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Search results - "Fortuna"
HADRIAN-4.jpg
43 viewsHADRIAN - Dupondius - 118 AD
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right;
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT COS II. In ex. FORT RED / S C, Fortuna std. left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Gs. 13,2 mm. 26,8
Cohen 757var, RIC 557var
Maxentius
DOMITIAN-1.jpg
34 viewsDOMITIAN - Æ As - 87 AD.
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIII CENS PER P P, laureate bust right, with aegis
Rev.: FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S-C, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae.
Gs. 10,5 mm. 29,3
Cohen 126, RIC 353a
Maxentius
R_708_w.jpg
26 viewsAntoninianus (pre-reform)
Siscia Mint, 1st officina, 271-2 AD
Obv. Rad + cuir bust r., IMP AVRELIANVS AVG round.
Rev. Fortuna seated l on throne, wheel below, rudder at left, cornucopia over l arm, FORTVNA - REDVX round, *P in ex.
3.39 gm, 23 mm
Manzikert
Ancient_Counterfeits_Trajan_Limes_Falsum_Fortuna.jpg
63 viewsTrajan Limes Falsum?
Imitating a Dupondius, RIC 502 or RIC 591
Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V (VI?) P P
Apparently a double strike, which means that the coin was struck, not cast.
Rev: S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI
Fortuna standing l., holding rudder and cornucopiae
28mm, 3.31g
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Severus_Alexander_Fourree.jpg
23 viewsFourree Denarius, Severus Alexander, copying RIC 196
Obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG
Laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder
Double strike
Rev: FORTVNAE REDVCI
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae.

18mm, 3.04g
klausklage
ELAGABAL-1.jpg
47 viewsELAGABALVS - As - 219 AD - Rome mint
Obv: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG; laureate head right, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: FORTVNAE REDVCI S C; Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae
gr. 9, mm. 24,5
RIC 349, Cohen 53
1 commentsMaxentius
Hadrianden.jpg
91 viewsHADRIANVS AVG COS III PP
Laureate head of Hadrian right

FORTVNA AVG
Fortuna stg left holding rudder set on globe and cornucopiae

Rome 134 AD

3.07g

Sear 3494
RIC 244

Sold Forum Auction April 2016
1 commentsJay GT4
rjb_car3_06_09.jpg
98cf33 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax-Laetitia/Fortuna standing left holding branch and resting on short baton or rudder
London or irregular(?) mint
F/O//[ML]
RIC - (cf 98ff)

A curious depiction of Pax on the reverse with a mixture of attributes. A coin of otherwise good style.
mauseus
hadrian759.jpg
Hadrian, RIC II 759, Rome, 117-138 CE19 viewsOrichaicum Sestertius
Obverse: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head right.
Reverse: FORTVNA AVG, Fortuna standing left, rudder in right hand, cornucopia in left hand.
Rome mint 31 mm., 24.7 g.
sold 1-2018
NORMAN K
RI_064it_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (451 var)111 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DEVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Ref:– BMC W Page 108 * var (citing Cohen 168 though Cohen 168 is PERT). RIC 451 var (451 listed for PERT and noted for PERET (RD)). RSC 168 var (PERTE for PERT)
maridvnvm
Gordian_III_3.jpg
1 Gordian III15 viewsGordian III
Ant 4.8g

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

R: FORTVNA REDVX. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
1 commentsSosius
Gordian_III_RIC_210e.jpg
1 Gordian III9 viewsGordian III
AR Antoninianus, Antioch Mint

O: Radiate bust r.

R: FORTVNA REDVX. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

RIC 210e
Sosius
Gordian_III_RIC_143.jpg
1 Gordian III18 viewsGordian III
AR Antonianus, Rome Mint
243-4 AD

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG

R: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae, wheel under seat

RIC IV-3 144; Cohen 98 corr.; Sear (5) 8612
Sosius
Gordian_III_Ant_RIC_XXX.jpg
1 Gordian III11 viewsGordian III
AR Antoninianus, Antioch Mint

O: Radiate bust r.

R: FORTVNA REDVX. Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

Very similar to RIC 210, but bust on this coin is not draped.
Sosius
Vespasian_Aureus_3.jpg
10 Vespasian Aureus37 viewsVespasian, 69-79 AD
AV aureus (19mm, 7.11 gm, 7h). Lugdunum Mint, AD 71.

O: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, laureate head right

R: COS III FORT RED, Fortuna Redux standing left, holding globe and caduceus.

Calico 613. RIC 1111. Nearly VF

Ex Heritage
RI0056
Sosius
Vespasian_RIC_487.jpg
10 Vespasian AE As, 71 AD12 viewsVESPASIAN
AE As, Rome Mint, 71 A.D.;

O: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, laureate head right

R: FORTVNAE REDVCI S C, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right, cornucopia in left

RIC II 487
RI0059
Sosius
Nerva_RIC_16.jpg
13 Nerva Denarius18 viewsNERVA
AR Denarius, Jan - Sept, 97AD
17.5mm, 3.2g
IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COS III P P, laureate head right / FORTVNA AVGVST, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.
RIC 16, Sear 3025, RSC 66
RI0110
Sosius
Trajan_Dupondius_RIC_653.jpg
14 Trajan AE Dupondius16 viewsTRAJAN
AE Dupondius
IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, radiate draped bust r. / SENATVS POPVLESQUE ROMANVS, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, FORT RED below, S-C in ex.
RIC 653; VF+, roughness
RI0120
Sosius
Trajan_Den_RIC_318.jpg
14 Trajan Denarius26 viewsTRAJAN
AR Denarius, 3.1g
IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM DAC, laureate draped bust right / P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, FORT RED in ex.
RIC 318; Sear'88 #984; RSC 154; Fine+
Ex-Ancient Coin Society “3 Caesars” folder coin
RI0116
1 commentsSosius
Ant_Pius_Den.jpg
17 Antoninus Pius25 viewsANTONINUS PIUS
AR Denarius, 3.6g
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIIII, laureate bearded head right / COS IIII, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopia
RIC 194, RSC 265.
RI0076
1 commentsSosius
Lucius_Verus_RIC_1351.jpg
19 Lucius Verus16 viewsLUCIUS VERUS
AE As
IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, laureate head right / FORT RED TR POT III S-C, COS II in ex, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopia
RIC 1351 Fine
RI0100
Sosius
L_Verus_Sestertius.jpg
19 Lucius Verus Sestertius46 viewsLUCIUS VERUS
AE Sestertius (25.2g 33/32mm)
Rome Mint. Struck 162-163 AD
IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare head right / TR POT II COS II S-C, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, FORT RED in ex.
RIC III Verus 1318. Cohen 88.
2 commentsSosius
2550311.jpg
22 Didius Julianus68 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Didius Julianus
AD 193
Æ Sestertius (28mm, 19.82 g, 11h). Rome mint.

Laureate head right / Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopia.

RIC IV 15. Fine, brown patina, scratches
Ex CNG
RI0128
6 commentsSosius
39218q00.jpg
23.5 Septimius Severus - overstrike of Pescennius Niger Denarius50 viewsSilver denarius, RIC IV 377 or similar, F, overstruck, 2.118g, 19.3mm, 180o, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II (or similar), laureate head right; reverse FORTVN REDVC (or similar), Fortuna standing left, cornucopia in left, rudder (?) in right

Purchased from FORVM
RI0129
3 commentsSosius
rjb_car_06_09.jpg
235cf39 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "FORTVN AVG"
Fortuna standing left holding baton and cornucopia
Camulodunum mint
S/C//C
RIC - (cf235)

The 4 o'clock die axis and slope in Fortuna's stance mean that this is, in all probability, an irregular issue
mauseus
rjb_car_den1_04_07.jpg
712bis51 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "[FORTVN]A R[EDV]X"
Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Unmarked mint
RIC - (712 bis)
1 commentsmauseus
1186.JPG
712bis18 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Laureate
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "FORTVNA A"
Fortuna standing left with scales and cornucopia
Unmarked mint
RIC -
Competent obverse but a blundered reverse
mauseus
rjb_car_rep3_03_09.jpg
79132 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & Cuirassed bust right
Rev "FORTVNA AVG"
Fortuna stg left
Unmarked mint
RIC 791
mauseus
791cf.jpg
791cf50 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: "FORTVNA AVG"
Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Unmarked mint
RIC cf791
Overstruck on a Mint I antoninianus of Victorinus, PAX AVG, V/star
mauseus
791cf~0.jpg
791cf37 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS PF....."
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "FORTVNA AVG"
Fortuna standing left holding cornucopia and rudder(?)
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 791)
mauseus
rjb_2016_02_17.jpg
796cf7 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & Cuirassed bust right
Rev "FORTVNA R"
Fortuna stg left holding baton and cornucopia
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 796)
mauseus
rjb_2017_03_08.jpg
796cf20 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "FORT RED[V]"
Fortuna stg left holding baton and cornucopia
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 796)
mauseus
Quietus_Ant.jpg
8.5 Quietus37 viewsQuietus
Usurper in the East, 260-261 AD
BI Antoninianus, Antioch (3.47 gm)
IMP C FVL QVIETVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / FORT REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding tiller and cornucopia; star in left field.
RIC 4. EF / VF, worn reverse die
Ex Heritage Auctions, 9/2013
1 commentsSosius
aurred.jpg
Aurelian, Antoninianus, Siscia12 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REDVX, Fortuna Redux seated left on wheel, holding rudder and cornucopia.
star P in ex. Siscia mint, 21.6 mm., 2.5 g. RIC online 2043
NORMAN K
claud41a.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, RIC 41 Rome25 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Claudius II Gothis
Obverse: IMP CLAUVDIO AVG , radiate head right.
Reverse: FORTVNA, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Z in right field.
RIC 41, Rome. 20.5 mm., 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
GordianiII_Fordredux.jpg
Gordian III AR Antoninianus, RIC 143, RSC 9715 views
Gordian III AR Antoninianus. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORT REDUX, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, wheel beneath. RSC 97.
Sear Roman Coins and their Values (RCV 2000 Edition) Number 8612
Britanikus
DSC01795.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-42gm 15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01834.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-6gm 13 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
IMG_0351.JPG
Q. Sicinius11 viewsMoneyer issues of Imperatorial Rome. Q. Sicinius. Early 49 BC. AR Denarius (17.5mm, 3.89 g, 4h). Rome mint. Diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani right / Palm frond with fillet and winged caduceus in saltire; wreath above. Crawford 440/1; CRI 1; Sydenham 938; Sicinia 5. Near VF, toned, some iridescence, banker’s marks and a couple scratches under tone on obverse, traces of deposits, a few minor marks on reverse.

Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli
axz.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS., 193-211 CE. AR Denarius18 views17 x 18 mm, 3.3 gm). Struck 197 AD.
Obverse: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIIII, laureate head right.
Reverse: PM TR P V COS II P P,Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopia in left.
RIC IV104; BMCRE 229; RSC 442.
NORMAN K
00002x00~0.jpg
24 viewsSPAIN
PB Tessera (13mm, 2.02 g)
Roma, holding Victory, and Fortuna, holding rudder and cornucopia, standing facing
Blank
Apparently unpublished
Ardatirion
tessera_2.JPG
67 viewsROME
Æ Tessera (12mm, 0.52g)
Crescent and stars series
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Three stars over crescent
Hristova & Jekov, Nikopolis 8.(?)0.48.1; vAuctions 270, lot 367
Ardatirion
DSC_6021.jpg
41 viewsROME. Musa.
PB Tessera (14mm, 1.99 g, 1 h)
Crossed cornucopia, caduceus, and trident
MVSA counterclockwise around small central pellet
Rostowzew -

Ex Emporium Hamburg 67 (10 May 2012), lot 743

The attributes of the two major commercial deities, the cornucopia of Fortuna and the caduceus of Mercury, combined here with the trident of Neptune, suggest that Musa may have been involved in shipping.
Ardatirion
00057x00~0.jpg
18 viewsROME
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.22 g, 6 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Anchor between two palm fronds
Rostovtsev -
Ardatirion
00002x00.jpg
29 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.99 g, 12 h)
Fortuna “Campestris” standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
C(AMP)
Rostowzew 2168; BM 639

Possibly ex Trau collection
Ardatirion
00021x00.jpg
25 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 4.09 g, 12 g)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Clasped hands
Rostowzew 2196; München 388-90; BM 567, 575
Ardatirion
00052x00.jpg
20 viewsROME
PB Tessera (15mm, 5.11 g, 12 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Cornucopia
Cf. Rostovtsev 2178 (circular)
Ardatirion
PB_Roman_Tessera_DP_2.jpg
56 viewsROME
PB Tessera (11 mm, 1.35 g, 12 h)
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
DP
Rostowzew 2307; Kircheriano 809-9

Cast from same mold as:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-42319
Ardatirion
PB_Roman_Tessera_DP_1.jpg
62 viewsROME
PB Tessera (11 mm, 1.24 g, 12 h)
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
DP
Rostowzew 2307; Kircheriano 809-9

Cast from same mold as:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-42318
1 commentsArdatirion
00058x00.jpg
18 viewsROME
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.60 g, 12 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Three grain ears; P to left, AB to right
Rostovtsev 402; Rostovtsev & Prou 73; Scholz 241
Ardatirion
00006x00~6.jpg
17 viewsROME
PB Tessera (15mm, 1.90 g, 6h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia, within triangular frame
(HL)E
Rostovtsew –

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 55 (13 September 2000), lot 1201 (part of)

The token manufacturer accidentally combined a stock obverse intended for a triangular token with a custom reverse for a circular one.
Ardatirion
tessera~2.jpg
39 viewsROME
PB Tessera. (18mm, 3.09 g)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Juno standing left, holding patera and long scepter
Rostowzew -; Milan 324

Ex Phil DeVicchi Collection
Ardatirion
tessera~1.jpg
33 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm; 3.10 g)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
L · A · T
Rostowzew 2330
Ardatirion
00019x00~1.jpg
11 viewsROME
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.77 g, 12h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
LSS
Rostowzew –

Ex RBW Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 376, 15 June 2016), lot 770 (part of); Artemide 5E (19 December 2010), lot 1163 (part of)
Ardatirion
9.jpg
30 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 1.24 g)
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Mercury standing left, holding bag and caduceus
Rostowzew 2648; BM 216
Ardatirion
00020x00.jpg
20 viewsROME
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.98 g, 12 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Modius with three grain ears
Rostowzew 351
Ardatirion
00018x00~3.jpg
10 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.10 g, 12h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
M/VE
Rostowzew 2357 corr. (arrangement of rev. legend); BM 700

Ex RBW Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 376, 15 June 2016), lot 770 (part of); Artemide 5E (19 December 2010), lot 1163 (part of)
Ardatirion
8331.jpg
26 viewsROME
PB Tessera (14mm, 1.64 g, 7 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Palm frond
Rostowzew 2230; cf. München 411 (style); Turcan 432

Ex Artcoins Roma Electronic Auction 5 (29 May 2012), lot 247 (part of)
Ardatirion
00007x00.jpg
22 viewsROME
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.59 g, 12 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Palm frond
Rostowzew 2230; München 411; Turcan 432

Possibly ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
Y04376.jpg
32 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.58 g, 12h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Serpent right
Rostovtzev 1564; Milan 233-4; München 255; BM 565
1 commentsArdatirion
Kölner_Münzkabinett_Tyll_Kroha_-_5_December_2014_-_lot_406.jpg
31 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.56 g, 12 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Silvanus standing left, holding scythe and branch
Rostovtsev 2977; München 368; BM 397; Paris 390; Kircheriano 922-4

Ex Kölner Münzkabinett Tyll Kroha 102 (5 December 2014), lot 406
1 commentsArdatirion
00003x00.jpg
19 viewsROME
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.00 g, 6 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Wreath
Rostowzew 2216; München 406

Possibly ex Trau collection.
Ardatirion
DSC_0203.jpg
18 viewsROME
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.77 g, 12 h)
Mercury standing facing, holding bag and caduceus
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostowzew 2647.1 = Rostowzew & Prou 300

The style of this piece is finer than one would expect for a common Roman type. Although difficult to tell without an illustration, Rostowzew 2647.1 is the only listed specimen near the size and is persumably of the same style.
Ardatirion
00004x00~1.jpg
21 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.57 g, 12 h)
Mercury standing facing, holding bag and caduceus
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostowzew 2647.9, 2647.10-1 = Ruggerio 239, 242
Ardatirion
00008x00~1.jpg
11 viewsROME
PB Tessera (12mm, 1.38 g)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Phallus
Rostovtsev 914 = BM 1181, 1819-21 var. (Fortuna right); Turcan 434 var. (same)
Ardatirion
10221s00.jpg
25 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.47 g, 7h)
Mercury standing facing, holding bag and caduceus
Rooster standing right
Rostovtsev 2664.1 = Rostovtsev & Prou 571; cf. Milan 417-21 (smaller size)

Ex Tom Vossen Collection
Ardatirion
Y04286.jpg
42 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.40 g, 12h)
Radiate and draped bust of Sol right; behind, dolphin swimming upwards
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostovtzev -
1 commentsArdatirion
00013x00.jpg
36 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.71 g, 12 h)
Imperial issue (?)
Venus Victrix standing right, resting arm on cippus and holding transverse scepter and clasping hands with Mars, standing left
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostowzew 153, pl. III 2; München 16-7; Kircheriano 572, 582, 738, and 741

Rostowzew places this with the "Tesserae capitibus et nominibus imperatorum signatae" on the basis of type. In my studies, I have noticed that many of the types bearing Imperial portraiture or names are much more finely engraved, often with a centering dot and pronounced rims.
Ardatirion
00008x00~0.jpg
12 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 5.32 g, 6 h)
Venus standing left, holding mirror and adjusting hair
Bunch of grapes
Rostowzew – (but cf. 484 for a similar type with Fortuna on the obverse)
Ardatirion
fortuna1.JPG
20 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (20mm, 7.10 g)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia; Λ O flanking
Blank
Cf. Gülbay & Kireç 45 (for obv.)
Ardatirion
nerva.jpg
(0096) NERVA15 views96 - 98 AD
struck 97 AD
Copper as, 28.3 mm; 10.735 g RIC II 83, BMCRE III 130, Cohen II 68, BnF III 116, Hunter I -, SRCV II
O: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right;
R: FORTVNA AVGVST (good fortune of the Emperor), Fortuna standing left, rudder held by tiller in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field;
Rome mint; RIC II 83, BMCRE III 130, Cohen II 68, BnF III 116, Hunter I -, SRCV II --from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren
(ex Forum)
laney
nerva_wba.jpg
(0096) NERVA39 views96 - 98 AD
AE 25 mm 6.20 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
laney
a_pius_fortuna_b_res.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS16 views138-161 AD
Struck 139 AD
AE As 27 mm, 8.91 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Fortuna standing left holding cornucopia and rudder, S-C
Rome
RIC 533b
laney
ANTONINUS_FORT_03_08.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS--FORTUNA34 views138 - 161 AD
AE As 27.5 mm 8.50 g
O: LAUR HEAD R
R: FORTUNA STANDING L HOLDING RUDDER AND CORNUCOPIAE, S/C
laney
didius_b_res.jpg
(0193) DIDIUS JULIANUS38 views193 AD
AE Sestertius, 26 mm; 15.36 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe
Rome mint; RIC IV 15; Banti 5. Rare
ex CNG
laney
domna_fourree.jpg
(0193) JUIA DOMNA34 viewsb. ca. 170, d. 217
(wife of Septimius Severus; mother of emperors Geta and Caracalla)
AR Fouree Denarius 19 mm, 3.49 g
O: IVLIA AVGVSTA draped bust right
R: FORTVN-[A]E AVG, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae
)(reverse type does not appear to have been used on official Domna denarius issues)
laney
markian_fortuna_copy.jpg
(0217) DIADUMENIAN34 views217 - 218 AD
AE 20 x 22 mm, 4.05 g
Obv: M OPELLIOC ANTWNEINOC K, bare head right
Rev: MARKIANOPOLEITWN, Tyche/Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae.
Moesia Inferior, Marcianopolis, Moushmov 604
scarce
laney
julia_mam_fortuna_deul_RES.jpg
(0222) JULIA MAMAEA17 views(mother of Severus Alexander)
AE 23.5 mm, 8.18 g
222 - 235 AD
O: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed draped bust right
R: COL FL PAC DEVLTUM, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae.
Deultum mint; Moushmov 3630
laney
phil_i_fortuna_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I (THE ARAB)18 views244 - 249 AD
Orichalcum sestertius 25 mmm 10.27 g
O: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: FORTVNA REDVX S C, Fortuna seated left on wheel, rudder in right, cornucopia in left
RIC IV 174a
laney
clau_goth_fortuna_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS17 views268 - 270 AD
AE 19.5 mm, 2.73 g
O: IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG radiate bust right
R: FORTVNA REDVX; Fortune standing left; SPQR in exe
Cyzicus mint
RIC 234
laney
QUINTILLUS.jpg
(0270) QUINTILLUS21 views270 AD
AE 18,5 nn 3,10 g
O: IMP M AVG CL QVINTILLVS [PF] AVG
RAD BUST R
R: FORTVNA RDEVX
FORTUNA STANDING L HOLDING RUDDER & GLOBE
(possibly unofficial)
laney
vesp_fortuna.jpg
(10) VESPASIAN21 views69 - 79 AD
AE Dupondius 29 mm, 11.24 g
O: VESPASIAN AVG COS III radiate head right, small globe below point of neck
R: FO[RTVNAE]REDVCI/SC Fortune standing left holding branch and rudder on globe, and cornucopia
Lugdunum mint
laney
domitian_res.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN29 views81 - 96 AD
AE 25.5 mm 7.91 g
O: Laureate head right
R: (probably) Fortuna holding cornucopia and rudder, S-C
laney
DOMITIAN_FORTUNA_2_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN30 views81 - 96 AD
AE As 27 mm 11.72 g
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS -- Laureate bust right
R: FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S-C Fortuna standing left with rudder and cornucopia
laney
DOMITIAN_FORTUNA_1.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN25 views81 - 96 AD
AE As 27 mm 11.32 g
O: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER PP Laureate head right
R: FORTVNA [AVGVSTI] S-C Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
laney
Philip_I.jpg
*SOLD*25 viewsPhilip I Orichalcum Sestertius

