AD,_Q-003,_6h,_21,5-23,0mm,_4_74g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #03135 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left with the whip, #03
avers:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from the back.
revers:- P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing left, raising right hand and holding the whip.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21,5-23,0mm, weight: 4,74g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-293e, p-256, RSC-390,
Q-003
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P_217_Roma-RIC-xxxx_Q-002_23-24mm_4_79g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol with whip, #0271 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 293e, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol with whip, #02
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P, Sol radiate, standing left, raising right .
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23-24mm, weight: 4,79g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-293e, p-256, C-390,
Q-002
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_300_AR-Den,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_INDVLGENTIAE_AVG,_RSC-103,_BMC-68,_Rome,_213_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18-19,5mm,_3,03g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 300, Rome, AR-Denarius, INDVLGENTIAE AVG, Indulgentia seated left,120 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 300, Rome, AR-Denarius, INDVLGENTIAE AVG, Indulgentia seated left,
avers:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- INDVLGENTIAE AVG, Indulgentia seated left holding patera and scepter.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 213 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-300, p-, RSC-103, BMC-68,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII_RIC-302_C-139_Rome-213-17_AD_Q-001_axis-h_19mm_3,06g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, 123 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-302, p-258, C-139,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
051_Caracalla,_RIC_IV-I_307,_Rome,_AR-Den,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_MARTI_PROPVGNATORI,_213_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17,5-18,5mm,_2,14g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 307, Rome, AR-Denarius, MARTI PRO PVGNATORI, Mars advancing left, Scarce! #1138 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 307, Rome, AR-Denarius, MARTI PRO PVGNATORI, Mars advancing left, Scarce! #1
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right.
reverse: MARTI PROPVG NATORI, Mars advancing left, holding spear and trophy.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,14g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 307, p-258, RSC 152, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_310,_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_VENERI_VICTRICI_,_Rome_215,_AD__Q-001,_0h,_mm,_g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 310, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, Scarce! #186 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 310, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, Scarce! #1
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, and cuirassed bust right seen half from the back.
reverse: VENERI VICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding Victory and sceptre, leaning on shield set on helmet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,8-23,0mm, weight: 5,64g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 310, RSC
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_VENVS-VICTRIX_RIC-IV-I-311b-p-_C-606_Rome_216-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_20,5mm_3,28g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311b, Rome, AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,347 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311b, Rome, AR-Denarius, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- VENVS-VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear with shield.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 216 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-311b, p-, C-606,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_311d,_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_VENVS_VICTRIX,_RSC_608c,_BMC_80cf,_Rome_213-17-AD_Q-001_6h_22,5-25,0mm_5,75g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,144 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311d, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate and draped bust right, seen half from back.
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter, leaning on shield set on helmet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-25,0mm, weight: 5,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-317 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-311d, RSC 608c, BMC 80cf,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Caracalla,_RIC_IV-I_311v(bust-not_in),_AR-Ant,_ANTONINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_VENVS_VICTRIX,_312-17_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_22,8-23mm,_5,64g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,164 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 311v, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, and cuirassed bust right seen half from the back.
reverse: VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter, leaning on shield set on helmet.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,8-23,0mm, weight: 5,64g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-317 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 311v, RSC 608a-c, var.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_VENVS-VICTRIX_216_Roma-RIC-312c_Q-001_23mm_5_02g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 312c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,86 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 312c, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from back.
revers:- VENVS-VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding helmet and scepter with shield; seated captive on either side.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 5,02g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-312c, p-259,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_VICT-PARTHICA_VO_XX_RIC-IV-I-314_p-_C-656b_Rome_208-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_19-19,5mm_3,11g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 314, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICT PARTHICA, VO/XX, Victory seated right, Scarce!,68 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 314, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICT PARTHICA, VO/XX, Victory seated right, Scarce!,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- VICT-PARTHICA_VO/XX, Victory seated right on cuirass, holding shield inscribed VO/XX on knee, shield behind her.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19-19,5 mm, weight: 3,11g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I 314a note, p-, C-656b, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AE-As_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVII-IMP-III-COS-IIII-P-P_S-C_RIC-IV-I-532b-p-_C-260_Rome_214-AD_Scarce_Q-001_0h_25,5mm_12,44ga-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 532b, Rome, AE-As, P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P, Mars in military dress, standing left, Scarce!69 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 532b, Rome, AE-As, P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P, Mars in military dress, standing left, Scarce!
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate, draped cuirassed bust right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVII-IMP-III-COS-IIII-P-P, Mars in military dress, standing left, foot on helmet, holding branch and inverted spear.
exe: S/C//--, diameter:25,5 mm, weight: 12,44g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 214 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-532b, p-, C-260, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AE-As_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P_S-C_RIC-IV-I-554a-p-_C-_Rome_215-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-0h_xx8mm_x,xxg-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 554a, Rome, AE-As, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Aesculapius standing facing, Scarce!107 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 554a, Rome, AE-As, P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Aesculapius standing facing, Scarce!
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XVIII-COS-IIII-P-P, Aesculapius standing facing, holding serpent-entwined staff, Telesphorus at foot left, globe at foot right.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 215 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-554a, p-, C-, Scarce!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AE-As_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P_S-C_RIC-IV-I-571a-p-307_C-_Rome_214-17-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-0h_xx8mm_x,xxga-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 571a, Rome, AE-As, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Radiate lion walking left, Scarce!112 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 571a, Rome, AE-As, P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Radiate lion walking left, Scarce!
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XX-COS-IIII-P-P, Radiate lion walking left with thunderbolt in its jaws.
exe: -/-//S-C, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 214-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-571a, p-, C-, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_TEMPORVM-FELICITAS_Roma-RIC-_Q-001_21-22mm_5_02g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I Not in, Caracalla and Ellagabal (plated) fouree Antoninianus contemporary hybrid imitation,83 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I Not in, Caracalla and Ellagabal (plated) fouree Antoninianus contemporary hybrid imitation,
"It's a fourree, and it's a contemporary imitation."- by Robert Brenchley- many thanks
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Caracalla (198 - 217), Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right 215? (Rome).
revers:- TEMPORVM-FELICITAS, Ellagaball (218 - 222), Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. 219-220 (Rome).
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 5,02g, axis: -h,
mint: ???, date: ??? , ref: ???,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Geta_AR-Den_P-SEPT-GETA-PIVS-AVG-GERM_VICTORIAE-BRIT_RIC-92_C-219_Roma-210-212-AD__Scarce_Q-001_19mm_3,23g-s.jpg
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 092, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIAE BRIT, Scarce,234 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 092, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIAE BRIT, Scarce,
avers:- P-SEPT-GETA-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-BRIT, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,23g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 210-212 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-92, p-327, C-219,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_1kr,_1758,_U-1298a_H-1821_K-B_Q-001_0h_15,0mm_0,75g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01112 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I• S•A•GE•IER•REX•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN TE DOMINE• -1- SPERAVI •1758•, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "1" below, border of dots.
diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//1, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1758 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1298a/1758, Huszar 1821/1758,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_3kr,_1765,_U-1296a_H-1815_K-B_Q-001_0h_20,0mm_1,67g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01111 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -3- SPERAVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "3" below; border of dots.
diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 1,67g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//3, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1296a/1765, Huszar 1815/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_XVIIkr,_1765,_U-1291b_H-1803_K-B_Q-001_0h_28,0mm_5,92g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01107 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -XVII- SPER AVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value XVII below; border of dots.
diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 5,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//XVII, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1291b/1765, Huszar 1803/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
AS_Caligula_VESTA_RIC_38.jpg
06-01 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)119 viewsAE AS 26,25 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_38_AS_Caligula.jpg
06-10 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)20 viewsAE AS 26,25 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
mdelvalle
RIC_38_AS_Caligula_1.jpg
06-11 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 28.0 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
mdelvalle
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-IIII-COS-P-P_S-C_RIC-IV-40_C-71_Rome-236-8-AD_Q-001_0h_29-30mm_19,40g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 040, Rome, AE-Sestertius, P M TR P IIII COS P P, Maximinus standing left, #184 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 040, Rome, AE-Sestertius, P M TR P IIII COS P P, Maximinus standing left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: P M TR P IIII COS P P, Maximinus standing left, right hand raised, holding the spear in left; two standards behind to the left, one right.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29-30mm, weight: 19,40g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 40, p-, C 71, BMC 221,
Q-001
quadrans
065_Maximinus_I,_RIC_II_081,_AE-Sest,_MAXIMINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_PAX_AVGVSTI,_S-C,_Cohen_38,_BMC_148,_Rome,_236-8,_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_29,5-30mm,_23,83g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 081, Rome, AE-Sestertius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #167 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 081, Rome, AE-Sestertius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left with branch and scepter, S-C on each side.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,5-30,0mm, weight: 23,83g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 81, p-, C 38, BMC 148,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_SALVS-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-IV-85_C-92_Rome-236-8-AD_001_Q-001_axis-1h_29-31mm_17,97g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #1136 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 29,0-31,0mm, weight: 17,97g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 85, p-, C 92,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_SALVS-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-IV-85_C-92_Rome-236-8-AD_Q-002_0h_29-30,5mm_24,15g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #269 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #2
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 29,0-30,5mm, weight: 24,15g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 85, p-, C 92,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_VICTORIA-GERMANICA_S-C_RIC_90,_Cohen_109,_BMC_191_Rome-236-8-AD_001_Q-001_0h_29-30mm_18,08g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 090, Rome, AE-Sestertius, VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left, #169 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 090, Rome, AE-Sestertius, VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left with wreath and palm, captive seated before.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,0-30,0mm, weight: 18,08g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 90, p-, C 109, BMC 191,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_066bj_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla - RIC 53433 viewsAE As
Obv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P / S - C, Victory standing left, holding trophy; suppliant kneeling at feet
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– Cohen 268. BMC 254. Hill 1347. RIC 534
maridvnvm
RI_066bu_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Ae As - RIC 532b24 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P - S C, Mars, helmeted in military dress, cloak over left arm, standing front, head left, right knee slightly bent, holding branch raised in right hand and vertical spear in left hand. Items on ground. I cannot really make them out but at magnification they look like helmet on left, cuirass between legs and spear resting on shield.