Attribution: RIC 174a, Rome; Sear 8996
Date: AD 248
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate draped bust r.
Reverse: FORTVNA RDVX, Fortuna seated l., holding rudder and cornucopiae, wheel below seat, SC in exergue
Size: 28 mm
Weight: 14.12 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Antonius_Pius.jpg
*SOLD*17 viewsAntoninus Pius AE/As

Attribution: RIC III, 1024
Date: AD 158-159
Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII, laureate head r.
Reverse: FORTVNA OBSEQENS, Fortuna standing l. holding patera and rudder set on a prow in r. hand cornucopia in l., S-C across fields, COS IIII in exergue
Size: 23 mm
Weight: 10.21 grams
Noah
Hadrian_Copper_As_-_RIC_II_811.jpg
*SOLD*20 viewsHadrian Copper As

Attribution: RIC II 811
Date: AD 134-138
Obverse: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head r.
Reverse: FORTVNA AVG, Fortuna stg. l., rudder in r., cornucopia in l.
Size: 26.6 mm
Weight: 10.4 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Hadrian.jpg
001 - Hadrian (117-138 AD), denarius - RIC 18106 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laurate bust right, draped on far shoulder.
Rev. P M TR P COS II, Fortuna seated left with rudder and cornucopiae, FORT RED in exe.
Minted in Rome, 117-118 AD.
2 commentspierre_p77
165Hadrian__RIC10.jpg
010 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Fortuna48 viewsReference
Strack 14; RIC 10; C. 749a; BMC 20

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front.

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS
Fortuna, veiled, enthroned left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left, FORT RED in exergue.

2.48 gr
19 mm
10h

Note.
"Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) Traian(o) Hadriano Aug(usto) Divi Tra(iani) / Parth(ici) f(ilio) Divi Ner(vae) nep(oti) p(ontifici) m(aximo) tr(ibunicia) p(otestate) co(n)s(uli) Fort(unae) red(uci)"
okidoki
1311Hadrian_RIC10.jpg
010 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Fortuna14 viewsReference
Strack 14; RIC 10; C. 749; BMC 20

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS
Fortuna, veiled, enthroned left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left, FORT RED in exergue.

4.02 gr
19 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
domitiandupondius.jpg
011. Domitian, 81-96AD. AE Dupondius.118 viewsDomitian. AE Dupondius. 10.08g, 28.3mm, 180o, Rome mint, Apr - Nov 85 A.D.;
Obverse IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P, radiate head right with aegis.
Reverse FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S C, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia. scarce. choice gVF. RIC 293, Cohen 121.
2 commentsLordBest
294_P_Hadrian_Strack7.jpg
012 Hadrian Denarius Antioch 119-22 AD Fortuna standing24 viewsReference.
Strack *7 Strack Taf. XX, 9-10; RIC II, --; BMCRE --; C. 1179. BMC 1023.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front

Rev. PM TR POT E[S COS III]
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia

2.02 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
1__Commodus.jpg
012.Commodus 177–192 AD40 viewsAR Denarius
Mint: Rome, Date:179-180 AD
Obv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Rev: TR P V IMP III COS II PP, Fortuna seated left, holding a rudder and cornucopiae, wheel below seat.
Size:18.5mm;3.38gms
Ref: RIC III,2
2 commentsbrian l
0147.jpg
0147 - Denarius Sicinia 49 BC45 viewsObv/ Diademed head of Fortuna r.; before, FORT; behind, PR.
Rev/ Palm branch tied with fillet and winged caduceus, in saltire; above, wreath; below, Q SICINIVS; III VIR at sides.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 4.03 g
Moneyer: Q. Sicinius.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 440/1 [dies o/r: 129/143] - Syd.938
ex-CNG, auction e260, lot 453 (ex–Dante Alighieri colln., CNG auction e219, lot 406).
dafnis
Commodus_denar1.jpg
017 - Commodus (177-192 AD), denarius - RIC 235 viewsObv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: TR P V IMP III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia, wheel under chair.
Minted in Rome 179 AD.
pierre_p77
453_P_Hadrian_Strack.jpg
018 Hadrian Denarius Antioch 119-22 AD Fortuna standing32 viewsReference.
Strack *11; RIC II, --; BMCRE --; RSC --RSC 1179e;

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right, aegis on left shoulder


Rev. PM TR POTES III COS III
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia

3.08 gr
18 mm
okidoki
commodusdenarius.JPG
018. Commodus, 180-193AD. AR Denarius.33 viewsObv. Laureate head right M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT
Rev. Fortuna seated left, hold rudder attached to globe & cornucopia P M TR P XI IMP VII COS V P P

RIC 131, Cohen 150, BMC 202.
LordBest
Copy_of_hadrian_3x_tet_den_den_obv_03.JPG
02 - Hadrian Denarii and Tetradrachm35 viewsTop: Hadrian Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt. Eirene reverse.
Bottom Right: Hadrian Denarius, Roma. Rome Mint.
Bottom Left: Hadrian Denarius, Fortuna. Rome Mint.
rexesq
Copy_of_hadrian_3x_tet_den_den_obv_01.JPG
02 - Hadrian Denarii and Tetradrachm38 viewsTop: Hadrian Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt. Eirene

To Right: Hadrian AR Denarius, Roma. Rome Mint.

To Left: Hadrian AR Denarius, Fortuna. Rome Mint.
rexesq
Copy_of_hadrian_denarii_fortuna_roma_obv_03.JPG
02 - Hadrian Denarii... 03 and 0242 viewsTo Right: Hadrian AR Denarius, Roma. Rome Mint.

To Left: Hadrian AR Denarius, Fortuna. Rome Mint.
1 commentsrexesq
Commodus_denar4.jpg
020 - Commodus (177-192 AD), denarius - RIC 235 var.38 viewsObv: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate bust right.
Rev: P M TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII P P, Fortuna standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia; star in right field.
Minted in Rome 192 AD.

RIC 235 var, star in right field instead of left field.
pierre_p77
Titus_AE-Dup_T-CAES-VESPAS-dot-IMP-dot-P-dot-TRP-COS-II_S-C_ROMA_RIC-xx_C-xx_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_axes-h_27mm_3,28g-2-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !, 496 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !,
avers:- T CAES VESPAS•IMP•P•TRP COS II, Radiate head right.
revers:- Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium, S-C across the field, ROMA in exergo.
exerg: S/C//ROMA, diameter: 27mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 72 A.D., ref: RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), C-Not in !!!,
Q-001

"Titus' coins with obverse legend T CAES VESPAS IMP P TR P COS II were struck in year 72, first issue.No ROMA reverse is listed in RIC for Titus in this issue, so you may have found a new type! "by FlaviusDomitianus. Thank you FlaviusDomitianus.
""Titus' issue of bronze coins with COS II and the abbreviations CAES VESPAS is altogether rare. RIC 411-417 only lists two sestertius types, R2 and R3; one dupondius type, FELICITAS PVBLICA, R2, unfortunately not illustrated, it would be nice to compare the obverse die with your coin; and four As types, all R2.

The same ROMA reverse die of your coin was apparently also used for dupondii with other obverse legends:

RIC 396, pl. 31, Vespasian COS IIII.

RIC 438, pl. 34, Titus CAES VESPASIAN P TR P COS II; also pl. 34, RIC 436 (rev. only), which should have ROMA around edge and SC in exergue, but in fact has ROMA in exergue and S - C in field, so seems to be another example of RIC 438.

Titus CAES VESPASIAN PON TR POT (instead of P TR P) COS II: my collection ex G. Hirsch 229, 2003, lot 2219; not in RIC."" by Curtis Clay, Thank you Curtis.
5 commentsquadrans
Elagabalus_denar.jpg
024 - Elagabalus (218-222 AD), denarius - RIC 1933 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right.
Rev: P M TR P II COS II P P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia, wheel under chair.
Minted in Rome 219 AD
pierre_p77
Domitian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XI-CENS-PER-P-P_FORTVNAE-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-II-299bvar-Rome-85-AD-Rare_Q-001_axis-7h_26-28mm_9,87g-s.jpg
024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0415, RIC II(1962) 0299b, (revers legend var.), AE-As, Rome, FORTVNA(E)-AVGVSTI (!!!), S-C, Rare !!!,338 views024c Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0415, RIC II(1962) 0299b, (revers legend var.), AE-As, Rome, FORTVNA(E)-AVGVSTI (!!!), S-C, Rare !!!,
avers:- IMP-CAES-DOMIT-AVG-GERM-COS-XI-CENS-PER-P-P, Laureate head of Domitian right, wearing aegis.
revers:- FORTVNA(E)-AVGVSTI (!!!), Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae, S-C across the field.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 A.D., ref:RIC 0415, RIC II(1962) 0299b p-192, (revers legend var.), Rare!,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
026_Nerva,_RIC_II_084,_Rome,_AE-Dup,_IMP_NERVA_CAES_AVG_P_M_TR_P_COS_III_P_P,_FORTVNA_AVGVST,_97_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_26,5mm,_11,75g-s.jpg
026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 084, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S/C//--, FORTVNA AVGVST Fortuna standing left,135 views026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 084, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S/C//--, FORTVNA AVGVST Fortuna standing left,
avers: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, Radiate head of Nerva right.
reverse: FORTVNA AVGVST Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae and rudder, S-C to sides.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 26,5mm, weight:11,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 97 A.D., ref: RIC II 84, p-, C-69,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-TRAIANO-OPTIMO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P_SENATVS-POPVPLVS-QVE-ROMANVS_FORT_RED_SC_RIC-651-p-290_C-157_Rome-114-17-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0651, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SENATVS POPVPLVSQVE ROMANVS, -/-//FORT•RED/SC, Fortuna seated left,135 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0651, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SENATVS POPVPLVSQVE ROMANVS, -/-//FORT•RED/SC, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-TRAIANO-OPTIMO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P, Laureate draped bust right.
revers:- SENATVS-POPVPLVS-QVE-ROMANVS, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//FORT•RED/SC, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 114-117 A.D., ref: RIC-II-651-p-290, C-157,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
033.jpg
028b GORDIAN III9 viewsEMPEROR: Gordian III
DENOMINATION: Antoninianus
OBVERSE: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
REVERSE: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
DATE: 243-244 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 4.50
RIC: 144
Barnaba6
hadrian_AD119-122_AR-denarius_fortuna_obv_08.JPG
03 - Hadrian Denarius - Fortuna28 viewsHadrian AR Denarius. AD119-121

obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANUS AUG - Laureate bust right. 'Heroic bust'
rev: P M TR P COS III - Fortuna leaning against column, holding cornucopiae and rudder.

3.4 Grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD119-122_AR-denarius_fortuna_001_002.JPG
03 - Hadrian Denarius - Fortuna47 viewsHadrian AR Denarius. AD119-121

obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANUS AUG - Laureate bust right. 'Heroic bust'
rev: P M TR P COS III - Fortuna leaning against column, holding cornucopiae and rudder.

3.4 Grams.
1 commentsrexesq
RI_030s_img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Denarius - COS ITER FORT RED15 viewsDenarius
Obv:- IMP CAESAR VESPASIANS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS ITER FORT RED, Fortuna standing left, resting right hand on prow and holding cornucopiae in left
maridvnvm
RI_030o_img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Dupondius - RIC 73928 viewsObv:– IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS IIII, Radiate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, S-C, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 72-73
Reference:– RIC II old 739. II new 1187

Weight 11.75g. 28.78mm.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 030d img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Dupondius - RIC 754b25 viewsObv:– IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS VIII P P, Laureate head right, globe on neck
Rev:– FORTVNAE AVGVSTI S - C, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 77-78
References:– Cohen -.(Cohen 166 is Radiate but Cohen doesn’t list a laureate version). RIC II 754b
maridvnvm
Hadrian_AR-Den_IMP-CAESAR-TRAIAN-HADRIANVS-AVG_P-M-TR-P-COS-III_RIC-II-86_RSC-Not-in_121-AD_Q-001_6h_17,5-18mm_3,24g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0086, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P COS III, Fortuna standing left, #1224 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0086, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P COS III, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: IMP-CAESAR-TRAIAN-HADRIANVS-AVG, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers: P-M-TR-P-COS-III, Fortuna standing left, leaning on column, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,24g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 121 A.D., ref: RIC II 86, RSC-Not-in
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Hadrian_AE-As_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_COS-III-P-P_S-C_FORT-RED_RIC-II-723var_C-737v__132-134-AD_Q-001_6h_25-26mm_8,99g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0723var., Rome, AE-As, COS III P P, S/C//FORT RED, Fortuna seated left,136 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0723var., Rome, AE-As, COS III P P, S/C//FORT RED, Fortuna seated left,
avers: HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS, Bare headed and draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers: COS III P P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exerg: S/C//FORT RED, diameter: 25-26mm, weight: 8,99g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 132-134 A.D., ref: RIC-II-723var. p-433, C-737,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Ant_Pius_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XV_COS-IIII_RIC-205var_p-51_RSC-267_151-2-AD_Q-001_7h_17-17,5mm_2,98g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0205var, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS IIII, Fortuna standing right,139 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0205var, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS IIII, Fortuna standing right,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XV, Laureate bust right.
revers: COS-IIII, Fortuna standing right, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 2,98g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 151-152 A.D., ref: RIC-III-205var, p-51_RSC-267, BMCRE-768,
Q-001
quadrans
Ant_Pius_AR-denarius_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-PP-TR-P-XVII_COS-IIII_RIC-III-232_Rome_154-AD_Q-001_axis-h_16mm_x,xxg-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0232, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS-IIII, Fortuna standing right,303 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0232, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS-IIII, Fortuna standing right,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XVII, Laureate head right.
revers:- COS-IIII, Fortuna standing right, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 154 A.D., ref: RIC-III-232, p-, C-271,
Q-001
quadrans
Ant_Pius_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-PP-TR-P-XXIII_FORTVNA-COS-IIII_RIC-300b_C-383_159-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_16,5-17,5mm_3,13g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0300b, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTVNA COS IIII, Fortuna standing faceing, head right,141 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0300b, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTVNA COS IIII, Fortuna standing faceing, head right,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XXIII, Laureated and draped bust right.
revers:- FORTVNA-COS-IIII, Fortuna standing faceing, head right, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,5mm, weight: 3,13g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 159 A.D., ref: RIC-III-300b p-62, C-383,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
037b_Marc-Aurelius_AR-Den_M_AVREL_ANTO_NINVS_AVG_TR_P_XXXIIII_IMP_X_COS_III_P_P_RIC-409v__Rome-180-AD_Q-001_0h_17,5mm_327g-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0409v., Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III P P, Fortuna seated left,153 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0409v., Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III P P, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- M AVREL•ANT ONINVS AVG, Laurate cuirassed bust right.
revers:- TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III P P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,27g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date:180 A.D., ref: RIC-III-409v., p-245, C-972, Sear-,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
037b_Marcus_Aurelius,_RIC_III_409var2_,_AR-Den,_M_AVREL_ANT_ONINVS_AVG,_TR_P_XXXIIII_IMP_X_COS_III_P_P,_Rome,_180_AD_Q-001,_6h,_17,5-19mm,_3,27g-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0409var2., Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III P P, Fortuna seated left,167 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0409var2., Rome, AR-Denarius, TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III P P, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- M AVREL•ANT ONINVS AVG, Laureate draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- TR P XXXIIII IMP X COS III P P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,27g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date:180 A.D., ref: RIC III 409var2., p-245, RSC 972b, BMCRE 805 note, Szaivert MIR 18 461-4/37, Sear-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RI 038a img.jpg
038 - Nerva Dupondius - RIC 06172 viewsObv:– IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, Laureate Head Right
Rev:– FORTVNA AVGVST / S C, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Mint – Rome
Reference RIC 61
Weight 13.2g
maridvnvm
107Hadrian__RIC41.jpg
041 Hadrian Denarius Roma 118 AD Fortuna41 viewsReference.
Strack 35; RIC 41a; C.745.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
laureate bust right, draped on far shoulder with Aegis, seen from front

Rev. P M TR P COS II in Ex FORT RED
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder & cornucopiae.

3.18 gr
19 mm
11h
okidoki
Commodus_AR-Den_L-AVREL-COM-MODVS-AVG_TR-P-IIII-IMP-III-COS-II-P-P_RIC-III-661v-p-267-Marc_Aur_Rome_179_AD_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5-19mm_3,54g-s.jpg
041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0661var. (M.Aurel.), Rome, AR-denarius, TR P IIII IMP III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left,374 views041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0661var. (M.Aurel.), Rome, AR-denarius, TR P IIII IMP III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-L-AVREL-COMMODVS-GERM-SARM, Laureate cuirassed (!) bust right, seen from the back.
revers:- TR-P-IIII-IMP-III-COS-II-P-P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair.
exerg: , diameter: 18,5-19 mm, weight: 3,54 g, axis: 6 h ,
mint: Rome, date: 179 A.D., ref: RIC-III-661var. (Marc.Aurel), p-267, Cuirassed bust !,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Commodus_AR-Den_M-COMM-ANT-P-FEL-AVG-BRIT_P-M-TR-P-XI-IMP-VII-C-OS-V-P-P_FORRED_RIC-III-131_p-380_C-150_Romae_186-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_16,5-17,5mm_2,71g-s.jpg
041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0131, Rome, AR-denarius, P M TR P XI IMP VII COS V P P, Fortuna seated left,339 views041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0131, Rome, AR-denarius, P M TR P XI IMP VII COS V P P, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- M-COMM-ANT-P-FEL-AVG-BRIT, Laureate head right.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-XI-IMP-VII-C-OS-V-P-P, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair.
exe: -/-//FORRED, diameter: 16,5-17,5 mm, weight: 2,71 g, axis: 5 h ,
mint: Rome, date: 186 A.D., ref: RIC-III-131 , p-380,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_044m_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Ae Sestertius - RIC 0541a var.50 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG, Laureate bust right with drapery on far shoulder, strap across chest from right to left shoulder
Rev:- PONT MAX TR POT COS, FORT RED/S C in two lines in exergue, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 117
Reference:– BMCRE 1111. Cohen 751 var. (cuirassed). RIC II 541a var. (cuirassed).