This seems to generally match RIC 532b, which cites Cohen 260. RIC 532a is the same reverse type with a Laureate head right. BMCRE does not include this type with this bust but does include the type in the notes to BMCRE 268. BMCRE 268, which is the Laureate head type is described as right foot on helmet with cuirass? to right.
maridvnvm
RI 066z img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Antoninianus - RIC 264b46 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Sol radiate, standing front, head left, raising right hand and holding sceptre
Minted in Rome. A.D. 215.
Reference:– Van Meter 4/3. RIC 264b. RSC 287b.
A bit scrappy.

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 066ab img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Antoninianus - RIC 289f65 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, draped cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis, wearing modius on head, standing facing, head left, holding patera and sceptre.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 217
Reference:– RIC 289f. RSC 383.
Evidence of die clogging on the T in the reverse legend, otherwise a nice coin.

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 066bc img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Antoninianus - RIC 313 var (unlisted, probably in error)68 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, cuirassed bust right, seen half from the back
Rev:– VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear, shield at side
Minted in Rome circa A.D. 215
Reference:– RIC 311 var (Unlisted in RIC with Cuirassed bust, probably in error)
A nice example of one of the earliest of the Ants. produced by Caracalla.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_066bk_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Antoninianus - RIC IV 293e8 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol standing left, raising right hand and holding whip in left
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 293e.
maridvnvm
RI 066l img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 238a19 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Apollo seated left, holding branch and leaning on lyre
Minted in Rome. A.D. 213.
Reference:– RIC 238a. RCV02 6831. RSC 242.
maridvnvm
RI 066i img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 24035 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P, Jupiter, naked, but for cloak on shoulder, standing half left holding thunderbolt and long sceptre, eagle at feet
Minted in Rome. A.D. 214.
Reference:– RIC 240. RCV02 6832. RSC 239.
maridvnvm
RI 066ba img~0.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 251238 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Aesculapius standing front, head left, with serpent-entwined wand; globe on ground at right
Minted in Rome, A.D. 215
References:– BMCRE 103, RIC 251, RSC 302
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 066ac img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 25135 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right
Rev:- P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Aesculapius standing front, head left, holding serpent-entwined wand; globe on ground, right
Minted in Rome. A.D. 215
Reference:– RIC 251. RSC 302

SOLD
maridvnvm
RI 066ba img~1.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 251 (New Image)25 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Aesculapius standing front, head left, with serpent-entwined wand; globe on ground at right
Minted in Rome, A.D. 215
References:– BMCRE 103, RIC 251, RSC 302

Updated image
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 066p img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 25432 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Apollo standing left, holding branch and leaning on lyre.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 215.
Reference:– RIC 254. RCV02 6835. RSC 282.
maridvnvm
RI 066aq img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 258c (Fouree)30 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right
Rev:– P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter standing right holding thunderbolt & scepter
Reference:– RIC 258c
maridvnvm
RI 066u img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 275a35 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter, naked, standing front, head left, with thunderbolt & scepter.
Reference:– RIC 275a. RSC 337
maridvnvm
RI 066b img~0.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 293d136 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Sol standing left, holding right hand up in salute and whip
Minted in Rome, A.D. 217
References:– VM 6/5, RIC 293d (Common), RCV02 6846, RSC 389
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 066r img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 30218 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 214.
Reference:– RIC 302. RCV02 6814. RSC 139.
maridvnvm
RI 066q img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 30740 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Mars walking left, holding trophy and shield.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 213.
Reference:– RIC 307. RSC 152.
maridvnvm
RI 066az img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 311b43 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate bust right,
Rev:– VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding Victory, shield and spear, a helmet at feet
Minted in Rome, A.D. 213 - 217
References:- VM 97/1, RIC 311b (Common), RCV02 6890, RSC 606
1 commentsmaridvnvm
067_Maximus,_(235-238_A_D__as_Caesar),_AE-Sest_,_MAXIMVS_CAES_GERM,_PRINCIPI_IVVENTVTIS,_S-C,_Rome,_BMCRE_213_,_RIC_13_,_235-38_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_29-30mm,_18,73g-s.jpg
067 Maximus (235-238 A.D. as Caesar), RIC IV 13, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, #170 views067 Maximus (235-238 A.D. as Caesar), RIC IV 13, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, #1
avers: MAXIMVS CAES GERM, Bare, draped bust right.
reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, holding short scepter and transverse spear, two standards behind.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,0-30,0mm, weight: 18,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 235-238 AD., ref: RIC IV 13, BMCRE 213, Cohen 14, BMC 213, RCTV 8411,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Commodus-RIC-617.jpg
067. Commodus.14 viewsDenarius, 175-176 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM / Bust of Commodus.
Reverse: PRINC IVVENT / Commodus standing, holding sceptre and branch. Trophy at right.
3.52 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #617; Sear #5547.

Commodus is shown on this coin as an adolescent of about 14 or 15 years of age. The trophy refers to a victory over the Sarmatians about September 175. This victory resulted in the assumption of the title Sarmaticus by both Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.
Callimachus
AS GERMANICO RIC 35.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)62 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
RIC_35_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)12 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
AS_Germanico_1.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)73 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
RIC_43v_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)13 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
IMG_5083.JPG
076. Caracalla (211-217 A.D.)22 viewsAv.: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Rv.: P M TR P XX - C-OS IIII P P

AR Antoninianus Ø22 / 3,8g
RIC IV 289f Rome, Cohen 383
Juancho
vitellius.jpg
08 Vitellius57 viewsDenarius. A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right / CONCORDIA P R, Concordia seated left with patera & cornucopiae. RIC 73. Weight 3.28 g. Die Axis 6 hr.1 commentsmix_val
08_Vitellius_RIC_107Black.jpg
08 Vitellius RIC 10782 viewsVitellius 69 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Late April-20 December 69 A.D. (3,3 gr, 18 mm) Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP TR P, Laureate head right. Rev: PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right with patera and sceptre.

RIC 107; RSC 72; BMC 34.

Ex: Gitbud & Naumann
1 commentsPaddy
AGRIPPINA.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)91 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_102_Sestercio_Agripina_Sr_.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)15 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
mdelvalle
RI_080h_img.jpg
080 - Maximiminus Thrax, Denarius - RIC 02117 viewsObv:– MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 21. RSC 91
maridvnvm
RI_080e_img.jpg
080 - Maximiminus Thrax, Denarius - RIC 02329 viewsObv:– MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm; captive at feet
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– BMC 186. RIC 23. RSC 107.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_080i_img.jpg
080 - Maximinus Thrax denarius - RIC 02033 viewsObv:– MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left with baton over a globe & cornucopiae
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 20.
maridvnvm
IMG_2805.JPG
080 Vitellius 66 viewsVitellius Denarius.
Weight: 3.30 g
Diameter: 18.50 mm
A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing holding pileus and long rod. RIC I 81, RSC 48
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Caracalla-RIC-275b.jpg
085. Caracalla.7 viewsAntoninianus, 216 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM / Radiate bust of Caracalla.
Reverse: PM TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P / Jupiter standing, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
4.75 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #275b; Sear #6775.
Callimachus
Caracalla-RIC-311c.jpg
087. Caracalla.17 viewsAntoninianus, 215-217 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM / Radiate bust of Caracalla.
Reverse: VENVS VICTRIX / Venus standing, holding Victory and spear, leaning on a shield set on a helmet.
4.87 gm., 23.5 mm.
RIC #311c.

The reverse is unusual for an Emperor, and may refer to Caracalla's plan to solve the Parthian problem by marrying the daughter of the Parthian king (RIC Vol. IV, pt, 1, p, 88).
Callimachus
Vitellius_RIC_I_81.jpg
09 01 Vitellius RIC I 8168 viewsVitellius 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Late April-Dec 20, 69 A.D. (2.91g, 18.8mm, 5h). Obv: A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, r. holding pileus, l. scepter. RIC I 81, RSC 48. Ex CNG 258, Lot 367.

In the year of 4 emperors, Vitellius assumed the throne after his German legions proclaimed him emperor, marched on Rome, and murdered Otho. Vitellius only ruled for mere months before Vespasian’s eastern legions arrived and murdered him in turn. He was known for his gluttony. I have a Vitellius denarius, but couldn't help picking up this nice example from a reputable dealer for a reasonable price.
2 commentsLucas H
Vitellius_RIC_I_90.jpg
09 Vitellius RIC I 09093 viewsVitellius Jan. 2-Dec. 20, 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 69 A.D. (3.07g, 19.9m, 6h). Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM I{MP AVG TR P}, laureate head right. Rev: CONCORDIA PR, Concordia seated left holding patera & double cornucopiae. RIC I 90, RSC 18.

Vitellius is described by Suetonius as lazy and self-indulgent, fond of eating and drinking, and an obese glutton, eating banquets four times a day and feasting on rare foods he would send the Roman navy to procure.
2 commentsLucas H
Vitellius_RIC_I_105.jpg
09 Vitellius RIC I 10581 viewsVitellius. Jan. 2-Dec. 20 69 AD. AR Denarius (2.71 g, 17.6m, 5h). Rome mint. Struck circa April-December AD 69. Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing holding pileus & long rod. RIC I 105; RSC 47.