Quite a scarce coin.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_044e_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC -37 viewsObv:- IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, Laureate, heroically nude bust right, drapery on left shoulder, baldric strap around back of neck and across chest
Rev:-P M TR P COS II, FORT RED in exergue, Fortuna Redux, veiled, seated left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 118
Reference:– RIC - (cf. RIC 41, but unlisted with this bust type)

Ex Harlan Berk. Ex- BeastCoins Hadrian collection.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_044ah_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC 01016 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, Laureate bust right with light drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS / FORT RED, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Rome Mint.A.D. 117. Group II.
Reference:- RIC 10, BMC 22-23
maridvnvm
RI_044ao_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Sestertius - RIC 541a18 viewsSestertius
Obv:- IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- PONT MAX TR POT COS / FORT RED / S C, Fortuna,seated left, holding rudder and cornucopa.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 117
Reference:- RIC 541a, Cohen 751. BMCre 1110
maridvnvm
RI_048ae_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 18813 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIII, laureate head right
Rev:- COS IIII, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 149-150
Reference(s) – RIC 188; RSC 264
maridvnvm
RI_048ag_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius denarius - RIC 22213 viewsObv:- ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVI, laureate head right
Rev:- COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 152-153
Reference(s) – RIC 222, RSC 270, BMC 790
maridvnvm
RI 048e img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius dupondius - RIC 99092 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXI, Radiate head facing right
Rev:– FORTVNA OBSEQVENS COS IIII / S C, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 157 - 158
Reference RIC 990 (Scarce)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-VIII_FORTVNAE-R-EDVCI_RIC-IV-I-78a_p-_RSC-188_BMCRE-V-161_Rome-196-197_AD_Q-001_7h_17,5mm_3,04g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 078a, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna seated left,178 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 078a, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-VIII, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FORTVNAE-R-EDVCI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia, wheel under seat.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 196-197A.D.,ref: RIC-IV-I-078a, p-, RSC-188, BMCRE-V-161
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-X_P-M-TR-P-V-COS-II-PP_RIC-IV-I-115A-p-104_Rome-197-8-AD_S_Q-001_6h_16,5-17,5mm_2,49g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 115A, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, Scarce !218 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 115A, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, Scarce !
avers: L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-X, Laurate bust right.
revers: P-M-TR-P-V-COS-II-P-P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,49g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 197-198 A.D.,ref: RIC-IV-I-115A, p-104, RSC-, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERTAVG-COS-II_FORTVN-R-EDVC_RIC-IV-I-383-p-_RSC-175a_Emesa-194-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18,5mm_2,84g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #1146 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FORTVN-R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, holding long palm and cornucopia.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,37g, axis: 6h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-383, p-, RSC-175a, S-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_FORTVN-R-EDVC_RIC-IV-I-383-p-_RSC-175a_Emesa-194-AD_Scarce_Q-002_0h_17,5mm_3,14g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #268 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FORTVN-R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, holding long palm and cornucopia.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,14g, axis: 0h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-383, p-, RSC-175a, S-,
Q-002
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-PERT_AVG-IMP-VII-I_FORT-R-E-DVC_RIC-IV-I-477-p155_Laodicea-195-7-Selten_AD_Q-001_axis-0h_17,5-18mm_2,61g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 477, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, Scarce!177 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 477, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, Scarce!
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-VII-I, laureate head right
revers:- FORT-R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter:17,5-18mm, weight:2,61g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare, date: 195-7 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-477, p-155, C-, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_L-SEPT-SEV-PE-RT-AVG-IMP-VIII_FORTA-REDVC_RIC-479_Laodicea-193-4-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_18mm_3,62g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 479, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, FORTA REDVC, Fortuna seated left, 89 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 479, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, FORTA REDVC, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-VIII, laureate head right
revers:- FORTA-R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
exe:-/-//--, diameter:18mm, weight:3,62g, axis: 11h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare, date: 195-7 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-479, p-155, C-170,
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-VIII_FORT-R-EDVC-RIC-IV-479Ab_C-157b_Q-001-18mm_2_52g.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 479Ab, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, 184 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 479Ab, Laodicea ad Mare, AR-Denarius, FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left,
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-VIII, Laureate head right.
revers:- FORT-R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long palm in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter:18mm, weight:2,52g, axis: h,
mint: Laodicea, date: 197 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-479Ab, C-157b,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
1236Hadrian_RIC360.jpg
050 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna23 viewsReference.
cfRIC 360;cf C 724; cf BMCRE 516; Strack 26*

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PP
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right

Rev. COS III, in Ex.FORT RED
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia.

3.01 gr
18 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
RIC_IV-I_553_Julia-Domna,_AR-Den,_IVLIA_AVGVSTA,_FORTUNAE_FELICI,_Rome,_RSC-58,_BMC-27,_Sear-6584,_196-211_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_19-20mm,_3,67g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 553, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTUNAE FELICI, Fortuna enthroned left, #166 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 553, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORTUNAE FELICI, Fortuna enthroned left, #1
avers: IVLIA AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
reverse: FORTUNAE FELICI, Fortuna enthroned left holding cornucopiae and leaning on rudder set on globe.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 196-211 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 553, RSC 58, BMC 27, Sear-6584,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
1026Hadrian_RIC211.jpg
050var. Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Fortuna Eastern mint??20 viewsReference.
cf RIC 211d; Str.*26var

Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Lauderate head right.

Rev: COS III PP In ex FORT RED
Fortuna seated left holding rudder on Globe and cornucopiae

3.35 gr
15 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
Caracalla,_Pisidia_Antioch_Caracalla_Genius_Branch_Q-001_0h,_6,06_g_,_22_mm-sa.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG Righetti 1337, AE-22, -/-//--, ANTIOCH GEN COL CA, Fortuna or female Genius standing left, #1103 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Pisidia, Antioch, SNG Righetti 1337, AE-22, -/-//--, ANTIOCH GEN COL CA, Fortuna or female Genius standing left, #1
avers: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: ANTIOCH GEN COL CA, Fortuna or female Genius standing left, holding branch and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 6,06g, axis: 0h,
mint: Pisidia, Antioch, date: 198-203 A.D., ref: SNG Righetti 1337, SNG Leypold II 1994,
Q-001
quadrans
Geta_AR-Den_RIC-75-p-324_C-51_Roma-211-AD_Q-001_0h_19mm_3,47g-s.jpg
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 075, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORT RED TR P III COS II, Fortuna seated left,160 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 075, Rome, AR-Denarius, FORT RED TR P III COS II, Fortuna seated left,
avers:- P-SEPT-GETA-PIVS-AVG-BRIT, Laureate head right.
revers:- FORT-RED-TR-P-III-COS-II, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, wheel below seat.
exe: , diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,47g, axis:- 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 211 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-075-p-324, C-51,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
53a.jpg
053a Elagabalus. AR denarius23 viewsobv: IMP ANTONINVS AVG laur. drp. bust r.
rev: PM TR P II COS II PP fortuna seated l. holding rudder on globe and
ornucopiae. wheel under seat
1 commentshill132
hadrian_3x_tet_den_den_obv_01.jpg
06 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - Hadrian Denarii35 viewsTop: Hadrian Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt. Eirene reverse. 12.65 grams.

Bottom Right: Hadrian AR Denarius, Roma reverse. Rome Mint. 3.22 grams.
Bottom Left: Hadrian AR Denarius, Fortuna reverse. Rome Mint.
(More photos and photos of reverses of both Denarii in my "Roman Imperial Denarii" Gallery)
1 commentsrexesq
985_Hadrian_RIC617.JPG
0617 Hadrian AS Roma 121-22 AD Fortuna20 viewsReference
RIC 617; C 748; Strack 570

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust right

Rev. P M TR P - COS III, in ex. FORT RED / S C.
Fortuna seated l., holding rudder and cornucopiae

10.38 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
RI 063f img.jpg
063 - Clodius Albinus As - RIC 59 96 viewsAE As
Obv:– D CL SEPT ALB CAES, Bare headed head right
Rev:– FORT REDVCI COS II, Fortuna, seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194 - A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE 547 note. RIC 59 (Rare)

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-

"Same dies as J. Hirsch 24, 1909, Weber 1793, Cat. 327 in my Oxford thesis.
The Fortuna Redux type is common on Albinus' sestertii, but rare on his denarii (4 spec. in Reka Devnia hoard) and on his asses. In my thesis I catalogued just eight specimens of the As, from two rev. dies. One of the rev. dies has wheel under seat, the other, from which your coin was struck, omits the wheel. Further specimens have turned up since 1972, but no new rev. dies.
Ragged flan as often and some pitting, but really quite a presentable specimen, in my opinion! "
maridvnvm
RI 064db img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus AS - RIC 81046 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RED P M TR P XIX COS III P P / S--C, Fortuna seated left ,holding rudder on globe, and cornucopiae: wheel under seat
Minted in Rome. A.D. 211
Reference:– Cohen 155. RIC 810 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_064jw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O2 - RIC -33 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064tg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O4 - RIC -25 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AV COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-DVC, Fortuna, seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -

2.81g, 18.68mm, 0o
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064kb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O6 - RIC 38837 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SE_V PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna(?) standing left holding cornucopia and sceptre
Copies a coin minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 364A (Oldroyd Bequest 1946 ex L.A.L.). RIC IV 388. RSC 159.
maridvnvm
RI_064rj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O6 - RIC 388 var18 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RE_DVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long sceptre & cornucopia.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference(s) – Cohen 159. RIC 388 var.
maridvnvm
RI_064el_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -50 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.

2.40g, 18.83mm, 0o

A very unusual obverse legend variant.
maridvnvm
RI_064an_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long scepter & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.

3.17g, 18.54mm, 0o

This is an unusual legend with several spelling errors. It is an obverse die match to a coin in the Doug Smith collection (different reverse type). A reverse die match exists in the British Museum (different obverse die).
maridvnvm
RI_064tb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC - 13 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long scepter & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI 064dl img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -59 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC unlisted. RSC/Cohen unlisted. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
maridvnvm
normal_RI_064da_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -31 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SE . V PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right (Longhead portrait)
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:- RIC -

3.36g, 19.07mm, 0o

Black toning.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ds_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -15 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) seated left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC - would be in the region of RIC 383 but this reverse type with Hilaritas seated not known
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.18g.
maridvnvm
RI 064ec img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -42 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -

This is the first occurrence of the Fortuna (Pax) type that I have seen for Laodicea.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ev_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -26 views064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 386 var
Obv:–IMP CAE L SEP SE . V PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right (Longhead portrait)
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:- RIC - (cf. RIC 386 which has a different reverse legend for this type FORTVN REDVC)
maridvnvm
RI 064fa img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -. RSC/Cohen -. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
maridvnvm
RI 064hj img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - 51 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-EVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -. RSC-. BMCRE -. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
maridvnvm
RI_064ik_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - 40 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-EVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -. RSC-. BMCRE -. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
Martin Griffiths
RI_064it_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -35 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DEVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194-5
References:– RIC -. RSC-. BMC W Page 108 * (citing Cohen 168 though Cohen 168 is PERT though the BMC coin is decribed as PERTE)
maridvnvm
RI_064ln_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -22 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERET AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in both hands
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:- BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC-.
maridvnvm
RI_064ma_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -31 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERTE AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R AVG, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

This reverse legend not listed for Septimius Severus at Laodicea.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064mr_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNE (sic) RDVCI (sic), Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

This reverse type not listed in any major references for this issue.
maridvnvm
RI_064fz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -36 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -

3.37g, 17.47mm, 0o

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064eq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.

3.05g, 18.20mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064jx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVA (sic) REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064nx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -34 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTA REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, holding long palm in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare, A.D. 196 – 197
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -
maridvnvm
RI_064ny_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTA REDVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare, A.D. 196 – 197
References:– RIC 479, RSC 170, BMCRE 442 Note. All citing Cohen 170 (Elberling Coll.)
maridvnvm
RI_064pa_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -19 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RDEVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -

This brittle coin was broken and being held together by the 2x2 it was held in. I didn't know this until I freed it and dozens of little flakes of coin poured out. They were too small for me to make any attempt at reconstruction.
maridvnvm
RI_064pq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -23 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTA REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, holding long palm in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare, A.D. 196 – 197
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -
maridvnvm
RI_064pp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTN (sic) R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– RIC -. RSC -. BMCRE -.
maridvnvm
RI_064se_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -13 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II CO, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
References:- RIC -. RSC -. BMCRE -.

The first example of this reverse type to turn up with this obverse variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064qq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DEVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMC W Page 108 * var (citing Cohen 168 though Cohen 168 is PERT). RIC 451 var (451 listed for PERT and noted for PERET (RD)). RSC 168 var (PERET for PERT)

Lamination issue that has left a lump of silver missing on the portrait.
maridvnvm
RI_064qm_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CE L . SEP SE-V PERT AVG . CO, laureate head right
Rev:– FOTVNA-E (sic) R-EDVCI, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -

Possibly only fifth example known. Other examples - BM ex Bickford-Smith and Curtis Clay coll., Vienna, formerly Barry Murphy coll., Triton VI lot (M. Melcher coll.), Doug Smith, all same die pair
maridvnvm
RI_064qo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II COS, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI II COS, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

A very rare obverse legend variety, combined with a rare reverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064ra_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE-RET AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-EVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMC W Page 108 * var (citing Cohen 168 though Cohen 168 is PERT). RIC 451 var (451 listed for PERT and noted for PERET (RD)). RSC 168 var (PERET for PERT)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064si_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -12 viewsDenarius
Obv:- L SEPT SEV PE-RET AVG IMP I - I, laureate head right
Rev:- FORTVN R-EDVCV (sic), Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae.
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMC -. RIC -. RSC -. 0 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI_064th_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -

Very rare obverse legend variety
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064rx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -8 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE-RTE AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMC W Page 108 -. RIC -. RSC -
maridvnvm
RI_064tu_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -11 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-EVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMC W Page 108 * var (citing Cohen 168 though Cohen 168 is PERT). RIC 451 var (451 listed for PERT and noted for PERET (RD)). RSC 168 var (PERET for PERT)
maridvnvm
RI_064fa_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -7 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -. RSC/Cohen -. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
maridvnvm
RI_064kn_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -4 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV [RE]DVC, Fortuna seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE - (This reverse type not listed for Laodicea, I also have an IMP II example). RIC -. RSC -
maridvnvm
RI_064dl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -9 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC unlisted. RSC/Cohen unlisted. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
maridvnvm
RI_064ec_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -6 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -

This is the first occurrence of the Fortuna (Pax) type that I have seen for Laodicea
maridvnvm
RI_064hj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -5 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-EVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -. RSC-. BMCRE -. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
maridvnvm
RI_064ik_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -7 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-EVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -. RSC-. BMCRE -. No examples in the Reka-Devnia hoard
maridvnvm
RI_064it_img~1.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -6 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DEVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194-5
References:– RIC -. RSC-. BMC W Page 108 * (citing Cohen 168 though Cohen 168 is PERT though the BMC coin is decribed as PERTE)
maridvnvm
RI_064jy_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -10 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R AVG, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ln_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -8 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERET AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in both hands
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:- BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC-.
maridvnvm
RI_064nd_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -8 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERTE AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DEVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in both hands
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064ub_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -9 viewsDenarius
Obv:– L SEPT SEVER PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev– FORTA EDVC or FORT REDVC (R corrected from A), Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMCRE ???. RIC IV ??? (??). RSC ??(£?)
maridvnvm
RI_064fj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -9 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PEPT(sic) AVG COS - (!!), Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.00g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but other examples of this die show two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvm
RI_064tz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -6 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PEPT(sic) AVG COS - !!, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.60g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but this example showw two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvm
RI 064h img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 08422 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopia and rudder on globe
Minted in Rome, A.D. 196-197
References:- VM 104/2, RIC 84, RSC 424
maridvnvm
RI_064me_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 11022 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE AVGG, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia, wheel under seat
Minted in Rome. A.D. 198
Reference:– RIC 110. RSC 198.
maridvnvm
RI 064au img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 13617 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P VII COS II P P, Fortuna standing front, head right, holding a cornucopiae and rudder: prow left
Minted in Rome, A.D. 199 - 200
References:– VM 108/1, RIC 136 (Common), RSC 452
maridvnvm
RI 064c img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 26422 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate bust facing right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left with wheel beneath seat.
Minted in Rome, 202-210 A.D.
References:– VM 38, RIC 264, RCV02 6279, RSC 181
maridvnvm
RI 064ah img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 26438 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate bust facing right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left with wheel beneath seat.
Minted in Rome, 202-210 A.D.
References:– VM 38, RIC 264, RCV02 6279, RSC 181
maridvnvm
RI_064op_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 33713 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– RIC 377. RSC 174a
maridvnvm
RI_064rc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 376B18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L CEP(sic) SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE - (Noted as variant of 352 in footnotes). RIC 376B (Rated Scarce). All citing RD paragraph 55, page 44, no. 205
maridvnvm
RI_064o_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37729 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 (Scarce), RSC 174a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.43g
maridvnvm
RI_064as_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37718 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 (Scarce), RSC 174a
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.47g.
maridvnvm
RI_064bm_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37722 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVC, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 (Scarce), RSC 174a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.17g.
maridvnvm
RI_064lx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 3779 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– RIC 377. RSC 174a
maridvnvm
RI_064eh_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 377 var17 views064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 377 var
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVS, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 var (unlisted with this reverse legend error)
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.32g.
maridvnvm
RI_064co_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37910 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT-V-N REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 379 (Scarce), RSC 173a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.71g.
maridvnvm
RI_064ei_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37924 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 379 (Scarce), RSC 173a
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 2.89g.
maridvnvm
RI_064ep_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38118 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE W354 note. RIC 381 (Scarce), RSC 185a

2.98g, 18.70mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064bu_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38311 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC 383 (Scarce), RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.45g
maridvnvm
RI_064u_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38327 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 383, RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.46g
maridvnvm
RI_064bx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 3839 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 383, RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.22g
maridvnvm
RI_064bd_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38323 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC 383 (Scarce), RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 1.97g
maridvnvm
RI_064lt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38311 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– RIC 383 (Scarce). RSC 175a.
maridvnvm
RI 064gn img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 383 var20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNE REDVCI, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC 383 var (unlisted long legend variant)
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.05g.

The early bust style, similar to that used in the COS I series combined with the long reverse legend places this coin early in the COS II series.
maridvnvm
RI_064gf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38517 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 385 (Scarce)
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.37g
maridvnvm
RI_064nj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38515 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 363 (Same die pair?). RIC 385 (listed variant) (S).
maridvnvm
RI_064lh_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 385 (listed variant)15 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– RIC 385 (listed variant) (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_064dc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 385 Note20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 385 Note (Scarce)
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 2.80g
maridvnvm
RI_064bn_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38623 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 386 (Common), RSC 177
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.23g
maridvnvm
RI_064cq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38621 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– F-ORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 386 (Common), RSC 177
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.72g
maridvnvm
RI_064mx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 440 corr.22 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RDEVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMCRE P. 106 (a) listed var.. RIC IV 440 corr. (440 is IMP I in error it is in fact IMP I-I as this coin but with second I off flan). RSC 153d corr. All citing RD p. 105.

Ex-Forvm A C
maridvnvm
RI_064sd_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 440 corr.14 viewsDenarius
Obv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DEVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMCRE P. 106 (a) listed var.. RIC IV 440 corr. (440 is IMP I in error it is in fact IMP I-I as this coin but with second I off flan). RSC 153d corr. All citing RD p. 105.
maridvnvm
RI 064cf img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 448 var.36 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DEVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC - (448 var.). BMCRE -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI 064bk img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 448 var.27 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DEVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 448 var (Scarce), RSC 160b

Obverse and reverse die match to my other specimen
maridvnvm
RI_064bk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 448 var.5 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DEVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 448 var (Scarce), RSC 160b

Obverse and reverse die match to my other specimen
maridvnvm
RI_064cf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 448 var.6 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DEVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC - (448 var.). BMCRE -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064ii_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 448 var.8 viewsObv:–L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMC W429 var (seems to be same obverse die but different reverse legend break cf FORT R-EDVC). RIC 448 var (448 listed for PERT and PERTE)
maridvnvm
RI 064hs img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 45022 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE[RT AVG IMP] II, Laureate head right
FORT RDEVC, Fortuna, seated left, holding cornucopia and sceptre
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE W430 (same reverse die). RIC 450 (S). RSC 153g
maridvnvm
RI_064hs_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 4504 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE[RT AVG IMP] II, Laureate head right
FORT RDEVC, Fortuna, seated left, holding cornucopia and sceptre
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE W430 (same reverse die). RIC 450 (S). RSC 153g
maridvnvm
RI 064bi img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 45335 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 (Scarce), RSC 157
maridvnvm
RI_064bi_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 4534 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 (Scarce), RSC 157
maridvnvm
RI_064be_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 453 var20 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 var. (Scarce), RSC 157

This coin varies from the standard RIC 453 in a couple of ways. The obverse legend carries the PERTE instead of PERET. The reverse legend is missing the E from REDVC.

The lines visible on the field of the coin may signify some filing applied to a possibly rusty die or even smotthing down burrs from a freshly made die.
maridvnvm
RI 064be img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 453 var76 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 var. (Scarce), RSC 157

This coin varies from the standard RIC 453 in a couple of ways. The obverse legend carries the PERTE instead of PERET. The reverse legend is missing the E from REDVC.