With the same devices as RIC I 81, the difference on this coin is the abbreviated title GERM. Vitellius was commander of the legions in Germania Inferior when the Rhine legions declared him emperor in 69 A.D. He would have resigned as emperor, but was not allowed to do so when Vespasian’s eastern legions marched on Rome, and was ultimately killed and Vespasian was installed as emperor ending the Year of Four Emperors.
Lucas H
vitelliuscombined.jpg
09. VITELLIUS18 views69 AD
AE As
O: A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate bust left
R: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, S-C across field, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand and scepter in left.
Spanish, Tarraco?
RIC I 43-
laney
090_Gallienus_(253-268_A_D_),_AR-Ant_GALLIENVS·P·F·AVG_VICT_GERMANICA_RIC-49f_Lugd,Gobl-08741_Colon_257-258-AD_Q-001_0h_20,5-25,5mm_3,97g-s.jpg
090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 049f, VICT GERMANICA, Victory on globe,145 views090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 049f, VICT GERMANICA, Victory on globe,
avers:- GALLIENVS•P•F•AVG, Radiated, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICT GERMANICA, Victory on globe between two captives.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 20,5-25,5mm, weight: 3,97g, axes: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 257-258 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-49f,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
090_Gallienus_(253-268_A_D_),_AR-Ant_GALLIENVS_P_F_AVG_VICT_GERMANICA_RIC-49j_Lugd,RSC_1063_257-258-AD_Q-002_0h_20,5-22,5mm_3,08g-s.jpg
090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 049j, VICT GERMANICA, Victory on globe, 92 views090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 049j, VICT GERMANICA, Victory on globe,
avers:- GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiated, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICT GERMANICA, Victory on globe between two captives.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 20,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,08g, axes: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 257-258 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 49j, RSC 1063,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_Billon-Ant_IMP-GALLIENVS-P-F-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-V-COS-IIII-P-P_RIC-_C-__-AD_Q-001_6h_21mm_3,35ga-s.jpg
090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 122var. (??? Not in RIC this legend variation), Rome ???, P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Emperor veiled, seated left,85 views090a Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 122var. (??? Not in RIC this legend variation), Rome ???, P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Emperor veiled, seated left,
avers:- IMP GALLIENVS P F AVG GERM, Radiated, draped bust right.
revers:- P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Emperor, veiled, seated left in curule chair, holding globe in right hand and short scepter in left.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,35g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome ???, date: 257-259 ??? A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-122var. (??? Not in RIC this legend variation), p-, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
10900vn.jpg
092-094 AD., Domitian, Rome mint, As, Virtus, RIC 409.115 viewsDomitian, Rome mint, 92-94 AD.,
Æ As (25-27 mm / 10.98 g),
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P , radiate head of Domitian right.
Rev.: VIRTVTI - AVGVSTI / S - C , Virtus standing right, holding spear and parazonium, left foot on helmet.
RIC 409 ; C 658 .

my ancient coin database
3 commentsArminius
IMG_4759.JPG
092. Maximus Caesar (235-238 A.D.)21 viewsAv.: MAXIMVS CAES GERM
Rv.: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS / S-C

AE Sestertius Ø30 / 17.7g
RIC IV 13 Rome, Cohen 14
Juancho
trajan as-victory.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE as - struck 99-100 AD43 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM (laureate head right)
rev: TRPOT COS III PP (Victory walking left, carrying shield inscribed SPQR), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 417, C.628(2frcs), Sear RCV (2000 Edition) #3242
10.49gms, 26mm

This issue was struck under his military operations on the Rhine, or somewhat later when he visited Danubian Provinces before entered Rome.
berserker
trajan dupond RIC411.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 99-100 AD47 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM (radiate head right)
rev: TR POT COS III PP (Abundantia seated left with scepter, on chair formed of two cornuacopiae), S-C in ex
ref: RIC II 411 (C), C.629(2frcs)
12.40gms, 26mm

After cleaning this coin looks like this, a multi-layered brass dupondius.
berserker
trajan den-.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR denarius - struck 98-100 AD43 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM
rev: PM TRP COS II PP (Pax standing left, holding branch & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC6, C209
3.12gms, 19mm
berserker
1Reichspfennig.jpg
1 Reichspfennig13 viewsNazi Germany

1942 AD

Obverse: Deutsches Reich

Reverse: 1 Reichspfennig - F
Pericles J2
10Reichspfennig.jpg
10 Reichspfennig13 viewsNazi Germany

1941 AD

Obverse: Deutsches Reich

Reverse: 10 Reichspfennig - D
Pericles J2
Denario_Claudio_I_y_Agripina_jr.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)75 viewsAR Denario 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_81_Claudio_y_Agripina_Jr_.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO y AGRIPINA Jr. (41 - 54 D.C.)27 viewsAR Denario 20.0 mm 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
1 commentsmdelvalle
coin218.JPG
102. Trajan42 viewsTrajan

Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age."

Denarius. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P COS II P P, Vesta seated left, veiled, holding patera & torch. RSC 203.
1 commentsecoli
coin407.JPG
102. Trajan19 viewsTrajan Æ Quadrans. IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GERM, diademed bust of Hercules right with lion-skin on neck / Boar walking right, SC in ex. RIC 702, Cohen 341. ecoli
726_P_Hadrian_RPC1026.jpg
1026 BITHYNIA Caesarea Germanica Hadrian Ae 33 Zeus standing19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1026; Rec 3

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ СΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front

Rev. ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΗΣ (in field), ΚΕΡ-ΣΟΝ
Zeus standing facing, head l., his r. hand resting on sceptre, his l. on his hip.

23 gr
33 mm
10h
okidoki
751P_Hadrian_RPC1027.jpg
1027 BITHYNIA Caesarea Germanica Hadrian Ae 20 Zeus standing11 viewsReference. Extremely rare
RPC III, 1027/5

Obv. AV TPAIANOC ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC KAIC
Laureate head, cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r. , with paludamentum

Rev. ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑ(Σ) ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΗ(Σ)
Zeus standing facing, head l., holding thunderbolt (?) in his r. hand

6.36 gr
20 mm
2h
okidoki
1062_P_Hadrian_RPC-.jpg
1027B BITHYNIA. Caesarea Germanica. Hadrian Ae 25 Tyche standing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, --;

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΣ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒ.
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑΣ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΗΣ.
Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder

10.45 gr
25 mm
2h
1 commentsokidoki
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Æ trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
RI_107ap_img.jpg
107 - Gallienus - RIC 04912 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICT GERMANICA, Victory walking right on globe, raising wreath in right hand, trophy over left shoulder, two captives below
Minted in Koln.
Reference(s) – Göbl 874l. RIC 49. RSC 1063

3.24 gms, 23.17mm. 180 degrees
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 107a img~0.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus - RIC 01842 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS · P · F · AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GERMANICVS MAX V, Two captives seated at the foot of a trophy, their arms tied behind their backs
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 259
Reference:– Van Meter 316. RIC 018, RSC 308. Gobl 872d
maridvnvm
RI 107f img.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus - RIC 01821 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left bearing spear over shoulder & shield
Rev:– GERMANICVS MAX V, two German captives bound & seated at the foot of a trophy
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 258 - 259
Ref:– Gobl 872m. RIC 18. RSC 311.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Domintian.jpg
11 Domitian46 viewsDenarius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P XII, laureate head right / IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva advancing right with javelin & shield. RSC 280, RIC 171, Sear'88, #897. Weight 3.29 g. Die Axis 6 hr. Max Dia 17.8 mm.mix_val
11_Domitian_RIC_II_721Black.jpg
11 Domitian RIC II 72149 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 90-91 AD. (3,3 g, 15,5 mm) Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P X, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing left with thunderbolt & spear, shield at foot.

RIC II 721; RSC 264; BMC 184.

Ex: Aeternitas Numismatics
1 commentsPaddy
Medio_Asarion_BRITANICO_Smyrna_en_Ionia.jpg
11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)20 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleaños. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
mdelvalle
025~2.JPG
110 Domitian 88 viewsDomitian AE As. 85 AD. IIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS PER PP, laureate bust right, wearing aegis / SALVTI AVGVSTI above and below facade of the altar-enclosure of the Ara Salutis Augusti with detailed double-paneled door & horns above, S-C across fields.

C. 419, RIC 304b? RIC 2 418
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
12_012.JPG
110 Domitian73 viewsDomitian A.D. 81-96
AR Denarius

Domitian Denarius. 92 AD.

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XI, laureate head right,

IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, holding spear.

RSC 271 RIC 733 ex W. Phillips

Jan - Sept 92
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG_VICTOR-IA-GERM_R-thunderbolt-A_Bust-F_RIC-220-p-41_Rome-6th-emission_281-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_20,5-22mm_3,25g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #166 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #1
avers:- IMP PROB VS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- VICTOR IA GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-A, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 220, p-41, C-768, "C",
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PRO-BVS-P-F-AVG-(F)_VICTOR-IA-GERM_R-thuderbolt-A_Bust-F_RIC-220-p-41_Rome-6th-em_281-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21,5-22,5mm_3,76ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #272 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #2
avers:- IMP PROB VS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- VICTOR IA GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-A, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,76g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission of Rome, 281A.D., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 220, p-41, C-773, "C",
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_220,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_PROB_VS_P_F_AVG_(F),_VICTOR_IA_GERM,_R-thunderbolt-A,_p-41,_Rome-6th_em__281-AD__Q-003,_11h,_20,0-21,5mm,_3,38g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #3136 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 220, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #3
avers:- IMP PROB VS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- VICTOR IA GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-A, diameter: 20,0-21,5mm, weight: 3,38g, axes: 11h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission of Rome, 281A.D., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 220, p-41, C-773, "C",
Q-003
quadrans
RIC_222_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG_VICTOR-IA-GERM_R-crescent-A_Bust-F_RIC-222-p-41_Rome-4th-em_1st-off_279-AD_Q-001_0h_21,5-24mm_3,45g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, -/-//R-crescent-A, Trophy between two captives, #1,95 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, -/-//R-crescent-A, Trophy between two captives, #1,
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (6,F)
revers:- VICTOR-IA-GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-crescent-A, diameter: 21,5-24mm, weight: 3,45g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 222, p-41, C-768,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG_VICTOR-IA-GERM_R-dotted-crescent-A_Bust-F_RIC-222-p-41_Rome-4th-emission_279-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_22-22,5mm_3,90g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #1,140 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #1,
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (6,F)
revers:- VICTOR-IA-GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R dot in crescent A, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,90g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 222, p-41, C-768, "C",
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG_VICTOR-IA-GERM_R-dotted-crescent-A_Bust-F_RIC-222-p-41_Rome-4th-emission_279-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_23,5-24mm_4,04g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #2,101 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #2,
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (6,F)
revers:- VICTOR-IA-GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-dotted-crescent-A, diameter: 23,5-24mm, weight: 4,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 222, p-41, C-768, "C",
Q-002
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-AVG-(F)_VICTORIA-GERM_R-wreath-A_RIC-222-p-41_Rome_AD_Q-001_axis-11h_21,5mm_3,95g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #3,73 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 222, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, C, #3,
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- VICTOR-IA-GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-wreath-A, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 222, p-41, C-768, "C",
Q-003
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_PRO-BVS-PF-AVG-(F)_VICTOR-IA-GERM_R-thuderbolt-A_Bust-F_RIC-223-p-41_Rome-6th-em_281-AD_Q-001_0h_21mm_3,06g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 223, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, #1209 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 223, Rome, VICTORIA GERM, Bust-F, Trophy between two captives, #1
avers: PRO-BVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers: VICTOR-IA-GERM, Trophy between two captives.
exerg: -/-//R-thuderbolt-A, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 223, p-41, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Quinar-Silvered_PROBVS-AVG_VIVICTORIA-GERM_RIC-_AD_Q-001_axis-5h_14,5-15,5mm_1,33gx-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Quinar, RIC V-II , VICTORIA GERM, Bust-G, Trophy between two captives. MODERN IMITATION!!!89 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Quinar, RIC V-II , VICTORIA GERM, Bust-G, Trophy between two captives. MODERN IMITATION!!!
avers:- PROBVS-AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. (G).
revers:- VICTORIA-GERM, Trophy between two captives..
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 1,33g, axis-5h,
mint: MODERN IMITATION!!!, date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
1180-1189_Henry_II_Penny_Short-cross.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR Short-cross Penny, Struck 1180 - 1189 at Winchester, England6 viewsObverse: HENRICVS • REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry II holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GOCELM • ON • WIN. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Gocelm, which is a name of Germanic Frankish origin.
Issue type Class 1b
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1344

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' or 'Tealby' coinage was introduced in England. While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when the short-cross penny, a new style coin of much better workmanship, was introduced.