The lines visible on the field of the coin may signify some filing applied to the freshly prepaired die. A circle is also visible which is probably a guide line for the engraving of the legend.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064be rev detail 1.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 453 var reverse legend detail 148 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 var. (Scarce), RSC 157

This coin varies from the standard RIC 453 in a couple of ways. The obverse legend carries the PERTE instead of PERET. The reverse legend is missing the E from REDVC.

Detail of a section of the reverse legend.
maridvnvm
RI_064be_rev_crop.JPG
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 453 var reverse legend detail11 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 var. (Scarce), RSC 157

This coin varies from the standard RIC 453 in a couple of ways. The obverse legend carries the PERTE instead of PERET. The reverse legend is missing the E from REDVC.

Detail of a section of the reverse legend.
maridvnvm
RI 064be rev detail.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 453 var reverse legend detail 236 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERTE AVG IMP - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 453 var. (Scarce), RSC 157

This coin varies from the standard RIC 453 in a couple of ways. The obverse legend carries the PERTE instead of PERET. The reverse legend is missing the E from REDVC.

Detail of a section of the reverse legend.
maridvnvm
RI 064cg img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 47070 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VI-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 195 - 196
References:– BMC W438, RIC 470 (Scarce), RSC 165
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064ia img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 47725 viewsObv:– L S[EP S]EV PERT AVG IMP VI-[II], Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC 477 (Scarce, citing Cohen 164 (Paris)). BMCRE page 111 also citing C. 164.
maridvnvm
RI_064ia_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 4778 viewsObv:– L S[EP S]EV PERT AVG IMP VI-[II], Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC 477 (Scarce, citing Cohen 164 (Paris)). BMCRE page 111 also citing C. 164.
maridvnvm
RI_064oc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 477a19 viewsObv:- L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VII - I, laureate head right
Rev:- FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in both hands.
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 195 - 196
Reference:– BMC p. 112 *. RIC 477a (R2). RSC 167a. All citing RD with only 2 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI 064fa img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 477a (R2)23 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC 477a (R2 citing Reyka Denvia). BMCRE page 112 also citing RD.
maridvnvm
RI_064in_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 477a (R2)27 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERET AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC 477a (R2 citing Reyka Denvia). BMCRE page 112 also citing RD.
Martin Griffiths
RI_064sh_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 477a (R2)17 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERET AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC 477a (R2 citing Reyka Denvia). BMCRE page 112 also citing RD.
maridvnvm
RI_064in_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 477a (R2)9 viewsObv:– L SEP SEV PERET AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae in each hand
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC 477a (R2 citing Reyka Denvia). BMCRE page 112 also citing RD.
maridvnvm
RI_064my_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 47820 viewsObv:–L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 195 - 196
Reference(s) – BMC W438. RIC 478 (S). RSC 166.
maridvnvm
RI_064pe_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 47818 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 195 - 196
Reference(s) – BMC W438. RIC 478 (S). RSC 166.
maridvnvm
RI_064cg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 4789 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VI-II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 195 - 196
References:– BMC W438. RIC 478 (S). RSC 166
maridvnvm
RI_064no_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 47915 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTA R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 195 - 196
Reference:– BMC W442 note (citing Cohen). RIC 479 (citing Cohen). RSC 170 (Cohen 170, Elberling Coll.). RD (1 example)
maridvnvm
RI 064hl img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 479A (b)26 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PER-T AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196
Ref:– BMCRE 443a. RIC IV 479A (b) (R2)

Unusual obverse legend break PER-T as opposed to the more usual PE-RT.
maridvnvm
RI_064px_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 479A (b)14 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PER-T AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-E-DVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196
Reference:– BMCRE 443a. RIC IV 479A (b) (R2)
maridvnvm
RI_132hl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 479A (b)12 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PER-T AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196
Ref:– BMCRE 443a. RIC IV 479A (b) (R2)

Unusual obverse legend break PER-T as opposed to the more usual PE-RT.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064bo img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 479B57 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 196-197
References:– BMC W444, RIC 479B (R2), RSC 168c
maridvnvm
RI_064bo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 479B5 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-EDVC, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 196-197
References:– BMC W444, RIC 479B (R2), RSC 168c
maridvnvm
RI 064cr img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 49335 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe in right hand, cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 197
References:– BMCRE 464. RIC 493 (Scarce), RSC 442
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064fj img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-) 35 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.00g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but other examples of this die show two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvm
RI_064ef_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (5)37 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (5) (Scarce)

2.99g, 18.69mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064ku_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Sestertius - RIC ??28 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII?, laureate head right /
Rev:– P M TR P III?? COS II P P, S - C, Fortuna seated left ,holding rudder on globe, and cornucopiae (no wheel)
Minted in Rome.
Not enough legends available to make a full attribution.

Weight 17.70g. 29.52mm.
maridvnvm
GI 064e img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus, AE26, Markianopolis, Tyche 68 viewsObv:– AV K LCEP CEVHPOC, Laureate and draped bust right
Rev:– YI FAVCTINIA MAPKIANOPOLIT, Tyche (Fortuna) standing left holding cornucopia and rudder
Hristova/jekov 6.14.38.11 (lists VI FAVCTINIA-NOV) but NOV appears to be erroneous. The dies match on both obverse and reverse.
Not in Varbanov (Eng.) Vol.1
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_065ae_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FORT AVG, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -
Martin Griffiths
RI_065bj_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FORTVN RE-DVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Syria.
Reference:– BMCRE-. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_065bi_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62429 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FORT-VN REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Syria.
Reference:– BMCRE p. 103 note citing Cohen 65 (Hamburger Coll.). RIC IV 624 (Rated scarce). RSC 65
maridvnvm
RI_065ar_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC unlisted17 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– FORTVN REDVCI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193-196
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_066bx_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 18919 viewsDenarius
Obv:- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
Rev:- FORT RED P M TR P XIIII COS III P P, Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopiae and leaning on reversed rudder; wheel before
Minted in Rome. A.D. 211
Reference– RIC 189, RSC 84, BMC 1
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 068p img.jpg
068 - Geta Ae AS - RIC 175a100 viewsAe AS
Obv:– P SEPTIMIVS GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RED TR P III COS II, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder & cornucopia, wheel under chair, S C in ex
References:– RIC 175a
maridvnvm
RI_068t_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 07620 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RED TR P III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae, wheel beneath chair
Minted in Rome. A.D. 209 - 211
Reference:– BMC 421. Hill 1263. RIC 76. RSC 59.

Weight 3.46g. 20.28mm.
maridvnvm
RI_068ai_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 07612 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RED TR P III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae, wheel beneath chair
Minted in Rome. A.D. 209 - 211
Reference:– BMC 421. Hill 1263. RIC 76. RSC 59. 5 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
RI_068ad_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 07712 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RED TR P III COS II P P, Fortuna, draped, reclining left, on ground, resting right arm, right elbow bent, on wheel and holding cornucopia in left hand
Minted in Rome. A.D. 211
Reference:– BMC p. 421, 10. RIC 77 (Scarce). RSC 62. 15 examples in RD.
maridvnvm
Caracalla-Prieur-1144.jpg
07. Caracalla.23 viewsTetradrachm, 205-207 AD, Laodiceia ad Mare.
Obverse: AVT KAI . ANTΩNEINOC . CE . / Laureate bust of Caracalla.
Reverse: ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATOC B / Eagle, holding wreath in beak, star between legs.
12.91 gm., 25 mm.
Bellinger #57; Prieur #1144.

When Caracalla went to the East to wage war with the Parthians, he issued vast quantities of tetradrachms to finance the activity. This coin, however, is not from that series; it was minted about 10 years earlier when Septimius Severus was still emperor. The main distinguishing feature of this coin is a bust of Caracalla as an adolescent, with just the beginnings of sideburns. It is a fairly scare type. For more information see "Severan Tetradrachms of Laodiceia" by R. G. McAlee in ANS Museum Notes #29 (1984), pages 43-59.

Prieur #1144 has the same obverse die as this coin. However, the reverse legend of #1144 has a Γ at the end of it. Prieur knew of only one example of this coin. Several years ago CNG had a coin from similar dies with the reverse legend ending in a B. Unfortunately, the last letter of the reverse legend on this coin is not real clear.
Callimachus
1191_P_Hadrian_eastern.jpg
070var Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Fortuna standing Eastern mint16 viewsReference.
cf Strack *32;

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. COS III
Fortuna standing front, head to left, holding patera with her right hand and cornucopiae with her left

3.39 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
RI 071f img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus Antoninianus - RIC 001 (2f)68 viewsObv:– IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P COS P P, Roma, seated left, holding Victory and sceptre; by her side, shield
References:– VM 9, RIC 1 (2f) (Common), RCV02 7493, RSC 125

What would have been a wonderful coin is spoiled by the unfortunate double strike evident on the obverse around the nose and mouth.
maridvnvm
RI 071s img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus denarius - RIC 083a (Base metal)43 viewsObv:– IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder placed on globe and cornucopiae
References:- RIC 83a but base metal
maridvnvm
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),__AR-Ant_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_RIC-144_p-_RSC-98_Rome_243-AD_Q-001_1h_22-24mm_4,96g-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 144, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, #178 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 144, AR-Antoninianus, Rome, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, #1
avers: IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
revers: FORTVNA-REDVX, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia, wheel below throne.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 4,96g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 243 A.D.(5th. Issue), ref: RIC IV-III-144, p-31, RSC-98,
Q-001
quadrans
074_Philippus-I,_AE-As,_IMP_M_IVL_PHILIPPVS_AVG,_FORTVNA_REDVX,_RIC_174a,_Rome,_-AD,_Q-001,_0h,_25mm,_13,93g-s.jpg
074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0173b, Rome, AE-Sestertius, -/-//SC, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, #184 views074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0173b, Rome, AE-Sestertius, -/-//SC, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, #1
avers: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae, under seat, wheel, in exergue S C.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 25mm, weight: 13,93g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 244 A.D., ref: RIC IV-III 174a, p-90, C-67,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RI_077bb_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander Denarius - RIC 268 var22 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAN AVG, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopia; star to left
Minted in Antioch, Issue 3, A.D. 223
Reference(s) – RIC IV 268 var (obverse legend, normal legend is C). RSC 237 var (same)

RIC makes mention of a coin of the same type from the previous issue (Issue 2) being known with ALEXAN but I cannot find this in BMCRE. Another example but from a different die pair sold by CNG in 2009
2 commentsmaridvnvm
image~0.jpg
0812 Hadrian As Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna standing28 viewsReference.
RIC812f; C. 771

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG.COS III P P
Laureate, draped bust right

Rev. FORTVNA AVG in Field S-C
Fortuna standing l., holding patera and cornucopiae

11.27 gr
26 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
image.jpg
0813 Hadrian As Roma 134-38 AD hadrian & Fortuna 23 viewsReverence.
RIC 813; C792

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. FORTVNAE REDVCI / SC in exergue.
Hadrian, standing right, holding Roll and Fortuna standing left, holding cornucopiae and rudder on
globe, clasping hands.

10.2 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
1007Hadrian_RIC85.jpg
085 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Fortuna standing21 viewsReference.
Strack 112; RIC 85; C 1157

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. P M TR P COS III
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.

3.30 gr
20 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
197Hadrian__RIC86.jpg
086 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Fortuna standing leaning on column.37 viewsReference.
Strack 112 note; RIC 86; C 1155

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. P M TR P COS III
Fortuna standing left leaning on column, holding rudder and cornucopia.

3.22
18 mm
11h
okidoki
1075Hadrian_RIC86.jpg
086 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Fortuna standing leaning on column.18 viewsReference.
Strack 112 note; RIC 86; C 1155

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. P M TR P COS III
Fortuna standing left leaning on column, holding rudder and cornucopia.

2.72 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
RI 087e img.jpg
087 - Gordian III Antoninianus - RIC 14344 viewsObv:– IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FORT REDVX, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, wheel beneath
Minted in Rome. Fifth Issue
Reference:– Van Meter 14, RIC 143, RSC 97
Weight 4.46 gms
Dimensions 23.73mm
maridvnvm
RI 087n img.jpg
087 - Gordian III Antoninianus - RIC 21041 viewsObv:– IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right seen from the rear
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 242 - 244
Reference:– Van Meter 14, RIC 210, RSC 98a
Weight 3.88 gms
Dimensions 21.51mm
maridvnvm
RI 087m img.jpg
087 - Gordian III Antoninianus - RIC 21039 viewsObv:– IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right seen from the rear
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 242 - 244
Reference:– Van Meter 14, RIC 210, RSC 98a
Weight 3.88 gms
Dimensions 21.51mm
maridvnvm
Gall-004-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-II, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left,128 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-II, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- FORTVNA RED, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and Cornucopiae, II in the right field.
exerg: -/II//--, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 3,23g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Siscia, date: 267-68 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 572-II, p-181, C-265-67, Göbl 1475 b.,
Q-001
quadrans
Gall-002-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-S, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left, #1135 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-S, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.,
revers:- FORTVNA RED, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and Cornucopiae, S in the right field.
exerg: -/S//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,93g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Siscia, date: 267-68 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 572-S, p-181, C-265-67, Göbl 1499 b.,
Q-001
quadrans
nerva as-.jpg
096-097 AD - NERVA AE as - struck 97 AD198 viewsobv:IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COSIII PP (laureate head right)
rev:FORTVNA AVGVSTI / S.C. (Fortuna standing left holding rudder & cornucopiae)
ref:RIC83, C.68
11.70gms
berserker
nerva sest-.jpg
096-098 AD - NERVA AE sestertius - struck 97 AD99 viewsobv: IMP NERVA CAES AVG PMTRP COS III PP (laureate head right)
rev: FORTVNA AVGVST (Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 83, C.67 (5frcs)
23.16gms, 33mm
2 commentsberserker
nerva denar.jpg
096-098 AD - NERVA AR denarius - struck 97 AD67 viewsobv:IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COS II PP (laureate head right)
rev:FORTVNA AVGVST (Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia)
ref:RIC16, C.66
3.03gms, 19mm

Marcus Cocceius Nerva, a 60-year-old senator who became the first of the five good emperors. Following Domitian, he was the first of the emperors to select an heir rather than a blood relative.
berserker
trajan sest.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 112-117 AD47 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS VI PP (laureate head right)
rev: SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS (Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae), FORT RED below, S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 651, C.157(4frcs)
25.00gms, 33.5mm
berserker
coin sizes.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN coin sizes142 viewsThis picture can be seen the relationship of different denomination. Unfortunately the AV aureus, AV quinar and the medallion sizes are missing...2 commentsberserker
Aureolus_AE-Ant_IMP-POSTVMV-AVG_CONCORDIA-EQVIT_S_RIC-_p-_AD-Q-001_11h_18,5-19,5mm_2,20ga-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #1179 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: (IMP C )POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,20g, axes:11h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), RSC-20a (Postumus),
Q-001
quadrans
Aureolus_AE-Ant_IMP-POSTVMV-AVG_CONCORDIA-EQVIT_S_RIC-_p-_AD-Q-002_0h_18,5-21,5mm_2,42g-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #2119 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #2
avers: IMP C POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-21,5mm, weight: 2,42g, axes:0h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), RSC-20a (Postumus),
Q-002
4 commentsquadrans
Soloi_Stater_Amazon.jpg
0a Amazon Stater18 viewsSilver Stater 20mm Struck circa 440-410 B.C.
Soloi in Cilicia

Amazon kneeling left, holding bow, quiver on left hip
ΣOΛEΩN, Grape cluster on vine; A-Θ to either side of stalk, monogram to lower right

Sear 5602 var.; Casabonne Type 3; SNG France 135; SNG Levante

This coin depicts an amazon in historically accurate garb. Unfortunately, the bow is corroded away on this piece, but it is pointed toward her. She wears the Scythian hat, which also has a bit along the top corroded away. The quiver on her hip is an accurate portrayal of the gorytos (quiver), which was nearly two feet long, fashioned of leather, and often decorated. Fortunately, there is redundancy in this image, and a second bow is shown as in its place in the gorytos, which had separate chambers for arrows and the bow, where the archer stored it while not in use. The amazon has just finished stringing her bow and is adjusting the top hook to make sure the strings and limbs are properly aligned. She has strung the bow using her leg to hold one limb in place so she can use both hands to string the weapon. Her recurve bow was made of horn (ibex, elk, ox) wrapped with horse hair, birch bark, or sinew (deer, elk, ox) and glue (animal or fish) wrapped around a wood core. The bow was about 30 inches long. Arrow heads from grave sites come in bone, wood, iron, and bronze with two or three flanges; the shafts were made of reed or wood (willow, birch, poplar) and fletched with feathers. Poisoned arrows were sometimes painted to resemble vipers. A Scythian archer could probably fire 15-20 arrows per minute with accuracy to 200 feet and range to 500-600 feet. Distance archery with modern reconstructions suggests a maximum unaimed flight distance of 1,600 feet. (Mayor 209ff)

Soloi was founded about 700 B.C.and came under Persian rule. According to Diodorus, when the amazons were engaging in conquest in Asia Minor, the Cilicians accepted them willingly and retained their independence. Soloi may be named after Solois, a companion of Theseus, who married the amazon Antiope. The amazon on the coin may well be Antiope. (Mayor, 264-265)
Blindado
104_Claudius-II_,_T-0085,_AE-Ant,_IMP_CLAVDIVS_P_F_AVG,_FORTVNAE_RED,_S,_RIC_V-I_151,_iss-3,_off-2,_Mediolanum,_270-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_19-20,5mm,_3,70g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0085 (Estiot), RIC V-I 151, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNAE RED, -/-//S, Fortuna standing left, #1112 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0085 (Estiot), RIC V-I 151, Mediolanum, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNAE RED, -/-//S, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from the rear, (D2).
reverse: FORTVNAE RED, Fortuna standing left, holding the rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Fortuna 2).
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 19,0-20,5 mm, weight: 3,70 g, axes: 6h,
mint: Mediolanum, iss-3, off-3, date: 269-270 A.D., ref: T-0085, RIC V-I 151,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-CLAVDIVS-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_SPQR_RIC-233_T-909_C-_Cyzicus_269-AD__Q-001_5h_21mm_3,48ga-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0909 (Estiot), RIC V-I 233, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//SPQR, Fortuna standing left,65 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0909 (Estiot), RIC V-I 233, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//SPQR, Fortuna standing left,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from rear, (D2).
revers:- FORTVNA-REDVX, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Fortuna2).
exerg: -/-//SPQR, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,84g, axes: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 269 A.D., ref: T-0909 (Estiot), RIC V-I 233,
Q-001
quadrans
105_Quintillus_AE-Ant_IMP-CM-AVR-CL-QVINTILLVS_AVG_FORTVNA_REDVX_Z-right_RIC-20_C-_Rome_270-AD__Q-001_6h_17,5-19,0mm_2,88g-s.jpg
105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1165, RIC V-I 020, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/Z//--, Bust-D1, Fortuna standing left, #1148 views105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1165, RIC V-I 020, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/Z//--, Bust-D1, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum (D1).
reverse: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, Z in right field. (7th officina). (Fortuna 2).
exergue: -/Z//--, diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 2,88g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, off-7, iss-1, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC-20, RIC-V-I-Temp-1165, Cohen 32; Sear 11441.
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
105_Quintillus,_T-1166,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_CL_QVINTILLVS_AVG,_FORTVNA_REDVX,_Z-right,_RIC-20,_Rome,_iss-1,_off-7,_270-AD_,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-21,0mm,_1,75g-s.jpg
105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1166, RIC V-I 020, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/Z//--, Bust-D2, Fortuna standing left, #1108 views105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1166, RIC V-I 020, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/Z//--, Bust-D2, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum seen from the rear (D2).
reverse: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, Z in right field. (7th officina). (Fortuna 2).
exergue: -/Z//--, diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 2,88g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, off-7, iss-1, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 20, RIC-Temp-1166,
Q-001
quadrans
Quintillus_AE-Ant_IMP-QVINTILLVS-PF-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_RIC-83_T-1265_Cyzicus_270-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_20,5-21,5mm_4,41g-s.jpg
105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1265, RIC V-I 083, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//--, Bust-D2, Fortuna standing left, #1195 views105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1265, RIC V-I 083, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//--, Bust-D2, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: IMP QVINTILLVS P F AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from the rear, (D2).
reverse: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left, holding the rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Fortuna 2).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 4,41g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Cyzicus, off-1, iss-1, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 83, RIC-Temp-1265,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
105_Quintillus,_T-1265,_AE-Ant,_IMP_QVINTILLVS_P_F_AVG,_FORTVNA_REDVX,_RIC_V-I_83,_Cyzicus,_iss-1,_off-1,_270-AD_,_Q-001,_0h,_21-22,5mm,_2,80g-s.jpg
105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1265, RIC V-I 083, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//--, Bust-D2, Fortuna standing left, #2115 views105 Quintillus (270 A.D.), T-1265, RIC V-I 083, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//--, Bust-D2, Fortuna standing left, #2
avers: IMP QVINTILLVS P F AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, seen from the rear (D2).
reverse: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left, holding the rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand, (Fortuna 2).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0-22,5mm, weight: 2,80g, axis:0h,
mint: Cyzicus, off-1, iss-1, date: 270 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 83, RIC-Temp-1265,
Q-002
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_Star-T_RIC-V-I-220-p_Siscia_-iss-3_off-3_T-2061_271-AD_Q-001_6h_21-22mm_3,75gx-s~0.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2061, RIC V-I 220, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//*T, Fortuna seated left on wheel, #165 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2061, RIC V-I 220, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//*T, Fortuna seated left on wheel, #1
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna std l. on wheel, holding rudder in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. hand. (Fortuna 1b)
exerg: -/-//*T, diameter: 20,5-21mm, weight: 2,01g, axes: 1h,
mint: Siscia, off-3, iss-3, date: 271-272 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 220, T-2061 (Estiot),
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_Star-S_RIC-V-I-220-p-iss-5_off-2_RIC-T-2141_271-72-AD_Q-001_6h_21-22mm_3,75g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2141, RIC V-I 220, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//*S, Fortuna seated left on wheel, #163 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2141, RIC V-I 220, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//*S, Fortuna seated left on wheel, #1
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna std l. on wheel, holding rudder in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. hand. (Fortuna 1b)
exerg: -/-//*S, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,75g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, off-2, iss-5, date: 271-272 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 220, T-2141 (Estiot),
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_FORTVNA-REDVX_Star-S_RIC-V-I-220-p-iss-5_off-2_RIC-T-2141_271-72-AD_Q-002_0h_22-22,5mm_3,12g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2141, RIC V-I 220, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//*S, Fortuna seated left on wheel, #292 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2141, RIC V-I 220, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, -/-//*S, Fortuna seated left on wheel, #2
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna std l. on wheel, holding rudder in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. hand. (Fortuna 1b)
exerg: -/-//*S, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,12g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, off-2, iss-5, date: 271-272 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 220, T-2141 (Estiot),
Q-002
quadrans
RI_107al_img.jpg
107 - Gallienus - RIC 48317 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust right, slight drapery on both shoulders
Rev:– FORT REDVX, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Mediolanum/Milan (//MS)
Reference:– Göbl 1350f. RIC 483
maridvnvm
RI 107o img.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus - RIC 61364 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna holding cornucopiae and caduceus
Minted in Antioch (VIIC• in exe.)
Reference:– RIC 613, Gobl 1640b
maridvnvm
rjb_2013_01_07.jpg
1094cf24 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “VIRTVS AVG”
Fortuna(?) standing left holding baton and cornucopia
Uncertain mint
-/-//XX
RIC - (cf 1094)
mauseus
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3134,_D-5545,_KG_112_15,_Alexandria,_Tyche_left,_L-Gamma,_Q-001,_0h,_18,5-19,0mm,_6,26g-s~0.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #166 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Tyche/Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae, L-Γ left at the top.
exergue: LΓ/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 8,51g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 277-278 A.D., LB Year 3., ref: Geissen-3134, Dattari-5545, Milne 4560, Curtis 1890, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.15-p338,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3134,_D-5545,_KG_112_15,_Alexandria,_Tyche_left,_L-Gamma,_Q-002,_0h,_18,0mm,_7,14g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #277 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #2
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Tyche/Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae, LΓ left at the top.
exergue: LΓ/-//--, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 7,141g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 277-278 A.D., LB Year 3., ref: Geissen-3134, Dattari-5545, Milne 4560, Curtis 1890, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.15-p338,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_---_A_036_No_001_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(3F)_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Alf-36_No-01_Siscia_R_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!144 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FORTVNA REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???), Alföldi 0036.0001,
Q-001
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alföldi lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
1 commentsquadrans
RI_115n_img.jpg
115 - Aureolus, rebel under Postumus - RIC Postumus 37217 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORD EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder, S in exergue
Minted in Mediolanum (Milan). A.D. 268
Reference– RIC Postumus 372. Cohen.20 -. Cunetio-. E.616. AGK.6 a
maridvnvm
RI 115i img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 060 C14 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- FORTV-NA AVG, Fortuna, standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
Ref:- RIC 60 Bust Type C, attributed to Lugdunum
maridvnvm
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England31 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis:1
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
hadrian sest-fortuna.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE sestertius - struck 131-138 AD52 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP (laureate head right )
rev: FORTVNA AVG / S.C. (Fortuna standing left holding cornucopia & rudder on globe)
ref: RIC II 759, C.763
23.31gms, 31mm

Better in hand, than this picture.
berserker
hadrian_RIC42.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 118 AD52 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG (laureate bust right, cuirassed, draped far shoulder)
rev: P M TR P COS II (Justice is seated on the curule chair, as on a tribunal: with the insignia of the hasta pura and the extended patera she displays her care for religion), IVSTITIA in ex.
ref: RIC II 42, RSC 877
mint: Rome
3.25gms, 19mm

Rare cuirassed bust, RIC not describes (c - not in RIC). Unfortunately the reverse is burned, but still valuable.
The reverse perhaps refer to the edictum perpetuum or Pretorian edict, what was an annual declaration made by the praetor urbanus in which he laid out the principles by which he would exercise his jurisdiction for his year in office. Under Hadrian, the edict became fixed and unchangeable.
And there's an other fact that can refer this reverse. When Hadrian arrived in Rome in July 118 to a hostile reception on the part of the senate, because of the death of the four consulars. The four men were Cornelius Palma, governor of Syria, Avidius Nigrinus, governor of Dacia, Publilius Celsus and Lusius Quietus, governor of Judaea, they were all Trajan's men, and their elimination certainly made Hadrian's course easier. But an Emperor had right everytime, and he was the justice.
berserker
20140128_111622-horz.jpg
12 Nerva RIC 28 27 viewsNerva 96-98 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 97 AD. (3.08g, 19.77mm) Obv: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III P P, Laureate head right. Rev: FORTVNA AVGVST Fortuna standing, head left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC 28; RSC 71

Ex: Ecin
Paddy
IMG_2433.JPG
120 Nerva 41 views

Nerva Denarius. IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COS III PP, laureate head right / FORTVNA PR, Fortuna seated left, holding corn ears & scepter. RIC 17, RSC 79, BMC 41
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
RI 122e img.jpg
122 - Claudius II Gothicus Ant. - RIC 234 33 viewsObv:– IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Cyzicus. A.D. 268-270
Reference:– Van Meter 14. RIC 234. Cohen 102
maridvnvm
Galerius_AE-Follis_DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO_FORTI-FORTINAE_A_SIS_RIC-VI-221-p-482_Siscia-311-AD-Scarce_Q-002_11h_24,5mm_6,50g-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 221, AE-Follis, FORTI FORTVNAE, Fortuna standing left by wheel, Scarce! #174 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 221, AE-Follis, FORTI FORTVNAE, Fortuna standing left by wheel, Scarce! #1
avers:- DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO, Veiled head right.
revers:- FORTI-FOR-TVNAE, Fortuna standing left by wheel, right holding rudder on globe, left cornucopiae.
exergo: -/A//SIS, diameter: 24,5mm, weight: 6,50g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 311 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-221, p-482, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Galerius_AE-Follis_DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO_FORTI-FORTINAE_B-over_Mu_SIS_RIC-VI-224-p-483_Siscia-312-AD-Scarce_Q-001_6h_24-26mm_4,68ga-s.jpg
122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 224, AE-Follis, FORTI FORT(I)NAE, legend error FORTVNAE!!!,Fortuna standing left by wheel, Rare! #174 views122 Galerius Maximianus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-311 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 224, AE-Follis, FORTI FORT(I)NAE, legend error FORTVNAE!!!,Fortuna standing left by wheel, Rare! #1
avers:- DIVO-GAL-VAL-MAXIMIANO, Veiled head right.
revers:- FORTI-FOR-T(I)NAE, legend error FOR-TVNAE!!!, Fortuna standing left by wheel, right holding rudder on globe, left cornucopiae.
exergo: -/B/μ//SIS, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 4,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-224, p-483, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
797Hadrian_RIC122.jpg
122 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Fortuna17 viewsReference.
RIC 122;

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
laureate bust right, draped on far shoulder.

Rev. P M TR P COS III in Ex FORT RED
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder & cornucopiae.

3.21 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection
okidoki
RI 124a img.jpg
124 - Quintillus Ant. - RIC 02065 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna, draped looking up, facing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Rome. (Z in right field)
Reference:– RIC 20.
maridvnvm
RI_124d_img.jpg
124 - Quintillus Ant. - RIC 02027 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna, draped looking up, facing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Rome. (Z in right field)
Reference:– RIC 20.
maridvnvm
RI 125m img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 220 Bust Type F23 viewsObv:– IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair
Minted in Siscia (*S in exe)
Reference:– RIC 220 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 125g img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 220 Bust Type F34 viewsObv:– IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel under chair
Minted in Siscia ([*] T in exe)
Reference:– RIC 220 Bust type F
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB +. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. In 1308 he married Isabella, the daughter of King Philip IV of France, to try and resolve tensions between the two countries.
Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston, who was arrogant with the power he had as Edward's favourite. In 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms and the newly empowered barons had Gaveston banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward was obliged to sign a truce which brought an end to almost thirty years of warfare between the two countries.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Isabella was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reportedly gruesomely murdered on the orders of the new regime.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
RI 132dc img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 428 var - Radiate, cuirassed bust left, without weapons (Ticinum) (PXXT)50 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left, without weapons.
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Ticinum (PXXT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 1. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 428 var Radiate, cuirassed bust left (Unlisted bust for this type)
Unfortunately there is a pit on the neck of the emperor otherwise this would be a great coin
maridvnvm
GI 137a img.jpg
137 - Carinus, Billon tetradrachm, Alexandria, Eagle with standards, Milne 466722 viewsBillon tetradrachm
Obv:– A K M A KAPINOC K, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– None, Fortuna/ Tyche crowned with modius, wearing long chiton and peplios, standing left resting right hand on rudder and holding cornucopiae in left hand.
Minted in Alexandria (LA in upper left field). A.D. 283
Reference:– Curtis 1927, BMC 2448, Milne 4667
maridvnvm
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
1283_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1423A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Fortuna standing27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1423A (drapery); Metcalf —

Issue Group 2: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev. COS III
Fortuna standing left wearing Polos, holding rudder in right and cornucopia in left.

10.22 gr
27 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1269_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1425A Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor, Fortuna standing40 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1417; for rev.; Cf. RPC III 1408-9: RPC --; Metcalf--; RIC--

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. FORTVNA AVGVST
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.

10.57 gr
30 mm
12h
4 commentsokidoki
00aap9.JPG
150 Antoninus Pius63 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. AR Denarius

ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIIII, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia.
RIC III 194, RSC II 265, BMCRE IV 719-20, Scarce , Rome mint 150-151 A.D.
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius94 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
image5.JPG
170 Commodus13 viewsCommodus Denarius. 179-180 AD. L AVREL COMMODVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right / TR P V IMP III COS II P P, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, wheel under seat. RIC 2, RSC 779-779b, BMC 810-812
Randygeki(h2)
512_P_Hadrian_Strack_74,_pl__XX.JPG
177 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Fortuna Eastern mint23 viewsReference.
Strack *74, pl. XX; cf. RIC 245

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev. FORTVNA AVG
Fortuna standing facing, wearing polos Crown, head left, patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left

2.67 gr
18 mm
okidoki
1607059_625273620842886_1594459012_n.jpg
181 Julia Domna - Unlisted81 viewsIVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right; FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Unlisted Syrian mint.

Traded :/ :)
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_niger_02_06.jpg
193a39 viewsPescennius Niger 193-4 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAES C PESC NIGER IVS"
Laur bust right
Rev "FORTVNAE RE"
Fortuna seated left
Eastern mint
RIC cf 23-5
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_sev7_02_06.jpg
193b21 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIIII"
Laureate bust right
Rev "PM TRP V COS II PP"
Fortuna standing left
Eastern mint
RIC 104 or 493
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_sev6_02_06.jpg
193b14 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "L SEPT SEVE PERT AVG IMP II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "FORTR AVG"
Fortuna standing left
Eastern mint
RIC -
mauseus
193_Didius_Julianus_Dupondius_RIC_12_1.jpg
193_Didius_Julianus_Dupondius_RIC_12_122 viewsDidius Julianus (March 28th – early June 193 AD)
AE Dupondius, Rome, March 28th – early June 193 AD
IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG;
Radiate head right
PM TR P COS, S-C;
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae
10,85 gr, 25 mm
RIC IVa, 12; BMC V, 17; C. 13; CMB I, 3
Ex Künker, Auction 193, lot 827
Ex Künker, Auction 236, lot 1111
1 commentsga77
septsev den1.jpg
194 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius 21 viewsobv: IMP CAE.L.SEP.SEV.PERT.AVG.COS.II (laureate head right)
rev: FORT REDVC (Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia)
ref: RIC IVi 376b
mint: Emesa
2.28gms
Scarce
Fortune that brings back the Emperor in safety. Fortune was said to distribute wealth by her cornucopiae, and to weild by her rudder the government of human affairs.
berserker
septsev den2.jpg
194-195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius 22 viewsobv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I (laureate head right)
rev: FORTVN REDVC (Fortuna -as Hilaritas- standing left holding long palm & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC IVi 383, RSC175a
mint: Emesa
2.21gms
Scarce
Some obverse dies from 'Emesa' show the last letter 'I' placed beyond the point of the bust. One possibility is that these were the product of a mint traveling with the Emperor during the Eastern war against Niger. (According to Doug Smith).
berserker
196_Septimius_Severus_As_RIC_717_1.jpg
196_Septimius_Severus_As_RIC_717_119 viewsSeptimius Severus (193 – 211 AD)
AE As, Rome, 196
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII;
Laureate head right
P M TR P IIII COS II P P, S-C;
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae, at feet, right, wheel
9,19 gr, 24 mm
RIC IVa, 717; BMC V, 589 (Pl. 25,3); C. 426
Ex Art Coins Roma, eAuction 23, lot 660
ga77
GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
Blindado
TrajanSestCeres~0.jpg
1bc Trajan48 views98-117

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
Blindado
HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
1 commentsBlindado
GallienusAntVirtus.jpg
1cy Gallienus16 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
Blindado
MacrianusAntAequitas.jpg
1dc Macrianus19 views260-261

Billon antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust, right, IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG
Aequitas standing left holding scales & cornucopiae, star to left, AEQVTAS AVGG

RIC 5

Macrianus did not rule in Rome. He and his brother Quietus took command of the army after the Persians captured Valerian but were defeated by one of Gallienus' generals when they marched west. According to the Historia Augusta: After the capture of Valerian, long a most
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor, but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either because in his old age he pined away among the Persians or because he left behind him unworthy descendants), Ballista, Valerian's prefect, and Macrianus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew together to a certain place, to consider what should be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed, the best man, lest there should arise some pretender. . . . Ballista, perceiving that Macrianus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own two sons, answered him as follows : "To your wisdom, then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian, for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason that they are good men, they cannot remain unharmed."

And so, with the consent of all the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus, leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could. But while he was on the march, having with him a force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there he was defeated and together with his son was slain. Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus' power.
Blindado
JulianIIAE3VotX.jpg
1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
Blindado
ProcopiusAEChiRo.jpg
1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
Blindado
ArcadiusAE4GlorRom.jpg
1ey Arcadius20 views383-408

AE4

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N ARCADIVS P F AVG
Emperor advancing right, seizing bound captive by the hair & carrying labarum, BSISC in ex., GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 38c2

Zosimus recorded, [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. After they had amassed immense wealth, Rufinus began to concert the means of becoming emperor, by making his own daughter, who was now marriageable. . . . [A different cabal persuaded Arcadius to marry a different girl.]. . . .

Before this juncture a report had been circulated at Rome, that the emperor Arcadius was dead, which was confirmed after the departure of Arcadius for Ravenna. Stilico being at Ravenna while the emperor was at a city of Aemilia, called Bononia, about seventy miles distant, the emperor sent for him to chastise the soldiers, who mutinied amongst each other by the way. Stilico, therefore, having collected the mutinous troops together, informed them that the emperor had commanded him to correct them for their disobedience, and to punish them by a decimation, or putting to death every tenth man. At this they were in such consternation, that they burst into tears, and desiring him to have compassion on them, prevailed on him to promise them a pardon from the emperor. The emperor having performed what Stilico had promised, they applied themselves to public business. For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise.
Blindado
HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
Blindado
Sicinia_5_Den.jpg
2) The Pompeians: Quintus Sicinius17 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Quintus Sicinius for Pompey
AR Denarius, 49 B.C. (3.6g)

Diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani, goddess of Fortune of the Roman people. FORT before, P.R. behind / Crossed palm branch and winged caduceus (staff carried by ambassadors in wartime), wreath above. Q. SICINIVS, III VIR

The symbols of good fortune and victory on the reverse, together with Fortuna populi Romani on the obverse, anticipate victory by Pompey over Caesar.

CR 440, Sear Imperators #1, Sicinia 5
RM0043
Sosius
carnuntum_07b.jpg
2009-Austria - Carnuntum19 viewsBronze statues. Fortuna.berserker
coin291.JPG
201. Macrinus; Nikopolis27 viewsTyche

A Greek goddess, originally of fortune and chance, and then of prosperity. She was a very popular goddess and several Greek cities choose her as their protectress. In later times, cities had their own special Tyche. She is regarded as a daughter of Zeus (Pindar) or as a daughter of Oceanus and Tethys (Hesiod). She is associated with Nemesis and with Agathos Daimon ("good spirit"). Tyche was portrayed with a cornucopia, a rudder of destiny, and a wheel of fortune. The Romans identified her with their Fortuna.

AE26 of Nikopolis - Tyche OBVERSE: Laureate bust right REVERSE: Tyche standing left Holding rudder and Cornucopiae 26mm - 14 grams
ecoli
2014-096-2_AurelianSisciaFortunaReduxFortuna-Forum.jpg
2014.096.228 viewsSiscia, 6.25 g; 1h

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG; Radiated, cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: FORTVNA - REDVS; -/-//*T; Fortuna, seated left on a wheel, holding rudder in right and cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 220; Estiot LV 6143-6173; BnF XII, 738-740; LV 1046; RIC V,1 online T-2061;
gordian_guy
rjb_get3_05_06.jpg
20920 viewsGeta 209-12 AD
AE as
Obv "P SEPTIMIVS GETA PIVS AVG BRIT"
Laureate bust right
Rev "FORT RED TRP III COS II SC"
Fortuna seated left holding rudder
Rome mint
RIC 175a
mauseus
albinusBlack.jpg
21 Clodius Albinus RIC 5c22 viewsClodius Albinus, as Caesar. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 193-195 AD. (3.08g, 17mm, 5h) Obv: D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES, Bare head right. Rev: FORT REDVCI COS II, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopiae, wheel under seat.
RIC 5c.

Ex: Roma Numismatics
Paddy
Domiciano_AS Fortunae_1.jpg
21-13 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.)119 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PERP PP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha con Aegis en el pecho.
Rev: "FORTVNAE AVGVSTI - S C" - Fortuna de pié a izquierda, portando una cornucopia en brazo derecho y un timón en mano izquierda.

Acuñada 88 - 89 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #371 Pag.200 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2805 Pag.504 - BMCRE #416 - Cohen Vol.1 #128 Pag.482 - DVM #103 Pag.114 - CBN #452
2 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_371_AS_Domiciano.jpg
21-36 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.)21 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XIIII CENS PERP PP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha con Aegis en el pecho.
Rev: "FORTVNAE AVGVSTI - S C" - Fortuna de pié a izquierda, portando una cornucopia en brazo derecho y un timón en mano izquierda.