On the night of 14th/15th July 1180 the Winchester mint burnt down, and the fire spread to ‘the greater and better part’ of the city. The production of the new Short Cross coinage had just started earlier in 1180, and Winchester evidently only had one centralized mint building from the beginning of the new coinage. At the time of the fire the mint appears to have had four moneyers (Clement, Gocelm, Henri, and Rodbert), and Short Cross Class Ia2 was in production. After the fire some of the mint’s obverse dies of Classes Ia1 and Ia2 were used at the Wilton mint, apparently as an emergency measure. The coinage of the moneyer Henri ends abruptly at this time and he seems to have been replaced by Adam, whose known issues start in Class Ia2, and at Wilton in Class 1a2 it looks like Osbert replaced Iohan. Osbert continued to issue coins in Winchester after the fire, but he seems to have been regarded as a Wilton moneyer allowed to use the facilities of the Winchester mint. The Winchester coinage of Osbert and three other moneyers (Clement, Reinier, and Rodbert) whose issues end in Class Ib1 was probably restricted to the recoinage of 1180 to 1182. After that only two moneyers remained striking Class Ib2 at Winchester (Adam and Gocelm), and from 1183 to 1184 these moneyers were responsible for a rent of 2 marks each per annum for the use of the mint building.
1 comments*Alex
0010-060np_noir.jpg
1163 - D. Junius L.F. Silanus, As116 viewsAs minted in Rome, 91 BC
No legend, Head of Janus
D SILANVS L F, Prow of galley right
12.08 gr
Ref : RCV # 738

The following comment from : http://www.forumancientcoins.com/historia/historia.htm

"Decimus Junius Silanus was the son of M. Junius Silanus, who commanded the army that was defeated by the Germanic Cimbri in Transalpine Gaul.

Decimus was the stepfather of Marcus Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, having married his mother Servilia. He was elected consul in 63 for the following year ; and in consequence of his being consul designatus, he was first asked for his opinion by Cicero in the debate in the senate on the punishment of the Catilinarian conspirators. He was consul 62, with L. Licinius Morena, along with whom he proposed the Lex Licinia Julia".
Potator II
my_domitian.jpg
12 - Domitian24 viewsDomitian AR Denarius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII, Laureate head right / IMP XIIII COS XIII CENS P P P, Minerva standing left with thunderbolt & spear, shield at foot. RIC 519Holding_History
Domitian_Sear_2371.jpg
12 Domitian Denarius12 viewsDOMITIAN
AR Denarius, Rome 90 AD
3.1g, 20mm

O: DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRPVIIII, Laureate head r.

R: IMP XXI COS XV CENS PPP, Minerva standing l. with spear

Sear 2371v, F+/VG
RI0033
Sosius
RIC_92_Dupondio_Antonia.jpg
12-01 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
Dupondio ANTONIA RIC 92.jpg
12-1 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
domitiancombhoriz.jpg
12. DOMITIAN31 views81 - 96 AD
Struck 86 AD
AE As
29.5 MM 10.4 G
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PER P P, Laureate bust right
R:VIRTVTI AVGVSTI S C, Virtus standing right
RIC II 340
laney
IMG_3832.jpg
130 Trajan32 viewsTRAJAN AR silver denarius Rome, 102.
IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head of Trajan to right.
Reverse - P M TR P COS IIII P P Victory standing facing, head turned to left, holding wreath and palm.
Cohen 240. RIC 58. 18mm, 3.3g.
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_3702.jpg
130 Trajan23 viewsIMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / PM TRP COS III P P, Vesta seated left holding patera and torch. RSC 214. RIC 40
ex Orfew
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.52 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)62 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)71 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
RI 132jk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 219 - Bust type F (Rome) (R*Z)94 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Victory walking right between two captives, holding wreath and trophy
Minted in Rome (R*Z in exe) Emission 3 Officina 7. A.D. 278
Reference(s) – RIC 219 Bust type F (R)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132rx_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 220 - Bust type F (Rome)20 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Trophy between two captives
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt A in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D. 281
Reference(s) – RIC 220 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 132dh img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 220 - Bust type F (Rome) (R Wreath A)40 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Trophy between two captives
Minted in Rome (R Wreath A in exe) Emission 5 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference(s) – RIC 220 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 132on img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 222 - Bust type F (Rome) (R Crescent A)53 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Trophy between two captives
Minted in Rome (R Crescent A in exe) Emission 4 Officina 1. A.D. 279
Reference(s) – RIC 222 Bust type F
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132sa img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 222 var. - Bust type F (Rome) (R Thunderbolt A)24 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Trophy between two captives
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt A in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D. 279
Reference(s) – RIC 222 var. Bust type F (Not listed for this emission in RIC)
maridvnvm
RI 132aq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 223 - Bust type F (Rome) (R Thunderbolt A)108 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Trophy between two captives
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt A in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D. 281
Reference(s) – RIC 223 Bust type F
Weight 4.14 gms
Size 20.83 mm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132sh img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 223 - Bust type F (Rome) (RAA)23 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Trophy between two captives
Minted in Rome (RAA in exe) Emission 7 Officina 1. A.D. 282
Reference(s) – RIC 223 Bust type F

Part of the AEQVITI series of Rome (A)
maridvnvm
antpius as-concordia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD62 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (Concordia standing left, holding Victory and aquila)
ref: RIC III 678, C.140 (2frcs)
10.26gms, 26mm

This reverse symbolises the concord between the emperor and the army. The reign of Antoninus Pius was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, the Moors in Mauretania (AD150), the Jews in Iudaea (for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar, after the Bar Kokhba revolt), the Brigantes in Britannia (AD 140-145, the Antonine Wall being built ca. 40 miles further north), the different Germanic tribes at the Germania limes, the Alans in Dacia (AD158), and had to put down rebellions in the provinces of Achaia and Egypt (AD154).
berserker
AS NERON RIC 312.jpg
14-02 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)80 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 8.9 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C" - Victoria volando a izquierda, portando un escudo ovalado con las letras "SP/QR" inscriptas en el.

Acuñada 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #312 Pag.169 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1976 Pag.391 - BMCRE #241 - Cohen Vol.1 #288 Pag.298 - DVM #32a Pag.87 - CBN #399 - Mac Dowall WCN #285/90
mdelvalle
AS NERON RIC 306_1.jpg
14-04 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)111 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACE P.R. VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVS[IT] - S C" – Templo de los gemelos Jano (Ianus Geminus) mostrando sus puertas dobles cerradas a la derecha y en la pared lateral izquierda una larga ventana enrejada .

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #306 Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1974 Pag.390 - BMCRE #227 - Cohen Vol.1 #171 Pag.290 - DVM #30 Pag.87 - CBN #400 - Mac Dowall WCN #288
mdelvalle
AS NERON RPC 1761.jpg
14-10 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)56 viewsAE AS (Híbrido No listado en RIC) 28 x 24 mm 10.0 gr.

Anv: "[IMP NERO] CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG [GERM P M TR P]" - Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C " - Leyenda a los lados de un altar con dos puertas y ornamentos en la parte superior. "PROVIDENT" en exergo.
Puede ser una moneda híbrida acuñada a partir de un anverso de Neron y un reverso de Augusto póstumo ?? - Ver BMC nota de página 276

Acuñada 54/58 D.C.
Ceca:

Referencias: Cohen Vol.1 #255 Pag.296 - (RIC #528/530/531 Pag.181 muestran ARA PACIS en exergo, en lugar de PROVIDENT)
mdelvalle
RIC_306_AS_Neron.jpg
14-14 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)16 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACE P.R. VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVS[IT] - S C" – Templo de los gemelos Jano (Ianus Geminus) mostrando sus puertas dobles cerradas a la derecha y en la pared lateral izquierda una larga ventana enrejada .

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #306 Pag.168 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1974 Pag.390 - BMCRE #227 - Cohen Vol.1 #171 Pag.290 - DVM #30 Pag.87 - CBN #400 - Mac Dowall WCN #288
mdelvalle
RIC_312_AS_Neron.jpg
14-16 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)10 viewsAE AS 27 x 25 mm 8.9 gr.

Anv: "NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C" - Victoria volando a izquierda, portando un escudo ovalado con las letras "SP/QR" inscriptas en el.

Acuñada 65 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #312 Pag.169 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1976 Pag.391 - BMCRE #241 - Cohen Vol.1 #288 Pag.298 - DVM #32a Pag.87 - CBN #399 - Mac Dowall WCN #285/90
mdelvalle
Cohen_255_Perinto_Neron.jpg
14-30 - Perintos - Balcanes - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS (Híbrido No listado en RIC) 28 x 24 mm 10.0 gr.