Acuñada 88 - 89 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #371 Pag.200 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2805 Pag.504 - BMCRE #416 - Cohen Vol.1 #128 Pag.482 - DVM #103 Pag.114 - CBN #452
mdelvalle
caracalla_RIC479b.jpg
211 AD - CARACALLA AE sestertius33 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT (laureate bust right, with drapery on left shoulder)
rev: FORT RED PM TRP XIIII COS III PP (Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia; wheel below chair), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC IVi 479b (S), RSC 85 (8frcs)
21.23gms, 33mm
Rare
mint: Rome
berserker
95Hadrian_RIC211d.jpg
211 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Fortuna32 viewsReference.
RIC 211d;

Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Lauderate head right.

Rev: COS III PP In ex FORT RED
Fortuna seated left holding rudder on Globe and cornucopiae

3.1 gr
19 mm
okidoki
rjb_elag2_05_06.jpg
218a31 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 23 mm
Antioch in Pisidia
Figure (Fortuna-Pax?) standing left holding cornucopia and branch
BMC -
2 commentsmauseus
22058.jpg
22058 Marcus Aurelius from Antonius Pius7 viewsMarcus Aurelius from Antonius Pius
Obv: AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F
Head of Marcus Aurelius, bare, right
Rev: TR POT X COS II S C
Fortuna, draped, standing, front, head right, with right hand at side drawing out fold of skirt, and holding rudder, set on ground, in left
Mint:Rome 32.7mm 26.3g
RIC III Antoninus Pius 1329A
Blayne W
AS NERVA RIC 98.jpg
23-13 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)36 viewsAE AS 26 mm 9.4 gr.

Anv: "[IMP N]ERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III [P P]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNA AVGVST - S C" - Fortuna de pié a zquierda, portando timón con mano derecha y cornucopia en el brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 97 - 98 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #98 Pag.229 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3057 var Pag.90 - Cohen Vol.II #73 Pag.8
mdelvalle
RIC_98_AS_Nerva.jpg
23-13 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)18 viewsAE AS 26 mm 9.4 gr.

Anv: "[IMP N]ERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III [P P]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNA AVGVST - S C" - Fortuna de pié a zquierda, portando timón con mano derecha y cornucopia en el brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 97 - 98 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #98 Pag.229 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3057 var Pag.90 - Cohen Vol.II #73 Pag.8
mdelvalle
RIC_319_Denario_trajano.jpg
24-06 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GERM DAC" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR" - Fortuna sedente en trono a izquierda, portando timon en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda. "FORT RED" en exergo

Acuñada 114 - 117 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #318D Pag.267 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3139 Pag.102 - RSC Vol.II #191 Pag. 89 - BMCRE #581 - Cohen Vol.II #154 Pag. - DVM #15 Pag.120 - St. Vol.I #235 - UCR #709
mdelvalle
GIII-Ric-210-fortuna-antioch.jpg
242 AD - Gordian III - 238-244 AD - Fortuna - Antioch60 viewsIMPGORDIANVSPIVSFELAVG - Radiate, draped and curraissed bust right
FORTVNAREDVX - Fortuna seated left, holding cornucopia and rudder

Antioch mint, 242-244 AD, Ric 210, Cohen 98
jimwho523
rjb_post_1_01_05.jpg
242526 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
FORTVNA AVG
Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Mint 1 (Trier), Issue 4
Cunetio 2425
mauseus
148Hadrian__RIC244.jpg
244 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna standing21 viewsReference.
RIC II 244; BMCRE III 639; RSC II 768

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right.

Rev. FORTVNA AVG.
Fortuna standing facing, head left, rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left

3.56 gr
2 commentsokidoki
362Hadrian_RIC244.jpg
244 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna standing11 viewsReference.
RIC II 244; BMCRE III 639; RSC II 768

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right.

Rev. FORTVNA AVG.
Fortuna standing facing, head left, rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left

3.58 gr
okidoki
811Hadrian_RIC244.jpg
244 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna standing11 viewsReference.
RIC II 244; BMCRE III 639; RSC II 768

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right.

Rev. FORTVNA AVG.
Fortuna standing facing, head left, rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left

2.85 gr
17 mm
7h
okidoki
79Hadrian__RIC245a.jpg
245 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-138 AD. Fortuna19 viewsReference.
245a

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP
head bare right.

Rev. FORTVNA AVG
Fortuna standing left holding patera and Cornucopiae

3.31 gr
18 mm
okidoki
198Hadrian__RIC247.jpg
247 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-35 AD Fortuna24 viewsReference.
RIC 247d; C 783

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right

Rev. FORTVNAE REDVCI.
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

3.54 gr
18 mm
h
okidoki
131Hadrian__RIC248var.jpg
248 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Fortuna 27 viewsReference.
RIC II, 248 var.; BMCRE 653 var. (same); RSC 789d

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVG COS III P P
Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. FORTVNAE REDVCI
Hadrian standing right, clasping hands with Fortuna standing left, cornucopiae on left arm. (no leaning on rudder)

3.24 gr
18 mm

ex Beast coins
okidoki
1312Hadrian_RIC248.jpg
248 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Fortuna1 viewsReference.
RIC II, 248; BMCRE 653; RSC 789d

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVG COS III P P
Laureate, draped, bust right (with Paludament)

Rev. FORTVNAE REDVCI
Fortuna, draped, standing left, resting on rudder attached to globe, holding cornucopiae in left hand and clasping hands with Hadrian, togate, standing right

3.02 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
rjb_2018_02_02.jpg
260a9 viewsQuietus 260-1 AD
AR antoninianus
Eastern mint
Obv "IMP C FVL QVIETVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "FORT REDVX"
Fortuna seated left on wheel holding rudder and cornucopia
RIC 4
mauseus
rjb_claud2_01_09.jpg
26821 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE antoninianus
Cyzicus mint
3rd emission
Obv "IMP CLAVDIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, pellet below
Rev "FORTVNA REDVX"
Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
RIC - (cf233-4); La Venera -; Canakkale -
Gysen (CENB July 1999) notes three examples of this type
mauseus
aurelian RIC220.jpg
270-275 AD - AURELIAN silvered AE antoninianus16 viewsobv: IMP.AVRELIANVS.AVG (radiate & cuirassed bust right)
rev: FORTVNA.REDVX (Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae), *Q in ex
ref: RIC220, C.95
mint: Siscia
3,40gms, 22mm, 4th officina, 3rd issue. Spring-Fall 271 AD.
berserker
rjb_2010_05_07.jpg
270a13 viewsAurelian 270-5 AD
AE antoninianus
Milan mint
Obv "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG"
Radiate and cuirassed bust right
Rev "FORTVNA REDVX"
Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
RIC 128; Gőbl 66
mauseus
AS_HADRIANO_RIC_812fbis.jpg
28-15 - HADRIANO (117 - 138 D.C.)47 viewsAE AS 23 mm 8.7 gr.

Anv: "[HADRIANVS] AVG COS III PP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORT[VNA AVG] S-C" - Fortuna de pié a izquierda portando patera en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 134 - 138 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #812 Pag.443 - Cohen Vol.II #771 Pag.171 - DVM #120 var Pag.131
mdelvalle
RIC_812d_AS_Adriano.jpg
28-22 - ADRIANO (117 - 138 D.C.)13 viewsAE AS 23 mm 8.7 gr.

Anv: "[HADRIANVS] AVG COS III PP" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORT[VNA AVG] S-C" - Fortuna de pié a izquierda portando patera en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 134 - 138 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #812 Pag.443 - Cohen Vol.II #771 Pag.171 - DVM #120 var Pag.131
mdelvalle
innoc_xii_m_34.jpg
3 Innocent XII 1693 Half Piastre M 3435 viewsAn interesting half piastre featuring a pelican as a symbol of self sacrifice. Early church fathers believed the blood on the bird was result of the pelican pecking her own breast to feed her young, as shown on the reverse. Combined with the inspirational legend "not for self, but for others" this was an obvious reference to Christ as model for believers to follow. Lovely and powerful sentiment, but unfortunately the blood is actually the result of captured fish which the pelican had broken up to feed to her chicks. Still, powerful imagery and a great example of the minters art at the end of the 17th century. stlnats
Nervafortunarev.jpg
3.81 Nerva denarius38 viewsNerva
AR Denarius
Rome Mint, 97 AD

rev. FORTVNA AVGUST
Fortuna
Zam
EdMil.jpg
313 - 2013 Edictum Mediolanense - Edict of Milan 28 viewsIn February 313, Emperor Constantine I, who controlled the western part of the Roman Empire, and Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan and, among other things, agreed to treat the Christians benevolently.

When I, Constantine Augustus, as well as I, Licinius Augustus, fortunately met near Mediolanurn (Milan), and were considering everything that pertained to the public welfare and security, we thought, among other things which we saw would be for the good of many, those regulations pertaining to the reverence of the Divinity ought certainly to be made first, so that we might grant to the Christians and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred; whence any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens may be propitious and kindly disposed to us and all who are placed under our rule. And thus by this wholesome counsel and most upright provision we thought to arrange that no one whatsoever should be denied the opportunity to give his heart to the observance of the Christian religion, of that religion which he should think best for himself, so that the Supreme Deity, to whose worship we freely yield our hearts) may show in all things His usual favor and benevolence. Therefore, your Worship should know that it has pleased us to remove all conditions whatsoever, which were in the rescripts formerly given to you officially, concerning the Christians and now any one of these who wishes to observe Christian religion may do so freely and openly, without molestation. We thought it fit to commend these things most fully to your care that you may know that we have given to those Christians free and unrestricted opportunity of religious worship. When you see that this has been granted to them by us, your Worship will know that we have also conceded to other religions the right of open and free observance of their worship for the sake of the peace of our times, that each one may have the free opportunity to worship as he pleases; this regulation is made we that we may not seem to detract from any dignity or any religion. Moreover, in the case of the Christians especially we esteemed it best to order that if it happens anyone heretofore has bought from our treasury from anyone whatsoever, those places where they were previously accustomed to assemble, concerning which a certain decree had been made and a letter sent to you officially, the same shall be restored to the Christians without payment or any claim of recompense and without any kind of fraud or deception, Those, moreover, who have obtained the same by gift, are likewise to return them at once to the Christians. Besides, both those who have purchased and those who have secured them by gift, are to appeal to the vicar if they seek any recompense from our bounty, that they may be cared for through our clemency. All this property ought to be delivered at once to the community of the Christians through your intercession, and without delay. And since these Christians are known to have possessed not only those places in which they were accustomed to assemble, but also other property, namely the churches, belonging to them as a corporation and not as individuals, all these things which we have included under the above law, you will order to be restored, without any hesitation or controversy at all, to these Christians, that is to say to the corporations and their conventicles: providing, of course, that the above arrangements be followed so that those who return the same without payment, as we have said, may hope for an indemnity from our bounty. In all these circumstances you ought to tender your most efficacious intervention to the community of the Christians, that our command may be carried into effect as quickly as possible, whereby, moreover, through our clemency, public order may be secured. Let this be done so that, as we have said above, Divine favor towards us, which, under the most important circumstances we have already experienced, may, for all time, preserve and prosper our successes together with the good of the state. Moreover, in order that the statement of this decree of our good will may come to the notice of all, this rescript, published by your decree, shall be announced everywhere and brought to the knowledge of all, so that the decree of this, our benevolence, cannot be concealed.
From Lactantius, De Mort. Pers., ch. 48. opera, ed. 0. F. Fritzsche, II, p 288 sq. (Bibl Patr. Ecc. Lat. XI).
Bohemian
coin508.JPG
314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
ecoli
370Hadrian_RIC360.jpg
360 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna36 viewsReference.
RIC 360; RSC 724; BMCRE 516; Strack 197

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PP
laureate head right

Rev. COS III, in Ex.FORT RED
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia.

2.64 gr
19.7 mm
6 h
okidoki
postume_-_fortuna_redux_2.JPG
3e Emission - (263-265) - Trèves - FORTVNA REDVX14 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
FORTVNA REDVX
EG 38
CUNETIO 2408
RIC 62
ELMER 315
AGK 24
de Witte 65
Cohen 83
PYL
Augustus_thunderbolt.jpg
40 BC Octavian denarius163 viewsC CAESAR III VIR R P C
Bare haed of Octavian right

Q SALVIVS IMP COS DESIG
thunderbolt

Italy early 40 BC
3.43g

Sear 1541

SOLD!

David Sear says that this Q Salvius may be Quintus Salvius Salvidienus Rufus who was the boyhood friend and confidant of Octavian. In 42 BC Octavian made him admiral of his fleet and instructed him to attack Sextus Pompey in Sicily. Despite being beaten by Sextus he was granted the title of Imperator which appears on this coin.

After the battle of Philippi Salvidienus was given command of 6 Legions an sent to Spain however he quickly had to return to Italy to confront Fulvia (Antony's wife) and Lucius Antonius (Antony's brother). Salvidienus captured and destroyed the city of Sentinum and then moved on to Perusia with Agrippa to besiege Lucius Antony. At the end of the Perusian War Octavian sent Salvidienus to Gallia as Governor, with eleven legions. He was also designated as consul for 39 BC, although he had not reached senatorial rank.

Salvidienus proved to be unworthy of Octavian's trust and entered into secret negotiations with Mark Antony thinking that Antony would prevail. Unfortunately for Salvidienus, Antony and Octavian were reconciled and Antony informed Octavian of Salvidienus treachary. Antony's decision to inform on Salvidienus has been used to show his desire to settle the differences with Octavian. The senate declared Salvidienus a public enemy and shortly after he was killed, either by his own hand or by execution.
Jay GT4
Denario_Septimio_Severo_RIC_477_1.jpg
46-02a - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)32 viewsAR Denario 17x18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "[L SEPT SEV] PE-RT AVG IMP VIII" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORT R-EDVC" – Fortuna de pié a izquierda vistiendo Modius en la cabeza, portando timón en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda.

Esta emisión refiere a la partida de Severo para comenzar la Guerra contra Clodio Albino.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión 196 - 197 D.C.
Ceca: Laodicea ad Mare (Laodicée) Siria (Hoy cerca de Denizli Turquía.
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #477 Pag.155 – Sear (1988) #1752 Var. (Leyenda reverso) - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6281 var. (Leyenda reverso) Pag.459 – BMCRE Vol.6 Pag.111 Nota - Cohen Vol.IV #164 Pag.21 - RSC Vol. III #164 Pag.25 - DVM #34/1 Pag.182
mdelvalle
RSC_477_Denario_Septimio_Severo.jpg
46-02a - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)14 viewsAR Denario 17x18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "[L SEPT SEV] PE-RT AVG IMP VIII" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORT R-EDVC" – Fortuna de pié a izquierda vistiendo Modius en la cabeza, portando timón en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda.

Esta emisión refiere a la partida de Severo para comenzar la Guerra contra Clodio Albino.

Acuñada 2da. Emisión 196 - 197 D.C.
Ceca: Laodicea ad Mare (Laodicée) Siria (Hoy cerca de Denizli Turquía.
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #477 Pag.155 – Sear (1988) #1752 Var. (Leyenda reverso) - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6281 var. (Leyenda reverso) Pag.459 – BMCRE Vol.6 Pag.111 Nota - Cohen Vol.IV #164 Pag.21 - RSC Vol. III #164 Pag.25 - DVM #34/1 Pag. - Salgado II/1 #4172.c.3 Pag.103
mdelvalle
Moushmov_394_Marcianopolis_Septimio_Severo.jpg
46-53 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)11 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular Aurelius Gallus.

AE Tetrassaria? 26 mm 9.9 gr.

Anv: ”AV K Λ CEΠ CEVHPOC” – Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”V AV ΓAΛΛOY MARKIANOΠO-ΛIT – Tyche/Fortuna estante a izquierda, portando Timón apoyado en el suelo, en mano derecha y Cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada: 193 - 211 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #394 - AMNG Vol.I/1 #559 Pag.201 - Varbanov I #774 Pag.116 - BMC III #3 Pag.28 - Sear GICV #2123 Pag.200
mdelvalle
Moushmov_394_Marcianopolis_Septimio_Severo_2.jpg
46-54 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)12 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular Faustinianus.

AE Tetrassaria? 25 mm 8.7 gr.

Anv: ”AV K CEΠTI CEVHPOC” – Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”VH ΦAVCTINIANOC MARKIANOΠO-ΛIT – Tyche/Fortuna estante a izquierda, portando Timón apoyado en el suelo, en mano derecha y Cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada: 193 - 211 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #394 - AMNG Vol.I/1 #571 Pag.203 - Varbanov I #802 Pag.117 - Sear GICV #2123 var. (Legado) Pag.200 - Mionnet Supl.2 #122 Pag.75
mdelvalle
Moushmov_394_Marcianopolis_Septimio_Severo_1.jpg
46-55 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)9 viewsMARCIANOPOLIS Moesia Inferior

AE 2 assarias 20 mm 5.0 gr.

Anv: ”AV K Λ CEΠT CEVHPOC” – Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”MARKIANOΠO-ΛITΩN – Tyche/Fortuna estante a izquierda, portando Timón apoyado en el suelo, en mano derecha y Cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada: 193 - 211 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #394 - AMNG Vol.I/1 #588 Pag.207 - Mionnet Supl.2 #124 Pag.76 - Varbanov I #740 Pag.114 - BMC III #6 Pag.28
mdelvalle
RIC_Falsificación_Antigua_Denario_Caracala.jpg
48-04 - CARACALLA Como Cesar de Septimio Severo (27/05/196 - 04/198 D.C.)11 viewsAntigua falsificación
AR Denario 17 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "[ ]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, vestido y viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNAE REDVCI" - Fortuna sentada a izq. en una silla sin respaldo, portando un timón en mano der. apoyado en el piso y cornucopia en izq. Debajo de la silla una rueda. Este es un reverso de Septimio Severo RIC IVa #78a P.100 en 196-7 D.C.)

Acuñada entre 196 y 198 D.C.
Ceca: Incierta

Referencias: Sin referencias bibliográficas
mdelvalle
postume-fortunaaug-assise.jpg
4e Emission - 1er Phase - (266) - Trèves - FORTVNA AVG4 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
FORTVNA AVG
variante avec la Fortune assise
EG 60
CUNETIO 2424
RIC 61
ELMER 384
AGK 22
de Witte 62
Cohen 81
PYL
postume-fortunaaug.jpg
4e Emission - 1er Phase - (266) - Trèves - FORTVNA AVG10 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
FORTVNA AVG
variante avec la Fortune debout
EG 61
CUNETIO 2425
RIC 60
ELMER 385
AGK 23
de Witte 63
Cohen 80
PYL
Clipboard~47.jpg
4th Century bearded Broad Axe - Balkans32 viewsThough this would have been a terrifying weapon in battle, its primary use was for wood working. Often sold as battle axes on eBay, they generally are not.
This particular four lugged, broad bearded axe was dated to around the 4th century AD and found in the Balkans near to a known roman fort. (not known to me unfortunately)
There are two descriptions for its use, one for woodworking and one for battle.
The massive metal structure at the back of the axe would have been struck by a hammer to cleave planks.
The second option is that the large cutting edge would have caused massive trauma to a human body in Armour. the hammer at the rear would have easily smashed heavier Armour and shields.
This axe weighs 3/4 of a kilo, which would have been quite tiresome swinging about in battle
The broad axe originally came from Western and Central Europe and was subsequently developed into two basic axe types: the two-lugged and the four-lugged. The two-lugged broad axe is characterized by two lugs below the eye and was often quite big and heavy. It had a short handle and a long extended edge. The beard axe was used primarily as a tool for woodwork and for cutting and smoothing planks, for example. This type of axe was an essential tool used for boat building and in the construction of buildings.
lorry66
coin448.JPG
501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

ecoli
coin555.JPG
501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a title of Christ[2].

The date for Christmas may also bear a relation to the sun worship. According to the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi, writing in the twelth century:

"It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." (cited in "Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries", Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p155])
Christianity designated Sunday as the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest, rather than Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.


CONSTANTINE I

RIC VII Siscia 32 R3

ecoli
SevAlex-RIC-125-2.jpg
51. Severus Alexander year XIIII.12 viewsDenarius, Jan. 1 - Mar. 19, 235 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PM TR P XIIII COS III P P / Sol walking, holding whip.
3.11 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #125.

Coins from the last few months of Severus Alexander's life (TR P XIIII) are fairly rare and are not often seen. This collection is fortunate to have two of them.
Callimachus
s49.JPG
516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
ecoli
52- Maximianus-5.JPG
52-Maximianus #5-S26 viewsAe Follis, 298 AD, Uncertain mint.
Obv: IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: FORTVNAE REDVCI CAESS NN, Fortuna standing holding cornucopia and wheel.
26mm , 10.3gm.
VM 37.
jdholds
Varbanov_4086_NICOPOLIS_Heliogabalo.jpg
53-40 - Nicopolis ad Istrum - HELIOGABALO (218 - 222 D.C.)10 viewsNICOPOLIS ad ISTRUM - Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular Novius Rufus

AE Tetrasarión
25.0 mm 11.0 gr.

Anv: "AVT K M AVPH ANTΓNEINOC K" – Busto. laur., vestido y acorazado, viendo a der.
Rev: ”VΠ NOBIOV ΡOVΦOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN/ ΠΡOΣ IΣ// TΡ/ON", Tyche/Fortuna estante a izq., portando timón apoyado en globo en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 218 - 222 D.C.

Referencias: Moushmov #1451, AMNG I #1977 P.492, Varbanov I #4088 P.328, Mionnet S2 #678 P.173
mdelvalle
520Hadrian_RIC541a.jpg
541 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 117 AD Fortuna102 viewsReference.
RIC 541a; BMCRE 1110; Cohen 751; Banti 409

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS FORT RED/S C in two lines in exergue
Fortuna, draped, seated left on low seat, holding rudder on ground in right hand and cornucopiae in left.

28.43 gr
34 mm
3 commentsokidoki
521Hadrian_RIC543.jpg
543 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 117 AD Fortuna56 viewsReference.
Strack 509; Cohen 753; RIC 543 var. (CAESAR) ; Banti 416 var. ( Baldric strap)

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, nude bust right, aegis on left shoulder and across back of neck, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS DES II S C FORT RED
Fortuna, draped, seated left on low seat, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left.

27.37 gr.
32 mm.
okidoki
AnthonyLegPanoramaBlack~0.jpg
544/21 Mark Anthony 34 viewsMarc Antony Legionary Denarius- Legion VIII. Patrae(?) Mint 32-31 BC. (3.42 g, 16.73 mm) Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley. Rev: LEG VIII, legionary eagle between two standards.
Sydenham 1225, RSC 35, Crawford 544/21

Ex: Private Collection

Description from Forvm Ancient Coins:

"The legionary denarii were struck by Antony for the use of his fleet and legions, most likely at his winter headquarters at Patrae just before the Actian campaign. They may have been struck with silver from Cleopatra's treasury. The legionary denarii provide an interesting record of the 23 legions, praetorian cohorts and the chort of speculatores of which Antony's army was composed. Some of them give the name as well as the number of the legion honored. They have a lower silver content than the standard of the time. As a result they were rarely hoarded, heavily circulated and are most often found in very worn condition."

Unfortunately from what I understand VIII Leg has no equivelant among the imperial legions.

This specific coin was fun to photograph, it seemed like no matter how you turned and twisted it still turned out great. A photogenic coin, in other words!
Paddy
536Hadrian_RIC551a.jpg
551a Hadrian Sestertius Roma 118 AD Fortuna49 viewsReference.
RIC 551a; Banti 414

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, draped on left shoulder, right

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II S C FORT RED (S-C in ex.)
Fortuna, draped, seated left on low seat, holding rudder on ground in right hand and cornucopiae in left.

26.04 gr
33 mm
h

Note. Matt Smith
Legend: reads PONT(ifex) MAX(imus) TR(ibunicia) POT(estate) COS [II], or “Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestas [i.e. endowed with power of tribune], Consul for the second time.
okidoki
832Hadrian_RIC551a.jpg
551a Hadrian Sestertius Roma 118 AD Fortuna32 viewsReference.
RIC 551a; Banti 415

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, draped on left shoulder, right

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II S C FORT RED (S-C in field)
Fortuna, draped, seated left on low seat, holding rudder on ground in right hand and cornucopiae in left.

24.95 gr
35 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
50Hadrian__RIC557~0.jpg
557 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 118 AD Fortuna32 viewsReference.
RIC. 557; Spink 3663 var; Co. 757 var

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Radiate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / FORT RED / S - C
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

13.13 gr
27 mm
6h

Aureo & Calicó S.L.
Auction 258 Lot 3218 in 2014
okidoki
1157Hadrian_RIC557.jpg
557 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 118 AD Fortuna8 viewsReference.
RIC 557 var. (no balteus);Spink 3663; C. 757

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG.
Radiate bust right, heroically nude bust right, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / S - C / FORT RED.
Fortuna seated left on throne, holding cornucopia and rudder.

12.39 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
135_P_Hadrian__Emmett1144.jpg
5756 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol AE 129-30 AD Tyche standing21 viewsReference.
Emmett 1144.14; Köln 1021; Milne 1289; RPC III, 5756

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI A∆PIA CEB
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev. LIΔ
Tyche standing facing, head l., holding rudder and cornucopia

9.47 gr
23 mm
12h

Note from NGC.
The goddess Tyche, the protectress of cities and the goddess of good fortune and prosperity, known to the Romans as Fortuna. She often is portrayed on ancient coinage, including on this Egyptian drachm of Hadrian
okidoki
58-Edward-IV.jpg
58. Edward IV.18 viewsGroat, light coinage of 1464-1470; London mint.
Obverse: EDWARD DI GRA REX ANGL Z FRANC / Crowned bust, facing, quatrefoils at neck.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
Mint mark: crown on both sides.
3.09 gm., 25 mm.
North #1570; Seaby #2000.

Classification: North classifies Edward IV's groats into at least 22 types. Fortunately many of them have different mint marks, and the crown mint mark on both sides of this coin readily identify it as type 7. It is suggested that this mint mark was used from July 1466 to July 1467.

Callimachus
220Hadrian__RIC599b.jpg
599 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 119-21 AD Fortuna37 viewsReference.
RIC 599b; BMC 1227; Coh. 785 var.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG PM TRP COS III
radiate, cuirassed bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder seen from front. (thunderbolt on leather strap)

Rev. FORTVNAE REDVX, SC in ex.,
Fortuna seated left, holding a rudder in her right hand & cornucopia in her left hand.

12.60 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
otho denar.jpg
69 AD - OTHO AR denarius - struck Jan-Apr 69 AD49 viewsobv: IMP.OTHO.CAESAR.AVG.TR.P (bewigged head right)
rev: SECVRITAS.PR (Securitas standing left, holding wreath & scepter)
ref: RIC10, C.15, BMC19
mint: Rome
3.26gms, 19mm
Very rare

Unfortunately this coin was broken, and the sticking is disfigure sufficiently.
berserker
RIC_144_Antoniniano_Gordiano_III.jpg
69-20 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)19 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 x 21 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTUNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda, debajo de su trono una rueda, portando un timón en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en mano izquierda.

Acuñada 12ava. y 13ava. Emisiones mediados 243 a En./Feb. 244 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.2da.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #144 Pag.31, Sear RCTV Vol.III #8612 Pag.118, Cohen Vol.V #98 Pag.31, Hunter p.LXXXV, RSC Vol. IV #98 Pag.3, DVM #16 Pag.224
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Gordiano III RIC 144.jpg
69-21 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)48 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 x 21 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTUNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda, debajo de su trono una rueda, portando un timón en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en mano izquierda.

Acuñada 12ava. y 13ava. Emisiones mediados 243 a En./Feb. 244 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.2da.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #144 Pag.31 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8613 - Cohen Vol.V #98 Pag.31 - RSC Vol. IV #98 Pag.3 - DVM #16 Pag.224
mdelvalle
RIC_210b_Antoniniano_Gordiano_III.jpg
69-24 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)13 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTUNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda, portando un timón en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en mano izquierda.

Acuñada Mediados de 243 a Marz. 244 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #210b Pag.37, Sear RCTV Vol.III #8613 Pag.118, Cohen Vol.V #98 Pag.31, Hunter #50 y Nota, RSC Vol. IV #98a Pag.3, DVM #16 var Pag.224
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Gordiano III RIC 210b.jpg
69-25 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)45 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTUNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda, portando un timón en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en mano izquierda.

Acuñada Mediados de 243 a Marz. 244 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #210b Pag.37 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8613 - Cohen Vol.V #98 Pag.31 - RSC Vol. IV #98a Pag.3 - DVM #16 var Pag.224
mdelvalle
RIC_210b_Antoniniano_Gordiano_III_1.jpg
69-25 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)17 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 mm 4.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTUNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda, portando un timón en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en mano izquierda.

Acuñada Mediados de 243 a Marz. 244 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia - Hoy Antaklyah Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #210b Pag.37, Sear RCTV Vol.III #8613 Pag.118, Cohen Vol.V #98 Pag.31, Hunter #50 y Nota, RSC Vol. IV #98a Pag.3, DVM #16 var Pag.224
mdelvalle
Moushmov_1513_NICOPOLIS_Gordiano_III.jpg
69-70 - Nicopolis - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)10 viewsNICOPOLIS ad ISTRUM - Moesia Inferior
Legado Consular Sab(inius?) Modestus

AE Tetrasarión? 27 mm 11.0 gr.

Anv: "AVT K M ANTΩ ΓOΡΔIANOC", Busto laureado, vest. y acoraz de Gordiano a der.
Rev: "VΠ CAB MOΔECTOV NIKOΠOΛEITΩN ΠPO - CIC en exergo, T/P/O/N en campo der.", Tyche/Fortuna estante a izq. vistiendo Kalatos y portando Timón en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada 238 - 244 D.C.

Referencias: Varbanov I #4147 (R3) Pag.333, Moushmov #1513, AMNG I/1 #2083 Pag.513, Mionnet S.2 #718 Pag.181
mdelvalle
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
204Hadrian__RIC759.jpg
759 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna35 viewsReference.
RIC 759; Cohen 763; Sear 3599.

Obv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
legend with laureate head right.

Rev: FORTVNA AVG legend with S-C
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopia.

25.92 gr
30 mm
Good fine.

Ex Walter Steinberg collection
1 commentsokidoki
983Hadrian_RIC760.jpg
760 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna standing38 viewsReference.
RIC 760; C. 772; BMC 1514; Strack 670; Banti 428 (26 specimens)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate, draped, right

Rev. FORTVNA AVG S C
Fortuna, draped, standing left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left

25.12 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
Dr. walter Kimpel
2 commentsokidoki
domitian dup.jpg
81-96 AD - DOMITIAN AE dupondius - struck 90-91 AD52 viewsobv: [IMP].CAES.DOMIT.AVG.GERM.COS.XV. CENS.PER.P.P. (radiate head right)
rev: FORTVNAE AVGVS[TI] / S.C. (Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae)
ref: RIC II 392, C.132 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
12.97gms, 26.5mm

Fortune, a goddess to whose worship the Romans were devoutly attached.
berserker
Antoniniano_Galieno_RIC_193.jpg
82-05 - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)38 viewsBillon Antoniniano 18 x 20 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNA RE[DVX]" – Fortuna de pié a izquierda, portando un timón apoyado en un globo en mano derecha y cornucopia en brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 260 - 268 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #193 Pag.147 - Sear RCTV (1988) #2959 - Cohen Vol.V #265 Pag.372 - DVM #82 Pag.245 - RSC Vol.IV #265 Pag.71 - Göbl 585a
mdelvalle
Göbl_585a_Antoniniano_Galieno.jpg
82-17 - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)14 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 x 20 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNA RE[DVX]" – Fortuna de pié a izquierda, portando un timón apoyado en un globo en mano derecha y cornucopia en brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 262 - 263 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #193 Pag.147 - Sear RCTV III #10219 Pag.291 - Sear RCTV (1988) #2959 - Cohen Vol.V #265 Pag.372 - DVM #82 Pag.245 - RSC Vol.IV #265 Pag.71 - Göbl 585a
mdelvalle
Göbl_576l_Antoniniano_Galieno.jpg
82-17a - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)10 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" -Busto radiado, vest. y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNA RE[DVX]" – Fortuna de pié a izquierda, portando un timón apoyado en un globo en mano derecha y cornucopia en brazo izquierdo. "Digama" en campo der.

Acuñada 263 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.Va #193 var. Pag.147 - Sear RCTV III #10219 Pag.291 - Sear RCTV (1988) #2959 var. - Cohen Vol.V #269/70 Pag.372 - DVM #82 Pag.245 - RSC Vol.IV #270 Pag.71 - Göbl 576l
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Quintilo RIC 19.jpg
95-02 - QUINTILO (Set. a Dic. 270 D.C.)35 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "[I]MP C [M AV]R CL QVINTILLV[S AVG]" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORT[VNA RED]VX" - Fortuna de pié de frente con su cabeza hacia la izquierda, portando un timón apoyado sobre un globo en mano derecha y cornucopia en la izquierda.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. - Dic. 270 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.7ma.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #20 Pag.241 - Cohen Vol.VI #32 Pag.168 - DVM #9 Pag.256 - Nor.#1176
mdelvalle
RIC_52_Antoniniano_Quintilo.jpg
95-02 - QUINTILO (Set. a Dic. 270 D.C.)4 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP QVINTILLVS AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES MILIT" - Fortuna de pié de frente con su cabeza hacia la izquierda, portando un timón apoyado sobre un globo en mano derecha y cornucopia en la izquierda.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Fin de Ago.- Nov. 270 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.2da.)

Referencias: RIC Va #52 (C) P.244, RIC2 Temp #1116, Sear RCTV III #11438 P.410, Cohen VI #25 Pag.167, DVM #6 P.256, MRK#105/12, Hunter #25, La Venera #10284/305
mdelvalle
RIC_20_Antoniniano_Quintilo.jpg
95-04 - QUINTILO (Set. a Dic. 270 D.C.)6 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "[I]MP C [M AV]R CL QVINTILLV[S AVG]" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORT[VNA RED]VX" - Fortuna de pié de frente con su cabeza hacia la izquierda, portando un timón apoyado sobre un globo en mano derecha y cornucopia en la izquierda.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. - Dic. 270 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.7ma.)

Referencias: RIC Va #20 P.241, Sear RCTV III #11441 P.410, Cohen VI #32 P.168, DVM #9 P.256, Nor.#1176, Hunter #9
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Aureliano RIC 128.jpg
96-04 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)37 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda, portando un timón en la mamo de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda. Debajo de su silla una rueda. "Q" en exergo.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión Otoño 271 - Otoño 272 D.C.
Ceca: Mediolanum (Off. 4ta.) - Milan Italia

Referencias: RIC Va #128 (C) P.279, RIC 2 Temp.#1473, Sear RCTV III #11539 P.423, Sear RCTV '88 #3259, Cohen VI #95 P.186, DVM #10 P.257, Göbl#66 c4, La Venera 2061/2125, CBN #477, MIR #16,
mdelvalle
RIC_128_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-04 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FORTVNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda, portando un timón en la mamo de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda. Debajo de su silla una rueda. "Q" en exergo.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión Otoño 271 - Otoño 272 D.C.
Ceca: Mediolanum (Off. 4ta.) - Milan Italia

Referencias: RIC Va #128 (C) P.279, RIC 2 Temp.#1473, Sear RCTV III #11539 P.423, Sear RCTV '88 #3259, Cohen VI #95 P.186, DVM #10 P.257, Göbl#66 c4, La Venera 2061/2125, CBN #477, MIR #16, Hunter p.cx
mdelvalle
RIC_220_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano.jpg
96-15 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)8 viewsVellón Antoniniano 21 mm 3.0 gr.
Totalmente plateado

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: " F[ORT]VNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda sobre una rueda, portando un timón en mano derecha y cornucopia en Izquierda.. "*?" en exergo. No se lee la letra de Officina

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión Primavera-verano 271 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia - Sisak Croacia.

Referencias: RIC Va #220 (C) P.289, Sear RCTV '88 #3259 var - Cohen VI #95 var P.186, DVM #10 P.257
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Aureliano RIC 220.jpg
96-15 - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)34 viewsBillon Antoniniano 21 mm 3.0 gr.
Totalmente plateado

Anv: "IMP AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: " F[ORT]VNA REDVX" - Fortuna sentada a izquierda sobre una rueda, portando un timón en mano derecha y cornucopia en Izquierda.. "*?" en exergo. No se lee la letra de la Officinae

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 271 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia - Sisak Croacia.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #220 Pag.289 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3259 var - Cohen Vol.VI #95 var Pag.186 - DVM #10 Pag.257
mdelvalle
427Hadrian_RIC969.jpg
969 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna25 viewsReference.
Strack 628; RIC 969; C 727.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. COS III, FORT RED in exergue. S-C across fields.
Fortuna seated left, holding cornucopiae and rudder on globe.

21.95 gr
33 mm.
6 h.

ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 19 1 August 2015
okidoki
1217Hadrian_RIC969.JPG
969 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Fortuna27 viewsReference.
Strack 628; RIC 969h; C 727; Banti 399 (one specimen)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate, draped bust left, seen from rear

Rev. COS III, FORT RED in exergue. S-C across fields.
Fortuna seated left, holding cornucopiae and rudder on globe.

23.00 gr
33 mm.
6h
3 commentsokidoki
00742.jpg
Aelius (RIC 1065, Coin #742)1 viewsRIC 1065, AE AS, Rome, 137 AD
OBV: L AELIVS CAESAR; Bare head right.
REV: TR POT COS II S C; Fortuna-Spes standing left, holding flower in right and cornucopia in left
SIZE: 25.5mm, 11.78g
MaynardGee
aelius_k.jpg
Aelius Caesar, b. AD 101, d. 1387 viewsÆ as, 26mm, 10.2g; 6h; Rome mint, AD 137.
Obv.: L AELIVS CAESAR; Bare head right.
Rev.: TR POT COS II, S-C, Fortuna-Spes holding cornucopia and rudder in left hand, flower in right.
Ref.: RIC II 1065, p. 482, Scarce.
Notes: Aleg
John Anthony
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
CaliSe09-2~0.jpg
Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia, Caligula's three sisters273 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (23.4g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius ("Caligula") AD 37-38.
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT laureate portret of Gaius facing left
Reverse: AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA Agrippina (Jr), the eldest sister as Securitas, leaning on column, holding cornucopia, and placing left hand on Drusilla's shoulder; Drusilla, the middle sister, as Concordia, holding patera and cornucopia; and Julia Livilla, the youngest, as Fortuna, holding rudder and cornucopia.
RIC (Gaius) 33; Cohen 4
Ex Harlan J. Berk, Buy/Bid Sale

This specimen in the style of a provincial branch mint, rarer than those in Rome-mint style.
4 commentsCharles S
Alexander_II_Zebina.JPG
Alexander II Zabinas61 viewsAlexander II Zebina, Antioch, 128-123 BC, Houghton CSE 307, Sear 7127, SNGIs 2341, 21.14mm, 7g
OBV: Radiate head right
REV: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ (BASILEOS ALEXANDROU), double cornucopiae bound with a fillet, club in left field

Zabinas, the "bought one", the pretender king who spent most of his
pathetic reign fighting Demetrius II and Antiochus VII. He failed to ward
off Antiochus and was forced to plunder the temples of Antioch in order to
come up with getaway money. Unfortunately he was captured and forced to
commit suicide.
1 commentsRomanorvm
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River21 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
67~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 060.009 10 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ROMAE AETERNAE
BUST TYPE: F1 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIQ
WEIGHT 3.60g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC 739
ALFOLDI 060.009
COLLECTION NO. 642
NOTE: VERY NICE COIN IN HAND BUT UNFORTUNATELY IT'S IMPOSSIBLE TO MAKE A NICE PICTURE OF IT DUE TO THE UNEVEN PATINA
Barnaba6
Q-025.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (possibly virtvs) reverse, unattibuted mint (possibly Londinium)15 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS AVG ? / - - / QL ?
Galley sailing right (possibly waves below)
Unattributed mint, but possibly struck at Londinium.

Burnett:

Besides the mintmarks (QC & QL) in the exergue, there are 3 other ways to identify which mint struck a quinarius. Quinarii with the reverse legend LAETITIA AVG were only struck at the C mint; those with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG and waves below the galley were struck at Londinium; but if there are no waves below the galley and the reverse legend is VIRTVS AVG then it was struck at the C mint.

Unfortunately, on this example the reverese legend and mintmark are not visble. However, the style of the galley suggests a coin with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG. It seems also that there are waves below the galley (but I cannot be certain) which would mean that it was struck at London. Additionally galleys sailing right (with VIRTVS AVG reverse legend) are most commonly encountered from the London mint.
Ice
Allectus- Pax Avg.jpg
Allectus- Pax Avg77 viewsAllectus, summer 293 - 296 or 297 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right

IMP: Imperator, leader of the army
C: Caes
ALLECTVS: Allectus
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
PAX AVG, the divine peace

PAX: Peace
AVG: Divine


Pax standing left holding scepter and branch

Domination: Bronze antoninianus, Size 16 mm.