Anv: "[IMP NERO] CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG [GERM P M TR P]" - Busto laureado viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "S C " - Leyenda a los lados de un altar con dos puertas y ornamentos en la parte superior. "PROVIDENT" en exergo.
Puede ser una moneda híbrida acuñada a partir de un anverso de Neron y un reverso de Augusto póstumo ?? - Ver BMC nota de página 276

Acuñada 54/58 D.C.
Ceca: Balcanica, posiblemente Perintos

Referencias: Cohen Vol.1 #255 Pag.296 - (RIC #528/530/531 Pag.181 muestran ARA PACIS en exergo, en lugar de PROVIDENT) - RIC (1923) #440 - RPC I #1761 - WCN p. 245, Moesia 2.
mdelvalle
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
78Hadrian__RIC302.jpg
1519 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Germania34 viewsReference.
RIC II 302; C. 805. BMC 837; RIC III, 1519

Bust A2+

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P.
Bare head with drapery

Rev. GERMANIA
Germania standing, head right, holding spear and resting hand on shield.

3.35 gr
17 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS24 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*Alex
ma015.JPG
160 Marcus Aurelius86 viewsMarcus Aurelius AE Dupondius. 175 AD. M ANTONINVS AVG GERM TR P XXIX, radiate head right, seen from behind / IMP VII COS III S-C, Annona standing left, holding grain ears over modius containing two grain ears & poppy, & cornucopiae. Cohen 334v. RIC 1134v Randygeki(h2)
rjb_2016_03_02.jpg
16111 viewsMarcus Aurelius
AE medallion
Rome mint
Obv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TRP XXXII
Laureate, draped bust right
Rev: IMP VIIII COS III PP
Emperor standing right, turning left and crowning a trophy of arm with two captives below
Gnecchi II, pl 59, 6 (obv), Gnecchi II, pl 60, 9 (rev)
mauseus
m.aurel dup-thunderbolt.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE dupondius - struck 177 AD33 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TRP XXXI (radiate head right)
rev: IMP VIIII COS III PP / S.C. (winged thunderbolt)
ref: RIC III 1219, C.378 (6frcs.)
10.44gms, 24mm,
Scarce
berserker
maurel_RIC1179.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE dupondius - struck 177 AD45 viewsobv: M.ANTONINVS.AVG.GERM.SARM.TRP.XXXI (radiate head right)
rev: IMP.VIII.COS.III.PP (trophy of base of wich are seated Marcomann (German) woman on right, and Markomann (German) with hands bound behind him on left), S-C in field, DE GERM in ex.
ref: RIC III 1179 (S), C.157 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
13.00gms, 25mm
Scarce

This dupondius celebrates Roman victory a series of wars on the empire’s northern frontier known as the Bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum. The reverse of this coin speaks of these campaigns with the inscription DE GERM(ANIS) encompassing a military trophy flanked by two captives. The bound men would have come from the barbarian nations that occupied lands across the Danube, for in recent years the Romans had won wars against the Marcomanns, the Quadi, the Jazyges and the Sarmatians.
Many other types celebrated Roman victories in this theatre, and they became the centrepiece of coin propaganda of the era. Considering these wars were not only a source of great financial strain, but they annually cost the lives of many young men, it was essential for Marcus Aurelius to demonstrate success in the form of attractive coin types showing bound barbarians and trophies.
berserker
M.Aurelius RIC1033.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 171-172 AD45 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI (laureate head right)
rev: IMP VI COS III (Roma with Victory in her right hand and spear in her left enthroning left, beside her shield. Victorious type), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1033, C. 281
23.13gms, 30mm,

History: In 170, during the course of the bellum Germanicum sarmaticum the Iazyges defeated and killed Claudius Fronto, Roman governor of Lower Moesia, and his troops. Operating from Sirmium on the Sava river, Marcus Aurelius moved against the Iazyges personally. After hard fighting, the Iazyges were pressed to their limits. In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Ister (Danube) river at Vindobona and Carnuntum and went into Marcomannic territory. The Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This coin commemorate the victories in the first Marcomannic War.
berserker
MAurel RIC1021.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172 AD43 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANIA SVBACTA IMP VI COS III (Germania seated left at foot of trophy), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1021 (S), Cohen 215 (10frcs)
22.84gms, 30mm,
Very rare

History: In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
MAurel RIC1058.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172-173 AD37 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III (trophy of arms, German {Marcomann} woman seated left below, in attitude of mourning, on two shields; German standing to right, his head turned and his hands bound behind him), SC in ex.
ref: RIC III 1058 (S), Cohen 227 (15frcs)
22.46gms, 30mm,
Very rare
History: In the second half of the second century was the most important and dangerous invasion of the Marcomanni. Their leader, Ballomar, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes, they crossed the Danube and achieved a smashing victory over 20,000 Romans near Carnuntum. Ballomar then led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, while the remainder ravaged Noricum. The Marcomanni razed Opitergium (Oderzo) and besieged Aquileia. The army of praetorian prefect Furius Victorinus tried to relieve the city, but was defeated and its general slain.
In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
marcus aurelius RIC1077.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 173 AD34 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureated bearded head right)
rev: [RESTITVTORI ITALIAE IMP VI COS III S C] (Aurelius standing left holding sceptre and raising kneeling figure of Italia who holds a globe)
ref: RIC 1077 (S), Cohen 538 (10frcs), BMC 1449
21.80gms, 29mm,
Rare

Aurelius is here portrayed as the Restorer of Italy. Although this type is normally used to refer to a defeated enemy, in this instance what Aurelius is restoring is the security of the homeland by defeating the Germanic tribes threatening Italy.
berserker
maurel sest-annona.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 177 AD50 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TRP XXXI (laureate head right)
rev: IM[P VIIII COS III PP] (Annona standing left, between modius & ship, holding corn-ears & cornucopiae), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1218, C.374
21.73gms, 28mm,
berserker
commodus as-.jpg
166-177 AD - COMMODUS Caesar AE As - struck 175-176 AD49 viewsobv: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM (draped bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes walking left holding flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1544 (M.Aurelius), C.710
mint: Rome
8.92gms, 25mm
Scarce

Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, Marcus Aurelius’s headquarters during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father’s victory over the Marcomanni. Even the title of Sarmaticus he was given in 175.
During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius in Syria, the prince assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on July 7, 175, thus formally entering adulthood.
berserker
RI_169be_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 152 29 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laurel and rosette diadem, draped, cuirassed; A behind
Rev:– FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding Phoenix and labarum, Victory sitting at the stern, steering the ship
Minted in Rome (A | _ //RQ).
Reference:- RIC VIII Rome 152 (S)

Ex Collection Freimut Hüther (1935-2016), Germany, collected since the 1940’s
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Denario VITELIO RIC 109.jpg
17-01 - VITELIO (02/01/69 D.C. - 20/12/69 D.C.)68 viewsAR Denario 18.5 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "XV V[IR] SACR FACT" - Cuenco o palangana para vino o agua de purificación (Dimnos) apoyado sobre trípode, con delfín arriba nadando hacia la derecha y cuervo parado debajo viendo a derecha.

Acuñada Jul./Dic. 69 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #109 Pag.272 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2201 Pag.422 - BMCRE #39 - Cohen Vol.1 #111 Pag.365 - DVM #21 Pag.97 - CBN #77 - RSC Vol. II #111 Pag.36
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_109_Denario_Vitelio.jpg
17-01 - VITELIO (02/01/69 D.C. - 20/12/69 D.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 18.5 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "XV V[IR] SACR FACT" - Cuenco o palangana para vino o agua de purificación (Dimnos) apoyado sobre trípode, con delfín arriba nadando hacia la derecha y cuervo parado debajo viendo a derecha.

Acuñada Jul./Dic. 69 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #109 Pag.272 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2201 Pag.422 - BMCRE #39 - Cohen Vol.1 #111 Pag.365 - DVM #21 Pag.97 - CBN #77 - RSC Vol. II #111 Pag.36
mdelvalle
mikrd45.jpg
17-03 - VITELIO (02/01/69 D.C. - 20/12/69 D.C.)28 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.03 gr.

Anv: "A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONT MAXIM" - Vesta velada y vestida, sentada a der. en un trono, portando patera en mano der. y cetro vertical en izq.

Acuñada: Julio a Dic. del 69 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S
SRCV I #2200,p.442 - BMCRE I #34 - DVM #16,p.97 - RSC II #72,p.36 - CBN #71

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #107 Pag.273 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2200 Pag.422 - BMCRE Vol.I #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #72 Pag.361 - DVM #16 Pag.97 - CBN #71 - RSC Vol. II #72 Pag.36
mdelvalle
RIC_107_Denario_Vitelio.jpg
17-03 - VITELIO (02/01/69 D.C. - 20/12/69 D.C.)19 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.03 gr.

Anv: "A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONT MAXIM" - Vesta velada y vestida, sentada a der. en un trono, portando patera en mano der. y cetro vertical en izq.

Acuñada: Julio a Dic. del 69 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #107 Pag.273 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2200 Pag.422 - BMCRE Vol.I #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #72 Pag.361 - DVM #16 Pag.97 - CBN #71 - RSC Vol. II #72 Pag.36
mdelvalle
RI_170dk_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome -21 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right; B behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman wears a Phrygian cap and falls forward clutching his horse.
Minted in Rome (S | _ //RQ).
Reference:- RIC VIII Rome - (Hybrid of RIC255/256 (Obverse) and RIC 266 (Reverse))

20 mm. 4.5 gms

Ex Collection Freimut Hüther (1935-2016), Germany, collected since the 1940’s
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170co_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE3 - RIC VIII Lugdunum 097 24 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, A behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and labarum; Victory behind, steering galley
Minted in Lugdunum (//*SLG). A.D. 348-350.
Reference:- RIC VIII Lugdunum 97 (R)

17 mm

Ex Col. Hermann-Joseph Lückger, Germany (1864-1951). Lückger was a German entrepreneur in the textile industry and amateur historian and collector of art.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
1180_P_Hadrian_RPC1767.jpg
1767 MYSIA, Germe Hadrian, Heracles standing5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1767; Ehling 75-82; von Aulock 7221; SNG BN - ; SNG Cop. -

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΑΥΓΟΥСΤΟС
Bare head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΓΕΡΜΗΝΩΝ
Heracles naked standing facing, head l., resting with r. hand on club, holding lion’s skin on left.

7.4 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
1228_P_Hadrian_RPC1767.jpg
1767 MYSIA, Germe Hadrian, Heracles standing6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1767; Ehling 75-82; von Aulock 7221; SNG BN - ; SNG Cop. -

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΑΥΓΟΥСΤΟС
Bare head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΓΕΡΜΗΝΩΝ
Heracles naked standing facing, head l., resting with r. hand on club, holding lion’s skin on left.

7.06 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
3875b.jpg
177 AD., Commodus, sestertius, DE SARMATIS, mint of Rome, RIC 1576 (Marcus Aurelius)103 viewsCommodus, sestertius, DE SARMATIS, mint of Rome, 177 AD.
Obv.: [I]MP L AVREL COMMODVS - AVG GERM S[ARM] , laureate head of the young Commodus right.
Rev.: TR P II [CO]S P [P] / S - C / DE SARMATIS , pile of arms.
RIC 1576 (M. Aurelius) ; C 95

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
388-commodus as.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE dupondius - struck 179 AD71 viewsobv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TRP IIII (radiate head right)
rev: IMP III COS II PP / S.C. (Victory advancing left bearing wreath & palm)
ref: RIC III 1614(M.Aurelius), C.237
12.18gms, 25mm

History: In 177, the Quadi rebelled, followed soon by their neighbours, the Marcomanni and Marcus Aurelius once again headed north, to begin his second Germanic campaign (secunda expeditio germanica). He arrived at Carnuntum in August 178, and set out to quell the rebellion in a repeat of his first campaign, moving first against the Marcomanni.
1 commentsberserker
commodus RIC9.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 180 AD43 viewsobv: M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG (laureate cuirassed bust right)
rev: TR P V IMP III COS II P P (trophy of arms with two captives - a man and a woman sitting in german shields)
ref: : RIC 9, RSC 791 (8frcs), BMC 9
3.03gms, 18mm
Scarce

History: Under the command of Marcus Valerius Maximianus, the Romans fought and prevailed against the Quadi in a decisive battle at Laugaricio near (modern Trencín, Slovakia). The movie Gladiator (2000) start with a fictional account of a final battle of the Marcomannic Wars.
berserker
commodus RIC666v(M.Aurelius).jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 179 AD40 viewsobv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG (laureate head right)
rev: TR P IIII IMP III COS II PP (Victory seated left with patera & palm)
ref: RIC III 666 [M.Aurelius] (Var.), C. 775
3.31gms,17mm
Rare

History: December 177 AD Commodus was raised to the rank of Augustus as colleague with Aurelius. Spring 179 AD victory of Tarrutenius Paternus – the Pretorian Prefect - at the Danube in the Expeditio Germanica Secunda. This coin struck in spring of 179 AD and as describe in RIC666 the bust is bare head, but here laureated – not in RIC.
berserker
GermanI.jpg
1789/90-1865 AD - Johann Jacob Lauer - Rechenpfenning (Jeton)528 viewsMaker: Johann Jacob Lauer (1789/90-1865 AD)
Date: Early-Mid 1800's AD
Condition: Very Fine
Type: Rechenpfenning (Jeton)

Obverse: PLUS ULTRA (Going Further)
Ship with four masts.

Reverse: IOH : LAUER * RECN * PF
Johann Lauer Rechenpfenning
Five stars with a crescent moon above.

Struck in Neurenberg
Note: Slight possibility this was struck by grandson of same name later in the century.
0.47g; 13.5mm; 90°
Pep
car750.JPG
190 Caracalla153 viewsCaracalla AR Antoninianus.
216 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate draped bust right, seen from behind / P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, modius on head, standing left, raising right hand & holding sceptre.
Size: 22.5mm Weight: 5.3 grams
RSC 349b. RIC 280b BMC 165. Hill (1964) 1573.



Click to enlarge for best pic.
16 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_carac4_01_09.jpg
19822 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AR denarius
Obv "ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM"
Laureate bust right
Rev "PM TRP XX COS IIII PP"
Jupiter standing left holding staff and thunderbolt
Rome mint
RIC 285a
mauseus
rjb_carac3_01_09.jpg
19824 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VENVS VICTRIX"
Venus standing left holding victoriola and resting on shield
Rome mint
RIC 311
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_carac2_01_09.jpg
19818 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PM TRP XVIIII COS IIII PP"
Serapis standing right, turning back, holding staff and raising hand
Rome mint
RIC 280d
mauseus
rjb_carac1_01_09.jpg
19825 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PM TRP XVIII COS IIII PP"
Luna in a biga pulled by bulls left
Rome mint
RIC 256c
1 commentsmauseus
CarIV312dLimes.jpg
198-217 AD - Caracalla - RIC IV 312d - Limes Denarius - Venus Reverse44 viewsEmperor: Caracalla (r. 198-217 AD)
Date: 213-217 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Limes Denarius

Obverse: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Emperor Antoninus Pius (Caracalla) Germanicus
Head right; laureate

Reverse: VENVS VICTRIX
Victorious Venus
Venus standing left, holding helmet and sceptre and leaning on shield, captives seated right and left.

Limes Denarius of: RIC IV Caracalla 312d; VM 97/3 (Rome mint)
2.46g; 19.5mm; 0°
Pep
1997-161-176_ProbusVictoriaGerm-Forum.jpg
1997.161.1767 viewsRome, 3.65 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA GERM; RThunderboltA; Trophy between two bound captives seated back to back.
Ref: RIC 220; Pink, pg 58, 6th emission, 218 AD;
gordian_guy
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa37 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
Blindado
TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
Blindado
DrususAsSC.jpg
1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus37 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula31 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
Blindado
CaligulaAE27Caesonia.jpg
1ao2 Caesonia (?)19 viewsAE 27 of Carthago Nova, Spain

Laureate head of Caligula, right, C CAESAR AVG GERMANIS
Draped bust of Caesonia (as Salus) right, DN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q V I N C, SAL AVG across field

Generally held to portray the fourth wife of Caligula.

Sear 624

Caesonia, Milonia, (d41AD) was the fourth and last wife of Caligula. Her younger half-brother was the Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Her niece, Domitia Longina, married Domitian. In 41, Caligula was assassinated and Caesonia and her daughter Julia Drusilla murdered.

Suetonius states: As for Caesonia, who was neither young nor beautiful, had three daughters by another man, and was wildly promiscuous and extravagant, he not only loved her more passionately for it, but also more faithfully, taking her out riding, and showing her to the soldiers, dressed in a cloak with helmet and shield: while he exhibited her to his friends stark naked. He did not honour her with the title of wife until she had given him a child, announcing his paternity and the marriage on the very same day. This child, whom he named Julia Drusilla, he carried round all the temples of the goddesses, before finally entrusting her to Minerva’s lap, calling on that goddess to nurture and educate his daughter. Nothing persuaded him more clearly that she was his own issue than her violent temper, which was so savage the infant would tear at the faces and eyes of her little playmates. . . .

And as [Caligula] kissed the neck of wife or sweetheart, he never failed to say: ‘This lovely thing will be slit whenever I say.’ Now and then he even threatened his dear Caesonia with torture, if that was the only way of discovering why he was so enamoured of her. . . . Some think that Caesonia his wife administered a love potion that had instead the effect of driving him mad.
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1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


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1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
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1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Nero’s father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperor’s friends, easily achieving the role of Nero’s chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Otho’s hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitellius’s advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castor’s, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
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1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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1aw Vespasian44 views69-79

Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
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1ax Titus96 views79-81

AE, Ankyra, Galatia
Laureate head, right AY KAICAP TITOC CEBASTO. . .
Man standing, left, SEBASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN

RPC 1620

By Suetonius' account: Titus, surnamed Vespasianus like his father, possessed such an aptitude, by nature, nurture, or good fortune, for winning affection that he was loved and adored by all the world as Emperor. . . . He was born on the 30th of December AD41, the very year of Caligula’s assassination, in a little dingy room of a humble dwelling, near the Septizonium. . . .

He was handsome, graceful, and dignified, and of exceptional strength, though of no great height and rather full-bellied. He had an extraordinary memory, and an aptitude for virtually all the arts of war and peace, being a fine horseman, skilled in the use of weapons, yet penning impromptu verses in Greek and Latin with equal readiness and facility. He had a grasp of music too, singing well and playing the harp pleasantly and with ability. . . .

As military tribune in Germany (c57-59AD) and Britain (c60-62), he won an excellent reputation for energy and integrity, as is shown by the large number of inscribed statues and busts of him found in both countries. . . . When his quaestorship ended, he commanded one of his father’s legions in Judaea, capturing the strongholds of Tarichaeae and Gamala (67AD). His horse was killed under him in battle, but he mounted that of a comrade who fell fighting at his side. . . . [Upon] Vespasian’s accession, his father left him to complete the conquest of Judaea, and in the final assault on Jerusalem (70AD) Titus killed twelve of the defenders with as many arrows. . . .

From then on, he acted as his father’s colleague and even protector. He shared in his Judaean triumph (of AD 71), the censorship (AD 73), the exercise of tribunicial power, and in seven of his consulships (AD 70, 72, 74-77, 79). . . .

He died at the same villa as his father, Vespasian, on the 13th of September AD81, at the age of forty-one, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. The people mourned his loss as if he were a member of their own family.
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1az Domitian20 views81-96

As

Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
Moneta std, MONETA AVGVSTI S C

RIC 708

Suetonius wrote: Domitian was born on the 24th of October AD51, a month before his father Vespasian took up office as consul. . . . When Vespasian died, Domitian considered granting his soldiers twice the bounty offered by his brother Titus, and had no qualms in claiming that his father’s will had been tampered with, since he had been due a half-share of the Empire. From then on, he plotted continually against his brother, openly and in secret. When Titus was gripped by his fatal illness, Domitian ordered him to be left for dead, before he had actually breathed his last. . . .

He governed inconsistently, displaying a mixture of virtue and vice, but after some time his virtues too gave way to vice, since he seems to have been made avaricious through lack of funds, and cruel through fear, contrary to his natural disposition. . . . Domitian was diligent and conscientiousness in his administration of justice, often holding special sittings on the tribunal in the Forum. . . . [I]n his private life, and even for some time after becoming Emperor, he was considered free of greed and avarice; and indeed often showed proof not only of moderation, but of real generosity. . . . His moderation and clemency however were not destined to last, his predilection to cruelty appearing somewhat sooner than his avarice. . . . In this way he became an object of terror to all, and so hated that he was finally brought down by a conspiracy of his companions and favourite freedmen, which also involved his wife, Domitia Longina.

Domitian was tall, and of a ruddy complexion, with large rather weak eyes, and a modest expression. He was handsome and attractive when young, his whole body well-made except for his feet with their short toes. Later, he lost his hair, and developed a protruding belly, while his legs became thin and spindly after a long illness. . . . He found exercise intolerable, seldom walked when in Rome and while travelling and on campaign rarely rode but used a litter. Weaponry in general held no interest for him, though he was exceptionally keen on archery. There are plenty of witnesses to his killing a hundred wild creatures or more at a time on his Alban estate, bringing them down with successive arrows planted so deftly as to give the effect of horns. . . .

At the beginning of his reign, he had the libraries, which had been damaged by fire, restored at great expense, instituting a search for copies of lost works, and sending scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and edit them. Yet he himself neglected liberal studies, and never bothered to interest himself in history or poetry, or even to acquire a decent writing style.
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Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
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1be Germanicus Recovers the Legionary Standards Lost by Varus10 viewsGermanicus

Dupondius, struck by Caligula
37-41

GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right.
SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter

Commemorates the recovery by Germanicus, who was Caligila's father, of the legionary standards lost by Varus in the Teutoburg Forest

RIC 57
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Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

The Historia Augusta relates: He was reared under the eye of Hadrian, who called him Verissimus. . . . And so he was adopted in his eighteenth year, and at the instance of Hadrian exception was made for his age and he was appointed quaestor for the year of the second consulship of Antoninus [Pius], now his father. . . . After Hadrian's death, Pius immediately got his wife to ask Marcus if he would break off his betrothal to the daughter of Lucius Commodus and marry their own daughter Faustina (whom Hadrian had wanted to marry Commodus' son, even though he was badly matched in age). After thinking the matter over, Marcus replied he was willing. And when this was done, Pius designated him as his colleague in the consulship, though he was still only quaestor, gave him the title of Caesar. . . .

When Antoninus Pius saw that the end of his life was drawing near, having summoned his friends and prefects, he commended Marcus to them all and formally named him as his successor in the empire. . . . Being forced by the senate to assume the government of the state after the death of the Deified Pius, Marcus made his brother his colleague in the empire, giving him the name Lucius Aurelius Verus Commodus and bestowing on him the titles Caesar and Augustus.

Eutropius summarizes: They carried on a war against the Parthians, who then rebelled for the first time since their subjugation by Trajan. Verus Antoninus went out to conduct that war, and, remaining at Antioch and about Armenia, effected many important achievements by the agency of his generals; he took Seleucia, the most eminent city of Assyria, with forty thousand prisoners; he brought off materials for a triumph over the Parthians, and celebrated it in conjunction with his brother, who was also his father-in-law. He died in Venetia. . . . After him MARCUS ANTONINUS held the government alone, a man whom any one may more easily admire than sufficiently commend. He was, from his earliest years, of a most tranquil disposition; so that even in his infancy he changed countenance neither for joy nor for sorrow. He was devoted to the Stoic philosophy, and was himself a philosopher, not only in his way of life, but in learning. . . .

Under his rule affairs were successfully conducted against the Germans. He himself carried on one war with the Marcomanni, but this was greater than any in the memory of man,so that it is compared to the Punic wars. . . . Having persevered, therefore, with the greatest labour and patience, for three whole years at Carnuntum,14 he brought the Marcomannic war to an end; a war which the Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Suevi, and all the barbarians in that quarter, had joined with the Marcomanni in raising; he killed several thousand men, and, having delivered the Pannonians from slavery, triumphed a second time at Rome with his son Commodus Antoninus, whom he had previously made Caesar. . . . Having, then, rendered the state happy, both by his excellent management and gentleness of disposition, he died in the eighteenth year of his reign and the sixty-first of his life, and was enrolled among the gods, all unanimously voting that such honour should be paid him.
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Denarius

Bearded laureate head, right, IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG
Ops std, OPI DIVIN TR P COS II

RIC 8

The Historia Augusta has this to say: Publius Helvius Pertinax was the son of a freedman, Helvius Successus by name, who confessed that he gave this name to his son because of his own long-standing connection with the timber-trade. . . . Pertinax himself was born in the Apennines on an estate which belonged to his mother. . . . Winning promotion because of the energy he showed in the Parthian war, he was transferred to Britain and there retained. Later he led a squadron in Moesia. . . . Next, he commanded the German fleet. . . . From this command he was transferred to Dacia. . . . After Cassius' revolt had been suppressed, Pertinax set out from Syria to protect the bank of the Danube, and presently he was appointed to govern both the Moesias and, soon thereafter, Dacia. And by reason of his success in these provinces, he won the appointment to Syria. . . .

Pertinax was made consul for the second time. And while in this position, Pertinax did not avoid complicity in the murder of Commodus, when a share in this plot was offered him by the other conspirators. After Commodus was slain, aetus, the prefect of the guard, and Eclectus, the chamberlain, came to Pertinax and reassured him, and then led him to the camp. There he harangued the soldiers, promised a donative, and said that the imperial power had been thrust upon him by Laetus and Eclectus. . . .

He reduced the imperial banquets from something absolutely unlimited to a fixed standard, and, indeed, cut down all expenses from what they had been under Commodus. And from the example set by the emperor, who lived rather simply, there resulted a general economy and a consequent reduction in the cost of living. . . . [H]e restored to everyone the property of which Commodus had despoiled him. . . . He always attended the stated meetings of the senate and always made some proposal. . . .

A conspiracy l was organized against Pertinax by Laetus, the prefect of the guard, and sundry others who were displeased by his integrity. . . . [T]hree hundred soldiers, formed into a wedge, marched under arms from the camp to the imperial residence. . . . After they had burst into the inner portion of the Palace, however, Pertinax advanced to meet them and sought to appease them with a long and serious speech. In spite of this, one Tausius, a Tungrian, after haranguing the soldiers into a state of fury and fear, hurled his spear at Pertinax' breast. And he, after a prayer to Jupiter the Avenger, veiled his head with his toga and was stabbed by the rest.
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Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
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Denarius

Bare head, right, D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES
Roma seated on shield holding Palladium and scepter, ROMAE AETERNAE

RIC 11

According to the Historia Augusta, which in the case of Albinus is thought to be of dubious veracity: After the death of Pertinax, who was slain at Albinus' advice, various men were hailed emperor at about one and the same time by the senate Julianus at Rome, and by the armies, Septimius Severus in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East, and Clodius Albinus in Gaul. According to Herodian, Clodius had been named Caesar by Severus. But as time went on, each chafed at the other's rule, and the armies of Gaul and Germany demanded an emperor of their own naming, and so all parts of the empire were thrown into an uproar. . . .

It is an undeniable fact, moreover, and Marius Maximus also relates it, that Severus at first intended to name Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus as his successors, in case aught befell him. Later, as it happened, in the interest of his growing sons, and through envy of the affection in which Albinus was held, and most of all becau-e of his wires entreaties, he changed his purpose and crushed both of them in war. But he did name Albinus consul, and this he never would have done had not Aibinus been a worthy man, since he was ever most careful in his choice of magistrate. . . .

As soon as he came of age he entered military service, and by the aid of Lollius Serenus, Baebius Maecianus and Ceionius Postumianus, all his kinsmen, he gained the notice of the Antonines. In the capacity of a tribune he commanded a troop of Dalmatian horse: he also commanded soldiers of the I and the IV legions. At the time of Avidius' revolt he loyally held the Bithynian army to its allegiance. Next, Commodus transferred him to Gaul; and here he routed the tribes from over the Rhine and made his name illustrious among both Romans and barbarians. This aroused Commodus' interest, and he offered Albinus the name of Caesar and the privilege, too, of giving the soldiers a present and wearing the scarlet cloak. But all these offers Albinus wisely refused, for Commodus, he said, was only looking for a man who would perish with him, or whom he could reasonably put to death. . . .

[A]fter a decisive engagement, where countless of his soldiers fell, and very many fled, and many, too, surrendered, Albinus also fled away and, according to some, stabbed himself, according to others, was stabbed by a slave. At any rate, he was brought to Severus only half alive. . . . Albinus' head was cut off and paraded on a pike, and finally sent to Rome.
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Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
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Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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Sestertius

Bare-headed draped bust, right, MAXIMVS CAES GERM

Maximus stg. w/ spear & rod, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS SC

Son of Maximinus, he died with dad.

RIC 13
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Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
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AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
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Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
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Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C POTVMVS PF AVG
Virtus standing right, holding spear & shield, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 93

Postumus rebelled against Gallienus and ruled Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Eutropius wrote: When affairs were in this desperate condition, and the Roman empire almost ruined, POSTUMUS, a man of very obscure birth, assumed the purple in Gaul, and held the government with such ability for ten years, that he recruited the provinces, which had been almost ruined, by his great energy and judgment; but he was killed in a mutiny of the army, because he would not deliver up Moguntiacum, which had rebelled against him, to be plundered by the soldiers, at the time when Lucius Aelianus was endeavouring to effect a change of government.

According to the Historia Augusta: This man, most valiant in war and most steadfast in peace, was so highly respected for his whole manner of life that he was even entrusted by Gallienus with the care of his son Saloninus (whom he had placed in command of Gaul), as the guardian of his life and conduct and his instructor in the duties of a ruler.- Nevertheless, as some writers assert though it does not accord with his character he afterwards broke faith and after slaying Saloninus seized the imperial power. As others, however, have related with greater truth, the Gauls themselves, hating Gallienus most bitterly and being unwilling to endure a boy as their emperor, hailed as their ruler the man who was holding the rule in trust for another, and despatching soldiers they slew the boy. When he was slain, Postumus was gladly accepted by the entire army and by all the Gauls, and for seven years he performed such exploits that he completely restored the provinces of Gaul. . . . Great, indeed, was the love felt for Postumus in the hearts of all the people of Gaul because he had thrust back all the German tribes and had restored the Roman Empire to its former security. But when he began to conduct himself with the greatest sternness, the Gauls, following their custom of always desiring a change of government, at the instigation of Lollianus put him to death.

Zonaras adds: Galienus, when he had learned of [his son's death], proceeded against Postumus, and, when he had engaged him, was initially beaten and then prevailed, with the result that Postumus fled. Then Auriolus was sent to chase him down. Though able to capture him, he was unwilling to pursue him for long, but, coming back, he said that he was unable to capture him. Thus Postumus, having escaped, next organized an army. Galienus again marched upon him and, after he had penned him in a certain city of Gaul, besieged the usurper. In the siege, the sovereign was struck in the back by an arrow and, having become ill as a result, broke off the siege.
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AE Antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG
Pax walking left, holding olive-branch and sceptre, PAX AVG

RIC 55

According to the Historia Augusta: When the elder Postumus saw that Gallienus was marching against him with great forces, and that he needed the aid not only of soldiers but also of a second prince, he called Victorinus, a man of soldierly energy, to a share in the imperial power, and in company
with him he fought against Gallienus. Having summoned to their aid huge forces of Germans, they protracted the war for a long time, but at last they were conquered. Then, when Lollianus, too, had been slain, Victorinus alone remained in command. He also, because he devoted his time to seducing the wives of his soldiers and officers, was slain at Agrippina l through a conspiracy formed by a certain clerk, whose wife he had debauched ; his mother Vitruvia, or rather Victoria, who was later called Mother of the Camp, had given his son Victorinus the title of Caesar, but the boy, too, was immediately killed after his father was slain at Agrippina. [Scholars doubt that Postumus raised Victorianus to the purple, they he was one of his generals, and suggest a held power later during the time of Claudius.]
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, holding spear and shield, IMP PROBVS P F AVG
Concordia and Probus, CONCORDIA MILIT

RIC 332

Zosimus observed: Probus, having thus gained the empire, marched forward, and performed a very commendable action for the public good, as a prelude to what he should afterwards do. For he resolved to punish those who had murdered Aurelianus, and conspired against Tacitus ; though for fear of an insurrection he did not openly execute his design, but planted a company of men, in whom he had confidence, at a convenient post, near to which he invited the murderers to a feast. [Probus] gave a signal to his men to perform. As soon as they had received it, they fell on the murderers in their defenceless state. . . .

Probus obtained several victories over the Barbarians in two different wars; in one of which he himself commanded, but left the other to the conduct of his lieutenant. Perceiving that it was necessary to assist the cities of Germany which lay upon the Rhine, and were harrassed by the Barbarians, he marched with his army towards that river. . . . The emperor terminated several other wars, with scarcely any trouble ; and fought some fierce battles, first against the Logiones, a German nation, whom he conquered, [and] against the Franks, whom he subdued through the good conduct of his commanders. He made war on the Burgundi and the Vandili.

The Historia Augusta adds: After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum l he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, frightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East. . . . Having made peace, then, with the Persians, he returned to Thrace, and here he settled one hundred thousand Bastarnae on Roman soil, all of whom remained loyal. . . .

He celebrated a triumph over the Germans and the Blemmyae, and. . . gave in the Circus a most magnificent wild-beast hunt. . . . These spectacles finished, he made ready for war with Persia, but while on the march through Iliyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these : first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labor, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of soldiers.

Zonaras described Probus' death differently: There was another rebellion against him. For Carus, who was in command of portions of Europe, recognized that the soldiers under him wished to proclaim him emperor and revealed this to Probus, begging that he be recalled from there. But Probus was not willing to remove him from office. Then the soldiers surrounded Carus, compelled him reluctantly to receive the empire of the Romans, and immediately hastened with him against Italy. Probus, when he had learned of this, sent an army with a commander to oppose him. As soon as those dispatched had drawn near Carus, they arrested their commander and surrendered him and themselves to Carus. Probus was killed by his own guardsmen, who had learned of the desertion of the soldiers to Carus. The duration of Probus’ sole rule had been not quite six years
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1em Constantius Gallus23 viewsCaesar 351-354

Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right, A behind head, D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
Emperor, diademed and in military dress, standing facing, head left, holding standard with chi-rho banner in each hand. Star above. Left field: III. CONCORDIA MILITVM. Mintmark: star SIRM.

RIC 22

Zosimus noted: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia; either in order that he might oppose the Persians, or as seems more probable, that he might have an opportunity of taking him off. He and his brothers were the only remaining persons of the family whom Constantius had not put to death, as I have related. When he had clothed Gallus with the Caesarean robe, and appointed Lucilianus general in the Persian war, he marched towards Magnentius with his own troops and those of Vetranio in one body. Constantius II had him tried and put to death for misrule of the East as Caesar. . . . The state-informers, with which such men are usually surrounded, and which are designed for the ruin of those that are in prosperity, were augmented. These sycophants, when they attempted to effect the downfal of a noble in hopes of sharing his wealth or honours, contrived some false accusation against him. This was the practice in the time of Constantius. Spies of this description, who made the eunuchs of the court their accomplices, flocked about Constantius, and persuaded him that his cousin german Gallus, who was a Caesar, was not satisfied with that honour, but wished to be emperor. They so far convinced him of the truth of this charge, that they made him resolve upon the destruction of Gallus. The contrivers of this design were Dynamius and Picentius, men of obscure condition, who endeavoured to raise themselves by such evil practises. Lampadius also, the Prefect of the court, was in the conspiracy, being a person who wished to engross more of the emperor's favour than any other. Constantius listened to those false insinuations, and Gallus was sent for, knowing nothing of what was intended against him. As soon as he arrived, Constantius first degraded him from the dignity of Caesar, and, having reduced him to private station, delivered him to the public executioners to be put to death.
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AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
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AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
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AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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2. Trajan190 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 40, RSC 214, choice aUNC, Rome mint, 3.374g, 18.2mm, 180o, 100 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right; reverse P M TR P COS III P P, Vesta seated left holding patera and torchb70
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2009-08-Germany - Donaueschingen24 viewsThe Danube river begins in the district of Donaueschingen where the Brigach and the Breg little rivers merge.berserker
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2009-08-Germany - Donaueschingen25 viewsDonauquelle - Start of the Danubeberserker
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2009-Austria - Carnuntum23 viewsEmperor Marcus Aurelius took advantage of Carnuntum's location in his wars against the Germanic tribes of Marcomanni and Quadi between 171 and 173 AD.
To the column at the arch planning a statue of Marcus Aurelius.
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2009-Germany - Regensburg18 viewsIn 179 the Roman fort Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen") was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Porta Praetoria was the north gate of the Roman fortress „Castra Regina“.berserker
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2009-Germany - Regensburg35 viewsWhat remains today is the western half of the originally double arch and the east tower. berserker
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2009-Germany - Regensburg27 viewsRegensburg's Porta Praetoria gains significance as the only remaining gate of a Roman military camp in northern Europe.1 commentsberserker
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2009-Germany - Regensburg40 viewsThe gate Porta Praetoria is now a part of a modern hotel.berserker
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2009-Germany - Regensburg21 viewsThe Danube at Regensburg with the famous old bridge. This is one of the oldest bridge in Europe, it stay where probably the Pertinax-led Legios crossed over the river on the built ponton bridge and fought against the Marcomanns a millenium earlier.berserker
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2009-Germany - The Walhalla16 viewsThe Walhalla is a hall of fame for "famous personalities in German history – politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists" housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River east of Regensburg.
This picture shows the back of the Walhalla Temple.
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2009-Germany - The Walhalla15 viewsThe front of the temple.berserker
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2009-Germany - The Walhalla24 viewsPanorama to the Danube.berserker
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2009-Germany - The Walhalla21 viewsSizes...
The Walhalla was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig I of Bavaria, when he had become King, and was built between 1830 and 1842 by the architect Leo von Klenze.
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2009-Germany - The Walhalla 24 viewsThe Walhalla hosts about 65 placques and 130 busts of persons, covering 2000 years of history; as the oldest person honored is Arminius, victor in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in year 9 AD.berserker
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2014.061.913 viewsRome, 4.66 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA GERM; RWreathA in exergue; Trophy standing between two captive seated back to back;
Ref: RIC 220; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 5th Emission, 280 AD;
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201769 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
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201b. Clodius Albinus233 viewsBy the time Severus made it back from the east in 196, the breach with Albinus was beyond repair. The emperor's son Caracalla had been displayed to the army as Caesar and heir. Albinus had been proclaimed emperor and gone into open revolt, crossed the English Channel and gained the support of many aristocrats from Gaul and Spain. Lyon became Albinus' headquarters, from which he minted coins that wishfully hinted at reconciliation. Albinus had taken the title of Augustus, but he still kept the name Septimius.

Albinus was unable to expand his control eastward despite achieving a victory against the governor of Lower Germany. By the middle of the year 196, his momentum had stalled. Gaul was drenched in the blood of Roman soldiers as the two sides repeatedly engaged in indecisive battles.[[8]] The ever increasing chaos in the region even allowed an opportunist to raise his own army to harass Albinus' troops.[[9]]

Time was running out for Albinus. His troops were defeated early in 197 at Tournus, on the river Saône 65 miles north of Lyon.[[10]] Severus could now sweep his armies into Gaul. Albinus retreated to Lyon, where he prepared for one final stand. The battle, one of the fiercest in Roman history, took place 19 February 197 and involved more than 100,000 men.[[11]] In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. But Albinus' success was shortlived. The Severan cavalry appeared, and Albinus' army was routed. The battlefield was strewn with bodies, and Severus' victorious troops were allowed to vent their anger by sacking Lyon. Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Heis wife and children were be ordered killed by Severus, who also had Albinus' head cut off and sent to Rome for display.

Clodius Albinus had the breeding and upbringing to have been a popular emperor among the senatorial aristocracy, but he lacked the cunning and daring of his erstwhile ally and eventual rival Severus. Albinus would never be included among the canonical list of emperors, and his defeat finally ended the period of instability and civil war that originated with the death of Commodus.

CLODIUS ALBINUS, as Caesar. 193-195 AD. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.14 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and reversed spear. RIC IV 11b; RSC 61a. VF. Ex - CNG
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201c. Pescennius Niger128 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
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202. CARACALLA258 viewsCARACALLA. 198-217 AD.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at the Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.

AR Denarius (19mm, 3.11 gm). Struck 215 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP, Sol standing left, radiate, raising right hand and holding globe. RIC IV 264a; BMCRE 139; RSC 288. EF
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205a. Julia Mamaea37 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea (180–235) wa