Mint: Cologne or Camolodunum mint

Comment: The coin is 'Barbarous'. It's so well established, unfortunately, that we're stuck with it. It refers to coins struck unofficially during times of shortage, which would be comparable with the tokens which circulated in Britain in the late 18th-eatly 19th centuries at a time when there was a shortage of copper coinage. The term 'barbarous' comes from an old, now discredited, idea that they were struck by 'barbarians' outside the empire.
John Schou
s-l1600_(61).jpg
ANCIENT - Panchala Dynasty - DHRUVAMITRA - 4.66gm - 65-50 BCE - HALF KARSHAPANA15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
RSC 0266Rome.jpg
Antoninianus. RSC 0266. Rome.26 viewsObv. Radiate head right GALLIENVS AVG
Rev. Fortuna standing holding rudder and cornucopia. FORTVNA REDVX. S in right field.
RSC 266. Rome mint.
2 commentsLordBest
41796_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8933,_RIC_IV_63b.jpg
Antoninianus; FORTVNA REDVX, RIC IV 63b8 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8933, RIC IV 63b, RSC IV 65, Choice aVF, Rome mint, 4.015g, 23.5mm, 225o, 249 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, rudder in right, cornucopia in left; full circles centering. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
ant1.jpg
Antoninius Pius Denarius15 viewsSilver denarius, RIC III 179, RSC II 263, VF, Rome mint, 148 - 149 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, Fortuna standing left, rudder in right, cornucopia in left;Adrian S
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-HYfhR9IyfMXREzR-Antoninus_Pius_4.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 5 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P - Laureate head right
TR POT COS III - Juno Sospita advancing right, brandishing spear and shield; serpent before
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.25g / 32mm / 360
Rarity: Extremely Rare
References:
BMCRE pg. 210
and note = Strack 887
Unpublished
RIC 608 var (legends)
Acquisition/Sale: distinctivecoins Ebay


The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Extremely Rare. From CNG: Strack only identified two examples, in Münich and the Vatican, but the latter of which may have a third example.

I feel very fortunate to have gotten this coin. The dealer had it listed as a 'Minerva' reverse but as I researched the reverse, I found that it was not 'Minerva' but 'Juno Sospita'.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-HYfhR9IyfMXREzR-Antoninus_Pius_4~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius18 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P - Laureate head right
TR POT COS III - Juno Sospita advancing right, brandishing spear and shield; serpent before
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.25g / 32mm / 360
Rarity: Extremely Rare
References:
BMCRE pg. 210
and note = Strack 887
Unpublished
RIC 608 var (legends)
Acquisition/Sale: distinctivecoins Ebay

Extremely Rare. From CNG: Strack only identified two examples, in Münich and the Vatican, but the latter of which may have a third example.

I feel very fortunate to have gotten this coin. The dealer had it listed as a 'Minerva' reverse but as I researched the reverse, I found that it was not 'Minerva' but 'Juno Sospita'.
Gary W2
antoninus_pius_den1.jpg
Antoninus Pius - RIC 4922 viewsAntoninus Pius Denarius.
139 AD.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right /
TR POT COS II, Fortuna standing left holding rudder & cornucopiae.
xokleng
Antoninus_Pius_AD138-161_AE_Dupondius.JPG
Antoninus Pius AD138-161 AE Dupondius101 viewsAntoninus Pius. AD138-161. AE Dupondius 10.4 g
23.5 to 24.8 mm. Dark Olive-Green Patina
Obv:ANTONINVS AVG. Radiate head right.
Rev:FORTVNA OPSEQVEN SC. Fortuna standing left holding cornucopiae and rudder. _4300

3 commentsAntonivs Protti
Antoninus_Pius_AR_Denarius.JPG
Antoninus Pius AR Denarius85 viewsAntoninus Pius Denarius. 151-152 AD. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XV, laureate head right / COS IIII, Fortuna standing right holding rudder on globe & cornucopiae. (19,5 mm, 2.94 gr.)
RSC 267. RIC 205.
6291
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
AntPius_Dup_2.jpg
Antoninus Pius As38 viewsAntoninus Pius AE As

ANTONINUS PIUS AE As. TR POT XX COS IIII SC, Fortuna or Providentia standing left with scepter, pointing at large globe.

RIC 972, Cohen 1011, BMC 2029
Tanit
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_277.jpg
Antoninus Pius Denarius A.D. 157 - 158 RIC 277, RSC 103537 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laureate head right / TR POT XXI COS IIII, Fortuna standing facing, head right, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
Maximum Diameter: 18.2 mm
Weight: 3.26 g
1 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
AntPius_Dup_1.jpg
Antoninus Pius Dupondius26 viewsAE Dupondius

Reverse TRP XV COS IIII
Obverse IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP; Fortuna standing facing right, holding rudder on globe in her right hand and cornucopiae in her left.


RIC III, 896 - Cohen 959
Tanit
Antoninus_Pius_Fortuna_Copper.JPG
Antoninus Pius Fortuna Copper56 viewsAntoninus Pius Copper as, RIC III 558, Rome, 11.66g, 27.0mm, 225o, 139 A.D.;
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right;
REV: FORTVNA AVG COS II S C, Fortuna standing left, rudder in right, cornucopia in left;

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins

SCARCE
Romanorvm
Antoninus_Pius_Fortuna_Denarius.JPG
Antoninus Pius Fortuna Denarius51 viewsAntoninus Pius denarius, this issue (third)139 - 140 AD, Rome, RSC 859, RIC 49,
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP, laureate head right
REV: TR POT COS II, Fortuna standing facing left, holding rudder cornucopiae.

Per Curtis Clay, Forvm Ancient Coins:
Date exactly 139, as specified by the emperor's title COS II.
Antoninus became COS II on 1 Jan. 139, COS III on 1 Jan. 140.
Probably spring 139 until the end of the year, since at the beginning of 139 Antoninus was still using a longer legend form and was not yet P P.

SCARCE
1 commentsRomanorvm
aps.jpg
Antoninus Pius RIC 1332 Rome15 viewsObverse: AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right
Reverse: TR POT X COS II S-C, Fortuna standing right, raising robe and holding rudder
Size: 35mm, Weight: 23.05g Mint: Rome
Date: 155-156 AD
Ref: RIC 1332
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
Antoninus_Pius_Sestertius_RIC_885.JPG
Antoninus Pius Sestertius RIC 885110 viewsAE Sestertius
Antoninus Pius, 152 AD, Rome Mint
Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XV, Laureate head right
Reverse: COS IIII-SC, Fortuna standing holding cornucopia and rudder which rests on globe
RIC 885; Cohen 268; BMCRE 1900
34mm, 26.4gm
Jerome Holderman
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_232.JPG
Antoninus Pius, 138 - 161 AD31 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XVII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.

Rev: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, holding rudder on a globe in right hand and an outward facing cornucopia in her left.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 144 - 145 AD

2.8 grams, 19 mm, 180°

RIC III 232, RSC 271, S4073 (var.), VM 8/7
SPQR Coins
ARI-Antoninus_Pius-3.jpg
Antoninus Pius, AR Denarius9 viewsAD 138-161
3.40 grams
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right
Rev.: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, holding cornucopiae & rudder
RIC 232. RSC 271
I purchased this coin from Heritage Auctions
Mint State Strike: 5/5, Surface: 5/5
Richard M10
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_III_286a.jpg
Antoninus Pius, AR Denarius, Fortuna, RIC III 286a14 viewsAntoninus Pius
Augustus, 138 – 161 A.D.

Coin: AR Denarius

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII, Laureate bust facing right.
Reverse: FORTVNA OBSEQVENS, Fortuna standing, facing left, holding a a Patera, over a Rudder and Anchor, with her right hand and a Cornucopia with her left.

Weight: 2.60 g, Diameter: 16.5 x 16 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 330°, Mint: Rome, struck in 159 A.D. Reference: RIC III 286a
Masis
ANTOAS10-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 533a, As of AD 139 (Fortuna) 147 viewsÆ As (10.6.02g, Ø27m, 12h), minted AD 139, Rome
Obv.: IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, bare head right
Rev.: P M TR POT COS II around, S C in field, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC 533; Cohen 651; Strack 753; BMCRE IV 1137.
ex old British collection (1996)

This type belongs to the second issue after the accession of Antoninus Pius. The names of Aelius and Hadrianus were added to his title to honour his adoptive father who had been deified on Antoninus' insistence and which earned him the title "Pius". In later issues the names of Aelius and Hadrianus will be dropped in later issues to reappear in his fourteenth to fifteenth tribunician year.
Charles S
AntoSe21-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 888, Sestertius of AD 151-152 (Fortuna) 28 viewsÆ sestertius (23.3g, Ø34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 151-152.
Obv.: IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TR POT XV COS IIII (around) S C (in field), Fortuna standing facing, head turned right, holding a rudder on a globe and a cornucopiae.
RIC 888; BMC 1885-86; Cohen 958

The imperial title 'IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS', is only found in the period AD 150-152, the 15th anniversary of the reign or immediately prior to it. It refers to the earliest imperial title of A. Pius 'IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS' used on coins issued in AD 138-139.
Charles S
AntoSe09-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1001, Sestertius of AD 158-159 (Fortuna Opsequens)64 viewsÆ sestertius (22.4, Ø31mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 158-159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII , laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: FORTVNA OPSEQVENS (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Fortuna standing left, with patera, rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC 1001 (C); BMC 2059-60; Cohen 393; Strack 1163 (4 spec.); Banti 163; Foss (RHC) 130:68

The cult of this divinity, not celebrated previously on imperial coinage, goes back to ancient times and was established by Servius Tullius, Rome's sixth king.

Even though according to RIC this coin is common, it may be scarcer. Strack found 4 specimens, but there is no example in Wildwinds nor Acsearch.info; Banti records only 1 other specimen.

Charles S
a1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 300a ("C"), 159-160 CE18 viewsObverse: laureate head right
Legend: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII

Reverse: Fortuna standing facing, head right, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
Legend: FORTVNA COS IIII
AquilaSPQR
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth110 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
ArsakesII.jpg
Arsakes II65 viewsAR Drachm (16mm, 4.09 g, 12h). Rhagai-Arsakeia(?) mint. Struck circa 211-209 BC. Head left, wearing bashlyk and earring / Archer (Arsakes I) seated right on throne, holding bow; to right, eagle standing facing, head left, with wings displayed; APΣAK•Y downward to left. Sellwood 6.1; A&S Type 6, obv. 6/1, rev. 6/2; Shore 4; Sunrise 241-3.

Arsakes II, son of Arsakes I, ascended the Parthian throne about 210 BC. At roughly the same time, the Seleukid king Antiochos III (223-187 BC) marched out of Ecbatana to recover the eastern Seleukid provinces that were lost to the young Parthian kingdom. Justin (41.5.7) comments that Arsakes II fought with admirable gallantry against Antiochos, and finally became his ally. Whether the Parthians resumed minting after the return of Antiochos returned to Ekbatana in 205 BC, after his Baktrian expedition, cannot be ascertained. It is possible that, until his defeat by the Romans at the Battle of Magnesia in 190/189 BC, Antiochos held sway over Iran at least as far east as the Baktrian frontiers and thus suppressed the circulation of non-Seleukid currencies. Unfortunately, the exact date and circumstances of the death of Arsakes II are unknown. The superb condition of the great majority of S6 drachms of Arsakes II implies that they were minted and almost immediately interred at around the time of Antiochos III’s eastern expedition to Parthia and Baktria in 209 BC (from CNG).
3 commentsThatParthianGuy
4040468.jpg
Augustus12 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.33 g, 7h). Rome mint; Q. Rustius, moneyer. Struck 19-18 BC. Jugate, draped busts right of Fortuna Victrix, wearing round helmet, and Fortuna Felix, diademed, set on bar with ram’s head finials / Ornamented altar inscribed FOR RE. RIC I 322; RSC 513. Fine, toned, light porosity, areas of weak strike.
2 commentsecoli
augustus_322.jpg
Augustus RIC I, 322680 viewsAugustus 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.83g, 20mm, Rome 19 BC, by moneyer Q Rustius
obv. Q RVSTIVS - FORTVNA, ANTIAT (in ex., hard to see!)
Busts, draped, jugate, r., of Fortuna Victrix, helmeted, holding patera in l.
hand, and Fortuna Felix, wearing stephane;
both busts rest on bar terminating at each end in a ram' s head
rev. CAESARI . AVGVSTO
A highly ornamented rectangular altar with a bowl on it, inscribed in front
FOR.RE
ex.: EX.S.C.
RIC I, 322; BMCR 2
R2; about VF, toned

FORTVNA ANTIATIS, Fortuna of Antium, one of the most important places of Fortuna worshipping, as two goddesses, sisters, FORTVNA VICTRIX, more male, and FORTVNA FELIX, more female. Or as two aspects of only one goddess?
On the rev. the altar of FORTVNA REDVX, erected by the Senatus for the lucky return of Augustus 19BC with the 53 standards from the Parthians in Rome near the Porta Capuana.
Q Rustius celebrates Augustus and his own hometown Antium.
4 commentsJochen
augustus_322~0.jpg
Augustus RIC I, 32291 viewsAugustus 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.83g, 20mm, Rome 19 BC, by moneyer Q Rustius
obv. Q RVSTIVS - FORTVNAE (AE ligate)
in ex. ANTIAT (hardly to see!)
Busts, draped, jugate, r., of Fortuna Victrix, helmeted, holding patera in l.
hand, and Fortuna Felix, wearing stephane;
both busts rest on bar terminating at each end in a ram' s head
rev. CAESARI . AVGVSTO
A highly ornamented rectangular altar with a bowl on it, inscribed in front
FOR.RE
ex.: EX.S.C.
RIC I, 322; BMCR 2
R2; about VF, toned

FORTVNA ANTIATIS, Fortuna of Antium, one of the most important places of Fortuna worshipping, as two goddesses, sisters, FORTVNA VICTRIX, more male, and FORTVNA FELIX, more female. Or as two aspects of only one goddess?
On the rev. the altar of FORTVNA REDVX, erected by the Senatus for the lucky return of Augustus 19BC with the 53 standards from the Parthians in Rome near the Porta Capuana.
Q Rustius celebrates Augustus and his own hometown Antium.





Jochen
Aurelian_Fortuna.jpg
Aurelian24 viewsAE Antoninianus.
Siscia mint, 274 AD
RIC Vi 220; Cohen 95; Sear5 11539.
4.23g, 23mm

Some silvery
Samson L2
aurelian new pic com.JPG
Aurelian , Fortuna Redux28 viewsSilvered AE 21-23 mm 3.5 grams 270-275 AD
OBV :: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust right
REV :: FORTVNA REDVX. Fortuna sitting left on wheel holding rudder and cornucopia
EX :: * Q (star Q )
RIC V-1 Siscia 220
RIC rated common
from uncleaned lot 10/2007
Johnny
306_Aurelian_Fortuna.jpg
Aurelian - AE antoninianus6 viewsSiscia
spring - summer 271 AD
Issue 3
radiate and cuirassed bust right
IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Fortuna seated on wheel left, holding rudder and cornucopia
FORTVNA__REDVX
*P
LV 6057-101; RIC1st 220
http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/2043
3,08g
Johny SYSEL
Aurelian_RIC_128.jpg
Aurelian AE Antoninianus A.D. 274-275 RIC 128, Cohen 95, Sear5 1153930 viewsIMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right / FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder & cornucopiae,S in ex. Mediolanum (Milan) mint.
Maximum Diameter: 23.5 mm
Weight: 2.97 g

A gift from a local coin dealer.

TheEmpireNeverEnded
Aurelian_5_opt.jpg
AURELIAN Antoninianus RIC 128, Fortuna19 viewsOBV: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
REV: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder & cornucopiae, T in ex
3.30 gm., 20 mm

Minted at Mediolanum, 274-5 AD
Legatus
aureliansiscia.JPG
Aurelian Antoninianus, Siscia Mint54 viewsObv: INP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, Draped and Cuirassed bust rt. Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter on rt. presenting glbe to Aurelian. *T in Exergue; RIC VI 227, Sear5 1146v

Unfortunately depatinated but a great example of the vigorous style of portraiture that one often finds from the Siscia mint.
daverino
Aurelian_Fortuna.JPG
Aurelian Fortuna31 viewsAurelian Æ Antoninianus, Mediolanum (Milan), 274-275 AD,
OBV: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
REV: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder & cornucopiae, P, S, T or Q in ex.
RIC 128, Cohen 95, SEAR 5 - 11539
Romanorvm
Aurelian_Fortuna_Redux~0.JPG
Aurelian Fortuna Redux32 viewsAurelian Antoninianus, 272 - 274 AD, Siscia, RIC 220, Cohen 95, SEAR 5 11539v, 21.15mm, 3.4g
OBV: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
REV: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae, P in exergue,
Romanorvm
COMBINED~8.jpg
Aurelian FORTUNA REDUX33 viewsAurelianus

Obverse - IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse - FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
Mintmark P star. Siscia.

2,7 g, 22,4 mm.
Flamur H
Aurelian_RIC_V,_I_128.jpg
Aurelian, AE Antoninianus, RIC V, I 1284 viewsAurelian
Augustus, 270 – 275 A.D.

Coin: AE Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust facing right. Aegis on left shoulder.
Reverse: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna, seated to the left upon a Wheel, holding a Rudder with her right hand and a Cornucopia with her left. S in exergue.

Weight: 4.94 g, Diameter: 22 x 22 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 220°, Mint: Milan, Reference: RIC V, I 128
Masis
Aurelian_RIC_V,_I_220.jpg
Aurelian, AE Antoninianus, RIC V, I 2207 viewsAurelian
Augustus, 270 – 275 A.D.

Coin: AE Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust facing right. Aegis on left shoulder.
Reverse: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna, seated to the left upon a Wheel, holding a Rudder with her right hand and a Cornucopia with her left. ✵ T in exergue.

Weight: 4.20 g, Diameter: 21.2 x 20.2 x 1.3 mm, Die axis: 20°, Mint: Siscia, Reference: RIC V, I 220
Masis
Aurelian, Fortuna Redux.jpg
Aurelian- FORTVNA REDVX99 viewsSilvered Antoninianus

obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, bust radiate, cuir., rt.
rev: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated l. by wheel and cornucopiae
*T in exergue- Siscia mint
RIC 220
VF

Superb gloss patina... truly a work of art in hand.
wolfgang336
Aurelianus_b2.jpg
Aurelianus antoninianus71 viewsFORTVNA REDVXTibsi
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius.jpg
Barbarous Denarius of Trajan33 viewsObv: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GIR (?) DAC
Rev: COIS C IIIV (?)
Personification holds Patera and Rudder, looks like a merger of a Genius with Fortuna to me.
20mm, 4.09g

Lovely!
klausklage
fortuna_BCC_g15.jpg
BCC g1566 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Intaglio 1st-3rd cent.CE
Caesarea Maritima
Fortuna standing right holding
cornucopia and rudder.
Glass paste? or turquoise, in iron setting.
Gem size: 6x8 mm. 0.78gm.
cf. Anit Hamburger, "Gems from Caesarea Maritima",
Atiqot English Series, Vol. VIII, 1968 #73
v-drome
galeria_valeria.jpg
BCC Lr1317 viewsLate Roman BCC Lr13
Galeria Valeria 305-311CE
AE Follis - Thessalonica
OBV:GAL VALE-[RIA] AVG
Diademed and draped bust right, wearing necklace.
REV:VENERI V-ITRICI
Venus standing left, holding apple and raising drapery
from shoulder, star to left, A to right, dot SM dot TS in ex.
23x25mm. 5.81gm. Axis:0
RIC 36, A
The coins of Galeria all have very interesting variations in hairstyle, jewelry, and
dress. According to Stevenson, this empress met an unfortunate end, as did
so many of the rulers from this period.
v-drome
nerva_den.jpg
BCC RI30X43 viewsRoman Imperial
Nerva 96-98 CE
AR Denarius
Obv: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P
Laureate head of Nerva right.
Rev: FORTUNA P R Fortuna seated left
17x18 mm. 3.54 gm. Axis: 180
possible references: RIC 17 scarce, RSC 79, BMC 41, Cohen 79
v-drome
BCC_RI37_Gallienus_Fortuna.jpg
BCC RI372 viewsRoman Imperial
Gallienus 253-260C.E.
AR Antoninianus
Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENUS AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: FORTVNA REDVX
Mercury standing left, holding
purse and caduceus.
21.5 x 19mm. 3.29gm. Axis: 0
RIC 292[j] Viminacium Mint, or
Sear 1561d Antioch Mint
v-drome
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 14 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius61 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)9 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2
Paduan_Caligula.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD147 viewsObv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON A