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britannicus01.jpg
45 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
9e8WbRx57aNtBq3DSKi2mG4g8AZgdC.jpg
14 viewsAbbasid Governors, anonymous, AE fals (21mm, 3.71gm, 11h), Halab, AH 136. O: Kalima; below, large pellet left and annulet right; in margin, mint and date formula. R: At center, Kalima continued; in margin, Qur'an 9:33. Ilisch (1996) Resafa IV, p. 117, 221 (dated xx6); cf. ibid. 220 (dated 135) and 222 (date illegible, either 135 or 136); see also Nützel (1898) Berlin 2074 (dated 135 but mint illegible) and Shamma p. 89, 3 (dated xx5). Very Fine and extremely rare, olive green patina with areas of red sand encrustation. Date full and clear. Mint missing but clearly style of Halab, AH 135 and 136.Quant.Geek
Miletos_Diobol.jpg
25 viewsIONIA. MILETOS. DIOBOL (6TH-5TH CENTURIES BC).


Obv: Forepart of lion left.
Rev: Stellate pattern within incuse square.

SNG Kayhan 476-82.

Condition: Extremely fine.

Weight: 1.18 g.
Diameter: 9 mm.
paul1888
Severus_Alexander_sestertius.jpg
46 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-235 AD. Sestertius (AE; 29mm; 24.53g; 12h) AD 231-235 IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus Alexander to right. Rev. PROV[ID]ENTIA AVG / S – C Providentia draped, standing front, head left, holding in right hand corn-ears over modius filled with corn-ears and, in left, cornucopiae. Almost extremely fine. Nice brown patina. Heavy and round flan. Well centered.
BMCRE VI p. 201, 881; C. 503; RIC IV, II p. 121, 642.
Ex Münchner Münzhandlung K. Kress 122, Munich 30 May 1962,1292.
2 commentspaul1888
4050632.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (14mm, 0.38 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / Facing busts John and St. Demetrius, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC –; SB –; NAC 56, lot 830 (hammer 800 CHF). VF, dark green patina, obverse struck with worn die, ragged flan. Extremely rare.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
001638_l.jpg
7 Maxentius53 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis (24-27 mm, 5.96 g)
Aquileia Mint, late Summer 307.

O: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.

R: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated l. on shield in tetrastyle temple, r. handing globe to Maxentius (in military dress, stading r.), l. hand holding sceptre; seated captive between;

Victories as acroteria; she-wolf and twins in pediment; AQP in ex.

RIC VI Aquileia 113.

Dark patina. Extremely fine.

Ex Auctiones GmbH
3 commentsSosius
Avitus__AE4.jpg
90 Avitus?55 viewsAVITUS?
AE4/5, Rome mint

O: DN AVIT-VS PF AVG, bust right

R: VICTOR-IA AVGG, Victory standing, left, holding wreath and palm branch, RM in ex., S in left field

RIC X 2412 or 2413, R5. Sear (2014) 21581 or 21582 (extremely rare)

Like many late Roman coins, this could be a barbarous issue, but it has many of the features of genuine Avitus coins. Still not enough detail or legends to remove the question mark after Avitus, though!
Sosius
capta doma.jpg
AS FOUND. DOMITIAN CAESAREA MARITIMA JUDAEA CAPTA TYPE217 viewsJudaea Capta, Domitian, Struck at Caesarea Maritima 81-96 CE. Ć 24mm
O: Laureate bust of Domitian to right.
R: Victory to left with trophy.
Hendin-747. Ć 24mm
Extremely Fine

1 commentsamibosam
phallus1.JPG
45 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.92 g, 12 h)
Horse standing right; C above
Erect phallus; A V flanking
Rostovtsev -

Rostovtsev1 gathers into one group all tesserae depicting the phallus, various iterations of the word Amor, and the extremely rare pieces depicting sexual acts. He assumes that these pieces were entrance tickets to the Lupanaria, ancient brothels. This association has caused many scholars to refuse to accept tesserae as currency, as they feel that such crude themes would never have been depicted on currency. Thornton2, however, convincingly argues that, as Mercury is sometimes depicted as a herm, a statuary type consisting of a bust set on a square pedestal adorned with only genitalia, the phallus is in fact an emblem of the god in his guise as a fertility deity.


1. Rostovtzev, Mikhail. 1905. Römische Bleitesserae. Ed. C.F. Lehmann and E Kornemann. Beiträge z. Liepzig: Theodor Weicher.

2. Thornton, M. K. 1980. “The Roman Lead Tesserae : Observations on Two Historical Problems Author.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 29 3: 341-3
1 commentsArdatirion
00005x00~7.jpg
26 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera – Dichalkon
Draped bust of Antinous right, wearing hem-hem crown(?);[Δ]/I downward to left, X/A downward to right
Tyche standing right, holding rudder and cornucopia; [Λ/K] downwards to left, [O/N] downwards to right

This piece is extremely important for the study of lead tokens in Roman Egypt. The legend reads DIXALKON, normally a bronze denomination. Leads bearing denominational names are known from only a few specimens (see Köln 3502, for one such piece from Memphis), including one of this type in Dattari (Savio).
Ardatirion
0IEu73C.jpg
14 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 (over 1382) below
Charlton NS-3C; Corteau 281; Breton 871

This reverse die was initially engraved with the anachronistic date 1382, but was quickly caught and corrected, leaving only a handful of that extremely rare variety known today.
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa29 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
elagabal_antioch_blk_ewa.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS25 views218 - 222 AD
AE 16 mm, 3.01 g
O: Radiate, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind
R: Large SC, K above, A below; all within plain circle surrounded by laurel wreath of eight elements, with wreath fastened at top with garland.
Mcalee 798 (otherwise apparently unpublished); extremely rare.
Syria, Antioch
laney
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
004 Gaius (Caligula) AR Denarius72 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
V541.jpg
00a Domitian as Caesar RIC 541334 viewsAR Denarius, 3.46g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 541 (R2). BMC 129 var. RSC 664. BNC 105 var.
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 701. = Helios, ebay, 29 November 2010 (A. Lynn Collection).

This is an extremely rare denarius of Domitian as Caesar, the second earliest minted at Rome. Here the legend is clockwise, the much more common Domitian on horseback type has the legend anticlockwise. The reverse may allude to Domitian's participation in Vespasian and Titus' joint triumph where he rode a 'magnificent' steed. The obverse is a die match with the RIC plate coin from Oxford.

The early portrait on this one is quite outstanding.
18 commentsDavid Atherton
quint_lot_717.jpg
011 Quintillus Antoninianus13 viewsQuintillus, 270 Antoninianus circa 270, Ć
(17.5mm., 2.67g.)
Obv: Radiate and draped bust r.
Rev. Concordia standing l., sacrificing over altar and holding double cornucopiae.
C 17. RIC 13.
AbouExtremely Fine
From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection.
orfew
RIC211Julia_PaulaConcordia.jpg
025. Julia Paula AR Denarius. Concordia.74 viewsObv. Draped bust right IVLIA PAVLA AVG
Rev. Concordia seated left, holding patera; star to left CONCORDIA

19mm, 3.28g, 6h. Rome mint. Struck AD 220. RIC 211 (Elagabalus); Thirion 455; RSC 6a

Extremely Fine.
1 commentsLordBest
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)82 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
V920sm.jpg
03 Domitian as Caesar RIC 92099 viewsAR Denarius, 2.96g
Rome mint, 76-77AD (Vespasian)
RIC 920 (R). BMC spec. acquired 1947. RSC 45b. BNC -.
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Minerva stg. r. on prow, with spear and shield; to r., owl
Ex Private Collection.

The first appearance of Minerva on a denarius struck for Domitian as Caesar under Vespasian. His devotion to the goddess came early in life, so it comes as no surprise he wished to honour her on the coins minted in his name. This denarius is a clear indication Domitian had some say in what reverse types were struck for him under Vespasian. The Minerva on prow is an early prototype of one of the four standard Minerva types (M2) Domitian would later extensively strike on his own denarii as Augustus. An extremely rare type for him as Caesar.

A pleasing coin with a Vespasian-like portrait.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
038_Laszlo-V_(Ladislaus_V_)_Throne_require_(1440-1453)_Denar_U-503_C2---_H-653_Q-001_9h_17,5mm_54g-s.jpg
038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-503, Extremely Rare!!!224 views038 László V. “Posthumous” (Ladislaus V.) as Throne Require of Hungary, (1440-1453 A.D.), AR Denarius, U-503, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: ✠mOnETA•LADISLAI•DEI•G, Hungarian Shield two parts left Árpádian stripes, and right the Patriarchal cross, K-G, circle, border of dots.
reverse: ✠REGIS•VnGARIE•ETCT, Hungarian shield.
exergue, mint mark: K/G//-- were struck by Johannes Constorfer (by Pohl), diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 0,54g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöczbánya (Kremnitz,), date:1452 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-503-b., CNH-2-Not in, Huszár-653, Pohl-167, Extremely Rare!!!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
valerian1.jpg
040. Valerian, 254-260AD. BI Antoninianus.39 viewsBI Antoninianus. Antioch mint.
Obv. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG

Rev. Emperors sacrificing at altar. PIETAS AVGG

RSC 153, RIC 284.

Extremely nice condition for this emperor. EF.
LordBest
LarryW1918.jpg
0635 Focas, 602-61038 viewsGold half tremissis (1/6 solidus), 14.34mm, 0.72g, aEF
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
dN FOCAS PER AV, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, beardless / VICTORI FOCAS AV, cross potent, CONOB beneath.
Extremely rare with three known specimens; the smallest gold denomination in the Byzantine series.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Frank Kovacs
Sear 635; cf. DOC 20; cf. MIB 29
Lawrence Woolslayer
RI_071ae_img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus denarius - RIC 8735 viewsElagabalus Denarius
Obv:– IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing holding patera over an altar and branch. Star in right field. Horn on ground to his left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 222
Reference– BMC 209 note. RIC 87 (where it is rated Common citing Cohen). RSC III 58. Cohen 58 (illustrated with star in right field) valued at 50 Fr. No examples in RD.
ex Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG Sale 42, Lot 379, 20th November 2007, ex Barry Feirstein Collection, previously privately purchased from Harlan J. Berk.
Described as Lightly toned and good extremely fine by NAC.
21 mm. 3.11 gms. 0 degrees.

The coin would certainly seem to be scarcer than the "Common" rating given in RIC would imply. No examples in RD, only one example on acsearch (this coin). No examples on Wildwinds (the RIC 87 there would appear to be in error).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
VIM_Gordianus-III_AE-21_Dup_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_PMS-C_O-LVIM_AN-IIII_241_Pick-0_PM-1-xx-1_Mus-x_Q-001_axis-1h_24,5-25,5mm_8,23g-s~0.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-45-01, AE-Dupondius, Bull and Lion standing at stand, Extremely rare!!!67 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Moesia, Viminacium, PM 01-45-01, AE-Dupondius, Bull and Lion standing at stand, Extremely rare!!!
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right .
revers:- PMS-C-O-LVIM, Moesia standing facing, head left, holding patera in the right hand over altar, left hand holding spear downwards, bull and lion standing at stand on either side.
exergo:AN IIII, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 8,23g, axis: 1h,
mint: Moesia, Viminacium, date: 242-243 A.D., ref: Pick-091, PM-1-45-1,
Q-001
quadrans
075-Otac-Severa_AR-Ant_M-OTACIL-SEVERA-AVG_AEQVITAS-AVG_RIC-IV-III-138-p-85_Antioch-AD_Scarce_Q-001_0h_21,5mm_4,04ga-s.jpg
075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 138, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!237 views075 Otacilia Severa (?-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 138, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!
avers:- M OTACIL SEVERA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right, on the crescent.
reverse:- AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight:4,04g, axis:0h,
mint: Antioch, date:??? A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-138, p-85, C-, Extremely Rare!!!
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
V1088.jpg
08a Domitian as Caesar RIC-108886 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 1088 (R3). BMC p. 46 note. RSC 379. BNC -.
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta std. l., with Palladium and sceptre
Ex Den of Antiquity (eBay), October 2012.

A very rare (4th known) left facing portrait of the common Vesta and Palladium reverse. It is listed in Cohen as 379 (citing lot 784 of the de Moustier Sale of 1872) , although the new RIC states it is unverified (?). The lone example cited by RIC is in G. Mazzini's Monete imperiali romane, vol. 1. Also, Curtis Clay has a specimen, same die pair as mine. Left facing portraits of Domitian are extremely rare, especially those as Caesar.

Worn but all the major devices are visible.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help!
David Atherton
V1089sm.jpg
08b Domitian as Caesar RIC-1089181 viewsAR Quinarius, 1.46g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 1089 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC 243.
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVST; Victory std. l., with wreath and palm

An extremely rare quinarius struck for Domitian Caesar in 79. RIC records only one example in Paris (BNC 243) and lists the rarity as 'unique', this specimen then is the second known example. Domitian's COS VI coins most likely date towards the end of Vespasian's reign and the beginning of Titus' rule, indicating the issue was struck uninterrupted after Vespasian's death in June.

Struck in good metal in neat and fine style.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
V1494a.jpg
09c Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1494125 viewsAR Denarius, 2.81g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 1494 (R2). BMC 488 bis. RSC 47 var. RPC 1465 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS IIII above; Pegasus r.
Ex G&N, eBay, 27 August 2015.

An unknown eastern mint struck a spate of denarii in 76 which copied many contemporary types from Rome. Both RIC and RPC speculate it possibly could be Ephesus, citing a similar style with a previous Ephesian issue from 74 and the use of an annulet as a mint mark. The issue is extremely rare. This denarius copies the much more common Pegasus type struck at Rome for Domitian. Domitian's connection to this unusual type perhaps can be explained by Pegasus' association with Athena/Minerva, Domitian's patron goddess. These eastern denarii are understandably confused with the issues from Rome, however, they can be distinguished by style and the annulet (if visible) below the bust.

A fine styled, nicely toned denarius.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
Sulla_L_Manlius_den.jpg
0ab Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
Blindado
751P_Hadrian_RPC1027.jpg
1027 BITHYNIA Caesarea Germanica Hadrian Ae 20 Zeus standing11 viewsReference. Extremely rare
RPC III, 1027/5

Obv. AV TPAIANOC ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC KAIC
Laureate head, cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r. , with paludamentum

Rev. ΚΑΙΣΑΡΕΙΑ(Σ) ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΗ(Σ)
Zeus standing facing, head l., holding thunderbolt (?) in his r. hand

6.36 gr
20 mm
2h
okidoki
RIC_---_A_---_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-INV-AVG_FELICITAS-AVG-N_XXI_RIC-(not-in)-V-II-686var_Alf_-32avar-No-_Siscia_2nd-emission_277-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3_22g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!123 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP PROBVS INV AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left by altar, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXI, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 686var., (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!),
Q-001
"Thank you for showing this very rare coin reverse FELICITAS AVG(usti) N(ostri), Felicitas holding a long caduceus and a cornucopiae: the draped bust seen from front is unlisted in Alföldi's work on the mint of Siscia under Probus (so ref: Alföldi 32, -), I know it from another coin in a private collection, which shares the same obverse die as yours >> unreferenced coin, two specimens, one obverse die.
The new reverses introduced at that time in the Pannonian mint of Siscia celebrate Probus as "Augustus Noster" (Our Emperor) as the emperor is of Pannonian extraction. The marking which omits the officina number is a clue for an issue of common base aureliani minted parallelly with an imperial donativum in gold.
Very nice coin..S. Estiot" Thank you S.Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_---_A_036_No_001_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(3F)_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Alf-36_No-01_Siscia_R_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!144 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FORTVNA REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???), Alföldi 0036.0001,
Q-001
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alföldi lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
1 commentsquadrans
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-Silvered-Ant_IMP-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG_PRIMIS-Xdot-MVLTIS-XX_XXI-Z_RIC-V-II-Not_in__p-_Rome-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Ant., -/-//XXIZ, PRIMIS X•MVLTIS XX, Jupiter standing left, Extremely Rare! #197 views120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Ant., -/-//XXIZ, PRIMIS X•MVLTIS XX, Jupiter standing left, Extremely Rare! #1
avers:- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle. (8,H).
revers:- PRIMIS X•MVLTIS XX, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
exerg: -/-//XXIZ, diameter: 2,20mm, weight: 3,21g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-V-II- Not in !!!, p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
522_P_Hadrian_RPC1499.jpg
1499 MYSIA. Cyzicus. Hadrian Ae 19 Vase.9 viewsReference. Extremely rare
RPC 3, 1499.1; SNG France 647 = Waddington 729

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/1499/2/

Obv: ΚΑΙ СΕΒ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟΥ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΥ.
Laureate and cuirassed bust left.

Rev: K - Y / Z - I (retrograde).
Vase.

2.74 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
JAMES-2_TIN_HALFPENNY_1687.JPG
1687 JAMES II TIN HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: IACOBVS • SECVNDVS. Laureate and draped bust of James II facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear.
Edge: NVMMORVM * FAMVLVS * 1687 * in raised letters.
Diameter: 29mm | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3419

This portrait of James II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700). In 1684, the production of farthings was changed from copper to tin with a copper centre plug. This was done to not only alleviate the critical state of the Cornish tin mining industry, but also to recoup the King's losses by giving the Crown an even greater profit margin. As there was great concern about the potential for forgery, in addition to the copper plug as a security feature, the tin coins were also produced with a lettered edge inscription which translates as "The servant of the coinage", presumably meaning that it also serves to protect the coinage from forgery. In 1685, under James II, tin halfpennies, also with a copper centre plug, were introduced. The reverse designs were identical to the previous ones of Charles II.

These tin coins had an alarming rate of wear from circulation, and furthermore, because tin was far too reactive a metal to be used for coins, the tin coinage has readily corroded when exposed to the elements. The values of extremely rare high grade examples are thus at a premium.
*Alex
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932024 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing4 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced in larger quantities for circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
Charles_IIII_1795_Mexico_Spanish_Colonial_8_Reales.jpg
1795- MoFM Mexico Spanish Colonial 8 Reales of Charles IIII - [KM-109 -- Charles IIII]63 viewsChopmarked, 0.7797 ounce silver 8 Reales (also known as the pillar dollar), 26.65g, 39.62mm, 0 degree, Mexico City, Mexico Mint [Mo -- small 'o' set over a large 'M'], 179[5]

Obv. - • CAROLUS IIII • DEI • GR[ATIA] •, laureate bust of Charles IIII right

Rev. - • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • Mo • 8R • F • M •, coat of arms of Spain

This coin was sold as a 1794 chopmarked 8 Reale. Upon inspection in hand under high magnification and different lighting conditions, as well as inspection of large, quality pictures on the computer allowing for color/contrast/levels manipulation, and I have determined this coin to actually be from 1795. The '5', although extremely worn is visible under the correct conditions and comparisons of the worn number morphology to other 179x coins lends credence to this finding.

The reverse is just as interesting and challenging. Although the mintmark is almost completely worn off, the assayer of FM ensures that the coin is of Mexico City, Mexico mintmark.

The coat of arms of Spain, a crown crown flanked by columns and a middle shield includes the national motto PLVS VLTRA spread across the two columns. PLVS VLTRA (PLUS ULTRA) translates to "further beyond." It is adopted from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain as Charles I) and is a Latin translation from Plus Oultre, his original motto in Old French.

A great website for helping to attribute these coins and a breakdown of the legend components can be found here: http://coinquest.com/cgi-bin/cq/coins?main_coin=2334

Reading on different chopmarks can be found here: http://www.1messydesk.com/chopmarks/chopmarks.html

Although this coin is quite worn in certain areas, it has a lovely tone and great character. The numerous different chopmarks just add to the appeal. This coins was bought as a conversation piece as I have always found them interesting, albeit with knowing next to nothing concerning them. However, after doing some research, I have come to appreciate it much more and may follow suite with further additions. In any case, I plan on further reading into the subject area.
___________

Purchased from Regal Coin Exchange in Savannah, GA
1 commentsrenegade3220
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
Manlia4.jpg
1aa Reign of SVLLA23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
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DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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plautilla as-RR.jpg
202-205 AD - PLAUTILLA As (cast)62 viewsobv: PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (draped bust right)
rev: PIETAS AVGG / S.C. (Pietas standing right holding scepter & child)
ref: RIC IVi 581(Caracalla) (R), C.19 (8frcs)
3.32gms, 23mm
Extremely rare
Fulvia Plautilla was the wife of Caracalla (AD202-205). In 205 she was banished to Sicily, later to the isle of Lipari, where was assassinated by Caracalla’s order in 212 AD.
1 commentsberserker
711_P_Hadrian_RPC2709.jpg
2709A PAMPHYLIA, Sillyum Hadrian AE 18 Apollo standing14 viewsExtremely rare

Reference.
RPC 3, --; SNG von Aulock -

Obv. [ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ] ΑΔΡΙΑΝ?
laureate head, cuirassed, seen from front

Rev. СΙΛΛΥΕωΝ
Apollo standing right with lyre.

4.56 gr
17.5 mm
12h

Note.
Naville Numismatics Ltd
Auction 25 Lot 255
okidoki
445_P_Hadrian.jpg
2787A PISIDIA, Claudioseleucia Hadrian 117-138 AD. Ae. 16 Dionysus standing23 viewsReference. Extremely rare.
RPC III, 2787A; Cf. SNG Copenhagen 209; cf. Waddington 5043.

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/2787A/

Obv: ΚΑΙCΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC.
Laureate bust right.

Rev: ΚΛΑΥΔΙΟСΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ
Dionysus standing left, holding filleted thyrsus and pouring cantharus.

Note Gitbud & Naumann.
Though the reverse legend does not seem to match the Copenhagen and Waddington specimens (Aνθυ Κυιητ Υρκανων---a reading which is already questionable), the similarity in obverse legend and overall style makes an attribution to this city likely.

3.70 gr
16 mm
okidoki
105i.jpg
318-330 AD., Constantinus I., Trier mint imitative type, barbarous Follis, RIC p. 224.90 viewsConstantinus (Constantine) I., Trier mint imitative type, officina 1, 318-330 AD.,
Follis / Ć3 (16-17 mm / 3,05 g),
Obv.: IMP CONSTANT - INVS AVG , cuirassed bust left, high crested helmet, spear in right hand over shoulder.
Rev.: [VIC]TORIAE LAETA PRINC IPF / STR (in exergue) , two Victories standing, facing each other and holding a shield inscribed VOT / PR on plain altar.
cf. http://www.beastcoins.com/Topical/VLPP/Coins/Imitative/VLPP-Trier-PTR-237.jpg ; cf. http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/barb2 .

Imitative Folles or "barbarous" bronze coins from this series are plentiful and range from extremely crude to nearly official in appearance. RIC footnotes as "irregular" or "semi-barbarous". On p. 224, Appendix to Trier, RIC describes and lists a number of "irregular" coins for the purpose of "illustrating the wide range of varieties known".

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
coins432.JPG
501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
ecoli
842_P_Hadrian_Emmett1078_21.jpg
6229 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Hemidrachm 136-37 AD Demeter standing12 viewsReference
RPC III, 6229.4 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio pl. 79, 7603 (this coin); Emmett 1078.21

Issue L KA = year 21

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L ΚΑ
Demeter standing facing, head l., holding ears of corn and long torch.

17.74 gr
30 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
Extremely rare, only two specimens known and both from the Dattari collection.
okidoki
LarryW2284.jpg
7276 Nikomedes IV, Philopator, 94-74 BC36 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 36.4mm, 15.51g, Nice VF
Diademed head of Nikomedes II right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY, Zeus standing left, crowning King's name with wreath in right, and holding sceptre in left hand. Eagle on thunderbolt inner left field, monogram and date (BIΣ =year 212 or 87/6 BC) below. Extremely rare date.
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Wayne G. Sayles
Sear 7276; BMC Pontus, pg 213, 6v; SNG Cop 651v; SNG Von Aulock 266v
Note (courtesy Joe Sermarini): In 88 BC, Mithradates destroyed Nikomedes' army forcing him to flee to Italy. His throne was not restored until Rome defeated Mithradates in 84 BC Waddington, [RG], pp. 217-8, notes, "it is difficult to explain the very rare coins that bear the dates IC, AIC, BIC. These dates correspond to 89/8 to 87/6 BC...; but between mid-88 and the end of 83, the whole of Bithynia was in the hands of Mithradates Eupator. We are forced to conjecture (no text says so) that during this period several fortified places in Bithynia remained faithful to the legitimate king and continued to strike coins in his name."
Lawrence Woolslayer
8_zhu_ban_liang_stone.jpg
8 zhu ban liang stone mould40 viewsextremely rare mould, as Far I know 8 zhu guan ban liang where never seen this mould is the only evidence of existence of such coins

casting time: 186-182 BC
reign of Lu Zhi Hou (188-180 BC)
leseullunique
a3.jpg
?28 viewsImitation of Hebrew script
extremely crude
AJC I, type H c or d
frederic
Trebonianus_Gallus_5b.jpg
ADVNTVS AVS34 viewsTrebonianus Gallus antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Rev.: ADVNTVS AVS (instead of ADVENTVS AVG)
extremely rare (2nd known specimen)
1 commentsTibsi
046B.jpg
Aemilianus AR Antoninianus89 viewsRIC IVc 2b var., C 25 var. (Unlisted), Eauze hoard
2.71 g, 22 mm
IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
DIANE VICTRICI, Diana standing left, holding arrow and bow.
Extremely Rare
Note from Richard Beale (Roma Numismatics):
RIC only lists coins with DIANAE VICTRI, though it does mention a coin with "DIANE (sic) VICTRI" in Berlin. I suspect that the Berlin coin is actually the same type/dies as [this one] but without the reverse's final two letters showing.
Three known including this one: One in the Eauze Hoard, one in an Italian collection (FORVM member 'aemilianus') and this one.
4 commentsMark Z2
Gordianus_AEQVITAS_AVG_do_b.jpg
AEQVITAS AVG32 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Obv.: ...M NT... (instead of ...M ANT...)
extremely rare
4 pieces known only
Tibsi
Gordianus_AEQVTAS_AVG_dp_b.jpg
AEQVTAS AVG23 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Rome mint
Rev.: AEQVTAS... (instead of AEQVITAS...)
2 specimens are known only
extremely rare
Tibsi
aiol_lar_phrik_res_2.jpg
AIOLIS, LARISSA PHRIKONIS50 views4th century BC.
Ć 10.5 mm 1.16 g
O: Horned female river-god facing slightly right
R: Laureate head of Apollo right.
SNG München 565; SNG Copenhagen 212
Extremely rare
1 commentslaney
AG-Macedon,_Alexander_III-3.jpg
Alexander III of Macedon, 336-323 BC - Signed Die9 viewsAR Drachm (16mm, 4.26 g)
Grade Ch VF*; Strike 5/5; Surface 4/5: Price 2090A
Obv.: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress, K on skin behind ear
Rev.: AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus seated left, holding scepter and eagle; monogram in left field.
This drachm is a lifetime issue from Miletos, circa 325-323 BC. It is signed by the artist who placed a "K" on the lion skin headdress behind Alexander's ear. Extremely Rare. Only two specimens noted in ADM I (both in the ANS collection) and three specimens shown in acsearch.

This issue (Price 2090A) and an equally rare contemporary issue at Magnesia ad Maeandrum are the only two instances of signed dies struck for Alexander.

Because this coin is so rare you can actually follow it from auction to auction and for at least the last three times it sold it got cheaper each time. I may have to pay to sell it the next time :>)
Richard M10
Alexander_III_Drachm_EF.jpg
ALEXANDER III. THE GREAT - DRACHM - COLOPHON 150 views ALEXANDER III. THE GREAT - DRACHM - COLOPHON - ZEUS - HERAKLES - SPEAR HEAD - STAR


Alexander III. The Great

Colophon

Drachm

Obv. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin right

Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
Zeus seated left with sceptre and eagle. left in field star, right in field spear head

Condition: almost extremely fine

4.2 g., 18 mm

Price 1759

Ex Gitbud Naumann
6 commentsPhiloromaos
Lead_Prutah.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus86 viewsAlexander Jannaeus, 103-76 BC. Lead Prutah/Token, Transjordan mint, 79/78 BCE?, 15.6 mm, 2.7 grams. O: Aramaic legend (King Alexander) in three lines within a dotted circle. R: Anchor in a circle with Greek legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ (of King Alexander) around. Hendin 1155, reverse appears to be a match with Menorah Coins die #1.

This coin is a bit of a mystery and therefore quite interesting. These were at one one time extremely rare and therefore not believed to be a coin at all but rather a trial specimen or a token used to gain entrance to an establishment. As hoards were discovered, it became apparent that this coin was common (although far more rare than his bronze issues) and in general circulation in the Transjordan.

Although the lead coins are not dated, the similar Aramaic inscription found on the dated prutah of Jannaeus (Hendin 1152, shown in my collection, dated year 25 = 80/79 BCE) indicates it may have been minted around 79 BCE. These are the only types of Jannaeus that have an Aramaic inscription.

The appearance of both Greek and Aramaic on these coins may reflect a softening of Jannaeus (a staunch supporter of the Hellenistic Sadducees) toward the Aramaic speaking Pharasees.
1 commentsNemonater
alexanderx.jpg
Alexander the Great46 viewsObv: Head of beardless Herakles, right, wearing lion skin headdress.
Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in exergue; Charioteer in Biga right, Trident below.
"Alexandria (Antigoneia)" mint, struck c.310-301 BC. Extremely rare!

Attribution to this mint has been questioned of late (Meadows, NC 2004),
although no firmer alternative has yet been put forward. A mint in the Troad
seems to be likely, given that three were found in the excavations at Troy.

This is an extremely desirable and very difficult to find item. It appears that
there are none on any of the modern sales databases, and I know of only
one other that has been offered via a 'small seller' on an online auction site.

There is one in the British museum, at least one in Berlin (I-B), one in
the Portolos collection (Athens); another in Paris (B 80); the three that
were found at Troy, the one offered online, and now this one.
Please feel free to let me know of any other known specimens.

Among the rarest bronzes of the series.
Price 1587; Gaebler p.169, 7 pl.XXXI,26;
Bellinger Troy A1; BM 1921,0213.196.
(dealer's image {edited})
OldMoney
Alexandria_BI_tetradrachm_of_Hadrian,_124-125_AD.JPG
Alexandria BI tetradrachm of Hadrian, 124-125 AD26 viewsHadrian
Egypt, Alexandria
BI tetradrachm – 26mm
124-125 AD
laureate bust r.
AVT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIA CEB
Ares standing facing, head r., holding spear and parazonium, ET ENAT
Emmett 810(9)

Note: Much of the silver has leached out, leaving this coin extremely light and fragile.
Ardatirion
52~5.jpg
ALFOLDI 002.001 VERY RARE !!!19 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS INV AVG
REVERSE: ABVNDANTIA AVG N
BUST TYPE: A2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXI
WEIGHT 3.60g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 22-23mm
RIC 623
ALFOLDI 002.001
COLLECTION NO. 920
EXTREMELY RARE AND DESIRABLE REVERSE TYPE !!!
Barnaba6
57~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 004.1 ADVENTVS TO RIGHT EXTREMELY RARE !!!32 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVG
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: A//XXI
WEIGHT 3.65g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 21mm
RIC 624
ALFOLDI 004.1 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1031
NOTE: extremely rare and desirable variety of the Adventvs Avg reverse where the emperor is marching RIGHT instead of LEFT.

This is apparently only the third known specimen in the world, the other two being in Vienna and La Venera hoard. My coin shares the same pair of dies as the Vienna specimen (information from Ph. Gysen) as well as the reverse die with the Venera specimen (information from J. Guillemain).

A coin of the highest rarity and numismatic interest!
Barnaba6
772_after.jpg
ALFOLDI 005.042 laureal wreath on cuirass - after cleaning35 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVG
BUST TYPE: F1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIP
WEIGHT 3.45g / AXIS: 5h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 626
ALFOLDI 005.042
COLLECTION NO. 772

Note: extremely rare cuirass decoration in the form of a laurel wreath (probably corona triumphalis). In the coinage of Probus such laurel wreath is typically represented only on consular robe (toga picta + tunica palmata) not on cuirass. Apparently only the second known specimen.
1 commentsBarnaba6
1317~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 006.004 new photo9 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVG (Emperor on horse with right hand raised, holding sceptre in left hand; captif at horse's feet)
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/Δ//XXI
WEIGHT 3.56 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-24,5 mm
RIC 624
ALFOLDI 006.004 (3 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1317

Extremely rare variant (Alfoldi reverse type 6) of this otherwise popular reverse type in which there is additionally a captif at horse's feet (which is not depicted on the typical ADVENTVS AVG reverse - see Alfoldi type 5).

Only the 4th specimen of this type known to me (the other 3 are cited by Alfoldi)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
00360Q00.jpg
ALFOLDI 009.006 EXTREMELY RARE VARIANT WITHOUT MINTMARKS78 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//-
WEIGHT 3.63g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 20-22mm
RIC 632 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH NO MINTMARKS)
ALFOLDI 009.006 (1 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 980
NOTE: This is only the 4th specimen in the world known to me.
Extremely rare variant without any mintmarks. This coin is part of a true "adventvs" issue and was most likely distributed by the emperor himself upon entering the city of Siscia contrary to regular issues of coins with the adventvs reverse and mintmarks in the exergue, which often were struck long after the emperor had left the city. Attribution of coins without any mintmarks to a particular mint is done on the basis of careful analysis of the coin's style and lettering.
5 commentsBarnaba6
1319~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 009.036 new photo12 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: D7 = Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed and draped bust right, holding spear in right hand and shield seen from inner side
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIA
WEIGHT 3.92 / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 21 mm
RIC 634
ALFOLDI 009.036 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1319

Spectacular, extremely rare and desirable bust type !!!

Only 5th known specimen to me

Ex Ph. Gysen collection = Ex Freeman & Sear I (1995), 736
Barnaba6
1186~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 016 /- (UNLISTED) RRR20 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: CLEMENTIA TEMP
BUST TYPE: B = radiate, cuirassed bust right (with divergent wreath ties of the corona radiata)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: Δ//XXI
WEIGHT 3.42g / AXIS: h / WIDTH 21mm
MINT: SISCIA
RIC 645 VAR. (DELTA MINTMARK AND IMP PROBVS P F AVG OBVERSE LEGEND UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 016 / - (unlisted!)
COLLECTION NO. 1186
Note: extremely rare and completely unlisted variant!
Barnaba6
1326~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 017.011 new photo14 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: CLEMENTIA TEMP
BUST TYPE: H26 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio and globe
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: P//KA
WEIGHT 4.14 / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 20-24 mm
RIC 646 VAR. (H26 BUST UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 017.011 (1 EX. MISSONG)
COLLECTION NO. 1326

Extremely rare and desirable bust type!

ONLY 4TH SPECIMEN OF THIS TYPE KNOWN TO ME

Ex Ph. Gysen collection = Ex Lanz 86 (1998), 700
Barnaba6
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ALFOLDI 018.006 21 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: CLEMENTIA TEMP
BUST TYPE: E1 = Radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Parmula)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: ᴗ//KA
WEIGHT 3.59g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 648
ALFOLDI 018.006 (1 ex.)
COLLECTION NO. 1098
Extremely rare, only the second specimen of this type known to me
Ex S. Luethi collection
Barnaba6
45~4.jpg
ALFOLDI 026.034 B10 BUST RRR29 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: CONCORD MILIT
BUST TYPE: B10
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: T//XXI
WEIGHT 3.86g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 651 VAR. (BUST B10 UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 026.034
COLLECTION NO. 159
NOTE: EXTREMELY RARE AND SOUGHT-AFTER BUST TYPE
Barnaba6
1344~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 026.087 B4 BUST! new photo9 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: CONCORD MILIT
BUST TYPE: B4 = Radiate, cuirassed (lorica squamata) bust right, seen fron rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: S//XXI
WEIGHT 3.69 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-22 mm
RIC 651 VAR. (B4 BUST UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 026.087 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1344

Extremely rare (especially for Siscia!) bust type!

ONLY 3rd SPECIMEN OF THIS EXACT TYPE KNOWN TO ME (APART FROM THE TWO CITED BY ALFODLI)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
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ALFOLDI 027.055 new photo16 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: CONSERVAT AVG
BUST TYPE: E2 VAR. = Radiate, helmeted, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and (long and decorated) shield, seen from rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIS
WEIGHT 4.16 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 22-23 mm
RIC 672
ALFOLDI 027.055 (1 EX. LA VENERA)
COLLECTION NO. 1323

Spectacular, extremely rare and desirable bust type !!! Shield decorated with emperor on horse spearing enemy!

Only 5th example of this type known to me (1 ex. In La venera hoard cited by alfoldi; 1 ex. In S. Luethi collection; 1 ex. In M.Vosper collection and Gorny & Mosch Auktion 113, 18 October 2001)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
61~4.jpg
ALFOLDI 039.002 ORIENS AVG RRR 17 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ORIENS AVG
BUST TYPE: B (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/T//XXI
WEIGHT 3.43g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21-22mm
RIC 700
ALFOLDI 039.002 var. (UNLISTED WITH WIDE WREATH TIES)
COLLECTION NO. 401
NOTE: EXTREMELY RARE AND SOUGHT-AFTER REVERSE TYPE FOR SISCIA !!!
Barnaba6
63~4.jpg
ALFOLDI 040.002 B1 BUST RRR 10 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ORIGINI AVG
BUST TYPE: B1 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIT
WEIGHT 3.96g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 703 VAR. (BUST B1 UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 040.002
COLLECTION NO. 225
NOTE: extremely rare coin; by far the rarest among the 4 existing types with the ORIGINI AVG reverse
Barnaba6
427.jpg
ALFOLDI 042 /- (UNLISTED) RRR37 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: PAX AVGVSTI
BUST TYPE: E1 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/P//XXI
WEIGHT 3.37g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 21mm
RIC 714 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH E1 BUST)
ALFOLDI 042 /- (OFFICINA P FOR E1 BUST UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 675
NOTE: EXTREMELY RARE COIN UNLISTED IN ALFOLDI !!!
1 commentsBarnaba6
1207.jpg
ALFOLDI 042.139 VAR. = UNLISTED !!!14 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: PAX AVGVSTI
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding eagle-tipped sceptre (scipio)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIQ
WEIGHT 3.83g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 711 VAR. (XXIQ UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 042 / - (unlisted)
COLLECTION NO. 1207
Note: totally unpublished variant! Extremely rare.
Ex. Okejos collection
Barnaba6
60~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 043.002 RRR13 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: P M TRI P COS II P P
BUST TYPE: B (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIS
WEIGHT 3.79g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 20-21mm
RIC 612
ALFOLDI 043.002
COLLECTION NO. 613
NOTE: extremely rare and desirable variety with the lion walking right and head of ox in front of the lion. This is by far the rarest of the 6 known variants of the reverse type with lion for Siscia.

Same rewerse die as my coin no. 1022
Barnaba6
61~3.jpg
ALFOLDI 043.00415 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: P M TRI P COS II P P
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIS
WEIGHT 3.60g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21mm
RIC 611
ALFOLDI 043.004 (1 EX. IN OXFORD)
COLLECTION NO. 1022
NOTE: extremely rare and desirable variety with the lion walking right and head of ox in front of the lion. This is by far the rarest of the 6 known variants of the reverse type with lion for Siscia.
This is only the second known specimen in the world known to me.

Same reverse die as my coin no. 613
Barnaba6
62~4.jpg
ALFOLDI 053 / - UNLISTED WITH F5 BUST EXTREMELY RARE !!!12 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: PROVIDENT AVG
BUST TYPE: F5
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIQ
WEIGHT 2.66g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH: 20-22,5mm
RIC 722 VAR. (F5 BUST AND XXIQ MINTMARK UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 053 / - (UNLISTED WITH F5 BUST)
COLLECTION NO. 1039
EXTREMELY RARE AND TOTALLY UNPUBLISHED COIN!!!
NOTE: SAME OBVERSE DIE AS MY COIN NO. 762 (ALSO AN INEDITUM)
Barnaba6
91~2.jpg
ALFOLDI 058.001 ROMAE AETERNAE WITH ROMA OUTSIDE TEMPLE RRR31 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS INV AVG
REVERSE: ROMAE AETERNAE
BUST TYPE: A2 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXI
WEIGHT 3.69g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21mm
RIC 742
ALFOLDI 058.001
COLLECTION NO. 358
NOTE: EXTREMELY RARE AND SOUGHT-AFTER REVERSE TYPE!
Barnaba6
8~1.jpg
ALFOLDI 063.016 var. 18 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: SALVS AVG
BUST TYPE: F5 = Radiate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIT
WEIGHT 3.60g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20-23mm
RIC 756 var. (unlisted with xxit mintmark)
ALFOLDI 063.016 var. (1 ex. But with divergent wreath ties instead of regular wreath ties)
COLLECTION NO. 1097
Extremely rare, only the third known specimen of this type in the world
Ex S. Luethi collection
Barnaba6
1321~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 067.002 new photo7 views2 views
OBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SECVRIT PERP
BUST TYPE: B = Radiate, cuirassed bust right
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIV
WEIGHT 3.70 / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 22-23,5 mm
RIC 757
ALFOLDI 067.002 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1321

Extremely rare reverse type for Siscia!

Only 3rd example of this type known to me (the other two are cited by Alfoldi)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
481.jpg
ALFOLDI 069.005 SISCIA PROBI AVG RRR55 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: SISCIA PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: B (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIQ
WEIGHT 2.68g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20mm
RIC 765
ALFOLDI 069.005
COLLECTION NO. 368
NOTE: extremely rare variant in which Siscia is seated en face and is looking right
2 commentsBarnaba6
482.jpg
ALFOLDI 070 / - SISCIA PROBI AVG UNLISTED IN ALFODI RRR85 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SISCIA PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: E1 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIVI
WEIGHT 3.15g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21-22mm
RIC 764
ALFOLDI 070 / - (UNLISTED WITH E1 BUST AND XXIVI MINTAMRK)
COLLECTION NO. 568

NOTE: Extremely rare Alfoldi reverse variant no. 70 in which the two river gods (Savvs and Colapis) are very close to one another and are placed underneath the personification of Siscia instead of being separated and placed on both sides of Siscia (as in variant no. 69). My coin is however unlisted with E1 (Bastien) / G (RIC V.2) bust and XXIVI mintmark.

Of the highest rarity, possibly an unicum.
3 commentsBarnaba6
43~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 073 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH NO MINTMARKS!!)62 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//-
WEIGHT 3.54g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-23mm
RIC 779 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH NO MINTMARKS)
ALFOLDI: UNLISTED !!!
COLLECTION NO. 862
EXTREMELY RARE !
PEGASUS ON SHIELD
1 commentsBarnaba6
12~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 076.06426 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO
BUST TYPE: F5 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIP
WEIGHT 4.35g / AXIS: 11h / WIDTH 22-23mm
RIC 771 VAR. (F5 BUST UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 076.064 (1 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1003
EXTREMELY RARE !!!
Note: Gorgoneion on cuirass
Ex S. Luethi's collection
Barnaba6
24~7.jpg
ALFOLDI 083.008 CORRECTED28 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO AVG (Spread quadriga)
BUST TYPE: F1 = radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield; divergent wreath ties
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIP
WEIGHT 4.12g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21,5-22mm
RIC 781 VAR. (F1 BUST UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 083.008 corr. (1 ex. in La Venera Hoard)
COLLECTION NO. 1120

Extremely rare reverse type (SOLI INVICTO AVG in spread quadriga instead of Soli Invicto only).

Apparently only the second known specimen in the world with this bust type and officina (the first one being in La Venera hoard). Alfoldi erroneously depicted clouds underneath the spread quadriga on La Venera specimen. In reality, there are no clouds on the Venera specimen, as on my specimen (the latter information courtesy of Jean Guillemain).
Barnaba6
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ALFOLDI 084 / - UNLISTED IN ALFOLDI !!!22 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SPES AVG
BUST TYPE: A2 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/VI//XXI
WEIGHT 3.23g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21-22mm
RIC 786 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH A2 BUST)
ALFOLDI 084 / - (UNLISTED WITH A2 BUST)
COLLECTION NO. 1000
EXTREMELY RARE !!!
Ex S. Luethi's collection
Barnaba6
1405.jpg
ALFOLDI 085.00253 viewsOBVERSE: IMP[erator] PROBVS INV[ictvs] AVG[vstvs]
REVERSE: SPES AVG[vsti] N[ostri]
BUST TYPE: E2 VAR.= Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed and draped bust left, holding spear and shield (decorated with Gorgoneion), seen from rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXI
WEIGHT 3.72g / AXIS: 12h
RIC 790
ALFOLDI 085.002 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1405

Ex Ph. Gysen collection = EX JACQUIER auction 45 lot 1517

NOTE: Extremely rare and desirable bust type with a very interesting shield decorated with Gorgoneion in combination with a rare reverse type struck only during the 2nd emmission at Siscia.
3 commentsBarnaba6
638~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 091.003 VIRTVS AVGVSTI F5 BUST (after cleaning)19 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS AVGVSTI
BUST TYPE: F5 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIP
WEIGHT 3.65g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 20-22mm
RIC 805 VAR. (F5 BUST UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 091.003
COLLECTION NO. 638
EXTREMELY RARE COIN
Barnaba6
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ALFOLDI 094.004 MARS BETWEEN TWO CAPTIVES RRR58 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIT
WEIGHT 5.02g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 21,5-22mm
RIC: 810
ALFOLDI 094.004 (2 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 805
EXTREMELY RARE AND SOUGHT-AFTER REVERSE TYPE!
1 commentsBarnaba6
1174.jpg
ALFOLDI 096 / - (UNLISTED)17 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding eagle-tipped sceptre (scipio)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/VI//XXIV
WEIGHT 3.58g / AXIS: 1h / WIDTH 21-22mm
RIC 814
ALFOLDI 096 / - (UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 1174
Note: extremely rare variant, unlisted in Alfoldi!
Barnaba6
1324~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 096 / - unlisted with I8 bust !!! new photo13 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: I8 = Radiate, cuirassed bust left, with parazonium placed on left shoulder and holding victoriola (victory on globe) in right hand
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIT
WEIGHT 3.36 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-22 mm
RIC: 810 var. (UNLISTED WITH I8 bust)
ALFOLDI 096 / - unlisted with I8 bust

COLLECTION NO. 1324

Spectacular, extremely rare and desirable bust type !!!

Only 2nd specimen known to me (the other being Numismatic Naumann auction 32/622)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
1054.jpg
ALFOLDI 096.166 (after cleaning)28 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: F8 VAR. (radiate, cuirassed and draped bust left with shield only and no spear, seen from rear)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIV
WEIGHT 3.68g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC 816 VAR. (THIS BUST IS UNLISTED)
ALFOLDI 096.166 (3 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1054
NOTE: extremely rare and desirable bust type !!!
Barnaba6
1375~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 097 / - (UNLISTED) new photo15 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: B1 = radiate, cuirassed bust left
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIVII
WEIGHT 4.20g / AXIS: / WIDTH 21mm
RIC: unlisted
ALFOLDI 097 / - (UNLISTED WITH B1 BUST)
COLLECTION NO. 1375

Note: extremely rare and completely unlisted type! ONLY THE 2nd example known to me (the other being in M. Griffiths collection = coin no. 3017 on probuscoins.fr)
Barnaba6
9~1.jpg
ALFOLDI 097.038 EXTREMELY RARE18 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: E1 (BASTIEN) / G (RIC V.2) = radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIVI
WEIGHT 2.87g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 22mm
RIC 817
ALFOLDI 097.038
COLLECTION NO. 941
Extremely rare
Note: emperor on horse on shield
Barnaba6
1038.jpg
ALFOLDI 099 / - UNLISTED IN ALFOLDI WITH E1 BUST UNICUM !!! (after cleaning)39 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG (ADVENTVS TYPE - SIC!)
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIS
WEIGHT 2.95g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH: 22mm
RIC: UNLISTED WITH THIS REVERSE TYPE FOR SISCIA
ALFOLDI 099 / - UNLISTED WITH E1 BUST AND XXIS MINTMARK
COLLECTION NO. 1038

NOTE: extremely rare reverse type for Siscia. Although this reverse type is listed in Alfoldi under no. 99, Alfoldi does not list a coin with this reverse and E1 bust neither with XXIS mintmark.
Barnaba6
CARIA_Halikarnassos.jpg
Ancient Greek , CARIA, Halikarnassos (uncertain mint ?)59 viewsCirca 400 - 340 B.C. Silver Hemiobol (7 mm, 0.54 gr ).
Ram's head right / Man's head (possibly Apollo ) right , Carian letters behind neck , A to right.
Choice g VF ( An exceptional example ) . Rare ( Extremely rare with this grade )
Uncertain mint of Halikarnassos
No references have been found - Early coining ( Under Study )

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
DOCandyhalf.jpg
ANDRONICUS I AE 1/2 Tetarteron S-1989 DOC 8163 viewsFacing bust of the Virgin orans, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; on her breast nimbate head of the infant Christ; to l MP to R. OV Rev. Half length figure of Andronicus facing with forked beard, wearing crown , scaramangion and saigon and holding labarum and gl. cr. Uncertain Greek Mint 15mm

Not as nice as my other example but an extremely rare coin, this is only the second one ( mine being the other.) I have seen besides the one pictured in DOC.
Simon
antioch_new_follis.jpg
Antioch Anonymous issue7 viewsAntioch Anonymous issue.
(1104-1112)
Cast AE Follis (new type follis or token?)
Obverse: Cross pommee with IC-XC NI-KA in angles.
Reverse: Cross pommee with IC-XC NI-KA in angles.
Mint: Antioch (?)
Minted: 1104-1112 (?)
Dia: 21.60mm
Wt: 4.8g
Notes: Extremely rare, F/F, earthen deposits, It has been noted that these are similar to issues of Tancred (1104-1112).The reverse is reminiscent of Tancred's 2nd type follis (Schl.II.7, Met.63-70 ) Obverse facing bust reverse similar to above but with cross as tree of life.
jimbomar
1062786-copy.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Mold-blown glass flask22 viewsRoman glass flask, blown and molded in two parts. The molded decoration represents flowers or perhaps a grapevine. 1st century A.D.
Height, 10cm; width, 3.5cm.
Extremely rare.
collectantic
AntoSe92.jpg
Antoninus Caesar, RIC (Hadrian) 1081, sestertius of AD 138 (Concordia)108 viewsĆ Sestertius (24.81g, Ř 32mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck under Hadrian in AD 138.
Obv.: IMP T AELIVS CAESAR ANTONINVS, bare head of Antoninus facing right.
Rev.: TRIB POT COS (around) CONCORD (in ex.) S C (in field), Concordia seated left and holding a patera; cornucopiae under her seat.
RIC (Hadrian) 1081 var. (draped bust); Cohen 131 (4 fr.); Strack (Hadrian) 898 (2 collections); BMC (Hadrian) p.550 *; Banti 53 (one single specimen - coll. Paris - without plate); RCV 4156

Numismatic note: Even though RIC rates this type as scarce only, in reality it is extremely rare: BMC only refers to C.131 (Paris), there is no specimen in B.M.); Strack lists this type in only 2 of the 30 collections, questioning one: Berlin (?; bare head); the other specimen is in Paris (draped bust, bare head; illustrated in Vol.II, plate XVII-898: same rev. die). This means that, apart from Strack's questionable Berlin specimen, all references refer to a single specimen in the Paris Cabinet des Médailles. See also Strack Vol.III, p. 316, note 6a, referring to Cohen 637 (RIC Hadr. 1078), which is probably a duplicate of Coh. 131, but without the CONCORD legend visible in exergue (exactly as on this specimen). A special variety exists with Spes figurine on back of throne, noted by Strack in his description: "Concordia s.n.l. (Spes.Füllh.) m. Schale" but not illustrated. However such a specimen now in coll. F. Diederik.

Historical note: After Aelius, the intended successor of Hadrian, suddenly died on New Year's day of AD 138, Hadrian adopted T. Aurelius Antoninus to fill the place. This coin belongs to one of the issues struck between 25 February and the death of Hadrian on 10 July 138 AD which announces the new Caesar.
1 commentsCharles S
AntoAs21.jpg
Antoninus Caesar, RIC (Hadrian) 1086, As of AD 138 (Concordia) 45 viewsĆ As (9.4g, Ř26mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck under Hadrian between 25 February and 10 July, 138 AD.
Obv.: IMP T AELIVS CAESAR ANTONINVS, bare draped bust of Antoninus facing right.
Rev.: CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM (around) TR P COS (in ex.) S C (in field), Concordia standing left holding eagle and signum.
RIC (Hadrian) 1086 var. (bare hd.); Cohen 144 var. (idem); BMCRE (Hadrian) p.551 * (note) ; Strack (Hadrian) 897 var. (1 coll., bare hd.)
ex Silenos Coins (2001)

Extremely rare: all references refer to a single specimen in the Paris Cabinet des Médailles (illustrated in Strack, Vol.II, plate XVII, 897). That specimen is bare hd. and from different die pair. Wildwinds lists a specimen with draped bust from the same obv. die.
1 commentsCharles S
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-HYfhR9IyfMXREzR-Antoninus_Pius_4.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 5 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P - Laureate head right
TR POT COS III - Juno Sospita advancing right, brandishing spear and shield; serpent before
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.25g / 32mm / 360
Rarity: Extremely Rare
References:
BMCRE pg. 210
and note = Strack 887
Unpublished
RIC 608 var (legends)
Acquisition/Sale: distinctivecoins Ebay


The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Extremely Rare. From CNG: Strack only identified two examples, in Münich and the Vatican, but the latter of which may have a third example.

I feel very fortunate to have gotten this coin. The dealer had it listed as a 'Minerva' reverse but as I researched the reverse, I found that it was not 'Minerva' but 'Juno Sospita'.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-HYfhR9IyfMXREzR-Antoninus_Pius_4~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius18 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P - Laureate head right
TR POT COS III - Juno Sospita advancing right, brandishing spear and shield; serpent before
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (140-144AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.25g / 32mm / 360
Rarity: Extremely Rare
References:
BMCRE pg. 210
and note = Strack 887
Unpublished
RIC 608 var (legends)
Acquisition/Sale: distinctivecoins Ebay

Extremely Rare. From CNG: Strack only identified two examples, in Münich and the Vatican, but the latter of which may have a third example.

I feel very fortunate to have gotten this coin. The dealer had it listed as a 'Minerva' reverse but as I researched the reverse, I found that it was not 'Minerva' but 'Juno Sospita'.
Gary W2
Antoninus_Pius_Serpent_on_Galley~0.JPG
Antoninus Pius Serpent on Galley71 viewsAntoninus Pius, Nicomedia, 138 - 161 AD, Bithynia, 18mm, 3.61g
OBV: AYT KAICAP - ANTWN [INOC], Laureate head right.
REV: NEIKOMHDEIAC MHTPOPOLEWC, Coiled serpent right atop forepart of galley right.
Not in BMC___, von Aulock___, SNG Copenhagen__, RPC IV,
Righetti -, Leypold -, Kleinasiatische Münzen -, Lindgren -

An obverse die match sold in Lanz Auction 97, Lot 622

Extremely Rare
4 commentsRomanorvm
Antoninus_Pius_Temple_of_Perga.JPG
Antoninus Pius Temple of Perga75 viewsANTONINUS PIUS, 138 - 161 AD, AE32, Perga, Pamphylia, 24.4g,
OBV: KAI ADRIA ANTWNEINOS, Laureate head right.
REV: ARTEMODOS PERGAIAS, Distyle temple, with fluted Ionic columns, with eagle in pediment,
containing simulacrum of Pergean Artemis; on either side of which, sphinx on pedestal.
Not in BMC, nor von Aulock.
SNG FRANCE 3, 0406(1) / COLL PARIS 317A(1)

Extremely Rare
5 commentsRomanorvm
ANTOSEg8-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 530b var., sestertius of AD 139.44 viewsĆ Sestertius (24,97g, Ř 32mm, 5h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: P M TR POT COS II around, S | C, Fides standing facing, head right, holding grain ears and basket of fruit.
RIC 530b var. (obv. legend without P P) ; BMC 1135 var. (same); Cohen 849 var. (same); Strack 756 var. (same); Banti 306 var. (same)
Ex CNG EAuction 355, lot 535, July 2015.
This is an extremely rare variant with the title P P added to the long obv. legend used in 138 to early 139, before the title Pater Patriae was awarded. The first sestertius with this obv. legend appeared in the Garonne Hoard of 1965 and 1970, published in 1984, no. 3569, pl. LVIII. Additional sestertii were collected by Curtis Clay in 1996 and 2012. This specimen is the fourth known. Until now, all these sestertii have the Fides standing reverse type.
2 commentsCharles S
ANTOSEf6-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 540, Sestertius of AD 139 (Liberalitas)43 viewsĆ Sestertius (26,3g, Ř 33mm, 12h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder.
Rev.:[TR POT] COS II around, LIBERALITAS / [AVG] in two lines in ex., S C across field, (far left and right, near the edge), Antoninus, togate, seated right on curule chair on platform on left; beside him Liberalitas, draped, standing right, emptying coins from cornucopiae held in both hands into toga of citizen standing below, right of the platform.
RIC 540 (R2); BMCRE 1142; Cohen 480 (50 fr.) (rev. legend differs); Strack 816a (note p.344 №50a); Banti 203 var.; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 124:4b
Ex Comptoire des Monnaies Anciennes, Lille (May 2015).

First largesse of Antoninus Pius on the occasion of his accession.

Extremely rare type, only three other specimens known: B.M. (ex Lawrence coll., 1937), Vienna, and Int. Titano Auction 6, 1980.
1 commentsCharles S
ANTOSEi9.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 580, Sestertius of AD 139 (Aurum Coronarium: Cappadocia)38 viewsĆ Sestertius (25,31g, Ř 33mm, 6h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: CAPPADOCIA (around) COS II (in ex.) S | C, Cappadocia, wearing towered headdress, short tunic and short cloak, standing left, holding diadem and vexillum, Mons Argaeus with star above at left of her feet.
RIC 580 (R); BMC 1185; Cohen 120 (fr.25); Strack 784; Banti 51 (var.)
ex Ex Rauch, 19th live e-Auction, Feb. 2016.

Extremely rare: only 2 specimens in ACSearch.info and missing from WildWinds.com
1 commentsCharles S
ANTOSEc9.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 598var., Sestertius of AD 140-143 (Apollo, extremely rare left headed variety)40 viewsĆ Sestertius (27.6g, Ř33mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-143.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing left.
Rev.: APOLLINI AVGVSTO (around) S C (in field), Apollo, standing left, holding a lyre and a patera.
RIC 598 var. (head right); BMCRE IV 1929 var. (idem; footnote); Cohen 62 var. (idem); Strack 822 var. (idem); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 36 (2 spec.)
ex G. Henzen

This is a extremely rare left head variant of the Apollo sestertius. The references for RIC, Cohen and Strack are all for bust types with head right. BMCRE 1229 footnote mentions a variant with laureate head l. (Münzhandlung Basel, 22 March, 1937, lot 736), which turns out to be a different specimen struck from the same obverse die. Banti 36 reports 2 specimens of this variant, the illustrated specimen has the same obv. and rev. dies.
1 commentsCharles S
Antosec9-3~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 598var., Sestertius of AD 140-143 (Apollo, left bust variety)23 viewsĆ Sestertius (27.6g, Ř33mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-143.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing left.
Rev.: APOLLINI AVGVSTO (around) S C (in field), Apollo, standing left, holding a lyre and a patera.
RIC 598 var. (head right); BMCRE IV 1929 var. (idem; footnote); Cohen 62 var. (idem); Strack 822 var. (idem); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 36 (2 spec.)
ex G. Henzen

This is a extremely rare left head variant of the Apollo sestertius. The references for RIC, Cohen and Strack are all for bust types with head right. BMCRE 1229 footnote mentions a variant with laureate head l. (Münzhandlung Basel, 22 March, 1937, lot 736), which turns out to be a different specimen struck from the same obverse die. Banti 36 reports 2 specimens of this variant, the illustrated specimen has the same obv. and rev. dies.
Charles S
AntoSef1-3.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 605 var., Sestertius of AD 142 (Genius of the senate)34 viewsĆ Sestertius (23,09g, Ř 33mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 142.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head left.
Rev.: GENIO SENATVS around, S C across field, Genius of the Senate, togate, standing facing, head left, holding branch and short sceptre.
RIC 605 var. (head right); BMCRE 1241 var. (idem); Cohen 400 var. (idem); Strack 834v. (none for head left); Banti 164 var. (head right)
Ex Sondermann Numismatics (April, 2015).

extremely rare, unlisted, left-headed variety
Charles S
coinM_copy.jpg
Apamea45 viewsAE 20, Apamea, ca. 1st cent. B.C. Obv: Turreted head of Tyche facing right, dotted border. Rev: Nike advancing holding filleted wreath, ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ THΣ EIPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY, AN in far left field, Seleukid era date ΓΜΣ (70/69 BC) to left of Nike. Dark green patina with light red earthen highlights, Extremely Fine. Similar to Lindgren I, 2034, but with an unlisted date (Seleukid as opposed to Pompeian) and AN in field. Not in Lindgren, Not in Sear, Not in Hoover HGC 9.

(Thanks to Pekka for help with dating)
Molinari
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth110 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
Very_rare_and_superb_bronze_drachm_(without_a_letter_in_front_of_bust)_of_Ardashir_I_Kushanshah_(ca_230-250_AD),_Kushano-Sassanians_(Kushanshahs.jpg
Ardashir I Kushanshah (ca.230-250 AD), Kushano-Sassanians (Kushanshahs) 123 views19000
Very rare and superb bronze drachm (without a letter in front of bust) of Ardashir I Kushanshah (ca.230-250 AD), Kushano-Sassanians (Kushanshahs)
Size: 17mm, 2.6grams, bronze.
Notes: Bust of Ardashir facing right, wearing a long earring, double cornucopea behind bust, without a Brahmi letter in front of bust, Pahlavi legend MaZDISN BaGI ARTaHShaTR RaBI KUShAN spread on the obverse and the reverse / Goddess Anahita half-standing beneath a canopy, holding wreath above altar and a long scepter. Uncertain mint (Harid or Kabul?). Cribb SI 19, #16var. (Bactrian issues); Mitchiner ACW 1264-1265 var.; Gobl Kushan 1028var.
These extremely rare and beautiful coins are rarely offered for sale, I could locate only a single specimen offered for sale in the recent years. This coin is probably one of the nicest coins of this type in existence.

Antonio Protti
Ardashir_I_Kushanshah.JPG
Ardashir I Kushanshah (ca.230-250 AD), Kushano-Sassanians (Kushanshahs) 51 viewsVery rare and superb bronze drachm (without a letter in front of bust) of Ardashir I Kushanshah (ca.230-250 AD), Kushano-Sassanians (Kushanshahs)
Size: 17mm, 2.6grams, bronze.
Notes: Bust of Ardashir facing right, wearing a long earring, double cornucopea behind bust, without a Brahmi letter in front of bust, Pahlavi legend MaZDISN BaGI ARTaHShaTR RaBI KUShAN spread on the obverse and the reverse / Goddess Anahita half-standing beneath a canopy, holding wreath above altar and a long scepter. Uncertain mint (Harid or Kabul?). Cribb SI 19, #16var. (Bactrian issues); Mitchiner ACW 1264-1265 var.; Gobl Kushan 1028var.
These extremely rare and beautiful coins are rarely offered for sale, I could locate only a single specimen offered for sale in the recent years. This coin is probably one of the nicest coins of this type in existence.


1 commentsAntonivs Protti
Nabataean_Kingdom,_Aretas_III.jpg
Aretas III, 87 - 62 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Meshorer 28 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas III, 87 - 62 B.C. Bronze AE 16, Meshorer 2, aF, Damascus mint, 4.568g, 15.3mm, 0o, 84 - 71 B.C.; obverse head right with crested helmet, long hair as dotted lines; reverse , Nike standing left, uncertain object in left, wreath in right, crescent over “L” (=A) left. Meshorer 2 is described as, "Extremely careless style. Same as [Meshorer] No.1. Generally difficult to distinguish the details. Many of these coins are of a debased weight and struck on irregular flans." Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Hermione_Triobol___BCD_Peloponnesos_1302_(this_coin).jpg
Argolis, Hermione, ca. 280-250 BC, AR Triobol 23 viewsWreathed head of Demeter Chthonia left.
EP monogram above ΔI, all within wreath of grain.

BCD Peloponnesos 1302 (this coin); HGC 5, 748; Grandjean, Monnayage Group II, Emission 8, D16/R25 (this coin cited).

(15 mm, 2.58 g, 11h)
Auctiones GmbH 47, 24 April 2016, 25; ex- BCD Collection: LHS Numismatics 96, 8-9 May 2006, 1302; ex- GMRH, May 1979, SFr 500 (per BCD ticket); ex- Ashmolean Museum from the E.S.G. Robinson Collection, donated to the Ashmolean, disposed of as a duplicate.

This coin has a notable provenance that can be traced back to the collection of Edward Stanley Gotch Robinson (1887-1976) a classical numismatist and the Keeper of the Coin and Medal Department at the British Museum 1949-1952. He endowed the Ashmolean with his coin collection in 1964. Within three years of his death the Ashmolean disposed of this coin from the collection, despite the type being extremely rare. That's gratitude for you!
n.igma
troizen_commodus_BCDpel1341_2.jpg
Argolis, Troizen, Commodus, BCD Peloponnesos 1341.2 (plate coin)245 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 21mm, 9.61 g
obv. [M AVR KOMMO]DOC AV[G]
Laureate head right
rev. [TROI - ZHNIWN]
Hippolytus standing facing, head left, holding spear and ?; his dog at feet(?)
BCD Peloponnesos 1341.2 (this coin); NCP p.162, 7 (this coin) Thanks to BCD!
extremely rare, VF, black green patina with traces of lighter olive overtones, light roughness
Pedigree:
ex BCD coll.
ex A. Rhousopoulos coll.
ex LHS 96, 8./9. May 2006

A note from BCD: Troizen must have enjoyed a special status under Commodus, as did Aigion, Megara and Pagai. These cities and Epidauros are the only ones that issued non-Severan coins in the Peloponnesos, with the exception of the well-established mints of like Corinth, Patrai, Elis, Argos and Lakedaimon.

For more informations see the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
Seal006.jpg
ARISTANETOS. ROMAN LEAD SEAL226 viewsAPICT - ANETOV
Draped bust of a slightly balding middle-aged man with sideburns

19x18x9mm

10.01g

extremely fine

Early 4th Century

From the Gert Boersema files
Jay GT4
Arkadia,_Arkadian_League,_AE_Dichalkon,_Megalopolis_Mint.jpg
Arkadia, Arkadian League, Megalopolis, ca. 300-275 BC, Ć Dichalkon 10 viewsLaureate head of Zeus left.
League monogram APK above syrinx; AP-T[I] across upper field, ME to right, thunderbolt below.

HGC 5, 941; BCD Peloponnesos 1539.4.
Megalopolis mint.
Extremely rare, one of two known with the AP-TI/ME reverse mint controls.

(18 mm, 4.16 g, 12h).
CNG; ex- BCD collection; ex- A. H. Baldwin, May 1970.
n.igma
sconst crescent~0.jpg
ARLES crescent//SCONST28 viewsRIC VII, 360, LRBC 356

An extremely rare issue from Arles. This issue belongs early in the series; it is full weight and not to be confused with the later, reduced-weight issue with an identical mintmark (LRBC -, RIC VIII, 15) which was struck from 337-40. Like all the early Arles issues the SCONST mark denoting the second workshop is the usual mint signature. Just as the first workshop at Lyons was by far the most prolific of that mint's two workshops, so the second was by far the most productive at Arles.
1 commentsAdrianus
PAMPHYLIA__Aspendos__Stater_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 370 - 333 B.C.224 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Obverse : two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, KI between their legs.

Reverse : EΣTΦE∆IIYΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise,


Extremely fine Silver Stater . Weight: 10.62 g. Max Diameter: 23 mm. Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey)
SNG France 104. Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

Historical and Numismatic Note:

Pamphylia (/pćmˈfɪliə/) was the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mount Taurus (modern-day Antalya province, Turkey).

Aspendos or Aspendus (Greek: Ἄσπενδος) was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. Aspendos is about 40 km east of Antalya, Turkey about 16 km inland on the Eurymedon River. In 546 B.C. it fell to Persia. After a Persian defeat in 467, the city joined the Attic-Delos Maritime League. Persia took it again in 411 B.C., Alexander in 333 B.C., and Rome in 190 B.C. Although often subject to powerful empires, the city usually retained substantial autonomy.


The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3121.

2 commentsSam
PAMPHYLIA_Aspendos_23.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia.155 viewsCirca 380/75-330/25 BC.
With the influence of the Olympics games , Silver Stater.
Obverse : Two wrestlers grappling; LΦ between, below.
Reverse : Slinger in throwing stance right; EΣTFEΔIIYΣ to left, counterclockwise triskeles of legs to right , Small eagle's head banker mark.
Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey).
Ref ; Tekin Series 4; Arslan & Lightfoot 61–72 (same dies); Izmir 413 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 4565; SNG France 105 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 227.
Extremely fine . 10.86 Gr . Max Dia 23 mm . Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
Image1.JPG
Athenian Owl Silver Tetradrachm c. 454-414 B.C.57 viewsAthens. c. 454-414 BC. AR tetradrachm (24mm, 17.20 gm, 8h).
Obv: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet ornamented with three laurel leaves and vine scroll.
Rev: ΑΘΕ Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent moon behind, all within incuse square.
Ref: SNG Copenhagen 32.
Extremely Fine.
mjabrial
AthensTetradrachmNewStyle.jpg
Attica, Athens Silver Tetradrachm, New Style, c. 115/114 B.C.34 viewsAttica, Athens Silver Tetradrachm, New Style, c. 115/114 B.C.
31.4mm, 16.61 grams.
Obv: Head of Athena to right, wearing triple-crested Attic helmet decorated with a palmette and gryphon.
Rev: Owl standing three-quarters right, head facing, on amphora, cluster of grapes on vine in right field, Δ on amphora, ΠE below.
Ref: Thompson 633g.
About Extremely Fine.
1 commentsmjabrial
PCW-G6443.jpg
ATTICA, Athens. 449-413 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.24 gm; 22 mm)30 viewsHelmeted head of Athena right / Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind. SNG Cop. 31; Starr pl. XXII, 7. Nicely struck on a compact flan. Elegant style with a full crest. Shallow marks on Athena's cheek. Choice Extremely Fine. Not from the recent hoards. Nice old-cabinet toning. 4 commentsMark R1
coin73.jpg
Aurelian Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Year 167 viewsAurelian Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Year 1
271-272 AD. A K L DOM AVPHLIANOC CEB, laureate
cuirassed bust right / L-A, eagle standing right,
wreath in its beak, palm behind milne 4356
This coin has an extremely high silver content.
The silver can actually be seen on all the high points
of the coin! Coin #73
2 commentscars100
094.jpg
AURELIAN RIC TEMP 2191 RR71 viewsOBVERSE: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
REVERSE: CONCORDIA MILITVM
BUST TYPE: F8 (HEROICALLY NUDE BUST)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//S *
MINT: SISCIA
WEIGHT: 3.64
RIC TEMP: 2191 (9 EX.)
NOTE: Only one obverse die. On the shield, Emperor on horseback riding r. spearing kneeling enemy.
eXtremely rare and sought-after bust type
10th known specimen in the world
3 commentsBarnaba6
093.jpg
AURELIAN RIC TEMP 2512 RRR41 viewsOBVERSE: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
REVERSE: RESTITVT(·)ORBIS
BUST TYPE: F9 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//A
MINT: UNSPECIFIED BALCANIC MINT
WEIGHT 3.69 g
RIC TEMP: 2512 (1 EX.)
NOTE: extremely rare and sought-after bust type
second known specimen in the world !!!

1 commentsBarnaba6
95~0.jpg
AURELIAN RIC TEMP 2932 APPARENTLY ONLY SECOND KNOWN SPECIMEN!8 viewsOBVERSE: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
REVERSE: VICTORIA GERN
BUST TYPE: B4
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -//-
MINT: CYZICUS
EMMISSION: 3
WEIGHT:
RIC TEMP: 2932 (1 EX.)
SCARSE AND DESIRABLE REVERSE TYPE ! EXTREMELY RARE
Barnaba6
H5a.jpg
Balbinus AR Denarius53 viewsBalbinus AR Denarius. April - June 238 AD. Rome mint. IMP C D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / P M TR P COS II PP, Emperor, togate, standing l., holding branch and parazonium. RIC 5

RARE
EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel - Fixed price list 473 (1985), 39.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
1 commentsTrajan
10250.jpg
Basileios, diakonos, chartoularios and protekdikos. Byzantine lead seal 11th century AD247 viewsBasileios, diakonos, chartoularios and protekdikos. Byzantine lead seal 11th century AD
The Virgin Hodegetria, wearing nimbus, chiton and maphorion, pointing with her right hand to Infant Christ, who she is holding on her left arm. Christ is wearing a nimbus cruciger decorated with pearls, chiton and himation. He is holding a scroll in his left hand, his right hand resting in the fold of his mother’s maphorion below the chin. In left and right fields, MP–ΘV; Circular inscription +ΘKE ROHΘEI-[TW CW ΔOVΛW] within two concentric circles
+RACI|ΛEIW ΔIA|KON,XTU|KAI ΠPO|TEKΔI|KW in six lines
35mm, 22.26g; extremely fine but for some areas of striking weakness, and of the finest style.

As protekdikos, Basileios was the presiding cleric of the tribunal of priests of Hagia Sophia, known as the ekdikoi. As chartoularios he was assistant to the patriarch of Constantinopolis.
1 commentsGert
1279~0.jpg
BASTIEN 228 new photo12 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILITVM
BUST TYPE: D1 = Radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//III
WEIGHT 4.01 g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 22-23,5 mm
RIC: 79 var (d1 bust unlisted)
BASTIEN: Bastien 228 (2 ex.) Bastien Suppl. II 228c (this example)
COLLECTION NO: 1279
NOTE: CUIRASS DECORATED WITH GORGONEION

Extremely rare and desirable bust type!

Only 3rd specimen known to me (I don't know of any other specimens than the 2 cited by Bastien and this one cited in Bastien Supplement II)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
138~0.jpg
BASTIEN 235 RRR !!!36 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILITVM
BUST TYPE: F6
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//III
WEIGHT 4.22g / AXIS 12h / WIDTH: 22-23mm
RIC: 81 VAR. (F6 BUST UNLISTED)
BASTIEN: 235 (3 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 303
NOTE: EXTREMELY RARE AND SOUGHT-AFTER BUST TYPE!!!
7th known specimen in the world
Barnaba6
944.jpg
BASTIEN 347 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH A BUST) - EXTREMELY RARE !!!14 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: FELICIT TEMP
BUST TYPE: A
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//II
WEIGHT 3.42g / AXIS 7h / WIDTH: 23-24,5mm
RIC: 75 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH A BUST)
BASTIEN: 347 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH A BUST); SUPPLEMENT NO. 1 - / SUPPLEMENT NO. 2 -
COLLECTION NO: 944
NOTE: THIS COIN IS COMPLETELY UNPUBLISHED !!!
EX REYSSOUZE HOARD
Barnaba6
1282~0.jpg
BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 372β new photo17 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICIT
BUST TYPE: H3 = Radiate bust left in consular robe with right hand raised
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/B//-
WEIGHT 3.63g / AXIS 12h / DIAMETER: 20-23 mm
RIC: 130 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH H3 BUST)
BASTIEN: (-) BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 372β (THIS EXAMPLE)
COLLECTION NO: 1282

NOTE: extremely rare and desirable bust type !

Only the second known specimen in the world! (the other being in M. Vosper's collection - see coin no. 493 on probuscoins.fr)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
jerusalem_1.JPG
BCC 561 viewsCrusader Kingdom of Jerusalem
Amalricus Rex 1162-1174 CE
Rev: [D]E IER[VSALEM+]
Octastyle temple (Dome of the Rock)
10mm approx 0.9 g.
I have seen fragments with the same reverse
issued by his brother, Baldwin III 1144-1162 CE.
(or perhaps his son Baldwin IV)
I think all of these are extremely rare.
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_G27_Boar_Gem.jpg
BCC G2731 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Intaglio 1st-3rd cent.CE
Boar's head left
Carnelian
Profile type:F1 flat top and bottom
Extremely rare type
Dia:10.5 Thickness:1.75mm. wt:0.4gm.

(click for larger pic)
v-drome
BCC_G3_Serapis_Gem_Nicolo.jpg
BCC G3 composite37 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Intaglio 1st-3rd Century CE
Bust of Serapis to left.
Nicolo Onyx blue, black, white.
Profile F4 var. slightly concave
bottom, flat top, upright oval.
6.5 x 5 x 2mm.
Extremely small gem,
engraved with great detail.
cf. Hendler Collection #7
J.Berlin Caesarea Collection
(click for larger pic)
3 commentsv-drome
BCC_G5_Galley_Gem_Composite.jpg
BCC G540 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Intaglio 1st-2nd century CE
Intricately detailed War Galley
to left, including three helmeted
soldiers w/ shields, two vexilla,
commander (Mars?) standing at
prow, and rows of oars.
Transparent red/orange Carnelian
or Garnet? Profile:F2/F3v.
Truncated cone, horizontal oval,
flat bottom and slightly convex top.
10.25 x 8.5 x 2.75mm 0.45gm.
Extremely rare type, previously
unpublished from Caesarea.
Surface find, 1972
(Click for larger pic)
2 commentsv-drome
BCC_Gr5_Demetrias_by_the_Sea.jpg
BCC Gr519 viewsDemetrias by the Sea
1st Century BCE
Obv:Turreted, veiled bust of Tyche rt.
Rev:LA / (Δ)Η Aphlaston
Dia. 17.5 x 16mm.  Thickness: 2.5mm.  
Weight: 3.45gm. Axis:0
Reference: Kushnir-Stein no. 6
Extremely rare. Additional Caesarea
Papers by Lampinen and Stieglitz also
discuss these coins. The original article
calling attention to a Seleucid coastal
town named Demetrias was published
by H. Seyrig in 1950. The possible
locations of this city in Southern
Phoenicia are controversial. One
suggestion has been Strato's Tower,
predecessor to Caesarea Maritima.
Research into the origin of these
coins is on-going, and any ideas
are welcome. Surface find,
Caesarea Maritima, 1972.
v-drome
BCC_Ls5_.jpg
BCC Ls5x35 viewsLead Seal BCC Ls5
Early 7th century CE
Obv: monogram of Theodore (THR), in fld.
Bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger.
Rev: Inscription in 4 lines
CUUIC / UL ET C / hART / UL/
Theodore, Cubicularius, and Chartoularios.
Extremely rare.
Pb 21mm. 9.15gm.
v-drome
philip_I_neapolis.png
BCC rgp14x136 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Philip I 244-249CE
Obv:IMP C M IVL PHILIPPO
P F AVG laur. draped bust rt.
Rev: COL SERG NEAPOL
Eagle with spread wings below
Mt. Gerizim, showing colonnade
and stairs to temple compound.
AE29mm. 17.1g. Axis :180
Harl's obverse die A6, rev. unlisted?
Extremely Rare
These coin types were used by archaeologists
in the 1950's and 60's to locate the remains
of the temple complex by comparing the profile
of the mountain to the surrounding terrain.
Surface find, Caesarea Maritima, 1976.
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
3 commentsv-drome
domna_BCC_rgp44.jpg
BCC rgp4442 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Julia Domna 193-217
AE Assarion - Phigalia
Obv:ΙΟΥΛΙΑ ΔΟΜ-ΝΑ CΕΒ
Draped bust to right.
Rev:Χ(Φ)Ι-Α-ΛΕWΝ
Tyche standing left with
cornucopia and patera.
21mm. 4.24gm. Axis:90
cf. LHS Numismatics Auction 96
Lot 1654.4 08/05/2006
Extremely Rare / Previously Unpublished
Surface find Caesarea Maritima, 1975
1 commentsv-drome
herakleia_pont_sept_severus_SNGaulock378.jpg
Bithynia, Herakleia Pontika, Septimius Severus, SNG von Aulock 37849 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 30, 17.23g, 30.09mm, 195°
obv. .AV - T. - K.L.CEP. - CEVHROC P
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. HRAKLHAC - EN PON - TW
Herakles, nude, holding lion's skin and his club over l. arm, stg. with sidestep r., head l., holding with r.
hand three-headed Kerberos at rope who is std. at his feet r. looking up to him
ref. SNG von Aulock 378 (obv. same die, rev. different type; for rev. look at Makrinos #379); not in SNG
Copenhagen, Tübingen, SNG Lewis, Rec. Gen.
extremely rare, about VF, some roughness on obv.
Pedigree:
ex lanznumismatik, E-Bay, 2008(?)

This was the last and most difficult labour of Hersakles. For more information take a look at the Mythology Thread, coming soon!
1 commentsJochen
nikomedia_plautilla_RecGen253.jpg
Bithynia, Nikomedeia, Plautilla, Rec.Gen. 253 var.52 viewsPlautilla, AD 202-211, wife of Caracalla
AE 20, 3.17g, 19.94mm, 225°
obv. FOV PLAV - TILLA CEBA / CTH.
Bust, draped, r.
rev. NEIKOMHDEW - N / DIC NEWKO / RWN
Female ichthyokentaur, diademed, nude, with forefeet of horse and fishtail, ring l. on waves, holding auloi in l. arm and dolphin (?)
in extended r. hand
Rec.Gen. 253 var. (has only CEBA)
extremely rare, good F, nearly black patina (not green!)

For more information please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
1267_P_Caracalla_Unpublished.jpg
BITHYNIA. Caesarea Germanica. Caracalla (198-217). Harbor of Caesarea Germanica20 viewsReference.
RG -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen; apparently unpublished.

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC AVΓ CЄB.
Laureate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: KAICAPЄIAC ΓЄPMANIKHC.
Overhead view of the harbor of Caesarea Germanica, containing galley under sail right and with pharos and column at each side; within harbor, distyle temple set upon pediment; below, bull reclining left, head right.

Note.
Extremely rare and interesting

11.97 gr
29 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
Clipboard~46.jpg
Bludgeoning and Cutting Weapon Middle ages “battle” axe34 viewsBludgeoning and Cutting Weapon Middle ages “battle” axe.
Found near Dunster, england. Dated 13th century.
Many people think of battle axes as huge things swung around by massivly muscled barbarians. This is not generaly the case and are more of the imagination than of reality.
This particular axe, dated to around the 13th century could well have been used as a wood cutters axe. It does have one tell tale sign that distinguishes it from an ordinary axe and that is the distinctive armourers/makers mark. Clearly a soldiers battle helmet is stamped on this axe, leaving little doubt to its purpose


The Middle Ages was an extremely violent era in history featuring battles in both Europe and the Holy Land when the crusades, and the crusaders who fought them, were numerous. Warfare during the Middle Ages, or Medieval era called for a variety of weapon expertise. Knights and men-at-arms ( foot soldiers, or archers ) used different types of weapons. The Battle Axes were predominantly used by Foot Soldiers.
It has been documented that the Romans used Germanic axemen in the centre front of their formations to act as an awful ‘softner’ and demoriliser before the standard infantry came through.
lorry66
1338~0.jpg
BONO IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG (SIC!)8 views OBVERSE: BONO IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG (SIC!)
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO
BUST TYPE: A2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//KAB
WEIGHT 4.54g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22,5-23,5 mm
RIC 868 var. (unlisted with this obverse legend)
COLLECTION NO. 1338

Extremely rare and erroneous obverse legend (should be BONO ... PROBO and not PROBVS)

ONLY 2ND Specimen known to me (the other being CNG 225/553 (P.ZANCHI)); see also: P. Zanchi, Quelques nouveaux antoniniens de Serdica, Schweizer Münzblätter 30 (1980), 95-100, Fig. 8.)


Ex Ph. Gysen collection = Ex Heidelberger Münzhandlung H. Grün, Auktion 20 (1997), ex Lot 1130
Barnaba6
B-britannicus_01.jpg
Britannicus Sestertius146 viewsObv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS - Bare headed and draped bust left
Rev. S C - Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield.
Year: 50-54 AD
Material: AE
Weight: 24.05g
Ref: Cohen 2
Notes: Extremely rare; authenticity verified by Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge) experts.
oa
Zervos-B_2.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Ć Anonymous Class B Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1823; DOC B.1-64; Zervos Type B-2) - Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034)15 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, dot in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS ЬAS-ILЄ ЬAS-ILЄ to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
Dim: 27 mm, 8.65 g

An extremely rare variation of the Anonymous Class B Follis. The arms of the nimbus cross has only dots and the book of Gospels has five dots. Using Orestes H. Zervos' classifications of the Class B folles, these types were found during the excavation of Corinth. See the following paper:

Zervos, Orestes H., The Substantive Varieties of Anonymous Folles of Class B, Nomismatika Khronika No. 22/2003
Quant.Geek
justinian1.jpg
Byzantine Justinian I Half siliqua11 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. AR Half Siliqua (0.54 g). Carthage mint. Struck 533-534.

Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / O-V/T-M in the angles of a cross; all within wreath; CONOS.

Cf. DOC 282; cf. MIBE 52; SB 256.

Extremely rare.
Tanit
6098.JPG
Byzantine seal invoking Ephraim the Syrian - 11th century AD221 viewsByzantine lead seal Ephraim 11th century AD
Nimbate half-length bust of Saint Ephraim, holding cross in right hand and scroll in left hand; to left:
Θ|E|V; to r.: Φ|P|E
+|EVΦPAIM|CKEΠOIC M,|TON CVNW|NVMON|ΠATEP in five lines
17mm; 4.47g; extremely fine.

This seems to be the only known Byzantine seal with the portrait of Ephraim/Ephrem the Syrian.

The reverse legend is a twelve syllable verse which translates “Father Ephraim, may you protect me, who shares your name.”
2 commentsGert
theodosius~0.jpg
Byzantine Theodosius 1/3 Siliqua15 viewsTheodosius, son of Maurice Tiberius (590-602).
1/3 Siliqua (200 Nummi). Carthage, 592-597.
AR 0.3 gr.
DNTHEODO SIVSPPA. Bust facing, wearing cuirass and crown with trefoil ornament above circle.
Rv. Large N • M; above, +; beneath, CC, all within circle of dots surrounded by wreath.

BNC Maurice Tiberius 6; MIB Maurice Tiberius 62; Sear 615A.


Extremely rare.
1 commentsTanit
0530-Jtn-K-Con-S7_109.jpg
BYZANTINE, Anonymous Half-Siliqua, Struck at Constantinople (c.530AD), Bendall Type 8c151 viewsObverse: Helmeted and draped bust of Constantinople facing right.
Reverse: Large K in a pearl border.

S. Bendall made an attempt at the classification and chronology of these types. He accepted the general conclusion that the oldest issues, of very fine style, were struck during the inauguration of the new capital of the empire on May 11th, A.D.330. Bendall, having analyzed the changes in style, suggested that some issues were struck on the anniversaries of the founding of Constantinople in A.D.430 and A.D.530, and that other variants might have been issued during the reign of Justinian I to celebrate the reconquest of Italy.

Atelier : Constantinople (Istanbul en Turquie) - Ref : Bendall Type 8c - Sommer 7.109 (Maurice), Tolstoď 28, 612 - Rare
0,80 g / 13-15 mm - Etat presque Extremely Fine
3 commentséRIC_FR
Vlasto666.jpg
CALABRIA Taras, 302/280, Nomos12 views7.80 g.
Naked boy on horse to r., crowning the horse. In field l. ΣA, beneath APE/ΘΩN. Rev. TAPAΣ Taras on dolphin to l., holding tripod in r. hand. CAΣ beneath.
Vlasto 666. Rutter, Historia Numorum 957. Extremely fine.
Leo
Vlasto_509.jpg
Calabria, Taras (c. 344-340 B.C.), Silver Stater.82 views8.03g., 2h
Naked youth on a horse pacing right, crowning the horse with a wreath held in his extended right hand, K(KAA?) and an upright club below the horse, rev. TAP-A-Σ, Phalanthos riding on a dolphin left, holding a kantharos in his extended right hand, and a trident and a shield in his left, Ω below dolphin's tail, waves below.
Fischer-Bossert, Group 49, 685 (V260/R532); Vlasto 509 (these dies); SNG Lloyd 173 (these dies); SNG ANS 960; HN Italy 887. An exceptional example, well-struck from fresh dies and perfectly centred on a flan of good metal, extremely fine and most attractive.
From Sovereign Rarities (2018)

The "K" or "KAL" engraver was one of the finest Greek masters working in the 4th century. His work though rare, can also be found on coins from Heraklea, Metapontion, and Thouroi.
4 commentsLeo
Vlasto_941.jpg
Calabria, Taras AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC.24 views6.56g, 21mm, 11 h
Zopyrion, magistrate. Nude youth on horseback to right, ΖΩΠΥΡΙΩΝ below; below forelegs, ΣΩ above bukranion / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding hippocamp in extended right hand, trident against left arm; monogram and mask of Silenos right, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 941; HN Italy 1054.
Extremely Fine; a beautiful reverse composition. Very Rare.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1506.jpg
Calabria, Taras Obol14 viewsCirca 325-280, AR 7.5mm., 0.27g. Calabria, Tarentum, Obol (?) circa 325-280, AR 6mm, 0.27g. Cockle shell. Rev. Dolphin swimming r.; below, thunderbolt. Vlasto 1506. SNG Copenhagen 1038. SNG France 2152. Historia Numorum Italy 979 (litra ?).

Rare, Toned and Extremely Fine.
Leo
vlasto_842.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 272-240 BC. AR Nomos 37 views6.57g, 3h
Nude rider on horse standing to left, crowning his horse; to right, ; below, .
Rev. Phalanthos, nude, riding on dolphin to left, holding Nike with his right hand and trident with his left; to right, bunch of grapes.
Evans VIII A, 10. HN III 1026. SNG Paris 2006 ff. Vlasto 842-4.
Extremely fine.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_638.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, Circa 315-302 BC. AR Nomos58 views21mm, 8.04 g, 11h
Warrior, preparing to cast spear held aloft in right hand, holding two spears and shield with left hand, on horse rearing right; Ξ to left, API below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand and cradling oar in left arm, riding dolphin left; KΛ to left, TAPAΣ to right. Fischer-Bossert Group 74a, 914 (V357/R709); Vlasto 638; HN Italy 939; SNG ANS 1016 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd –; BMC 208 (same dies); Pozzi 123 (same obv. die). Very rare in this quality. Excellent style. Beautiful patina. Extremely fine.
Ex Hess-Divo 329 (17 November 2015), lot 6; Leu 91 (10 May 2004), lot 15.

The obverse of this nomos depicts an example of the mercenary cavalrymen for which Taras became famous in the Hellenistic period. The Tarentine cavalryman is believed to have been the first mounted warrior of the Greek world to carry a shield. This novelty made him popular in the armies of Hellenistic kings and led to the training of cavalrymen in the Tarentine style.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_836.jpg
Calabria, Taras.52 viewsSilver Nomos (6.64 g), ca. 272-240 BC.
Sy… and Lykinos, magistrates. Youth on horseback left, crowning horse with wreath; behind and below in two lines, magistrate's names: ΣY and ΛYKI/NOΣ. Reverse: TA-PAΣ, Phalanthos riding dolphin left, hurling trident; behind, owl standing left, head facing. Vlasto 836; HN Italy 1025. Gorgeous iridescent toning. Superb Extremely Fine.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_68~1.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 510-500 BC. AR Incuse Nomos11 views8,03 g; 24 mm; 11 h
Phalanthos riding dolphin right, extending left arm, holding dolphin with right hand; crowning Nike to left; shell below
Rv. Incuse of obverse, but ethnic in relief.
HNItaly 826; Vlasto 68. The first issue of Tarentine coinage. Very rare. Lightly toned and in fine archaic style, extremely fine.

I got this great piece from an auction last fall and it was the most important acquisition for me.
Taras incuse stater is more compact and thicker than Kaulonia and Sybaris incuse stater. It was dibble (or triple) striked and the details were hard to detect. We can found slight trace on the Taras’s head and his left hand. I believe this is the reason that the pattern looks very sharp while the high points (such as dolphin’s eyes and tail ) are flat.

Dating from the late sixth century, this nomos shows Phalantus naked, riding a dolphin, expressing a motif destined for popular success in the coins of Taras: the dolphin brings Phalantus safe and sound across the sea (also evidenced by the presence of a pecten in the lower field of the coin), and conveys him to Italy, according to the dictate of the Delphic oracle. We learn from the Periegesis of Greece of Pausania (II cent. A.D.) that statues of Taras, Phalantus, and Phalantus’ dolphin (cf. Paus. X 13) were among the votive offerings (anathemata) presented to Delphi by the Tarantines with a fifth of the spoils taken from the Peucetii and the Iapygians. The reverse has the same representation as the obverse, in incuse, using a well-known technique of early coinage that was deployed at many other Southern Italian cities besides Taras
Leo
Vlasto_665.jpg
CALABRIA. Taras. Circa 290-281 BC. Stater26 viewsSilver, 21 mm, 7.95 g, 3 h
ΣA Nude rider on horse prancing to right, holding whip.
Rev. TAPAΣ / ⊢H Phalanthos seated astride dolphin to left, holding kantharos; behind, caduceus.
Fischer-Bossert 803-805 (V402/R816). HN III 947. Vlasto 665 (same obverse die).
A particularly elegant coin. Reverse struck slightly off-center. Extremely fine.
2 commentsLeo
CJSII-0723h.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine I, Unlisted486 viewsex FORVM - 8603. Bronze AE3, RIC -, aEF, 3.06g, 19.0mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, 329-330 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, eleven layers of stone, wreath and I at sides, SMAL• in ex; extremely rare variety; SOLD...... RIC lists both the laureate and diademed busts for the preceeding issue (SMAL), but for this issue (SMAL•) issue only the diademed bust is recorded.4 commentscscoppa
Carausius_virtus.png
Carausius Virtus reverse billon antoninianus72 viewsBillon antoninianus, RIC V-2-,Webb Carausius-, Borne Carausius-,SRCV IV-,Hunter IV-, Linchmere-, Burton Latimer-,Bicester-,Carausian Hoard-,et al., aF, broad flan, near blackpatina, rough, corrosion, scratches, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, weight 4.186g, maximumdiameter 23.1mm, die axis225o, c. mid 292; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait; reverse VIRTVS AVG (the valor of the Emperor),Mars walking right, transverse spear in right hand,shieldortrophyin left hand,S - P flanking across field, C in exergue; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; extremely rare3 commentsorfew
cariahalhemiOR3.jpg
Caria, Halikarnassos(?) mint, SNG Keckman 869 ff53 viewsCaria, Halikarnassos(?) mint, 5th Century B.C. AR hemiobol, 8.4mm 0.30g, SNG Keckman 869 ff. (various symbols on reverse)
O: rams head right
R: male head right within incuse square

*extremely successful cleaning project...was 0.036g before cleaning
2 commentscasata137ec
CARIA,_MYLASA,_AR_Hemiobol,_Lion_and_Scorpion.jpg
CARIA, MYLASA, AR Hemiobol, EF, Rare, Lion and Scorpion291 viewsCARIA, MYLASA, Hemiobol, 0,53 g, diameter 7 mm, circa 450-400 B.C.

EXTREMELY FINE, RARE.

Facing of forepart of lion / Scorpion in incuse square punch
Weidauer 166 Caria, Uncertain (Mylasa?). Mid 6th century BC. EL 1/48 Stater. Lydo-Milesian standard. Facing head of lion / Scorpion within incuse square. Weidauer 166-167; SNG Kayhan 925-927. lost
2 commentsAntonio Protti
1_8siglosIIIb.jpg
Carradice Type III AR 1/8th siglos - Artaxerxes II - Darius III58 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire.
Artaxerxes II to Darios III. Ca. 375-336 B.C.
AR 1/8th siglos (10 mm, 0.68 g).
Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear and bow / Incuse punch. L.
Mildenberg, "Über das Münzwesen im Reich der Achämeniden, AMI 26 (1993), 19 = Hess-Leu 45, 386
(same rev. die); cf. Carradice type IIIb (late); Winzer -; Klein -; Traité -; BMC -. VF, toned, porosity. An
extremely rare fraction - possibly the second known example.
Caffaro
Atrebates_.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Atrebates, c 35-25 BC39 viewsAtrebates tribe, Britain c 35-25 BC
AR Unit
Metal: silver
Weight: 1,28 g
Size: 11 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Inscription in cross, cross made up of two lines, TINC in angles.
Rev: Lion left, S shaped tail.
Ref: VA 372-1, BMC 930-45.93b
Extremely Rare.
Jorge C
Aulerci_Eburovices_electrum_stater___.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Aulerci Eburovices electrum Hemistater (60-50 BC)175 viewso/ Stylized human head left, hair represented by three parallel lines; behind, a serie of dots and a little cross; below, a jewel; beaded cord around the cheek and a small boar upside down at the base of the neck
r/ Stylized horse leaping left, with the remains of the auriga above the horse, a boar left between the legs, a sort of Y before the horse's chest.
Titulature avers : Anépigraphe.
Description avers : Tęte humaine stylisée ŕ gauche, les cheveux figurés par trois lignes parallčles ; derričre, séries de globules et une croisette ; au-dessous, un fleuron ; cordon perlé entourant la joue ; un petit sanglier ŕ l’envers ŕ la base du cou.
Titulature revers : Anépigraphe.
Description revers : Cheval stylisé bondissant ŕ gauche, avec les restes de l'aurige au-dessus du cheval ; un sanglier ŕ chauche entre les jambes ; une sorte de Y devant le poitrail du cheval.
Extremely rare (horse left).
19mm. 2.79g
DT 2406
1 commentsAugustin Caron
39231q00.jpg
Celts, Danube Region, Imitative61 viewsCelts, Danube Region, Imitative of Alexander or Philip III, c. 150 B.C. - c. 50 A.D.,
Silver scyphate drachm, Dessewffy, No. 534, Group XXVIII (or similar)
Fair, 3.314g, 19.1mm, obverse head of Herakles right, wearing lion's head headdress; reverse Zeus enthroned left, holding a scepter in left and eagle in outstretched right; struck with extremely worn dies. ex Forvm
Randygeki(h2)
Cherronesos,_Thrace,_c__400_-_350_B_C_.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace, c. 400 - 350 B.C. Silver Hemidrachm.107 viewsObverse ; lion forepart right, head turned back left.
Reverse ; Quadripartite incuse square with alternating raised and sunken quarters; X and pellet in one , Λ and pellet in opposite sunken quarter.
Cherronesos mint. Circa ; 400 - 350 B.C.; 2,28 gr 17 mm. Superb Choice Extremely Fine.

SNG Cop 824-843var (Beizeichen). Very Rare.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
CHERSONESOS_Hemi.jpg
Cherronesos, Thrace, ca. 480-350 B.C. Silver Hemidrachm.84 viewsObverse ; lion forepart right, head turned back left.
Reverse ; Quadripartite incuse square with alternating raised and sunken quarters; dot under A Gamma monogram , grain ear in opposite sunken quarter.

2.38 gr , 12.5 mm. Choice Extremely Fine, Scarce.

SNG Cop 824-843var (Beizeichen)

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
anazarbos_gordianIII_Lindgren1441.jpg
Cilicia, Anazarbos, Gordian III Lindgren 144139 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 31, 17.94g
struck AD 242/3
obv. AVT KM ANTWNINOC GORDIANOC CE
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. ANAZARBO - V ENDOX MHTRO
Male figure, sitting on rocks l., head r., wearing working clothes and pointed
bonnet, resting with l. hand on the rocks, holding in raised r. hand fishing device
(kind of scoop with sieve)
B - G in field l. and r.
in ex. ET AXC
Lindgren 1441; BMC Lycaonia etc. 37, n.31
extremely rare, good F - about VF, attractive contrasting patina

G-B = capital of 3 provinces, 2 neocories (P. Weiss)
The legends are from Ziegler, Münzen Kilikiens aus kleineren deutschen Sammlungen, S.143, Nr.1114/15 (same dies).
This is a motiv of the world of the fishermen! There are a similar motiv on a coin for Valerian I.
Jochen
nikopolis_18_caracalla_HrHJ(2013)8_18_46_08+.jpg
CITY-GATE, Caracalla, Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. HrHJ (2013) 8.18.46.08 (plate coin)134 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 28, 12.47g, 27.69mm, 210°
struck under governor Flavius Ulpianus
obv. AV.K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed with scale armour, seen from rear, laureate, r.
rev. V FL OVLPIAN - NIKOPOLIT / PROC IC
Portal with 2 projecting side wings; thereupon a similar structured building whose central
part has 3 gate openings and a pediment with shield and spear; the side wings seem to
be open halls with 4 pillars each and pitched roof; through the open gate of the lower
building the front of a tetrastyle temple is visible.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1585, pl. III, 20 (for Severus)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3145
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. 8.18.46.8 (plate coin)
extremely rare, F/about VF, green somewhat patchy patina
Pedigree:
ex Gorny&Mosch (attributed to Severus in error!)

Pick: Nature and purpose of this building found on coins of Severus and Caracalla I don't know. It is hardly identical with the building on coins of Macrinus (pl. III, 21)
1 commentsJochen
020O.jpg
Commodus AE36 Medallion198 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com.

No examples in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.-Dane Kurth

One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.-Curtis Clay

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)

EX: FORVM Ancient Coins
8 commentsMark Z
commodus_05.jpg
Commodus AR Denarius27 viewsObv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P - Laureate head right.
Rev: APOL PAL P M TR P XVI COS VI - Apollo, laureate, wearing a long robe, stands holding a plectum, resting his lyre on a column.
Date: 190 - 191 AD
Ref: RSC II 25, RIC III 218
Rarity: Extremely rare
oa
commse18b.jpg
Commodus, RIC 560, Sestertius of AD 190 (Ploughing)42 viewsĆ Sestertius (16,57g, Ř 30mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 190.
Ob.: M COMMOD ANT P FE-LIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right
Rev.: COL LAN COM PM TR P XV IMP VIII (around) COS VI (in ex.) S C, Commodus, veiled, as priest, ploughing right with two oxen.

RIC 560; BMC 643; Cohen 39(60fr.); Sear (RCV) 5737

This is a very rare type, found occasionally as Ć-As, but extremely rare as a sestertius. It probably refers to the refounding of Lanuvium, the birthplace of Commodus and the place where he displayed his skills as Hercules by killing lions in the arena.

There has been speculation about the meaning of the first part of the reverse legend COLLANCOM. The traditional expansion of this legend is based on Eckhel (1796), reading the legend as COLonia Lucia ANtoniana COMmodiana, in order to try to relate it to the refounding of Rome. This was followed by Cohen and many other references. The British Museum and RIC expand it slightly differently: "The depiction of the ritual ploughing of the furrow marking out a new foundation refers to Commodus' refounding of Rome as COLonia Lucia ANnia COMmodiana."

Curtis Clay in Forum's discussion board, points to a powerful objection of this interpretation: "Since Commodus still calls himself Marcus on the obverse and was not to switch his praenomen back to Lucius until 191, a year later, why, on the reverse, does he name Rome Lucia and not Marcia?

Chantraine in 1971, following a suggestion of Renier in 1872, proposed what seems to be the solution to the problem: the legend is to be expanded COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana and commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium, which had been a municipium, to the rank of colony.

Commodus did refound Rome too, and this deed is commemorated on very rare mediallions, sestertii, and dupondii struck late in 192, just before his assassination on 31 december. These coins have the same rev. type of emperor plowing, but the legend HERCuli ROMano CONDITORI P M TR P XVIII COS VII P P, 'To the Roman Hercules, the Founder'."

ex cgb.fr (2014).
1 commentsCharles S
dupondius_concordia_milit.JPG
CONCORDIA MILIT S C 41 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev: CONCORDIA MILIT concordia seated left on throne holding patera and dubble cornucopiae

RIC 288
C 66

extremely rare, only the 6th specimen known and 4 of them are in museums!
leseullunique
Z4908.jpg
Constans AE Centenionalis34 viewsConstans, AE Centenionalis, 348-350, Third Group, Alexandria, Officina 3
D N CONSTAN_S P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
FEL TEMP-REPARATIO
Emperor, wearing pearl-diadem, in military dress standing left, labarum in right hand, left hand resting on shield, two bound captives with crested helmets kneeling before, looking at each other
* | E (?) across fields
ALEG in exergue
20mm x 21mm, 4.24g
RIC VIII, 64v

Note: This is a very unusual piece in several aspects - first, it is nearly fully silvered, which is very difficult to find from this period on centenionalii. Also, RIC specifically describes the emperor on the reverse as bare-headed, which he is not on this specimen. Normally, the emperor's chlamys is shown long and somewhat flying behind, but on this specimen it is extremely short, possibly so the right field would be available for the epsilon (?) mark (engraver's signature?)
TLP
H15a.jpg
Constans AR Heavy Miliarense148 viewsConstans AR Heavy Miliarense. Siscia. 342 - 343 AD. FL IVL CONSTANS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GAVDIVM POPVLI ROMANI, within laurel wreath inscribed SIC XX SIC XXX flanked by palms, SIS and small wreath in ex. RIC 151

VERY RARE - R2
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE - CERTAINLY ONE OF IF NOT THE FINEST KNOWN
EXTRAORDINARY PEDIGREE

Ex. J. Horsky Collection
Ex. Vautier Collection
Ex. M. Collignon Collection
Ex. H. C. Levis Collection
Ex. E. A. Sydenham Collection
Ex. W. Niggeler Collection
Ex. A. Hess Nachf., Francfort 155 (1917), 4457
Ex. Naville & Cie., Genčve 2 (Lucerne 1922), 1759
Ex. Naville & Cie, Genčve - Ars Classica 11 (Lucerne 1925), 1004
Ex. Glendining & Co., Ltd., London 24 nov. 1948, 579
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel - Bank Leu & Co AG Zurich / SlgNiggeler 3 (1967) 1523
Ex. Bank Leu AG Zurich 48 (1989) 429
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
2 commentsTrajan
Constans Victoriae.jpg
Constans- Victoriae Avg66 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.

Obverse:
Head right and pearl-diademed

D N CONSTANS P F AVG

D N: Dominus Noster, Our Lord, in the context of our lord and ruler of the Roman people.
CONSTANS: Constans
P F: Pius Felix
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
Victoria AVG

Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D.

Obverse:
Head right and pearl-diademed

D N CONSTANS P F AVG

D N: Dominus Noster, Our Lord, in the context of our lord and ruler of the Roman people.
CONSTANS: Constans
P F: Pius Felix
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
Victoria AVG

Victoria: Victory
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Victory standig left, holding laurel wreath and branch.

Domination: Bronze, AE 4, size 14 mm,

Mint: It starts with SM, so Constantinopolis is doubtful. SMALA I think is too long for the space
Browsing through RIC VIII I found the following possibilities:
RIC VIII, Heraclea 43; ex. SMHA
RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 64; ex. CONSA
RIC VIII, Nicomedia 47; ex. SMNA
RIC VIII, Cyzicus 37; ex. SMKA
RIC VIII, Antiochia 66; ex. SMALA


Comments:

0. The Victory sticks out, and the lettering on the reverse is extremely odd.
1. The overall style seems (to me) a little off.
2. There seems to be a raised edge or lip.
3. While Victory is in high relief, the exergue line and most of the exergue are not there.
4. As Evan noted; the style of the legend.
5. Such a long neck this constans..

While any of these things by themselves probably wouldn’t raise any of my doubts, together they do. I could be totally off here but I just have a bad feeling about this one.
1 commentsJohn Schou
13539.jpg
Constantine I 19 viewsConstantine I Silvered Ć Follis. Constantinople, 328-329 AD. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus with palm branch in both hands, trophy behind, captive before her, A in left field; CONS-star in ex. RIC 38. 3.12g, 20mm.

Rare – R2
1 commentsTLP
2.jpg
Constantine I AE Follis - CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Anepigraphic49 viewsA/CONS, Constantinople mint. Struck 328 AD.
Unpublished, this bust type is unlisted in RIC
Extremely rare
moneta_auction
H10b.jpg
Constantine I AR Quinarius78 viewsConstantine I AR Quinarius. Treveri mint. 307 AD. IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS MILITVM, four turreted gateway, with no doors. RIC 758

VERY RARE - R2
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Bank Leu AG, Zurich 33 (1983), 147
Ex. Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Zurich 8 (1995), 946.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
2 commentsTrajan
H11a.jpg
Constantine I AV Solidus108 viewsConstantine I AV Solidus, struck at Siscia on the occasion of the Tricennalia. 335 AD. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, 3/4 facing, head right. / VICTORIA CONSTANTINI AVG, Victory seated right by cuirass and shield, holding shield incribed VOT XXX; SIS in ex. RIC 242 (This example cited)

VERY RARE
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. A. J. Evans Collection
Ex. H. C. Levis Collection
Ex. Naville & Cie, Genva 3 (Lucerne 1922), 195;
Ex. Naville & Cie, Geneva - Ars Classica 11 (Lucerne 1925), 998 et 17 (Lucerne 1934), 1905;
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 73 (1988) 272
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
2 commentsTrajan
Constantine I 08.jpg
Constantine I Silvered AE Follis144 viewsHand cleaned from a lump of green gunk.

Constantine I silvered AE Follis. Trier, 318 - 319 AD. IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, bust of Constantine wearing high crested helmet, cuirassed with spear over right shoulder / VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories standing, facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT PR on altar. PTR in ex. RIC 208a

EXTREMELY FINE; Fully silvered.
VERY RARE - R3
Ex Spink VII 1996
9 commentsTrajan
1.JPG
Constantine I silvered AE Follis - CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE22 viewsS/CONS, Constantinople mint. Struck 328 AD.
Extremely fine, full silvering, RIC VII 32, R2 (rare)
moneta_auction
Constantius_I_2.jpg
CONSTANTINE I, AE3, RIC VII 105, Sol45 viewsOBV: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right
REV: SOL INVICTO COMITI, Sol, radiate, standing left, raising right hand, globe in left, chlamys across shoulder
18-19 mm, 3.78 g; Extremely fine, with a most gracious portrait. Rated r3.
Minted at Trier, 316 AD
Legatus
constantius nobc vot v com.JPG
Constantine II Vot V45 viewsAE 20 mm 3.5 grams
OBV :: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM. Letters VOT V inscribed in two lines all within wreath
EX :: RS ( Rome )
RIC VII ROME 236
RIC rated C1
from uncleaned lot 10/07

The Patina on this coin is extremely fragile, as you can see from the pics, brushing removed some of it. So I decided to leave it as is
Johnny
jv.jpg
CONSTANTINE II (As Caesar, AD 316-337). Follis (AD 320). Siscia.20 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C.
Laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding Victory on globe and mappa.
Rev: VIRTVS EXERCIT S - F/ HL / E SIS (star in crescent).
Vexillum inscribed VOT/ X flanked by seated captives.
RIC 133.
Condition: Near extremely fine.
Weight: 2.9 g.
Diameter: 19 mm.
1 commentsFatih K
H13a.jpg
Constantine II AV Solidus131 viewsConstantine II AV Solidus. Nicomedia. 324 AD. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate draped and curiassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Prince standing left, looking right, in military dress, holding parazonium on l. arm, standard with eagle holding wreath in r. hand; to r., another standard with hand. RIC 74

EXTREMELY RARE - Only two other examples cited by RIC, both in museum collections.
EXTEMELY FINE
SPLENDID STYLE

Ex. Stock Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel
From a small hoard discovered around 1980 in Egypt.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
3 commentsTrajan
Constantine_II_Campgate_RIC_26.jpg
Constantine II Campgate RIC 2629 viewsConstantine II, Heraclea, RIC VII page 545, 26,
OBV: DN FL CL CONSTANTINVS NOB C, laureate and draped consular bust left, holding scepter and mappa
REV: PRIVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate, 3 turrets, 6 layers, no doors
.MHTE. in exergue

RIC rates it as Extremely Rare (R5) but it is probably not as rare as RIC states.
Romanorvm
__3_(10).JPG
Constantine the Great - Jupiter standing26 viewsAncient Roman Empire, early 4th Century AD.
Emperor Constantine I the Great. AE Follis.
Siscia mint, 313 AD.
Latin titles;
obv:" IMP CONSTANTINUS P F AUG " - Laureate crowned bust of Constantine I right, draped and cuirassed.
rev:" IOVI CONSERVATORI AUGG NN " - Jupiter standing right, nude, holding Victory atop a globe in outstretched hand, and a sceptre in the other. Drapery over shoulder. Eagle with wreath in beak standing below.
mintmark: " SIS " below. Gamma in right field.
Weight: 3.4 grams, 24mm diameter.

*Extremely highly detailed reverse.*
3 commentsrexesq
__3_(1).JPG
Constantine the Great - Jupiter standing9 viewsAncient Roman Empire, early 4th Century AD.
Emperor Constantine I the Great. AE Follis.
Siscia mint, 313 AD.
Latin titles;
obv:" IMP CONSTANTINUS P F AUG " - Laureate crowned bust of Constantine I right, draped and cuirassed.
rev:" IOVI CONSERVATORI AUGG NN " - Jupiter standing right, nude, holding Victory atop a globe in outstretched hand, and a sceptre in the other. Drapery over shoulder. Eagle with wreath in beak standing below.
mintmark: " SIS " below. Gamma in right field.
Weight: 3.4 grams, 24mm diameter.

*Extremely highly detailed reverse.*
rexesq
0640-325np_noir.jpg
Constantine the Great, Follis - *205 viewsNicomedia mint, 2nd officina, c. AD 311
IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG; Laureate head right
VIRTVTIE-XERCITVS Mars/Virtus advancing right in military dress, holding transverse spear and shield ; trophy over shoulder. B in right field. SMN in exergue.
4.88 gr, 22 mm
RIC-, C-, Roman coins -
RIC lists this type only for Licinius and Maximinus . "Iovi Conservatori and Virtuti Exercitus both appear for Licinius and Maximinus, emissions for the former being the more scarce: coinage for Constantine is extremely rare. Date, c. 311". Coin should be listed after NICOMEDIA 70c.
Please see Victor Clarks website for further information at :http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/unlisted/
3 commentsPotator II
Constantius Gallus Fel Temp.jpg
Constantius Gallus- Constantinople RIC 10780 viewsobv: DN FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
CONSIA in exergue
RIC Constantinople 107

Extremely detailed bust of Gallus, unfortunately reverse is crap.
wolfgang336
vc1.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I (As Caesar, 293-305). Follis. Heraclea.31 viewsObv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES.
Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / HT A.
Genius standing left, holding cornucopia and patera.
RIC 18a.
Condition: Extremely fine.
Weight: 10.8 g.
Diameter: 29 mm.
3 commentsFatih K
H18a.jpg
Constantius II AR Heavy Miliarense67 viewsConstantius II AR Heavy Miliarense. Thessalonica mint. 337 - 361 AD. DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, diademed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Three vexilla standing facing.TES in ex. RIC 158.

EXTREMELY RARE - R4
EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel - Sale 61 (1982), 511
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
1 commentsTrajan
H17a.jpg
Constantius II AR Light Miliarense65 viewsConstantius II AR Light Miliarense. Lyons mint. 361 AD. DN CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, soldier, helmeted, standing left, head turned right, holding inverted spear in r. hand and resting l. hand on shield. LVG in ex. RIC 208

EXTREMELY RARE - R3
EXTREMELY FINE, BEAUTIFULLY TONED

Ex. Numismatic Fine Arts, Inc., Beverly Hills XX (1988), 540
Ex. AUCTIONES SA, Basel Vente 24 (1994), 560
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
1 commentsTrajan
Constantius II Hoc Sign Victor Eris2.jpg
Constantius II- Siscia RIC 30498 viewsobv: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
obv: HOC SIGN VICTOR ERIS, Emperor holding labarum, being crowned by Victory.
BSIS in exergue
RIC Siscia 304
VF/gF

Commemorates Constantine's vision and ensuing victory. This type is extremely hard to find in decent condition.
wolfgang336
814ag180.jpg
Cr 320/1 fouree AR Denarius Fouree L. Julius L.f. Caesar13 viewsc. 103 BCE fourrée denarius (16.8 mm, 3.01 g, 5 h)
o: CAESAR upwards behind helmeted head of Mars, left; above, control symbol Q OR p
r: Venus driving a chariot left, drawn by two flying erotés; lyre in field beneath; L·IVLI·L·F in ex.
cf. Julia 4
An extremely convincing fouree, with break-through wear on the highest points on the reverse. Crawford says that the type repeats the control mark, which is variable in execution on authentic pieces, on both sides, which I do not clearly see on this otherwise crisp coin; perhaps this was a "tell" to contemporaries.
PMah
591AA221combo.png
Cr 352/1 AR Denarius L. Iulius Bursio5 views85 bce; 3.83 gms; 20.50 mm
o: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo (youthful head), Mercury (winged headress) and Neptune (trident); behind, rudder.
r: Victory in quadriga right; above, numeral [xv??]; in exergue, L. IVLI. BVRSIO
This is an odd type, combining attributes of three gods on the obverse with an extremely mundane reverse. The rudder die mark is fairly rare, and I have not seen another published example. Any Republican type with a wide variety of die marks and numbers will end up representlng a large issue. I will update this posting soon, when I retrieve my Crawford set.
This coin, despite the deposits, is in excellent condition.
PMah
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Cr 383/1 AR Denarius Ti. Claudius Ti.f.Ap.n.Nero12 viewso: Bust of Diana r., bow and quiver over shoulder, S C before
r: Victory in biga r., CXXXXV below; TI CLAVD TI F / AP N in ex
This type is one of the issues that have a large number of control numbers on both obverse and reverse dies, and per Crawford, “each control-mark has only one die.” Thus, each of them was struck from only a single reverse die. These types are quite useful for numismatic statistical analysis.
This particular coin I find to be enjoyable because Diana's quiver clearly has a cover on it. In modern times, archery quivers are open-topped sort of things, mostly for carrying the arrows from the garage to the back-yard range. In ancient times, and all times when arrows were weapons or tools, it was extremely important to keep the "fletches"/feathers/vanes protected, and to keep the shaft dry and point protected.
PMah
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Cr 412/1 AR Denarius Serratus L. Roscius Fabatus 29 viewsRome, 64 BCE
o: Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; pileus of the Dioscuri surmounted by star behind, L•ROSCI below
r: Female standing right facing serpent; [control mark in left field], FABATI in ex
Crawford 412/1; Roscia 3
(3.82g, 19mm, 4h) bankers marks
I should add that I am rather fond or appreciative of bankers' marks. They show the extremely practical nature of any ancient transaction. Imagine if even a small portion of our transactions had to undergo human scrutiny at the level of negating the value of the transaction for every participant, plus the prior and succeeding transactions!
1 commentsPMah
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Cr 413/1 AR Denarius L. Cassius Longinus10 views63 BCE
o: Bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, backwards S before
r: Citizen dropping tablet inscribed V into cista, LONGIN III V behind.
Crawford 413/1; Cassia 10.
3.85g. (7h)
The backwards S on obverse is a control mark, which collectively spell out Cassius' name across this type.
The reverse harkens back to an ancestor's voting law, where the "V" -- clearly visible on this nice coin -- indicated a positive vote. It is somewhat uncertain whether the money simply honored the presumably popular aspect of the law, which extended secrecy in voting, or also included the ancestor's role in prosecution of Vestal Virgins, as implied by the image of Vesta on the obverse. Apparently three Vestals were accused of being quite naughty for a Vestal, an extremely unhealthy thing to do, both individually and for the Roman state.
PMah
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Cr 433/2 AR Denarius M. Junius Brutus25 viewsAR Denarius 54 bce Rome 4.09 gm 17.5 mm
o: BRVTVS, downwards behind head of L. Iunius Brutus r, border of dots
r: AHALA, downwards behind head of C. Servilius Ahala r, border of dots
Junia 30; Servilia 17; Sydenham 932

This type has always puzzled me. It clearly depicts the two anti-tyrants in the Junia family tree, L. Junius Brutus and C. Servilius Ahala. (Crawford uses the phrase "tyrannicides", but Brutus did not kill Tarquin and Ahala seems to have sucker-stabbed Maelius in anger.) Young Brutus, or whatever his name was when he was a moneyer, clearly chose to put them on his coins at the time when Pompey's prominence in the state was at its peak; Caesar was in Gaul or Britain, and could not help him. This decision as to coinage, therefore, seems to me extremely unhealthy. Roughly the same number of dies have been identified for both of Brutus's moneyer issues, so it is unlikely that this type is an indiscretion that was quickly withdrawn. So, was Brutus being played or deployed by Pompey against Caesar? Pompey was ostentatiously NOT claiming the dictatorship, so why "warn" him, especially when a "warning" from a 30-ish year old aspiring politician who maybe had held a staff officer's post would not likely impress Pompey, "the teenage butcher"? Worth, I think, exploring a bit.
2 commentsPMah
crisses1.jpg
Crispina (178 - 182 A.D.)56 viewsĆ Sestertius
O: CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
R: HILARTAS S-C, Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm and cornucopiae.
Rome
18.8g
33mm
RIC III 668 (Commodus)

Uneven Patina, what looks like a pit on reverse is extremely shallow.

Published on Wildwinds!
1 commentsMat
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Crispus vot v TS delta I54 viewsAE 18-19mm 2.6 grams 320-321 AD
OBV :: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left
REV :: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM . VOT V inscribed within wreath. Star in badge at the top of the wreath
EX :: TS delta VI (Thessalonica)
RIC VII Thessalonica 118
from uncleaned lot
RIC rated C1

** coin has an extremely brittle black patina that was falling off at the slightest touch. So I stopped the cleaning on it, and more than likely , will not be cleaning any further. This is as good as it's gonna get
Johnny
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Crispus IOVI CONSERVATORI TIC VII Cyzicus 1758 viewsAE3, 19mm, 2.45g.

Obverse: DN FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing L with victory and sceptre, eagle at L foot, captive at R. X above II squiggle in R field.

Exe: SMKB (Cyzicus)

RIC 17, 321-4, R2.

A very nasty piece of repatination, and correspondingly extremely cheap!
Robert_Brenchley
105.jpg
Crusader County of Jaffa Anonymous Denier 70 viewsJAFFA
Anonymous( mid Thirteenth Century ) Issue Denier .
Obv.: +°DENARIVS°, cross.
REv.: +°IOPPENSIS°, gateway.
Schlumberger IV:29. CCS 1
Extremely rare
Vladislavs D
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Crusader. Rhodes. Order of St. John . Emery d'Amboise (1503-1512) AR denier.21 viewsCrusader. Rhodes. Order of St. John . Emery d'Amboise (1503-1512) AR denier.
0.6 g.
EMERIC....AMBO... Arms of the House of Amboise
ECCE•AG....DEIECC..V.. St. John the Baptist standing facing ,holding the symbolic lamb with his right hand and a long cross in left .
Schlumberger Pl.XI - 10
Extremely Rare .
Vladislav D
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Crusader. Rhodes. Order of St. John . Emery d'Amboise (1503-1512) AR denier.21 viewsCrusader. Rhodes. Order of St. John . Emery d'Amboise (1503-1512) AR denier.
0.5 g.
E.....DAMBOISE•MA Arms of the House of Amboise
E.....DEI.....V St. John the Baptist standing facing ,holding the symbolic lamb with his right hand and a long cross in left .
Schlumberger Pl.XI - 10
Extremely Rare .
Vladislav D
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Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, William of Villehardouin, 1245 - 1278 AE denier .68 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, William of Villehardouin, 1245 - 1278 AE denier .
0.7 Gr.
Obverse : G P ACCAIE . Short cross pattee .
Reverse : + CORINTI . Genoese gateway .
CCS 1 ; Schl. XII,10. Metcalf 881-883
Extremely rare
1 commentsVladislav D
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Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, William of Villehardouin, 1245 - 1278 AE denier .21 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, William of Villehardouin, 1245 - 1278 AE denier .
0.6 Gr.
Obverse : G P ACCAIE . Short cross pattee .
Reverse : + CORINTI . Genoese gateway .
CCS 1 ; Schl. XII,10. Metcalf 881-883
Extremely rare
1 commentsVladislav D
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Crusaders. Lordship of Beirut. John of Ibelin (1205-1236), Billon Denier28 viewsCrusaders. Lordship of Beirut. John of Ibelin (1205-1236), Billon Denier
Obverse : + IOhANNЄS around cross pattée, pellets in second and third quarters .
Reverse : + DE BЄRITI around castle
CCS 4
Extremely rare
Vladislav D
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Danubian Celts, Serdi Region, 168-31 B.C.38 viewsVery rare coin, if anyone knows of another like it (with the river god facing left) please let me know!

Bronze AE 20, Malloy Danubian Celts type -2C; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, VF, beautiful green patina, 6.760g, 20.0mm, 0o, tribal mint, 168 - 31 B.C.; obverse stylized head of the river god Strymon left; reverse trident, bar across near base of prongs, scroll-like ornaments between the prongs, monograms flanking shaft, counterclockwise retrograde blundered inscription similar to MAKEDONWN; the only example known to Forum with the river god's head left, an extremely rare variant and possibly unique;
jimmynmu
Arretine_bowl.jpg
Decorated arretine bowl57 viewsArretine bowl (ca. 9cm x 19.5cm) ca. 2nd cent. A.D.. Repeating pattern of cloaked male figure blowing horn while engaged in a sexual act with a female bending forward and looking back. Elaborate floral spacing design followed by a cherub on a pedestal within an arch supported by spiral fluted columns.

additional information from Harlan J. Berk: Erotic bowls of this type are extremely rare and this example appears to be unrecorded. Restored from many fragments, but only two significant loses to the rim with one extending into the design.
3 commentsCharles S
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Diadumenian131 viewsDiadumenian, as Caesar. 218 AD. AR Denarius 3.04 g. 2nd emission, July AD 217-March 218

O: M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing half-left, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards behind.
RIC IV 102 (Macrinus); BMCRE 87 (Macrinus); RSC 3.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus in 217. Diadumenian, in turn, received the titles of Caesar and Prince of the Youth. He was also given the name Antoninus after the assassinated emperor Caracalla.

These titles are seen on this example as ANT and PRINC IVVENTVTIS.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
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DIADUMENIAN66 viewsDIADUMENIAN (Caesar, 217-218). Denarius. 2.53 g. 20mm, Rome mint.
O: M OPEL DIADVMENIAN CAES, Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left, holding baton; two signa to right.
-RIC 107.

1st emission of Macrinus, AD 217, only three examples in the Reka Devnia hoard.

Diadumenian's three main types as Caesar exactly correspond to Macrinus' three issues, which for their part can be approximately dated on the basis of the titles they bear and their volumes of issue as revealed by the Reka Devnia hoard. So Diadumenian's dates derive from those estimated for Macrinus.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus on April 8, 217. Dio Cassius tells us that Diadumenian was named Caesar and Prince of the Youth by the Senate in May 217 as soon as news of Macrinus' accession reached Rome. A little later, Dio continues, news arrived that Diadumenian had independently been proclaimed Caesar by the soldiers at Zeugma, as he was on his way from Antioch to join Macrinus in Mesopotamia, and that he had also assumed Caracalla's name Antoninus. Hence this first short issue of coins in Rome is with the titles Caesar and Prince of the Youth, but still without Antoninus.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
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Diocletian AV Aureus158 viewsDiocletian AV Aureus. Cyzicus mint. 293 AD. DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate bust right / CONCORDIAE AVGG NN, Emperors seated l., each holding globe and parazonium and crowned by Victory. RIC 292

VERY RARE - R2
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Bank Leu AG, Zurich 10 (1974), 387
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 68 (1986), 393.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
6 commentsTrajan
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DIVUS CONSTANTINE I (Died 337). Follis. Antioch.33 viewsObv: DV CONSTANTINVS P T AVGG. Veiled head of Constantine right.
Rev: VN - MR / SMANΓ. Constantine, veiled, standing facing, head right.
Condition: Near extremely fine. with beautiful desert patina.
References: RIC 112.
15mm, 1.45grams.
1 commentsCanaan
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Domitian35 viewsDomitian. Denarius. Minerva. Reign: Emperor, A.D. 81-96. Denomination: AR Denarius. Mint: Struck in Rome, A.D. 88.
Obverse: IMP. CAES. DOMIT. AVG. GERM. P. M. TR. P. VII. Head, laureate, r. Reverse: IMP. XIIII COS. XIIII CENS. P. P. P. Minerva standing l., holding thunderbolt and spear; at her feet, shield. Reference: RIC 167, 110 var. Cohen 233 var. Grade: Extremely Fine
3 commentssimmurray
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Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 3 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI - Laureate bust right, wearing aegis
IOVI - CONSERVAT, S - C - Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (85AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.84g / 26.94mm / 180
Rarity: R2-Rare
References:
RIC II 302 Rome
BMCRE 313A
Paris 336
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Acquisition/Sale: Marc R. Breitsprecher Internet $0.00 01/18
Notes: Jan 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.
Flavius Domitianus was an effective emperor who spent much of his time in the provinces preserving order. Despite his effectiveness, he was extremely unpopular with the senatorial class at Rome. He appointed persons from the lower classes to positions of authority. Domitian's reign was marred by paranoia and cruelty in his latter years and he executed many Senators. When asked to prohibit execution of senators without a trial by peers he declined, thus dispelling the old illusions of republican government and exposing the true autocracy of his rule. In 96 A.D., he was stabbed to death in a plot, allegedly involving his own wife.

Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and god of the sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is, therefore, the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
Gary W2
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Domitian 81-96 AD8 viewsSilver Denarius, Rome 88 AD

Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII, Legend with Laureate Bust Right.

Rev: IMP XV COS XIIII CENS P P P, Minerva Advancing Right, Holding Spear and Shield. Extremely Fine & Rare.

RIC 591, (3.58 g, 19.0 mm)
3 commentsVacolony
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Domitian AE Sestertius, Procession15 viewsDomitian AE Sestertius. IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate bust right / Domitian standing right; companion standing behind, three children leading procession, each carrying a branch. 24.00g, 34mm. RIC 615. Extremely Rare.Holding_History
Domitian_RIC_435_.jpg
Domitian AR Denarius89 viewsDOMITIAN, (A.D. 81-96), silver denarius, Rome mint, issued A.D. 86, Second Issue
(3.47 g),
Obv. laureate head of Domitian to right, around IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P V,
Rev. around IMP XII COS XII CENS P P P, Minerva standing to right, fighting, holding javelin and shield,
(RIC 435, RSC 201b BMC 93).
Attractive blue and gold patina, extremely fine.
Ex Dr V.J.A. Flynn Collection. With old dealer's ticket.
Noble Numismatics Auction 120 Lot 3217 April 4, 2019.
10 commentsorfew
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Domitian RIC 4487 viewsAR Denarius, 2.56g
Rome mint, 81 AD
RIC 44 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMIT AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted

An extremely rare and early denarius of Domitian. This coin was minted before Domitian became Pontifex Maximus, as shown by the obverse legend which only shows him as PONT. Presumably the official ceremonies for this elevation had not been completed when the coin was struck. Domitian, always a stickler for the correct procedures, probably insisted the correct form of his titles be struck. This coin also indicates how quickly new coins were struck for Domitian after he became emperor. Also, notice the nice mention of Vespasian in the obverse legend - DIVI VESP F, "Son of the Divine Vespasian".

The style is very typical of the early denarii of Domitian before his coinage reform the following year. Notice the veristic style with the hook nose. Later his portraits became more idealized.

Not listed in the BM nor Cohen. The new RIC cites examples at the Ashmolean and a private sale.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
D183.jpg
Domitian RIC-183327 viewsAR Denarius, 2.90g
Rome mint, 84 AD
RIC 183 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC; Bust of Domitian, laureate, draped, bearded, l.
Rev: P M TR POT III IMP V COS X P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, April 2014.

84 AD probably saw the peak of artistic quality with Domitian's precious metal coinage. Two years previous, the fineness of the denarius was increased and the style radically changed from the earlier issues. Upon Domitian's accession the veristic style of Vespasian and Titus still dominated, after the reform it became more idealised and much finer. By 84 the style had evolved to such a high degree that the mint was able to produce these finely engraved draped busts, albeit in small quantities. This extremely rare coin struck in 84 is an exquisite example of the new idealised style. This is the second known specimen of the type. Much experimentation was going on at the mint at this time with reverse types, busts, and style. I assume the amount of time an engraver spent on rendering these highly polished pieces was considerable, which could perhaps explain why they were not struck more commonly. RIC theorises the drapery represents a military cloak commemorating Domitian's recent German victory. Afterwards, the style remained idealised and fine but the finer portraits would sometimes appear with an aegis, the draped busts consigned to an experimental cul-de-sac. The idealised style would continue to evolve throughout the reign reaching baroque proportions by 88. It's a shame that this fine portrait bust was struck sparingly.

Ian Carradice speculated in his 1983 monograph Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian that the same engraver who did this piece may have worked on an earlier left facing portrait from 81 (see my Domitian RIC 75). Although left facing portraits are extremely rare in Domitian's reign and it is not out of the realm of possibility that the same engraver was working at the mint three years later and produced another left facing bust, to my eyes the styles seem too different to warrant that conclusion.

The bust of Domitian here is superbly rendered, one of the finest portraits of Domitian I've ever seen on a denarius. Same obverse die as the unique specimen cited in RIC.

13 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-18468 viewsAR Denarius, 2.93g
Rome mint, 84 AD
RIC 184 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: P M TR POT III IMP V COS X P P; Minerva stg. l., with thunderbolt and spear; shield at her side (M3)
Ex Private Collection.

In 82 AD when Domitian overhauled the mint and increased the fineness of the denarius, he also apparently brought in new engravers who began working in a more elaborate, idealised style. The second denarius issue of 84 is the first to employ the new style and it would dominate the denarius issues for the rest of Domitian's reign. Domitian adopted the title GERMANICVS in the first issue of 84, shortening it to GERMANIC here in the second issue, all of which are extremely rare. This denarius from that second issue is a fine example of the new idealised style with its large portrait and delicately rendered features. RIC cites two specimens of the type, none of which are in the BM or Paris. Notably, the coin is a detectorist find from outside the boundaries of the Empire in Eastern Europe.

Darkly toned and somewhat porous (which accounts for the low weight).
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-333109 viewsAR Denarius, 3.19g
Rome mint, 85 AD
RIC 333 (R2). BMC specimen acquired 1987. RSC 180. BNC 80.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P IIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT•P•P•; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
Acquired from Germania Inferior, January 2018.

In 82 Domitian increased the silver fineness of the denarius to nearly 100% purity. Three years later in mid 85 the fineness was again adjusted, this time downward to c. 90%, presumably for monetary or fiscal reasons. Domitian also assumed the powers of censor in April of 85 which was recorded on the coinage. The title was successively contracted in three issues - CENSORIA POTESTAT, CENS POTES, and CENS POT. According to metal analyses by Walker and more recently confirmed by Butcher and Ponting, Domitian's second coinage reform took place between the last two issues - the CENS POT issue being the first under the new standard. Curiously, this 'CENS POT' denarius has what appears to be 'al marco' weight adjustment marks, plainly visible on the reverse to the left of Minerva. Is it possibly during the minting of this first issue under the new standard the mint workers were extra careful with the coinage's weight? Whatever the case, the gouges must date to antiquity owing to the fact they are toned just as the unblemished surfaces are.

An extremely rare coin. Engraved in the period's typical fine style.

6 commentsDavid Atherton
D344.jpg
Domitian RIC-34499 viewsAR Denarius, 3.20g
Rome mint, 85 AD (fifth issue)
RIC 344 (R2). BMC -. RSC 186. BNC 87.
Obv: IMP•CAES•DOMIT AVG•GERM•P•M TR P V; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP•VIIII COS XI CENS•POT P•P•; Minerva stg. l., with thunderbolt and spear; shield at her side (M3)
Ex CNG E363, 11 November 2015, lot 319.

An extremely rare denarius from the fifth issue of 85. Coined shortly after Domitian reduced the fineness of the denarius by 5% to the old Neronian level after having raised it in 82 to the Augustan standard. RIC cites Paris and Oxford with examples of this type.

Struck on a large flan (21 mm!) in superb fine style.

4 commentsDavid Atherton
D450sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-45078 viewsAR Denarius, 3.38g
Rome mint, 86 AD
RIC 450 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XIII COS XII CENS P P P; Minerva adv. r., with spear and shield (M1)
Acquired from Numismeo, September 2017.

In 86 Domitian was awarded imperial acclamations at an accelerated pace due to the Dacian War, which resulted in some fairly rare denarius issues. This coin is from the extremely rare fourth issue of 86, probably struck for just a few days or so until word of the next imperial acclamation reached the mint. The Minerva fighting (M1) and Minerva on rostral column (M2) are the only two denarius types known for the issue. The coins are so rare that Mattingly even doubted the issue's existence (BMCRE p. 320 note).

Struck in fine style on a large flan.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D565.jpg
Domitian RIC-565156 viewsAR Denarius, 3.25g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 565 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANICVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XIIII across field; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This denarius features an extremely rare obverse legend (notice the full spelling of DOMITIANVS and GERMANICVS) with the rare COS XIIII legend across reverse field. It is part of a short lived series minted near the beginning of 88. The only other known specimen is in the Fitzwilliam collection, which is an obverse die match with my coin (the reverse is a die match with the RIC 564 plate coin).

Struck in high relief on a broad flan (22mm!) with an exquisite portrait, Domitian would have been very pleased. A phenomenal coin in hand regardless of rarity.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-57389 viewsAR Denarius, 3.32g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 573 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Obv: IMP•CAES DOMIT AVG GERMAN P M TR P VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP•XIIII COS•XIIII CENS•P•P•P; Minerva adv. r., with spear and shield (M1)
Acquired from eBay, January 2018.

Very rare with 'GERMAN'. So rare in fact, Ian Carradice needed confirmation denarii existed with this spelling when he wrote Coinage and Finances In the Reign of Domitian in 1983. Since the publication of that work several examples have surfaced. The issue this denarius is from also features extremely rare aegis portraits. I think what we have here are the markings of a special issue, perhaps struck in conjunction with the Secular Games which were held the same year the special denarii were struck. The series also features many coins engraved in fine 'Flavian baroque' style, as clearly seen on this example.

Well centred and fine style.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-597116 viewsAR Denarius, 2.60g
Rome mint, 88 AD
RIC 597 (R2). BMC 133 var. RSC - (cf. 77a). BNC -.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC; Herald adv. l., with wand and shield
Acquired from Michael Trenerry, August 2017.

An extremely rare example of the Secular Games herald denarius with portrait head left. Probably the fifth recorded specimen. Obverse die match with the RIC plate coin.

Somewhat worn, but nicely centred and in fine style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-73399 viewsAR Denarius, 3.58g
Rome mint, 92 AD
RIC 733 (C3). BMC 194. RSC 271. BNC 179.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P P P; Minerva stg. l., with spear (M4)
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, October 2014.

Here is a very common denarius struck between 1 January - 13 September 92 at a time of extremely high mint activity. The issue is the largest of the reign according to hoard finds (See Carradice, Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian 1983). Domitian was campaigning against the Suebi and Sarmatians during 92, perhaps accounting for such an extraordinary output of coins.

The coin is in very fine style and struck on a tight flan. A most beautiful piece in hand.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-788A105 viewsAR Denarius, 3.18g
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
RIC 788A. BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XV; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. with aegis
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
Ex Dionysos Numismatik, eBay, 27 March 2018.

An extremely rare Domitian aegis portrait from 95/96, possibly the second known example with this reverse type. Domitian's aegis portraits on denarii were more commonly struck in 84 and 85, exceptionally so afterwards. The Rome mint was experimenting with new reverse designs and portrait types for the denarius issues during the last year of the reign. Perhaps the reintroduction of the aegis may have been part of this new programme? Of course we shall never know - Domitian's assassination in September 96 cut short any experimentation with his coinage. This rare variant only came to light recently and has been added to the RIC II.1 Addenda as RIC 788A.

Bold portrait and fine style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian RIC-821102 viewsAR Denarius, 3.42g
Rome mint, 96 AD
RIC 821 (R2). BMC 237D. RSC 297b. BNC - .
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XVI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVII CENS P P P; Minerva, winged, flying l., with spear and shield
Ex jerusalemhadaya2012, eBay, 4 March 2019.

Domitian achieved tribunician power for the 16th time on 14 September 96 AD. He was assassinated in a palace plot four days later on 18 September. In between those two dates the mint struck only one issue of denarii recording Domitian as TR P XVI, needless to say they are extremely rare! The Senate decreed Damnatio Memoriae within a day of Domitian's assassination which would have quickly halted production at the mint for his coinage. The months leading up to Domitian's assassination saw the mint at Rome experimenting with many new reverse designs (altar, winged Minerva, Maia, temple reverses), breaking the monotony of the four standard Minerva types that had previously dominated the denarius. These new types are exceedingly rare and were perhaps experimental in nature. This denarius shows one of these new reverse types, Minerva Victrix, a more warrior like attribute of the goddess. The fact that this new type which originally appeared on the denarius when Domitian was TR P XV carried over to the briefly struck TR P XVI issue alongside the Maia and the M1, M3, and M4 Minerva types may hint that there was indeed change in the air at the mint. Perhaps the mix of new types with the older ones hint at a transition regarding the typology on his precious metal coinage? Regardless, the experiment was cut short by an assassin's blade, so we shall never know. This denarius may very well be the last coin ever struck for Domitian.

Fine late style with good natural toning. Same dies as the BM specimen.
10 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitius Domitianus Octodrachm141 viewsKoln 3367; Milne 5245; Emmet 4241-2; Dattari 10830; RCV 12982; Sear 4801 var; Alexandria, Egypt
11.30 g, 21 mm
DOMITI-ANOC CEB, radiate head right
Serapis advancing right, transverse staff in left hand, right hand raised, upright palm branch behind, LB in right field
Extremely rare
(Many thanks to FORVM member "Potator II" for additional attributions!)
6 commentsMark Z2
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EB0063 Lion / Bull7 viewsChersonessos, CARIA, AR Tritetartemorion, 500-480 BC.
Obverse: Lion’s head to right with open jaws.
Reverse: Bull head right, XEP.
References: Babelon 714; BMC 3; Cahn X2; Cf. SNG Munich 334 and Rosen 625. Extremely rare.
Diameter: 10mm, Weight: 0.912g.
EB
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EB0114 Mithradates VI / Stag8 viewsKingdom of Pontos. Mithradates VI Eupator AR Drachm. May-August 95 BC.
Obverse: Diademed head of Mithradates to right.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΠATOPOΣ above and below Stag feeding to left; star within crescent to left, date and monogram in exergue; all within wreath.
References: Callata˙ D2/R1e; SNG von Aulock 6684. Extremely Rare, see this article by Roma Numismatics: http://romanumismatics.com/articles/article/kingdom-of-pontos-one-of-eleven-known-drachms-of-mithradates-vi.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.855g.
Ex: JSD Ancient Coins.
EB
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EB0726 Soter Megas / King on horseback13 viewsVima Taktu ("Soter Megas”), Taxila, Kushan Empire, Ć Tetradrachm, circa 1900-1980 AD.
Obverse: Bust right wearing fancy hat, waving baton.
Reverse: ΑΥΤΌ ΤΟ ΝΌΜΙΣΜΑ ΕΊΝΑΙ ΠΛΑΣΤΌ (or sim.), King on horseback, tamgha in right field.
References: Rare, unpublished.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 2.458g.
Extremely fine example of this type.
EB
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ELAGABALUS (218-222). Denarius. Rome.49 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ABVNDANTIA AVG. Abundantia standing left, emptying cornucopia; to right, star.
References: RIC 56. RSC 1; BMCRE 189.
Condition: Extremely fine.
Weight: 3.81 g.
Diameter: 18 mm.
1 commentsCanaan
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Elagabalus SC Eagle in Wreath40 viewsBronze AE 22, McAlee 788b (rare), BMC Syria p. 203, 426 ff., gF, Antioch mint, weight 5.425g, maximum diameter 19.3mm, die axis 135o,
OBV: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ Μ Α ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟ C C, radiate head right;
REV: large SC, AE above, eagle wings open and head right below, all within laurel
wreath fastened with garland at the top;
Per Forvm:
This type but with the wreath fastened at the top with a star is very common. Fastened with a garland, as is this coin, is rare and fastened with
a diamond is extremely rare. Rare variations such as these have little impact on price since few collectors will pay a premium for such slight
differences.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins

RARE
Romanorvm
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Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. Silver denarius49 viewsPossibly unique! The combination of this reverse legend with a recumbent bull behind the altar is apparently unpublished and this is the only example known to Forum. The bull is present on a similar type with the reverse legend INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG.


Silver denarius, RSC III 213c var. (no bull); BMCRE V 269 var. (same); Hunter III 68 var. (same); RIC IV 52 (S) var. (same, also no horn); SRCV II 7538 var. (same), NGC XF, strike 5/5, surface 3/5 (2412840-011), Rome mint, weight 3.07g, maximum diameter 18.4mm, die axis 0o, Jan 222 A.D.; obverse IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, draped and bearded bust right, from the front; reverse P M TR P V COS IIII P P, Elagabalus standing slightly left, wearing Syrian priestly dress, sacrificing from patera in right hand over flaming altar at feet on left, club (or branch) cradled in left hand and arm, star in upper left field, recumbent bull behind altar; NGC certified (slabbed); extremely rare.

Coins with a horned portrait and the title TR P V were struck in January 222 A.D. After some days or weeks the horn was removed from Elagabalus' portrait. Elagabalus had shocked the public with bizarre behavior including cross dressing and marrying a vestal virgin. Removing the unusual horn from his portrait was probably part of a last ditch effort to show that he had changed, dropping his peculiar Syrian ways. The effort failed. On 11 March 222, Elagabalus and his mother were murdered, dragged through the streets of Rome and dumped into the Tiber.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
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ELIS, Olympia 3 views
ELIS, Olympia. Time of the 101st-102nd Olympiad. Circa 421-365 BC. AR Hemidrachm (15mm, 2.54 gm, 1h). Hera mint. Struck circa 376-372 BC. Head of Hera right, wearing stephane / F A, eagle standing right, head reverted. Seltman, Temple -; BCD 111; BMC Peloponnesus -; SNG Copenhagen -. Fine, toned. Extremely rare.
Ancient Aussie
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Extremely Rare AE 3, Licinus II, true R434 viewsVF, 3.50gm, 23.7mm, 330*, Antioch mint
Struck 317 or 318 A.D..

Obv/ DD NN IOVII LICINII INVICT AVG ET CAES (Domini Nostri Iovii Licinii invicti Augustus et Caesar). Confronted busts of Licinius I and II, holding trophy of arms between them.
Rev/ I O M ET VIRTVTI DD NN AVG ET CAES (Iovi Optimo Maximo Virtuti Domini Nostri Augustus et Caesar), Jupiter standing left, naked except for cloak, head left, scepter in left hand, trophy of arms with two bound captives left.
Con/ VF
Ref/ Bastien NC 1973, pp. 87-97; RIC VII 50 var. (attributed to Heraclea, 320-321 A.D., only officinal A, R4)

This is one of the real gems in my Licinius Jr. collection
Mayadigger
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Extremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire89 viewsExtremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire

Notes: Persian inscription divided with a line: Shah Gohari / Alam * and date ((11)83=1768 AD) / Blank. Mintless type. 7mm, 0.18 grams. Herrli "Gold Fanams" - (listed for a fanam as #8.08.05, mentioned as existing for 1/2 fanam but not illustrated (same die as this half fanam?)).

"Gohar Shah" was the title Shah Alam II used as a Prince (also, the Marathas sometimes struck coins giving this name to Shah Alam II). Herrli could not find an example with a readable word in the second line ("Alam") and reported it as "unread text" - this word is very clear on this coin, completing the reading of the inscriptions on this type.

Gold fanams (weighing 0.36 grams and equal to 1/32nd of a mohur or 1/2 rupee in gold) in the name of various Mughal Emperors are perhaps the most obscure Mughal coins, poorly studied and mostly unlisted in various catalogues. They were issued in various mints, but are often difficult to attribute because of the mint is not readable or absent. This difficulty in attribution is evident from the fact that these coins were attributed to different States, dynasties, people and governors by various scholars.

Half-fanams (weighing about 0.17-0.18 grams and equal to 1/64th mohur or 1/4 rupee in gold) are much more rare and more obscure than the whole fanams. They are unpublished in all catalogues, but were recently mentioned by Herrli in "Gold fanams" for the first time, though not illustrated. These 1/2 fanams were struck from the same dies as the whole fanams, but are much scarcer and extremely difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
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Extremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire75 viewsExtremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire

Notes: Persian inscription divided with a line: Shah Gohari / Alam * and date ((11)83=1768 AD) / Blank. Mintless type. 7mm, 0.18 grams. Herrli "Gold Fanams" - (listed for a fanam as #8.08.05, mentioned as existing for 1/2 fanam but not illustrated (same die as this half fanam?)).

"Gohar Shah" was the title Shah Alam II used as a Prince (also, the Marathas sometimes struck coins giving this name to Shah Alam II). Herrli could not find an example with a readable word in the second line ("Alam") and reported it as "unread text" - this word is very clear on this coin, completing the reading of the inscriptions on this type.

Gold fanams (weighing 0.36 grams and equal to 1/32nd of a mohur or 1/2 rupee in gold) in the name of various Mughal Emperors are perhaps the most obscure Mughal coins, poorly studied and mostly unlisted in various catalogues. They were issued in various mints, but are often difficult to attribute because of the mint is not readable or absent. This difficulty in attribution is evident from the fact that these coins were attributed to different States, dynasties, people and governors by various scholars.

Half-fanams (weighing about 0.17-0.18 grams and equal to 1/64th mohur or 1/4 rupee in gold) are much more rare and more obscure than the whole fanams. They are unpublished in all catalogues, but were recently mentioned by Herrli in "Gold fanams" for the first time, though not illustrated. These 1/2 fanams were struck from the same dies as the whole fanams, but are much scarcer and extremely difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
horsessssssssss_036.JPG
Extremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire79 viewsExtremely rare! Gold 1/2 fanam (1/4 rupee in gold), Shah Alam II (1759-1806) as "Shahi Gohar Alam", mintless type, Mughal Empire

Notes: Persian inscription divided with a line: Shah Gohari / Alam * and date ((11)83=1768 AD) / Blank. Mintless type. 7mm, 0.18 grams. Herrli "Gold Fanams" - (listed for a fanam as #8.08.05, mentioned as existing for 1/2 fanam but not illustrated (same die as this half fanam?)).

"Gohar Shah" was the title Shah Alam II used as a Prince (also, the Marathas sometimes struck coins giving this name to Shah Alam II). Herrli could not find an example with a readable word in the second line ("Alam") and reported it as "unread text" - this word is very clear on this coin, completing the reading of the inscriptions on this type.

Gold fanams (weighing 0.36 grams and equal to 1/32nd of a mohur or 1/2 rupee in gold) in the name of various Mughal Emperors are perhaps the most obscure Mughal coins, poorly studied and mostly unlisted in various catalogues. They were issued in various mints, but are often difficult to attribute because of the mint is not readable or absent. This difficulty in attribution is evident from the fact that these coins were attributed to different States, dynasties, people and governors by various scholars.

Half-fanams (weighing about 0.17-0.18 grams and equal to 1/64th mohur or 1/4 rupee in gold) are much more rare and more obscure than the whole fanams. They are unpublished in all catalogues, but were recently mentioned by Herrli in "Gold fanams" for the first time, though not illustrated. These 1/2 fanams were struck from the same dies as the whole fanams, but are much scarcer and extremely difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
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Fornicvs Avgvstvs114 viewsMint unknown, minted in approximately 10,000 BC
OBV: IGNORANVS MAXIMVS CAE-S FORNICVS P F AVG, S-C in fields, Primitive bare bust of Fornicvs left, spear in right hand, look of disgust on face
REV: none
These primitive troglodyte minted coins are extremely rare.

Very Rare, Possibly Unique

3 commentsRomanorvm
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Gaius Caligula COS IIII Denarius152 viewsGaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. AR Denarius, 3.67 g. Rome mint. Struck January AD 41.
O: C CAESAR • AVG • PON • M • TR • POT IIII COS • IIII, laureate head right
R: S • P• Q • R •/P P/OB • C • S • in three lines within oak wreath.
- RIC I -; RIC I (1st ed.) 7 = BMCRE 32 = RSC 23a.

Extremely rare denarius of Caligula's fourth consulship, which only lasted from 1 January 41 until his assassination on 24 January. The fourth known.

Although the first of these three rare coins, the British Museum piece, was cataloged in the first edition of RIC I, it was left out of the revised edition. In that edition, Giard notes (p. 110, note *) that the BM piece was a misreading of TR POT III COS III. In fact, the first edition was correct, the piece was not misdescribed. The second known example of this type was sold as lot 56 in the Bourgey sale of 17 December 1913. Ironically, Bourgey misdescribed that coin as TR POT III COS III. A third example sold through CNG, printed auction 78 lot 1723.

"On the ninth day before the Kalends of February at about the seventh hour he hesitated whether or not to get up for luncheon, since his stomach was still disordered from excess of food on the day before, but at length he came out at the persuasion of his friends. In the covered passage through which he had to pass, some boys of good birth, who had been summoned from Asia to appear on the stage, were rehearsing their parts, and he stopped to watch and to encourage them; and had not the leader of the troop complained that he had a chill, he would have returned and had the performance given at once. From this point there are two versions of the story: some say that as he was talking with the boys, Chaerea came up behind, and gave him a deep cut in the neck, having first cried, "Take that," and that then the tribune Cornelius Sabinus, who was the other conspirator and faced Gaius, stabbed him in the breast. Others say that Sabinus, after getting rid of the crowd through centurions who were in the plot, asked for the watchword, as soldiers do, and that when Gaius gave him "Jupiter," he cried "So be it," and as Gaius looked around, he split his jawbone with a blow of his sword. As he lay upon the ground and with writhing limbs called out that he still lived, the others dispatched him with thirty wounds; for the general signal was "Strike again." Some even thrust their swords through his privates. At the beginning of the disturbance his bearers ran to his aid with their poles, and presently the Germans of his body-guard, and they slew several of his assassins, as well as some inoffensive senators. (Suetonius - Life of Caligula 58).
10 commentsNemonater
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Galba, RIC 81, As of Sept-Dec. 68, Spanish mint (Tarraco?), 15 viewsĆ As (9.7g, Ř 18mm, 6h). Spanish mint (Tarraco?). Struck Sept-Dec. 68 AD.
Obv.: SER GALBA IMP [...AVGVSTVS?], laureate head right, globe at point of bust.
Rev.: QVADRAGENS REMISSAE around, S C in ex., triumphal arch with 2 equestrian statues, 3 prisoners followed by officer below.
RIC 81 (R) (in Wildwinds.com as RIC 80 var.)
Ex Walter C. Holt, April 2003

This is apparently an extremely rare coin. The portrait on this coin has suffered some damage, probably as damnatio memoriae following his murder at the hands of the Praetorians.

The reverse legend on this coin refers to the abolition of the 2˝% (1/40th of 100) customs duty, a reward to Gaul and Spain for their support. According to Walter Holt, The relationship between captives and the remission of a tax is unclear. The identities of the captives on this type are unknown but they may refer to his predecessor Nero, Clodius Macer, his rival for the purple, and the fallen rebel Vindex, though their depiction as captives (as all are dead by now) causes some problems.
According to Clive Foss ("Roman Historical Coins"), the captives probably represent financial officials of Nero who plundered the province and denounced Galba.
Charles S
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Gens: Sempronia, L. Sempronius Pitio, AE Uncia, Third known example. Added to the Wildwinds site. Extremely Rare.7 viewsRome 148 B.C. 5.84g - 20.2mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma, ● behind.

Rev: L SEMP (MP ligate) / ROMA - Prow right, ● before, ROMA below.

Babelon –. Sydenham –. Crawford –. Third known. Denomination var of Crawford 216/4 var; Sydenham 403b; BMCRR 721 (all: triens).
Extremely Rare.
scarli
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Germanicus AE Dupondius114 viewsI love this one. I find it has real aesthetic appeal.

Germanicus AE Dupondius struck by Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right / SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter. Cohen 7.

EXTREMELY FINE
HIGHLY ATTRACTIVE, A QUITE ENTRANCING PIECE.
Ex Künker 2006
6 commentsTrajan
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Geta AE30 Serdica53 viewsVarbanov 2568, Moushmov 488
Serdica, Thrace
17.13 g, 30 mm
AVT K P CEPTIMIOC GETAC, laureate head right
OVLPIAC CEPDIKHC, Serapis seated left, kalathos on head,
reaching out to pet three-headed dog Cerberus at foot left, & holding sceptre.
Extremely Rare!
(Many thanks to FORVM members Petrus Elmsley, slokind and wandigeaux for additional attributions!)
2 commentsMark Z2
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Gordian I Africanus AR Denarius90 viewsGordian I Africanus AR Denarius. March - April 238 AD. Rome mint. IMP M AND GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind. / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated l. on shield, holding victory and leaning on sceptre. RIC 4

VERY RARE - R2
EXTREMELY FINE - AS MINTED

Ex. G. Steinberg Collection
Ex. Numismatica Ars Classica AG, Zurich 16 nov. 1994, 662
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
5 commentsTrajan
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Gordian II Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria62 viewsEmmett 3354, cf Milne 3302 of Gordian I
12.07 g, 23 mm
Dated Year 1 = 238 AD.
A K M AN GORDIANOC AFP EVCE, laureate cuirassed bust right
L-A, eagle standing left, head right with wreath in its beak.
[Milne lists obverse legends for Gordian II but, oddly, ascribes no such types]
Extremely Rare
(Attribution and comments by the late Dave Surber)
Mark Z2
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Gratian AR Light Miliarense59 viewsGratian AR Light Miliarense. Treveri mint. 376 AD. DN GRATIANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Emperor standing facing, head turned left, holding vexillum in right hand and resting left on shield. RIC 42b.

SCARCE
EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Numismatic Fine Arts, Inc., Beverly Hills XXVII (New York 1991), 208
Ex. AUCTIONES SA, Basel Sale 23 (1993), 624.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
3 commentsTrajan
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Greek, Ariobarzanes I Philoromaios. Cappadocian Kingdom. AR Drachm.274 viewsCirca 96-63 B.C. AR Drachm (17mm, 3.92g, 1h). Simmoneta 9a. Obverse diademed head of Ariobarzanes to right. Reverse BASILEUS ARIOBARZANOU PHILOROMAIOU Athena standing left, holding Nike and spear and shield; to left monogram; to right, A; in exergue, gamma. Extremely Fine, beautifully toned. Ex Nomos AG 6th Price List Sale, lot 44.
Ariobarzanes I, nicknamed Philoromaios or “Lover of Rome” in the literal sense but should be translated as “Friend of Rome,” was a client king of Cappadocia during Roman expansion and hegemony in Asia Minor. He was elected by his people with the backing of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. He was removed several times by either Mithradates IV of Pontus or Tigranes II of Armenia but reinstated by the Roman Senate each time. He eventually abdicated and was replaced by his son, Ariobarzanes II.

The detail and artistry is surprisingly elegant on this small coin with a diameter of only 17mm. It is a masterpiece of miniature numismatic portraiture: most of Ariobarzanes’ coins are of inferior quality and finding one with fine portraiture of good style, such as this, is rarely encountered.

2 commentsJason T
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Greek, Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto #915115 viewsTaras 272-240 BC Nomos
Calabria, Tarentum; c. 272-240 BC, Nomos, 6.51g(new standard of weight compared with the old 7.5g). HN Italy-1043, Vlasto-915 (this coin).

Obv: Naked boy crowned by Victory flying behind him, on horse standing r. with raised l. foreleg; Greek ethnic below horse (not evident), EY in r. field.
Rx: Taras on dolphin r., holding cornucopia and trident whose head is visible behind his neck; TAPAΣ below, monogram in l. field (expanded by Vlasto to IΩΠY).
Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 23. G&M 190, 11 October 2011, lot 15. From the M.P. Vlasto Collection. Extremely well struck reverse with beautiful detail EF.

I appreciate to have this coin. It is from M.P. Vlasto collection.
1 commentsLeo
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GREEK, Italy, Calabria , Taras (c.380-340 B.C.), Silver Nomos123 views7.65g.
Obv:Naked ephebos, holding a small round shield and a lance, vaulting from a cantering horse left, ├ below horse.
Rev: TAPAΣ , Taras as an ephebos seated astride dolphin to left, holding a Corinthian helmet in his right hand and leaning on the back of the dolphin with his left, I and waves below (Fischer-Bossert 657 (V252/R509); Vlasto 437 (these dies); SNG ANS 929 (these dies); SNG Lloyd 169). An almost invisible metal-flaw on reverse, of charming style, attractively toned, about extremely fine.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_509~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras (c. 344-340 B.C.), Silver Stater.87 views8.03g., 2h
Naked youth on a horse pacing right, crowning the horse with a wreath held in his extended right hand, K(KAA?) and an upright club below the horse, rev. TAP-A-Σ, Phalanthos riding on a dolphin left, holding a kantharos in his extended right hand, and a trident and a shield in his left, Ω below dolphin's tail, waves below.
Fischer-Bossert, Group 49, 685 (V260/R532); Vlasto 509 (these dies); SNG Lloyd 173 (these dies); SNG ANS 960; HN Italy 887. An exceptional example, well-struck from fresh dies and perfectly centred on a flan of good metal, extremely fine and most attractive.
From Sovereign Rarities (2018)

The "K" or "KAL" engraver was one of the finest Greek masters working in the 4th century. His work though rare, can also be found on coins from Heraklea, Metapontion, and Thouroi.
3 commentsLeo
Vlasto_1455-1459~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras (Tarentum). ca. 280-228 B.C. AR diobol52 viewsCALABRIA. Tarentum. Ca. 280-228. AR diobol (0.97 gm).
Head of Athena left, wearing crested helmet decorated with Scylla / Infant Heracles strangling snakes; thunderbolt in exergue. HN Italy 1068. SNG ANS 1473. Obverse somewhat off-center, but otherwise Extremely Fine.
Leo
Vlasto_634-47~0.jpg
GREEK, ITALY, CALABRIA, Taras, AR Nomos105 viewsCirca 315-302 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 8.04 g, 11h).

Warrior, preparing to cast spear held aloft in right hand, holding two spears and shield with left hand, on horse rearing right; Ξ to left, API below / Phalanthos, nude, holding kantharos in extended right hand and cradling oar in left arm, riding dolphin left; KΛ to left, TAPAΣ to right. Fischer-Bossert Group 74a, 914 (V357/R709); Vlasto 638; HN Italy 939; SNG ANS 1016 (same obv. die); SNG Lloyd –; BMC 208 (same dies); Pozzi 123 (same obv. die). Very rare in this quality. Excellent style. Beautiful patina. Extremely fine.
Ex Hess-Divo 329 (17 November 2015), lot 6; Leu 91 (10 May 2004), lot 15.

The obverse of this nomos depicts an example of the mercenary cavalrymen for which Taras became famous in the Hellenistic period. The Tarentine cavalryman is believed to have been the first mounted warrior of the Greek world to carry a shield. This novelty made him popular in the armies of Hellenistic kings and led to the training of cavalrymen in the Tarentine style.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto-915.jpg
Greek, Italy, Calabria, Taras. 272-240 BC Nomos70 viewsCalabria, Tarentum; c. 272-240 BC, Nomos, 6.51g. HN Italy-1043, Vlasto-915 (this coin).

Obv: Naked boy crowned by Victory flying behind him, on horse standing r. with raised l. foreleg; Greek ethnic below horse (not evident), EY in r. field.
Rx: Taras on dolphin r., holding cornucopia and trident whose head is visible behind his neck; TAPAΣ below, monogram in l. field (expanded by Vlasto to IΩΠY). Ex Künker 193, 26 September 2011, lot 23. G&M 190, 11 October 2011, lot 15. From the M.P. Vlasto Collection. Extremely well struck reverse with beautiful detail EF.
Leo
Vlasto_941~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, CALABRIA, Taras. AR Nomos. Circa 240-228 BC.37 views6.56g, 21mm, 11 h
Zopyrion, magistrate. Nude youth on horseback to right, ΖΩΠΥΡΙΩΝ below; below forelegs, ΣΩ above bukranion / Taras astride dolphin to left, holding hippocamp in extended right hand, trident against left arm; monogram and mask of Silenos right, TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 941; HN Italy 1054.
Extremely Fine; a beautiful reverse composition. Very Rare.
2 commentsLeo
Vlasto_68(2).jpg
GREEK, ITALY, CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 510-500 BC. AR Incuse Nomos33 views8,03 g; 24 mm; 11 h
Phalanthos riding dolphin right, extending left arm, holding dolphin with right hand; crowning Nike to left; shell below
Rv. Incuse of obverse, but ethnic in relief.
HNItaly 826; Vlasto 68. The first issue of Tarentine coinage. Very rare. Lightly toned and in fine archaic style, extremely fine. According to Vlasto, it is the last type of the Tarentine incuse series.

I got this great piece from an auction last fall and it was the most important acquisition for me.
This Taras incuse stater is more compact and thicker than Kaulonia and Sybaris incuse staters. It was double (or triple) striked and the details were hard to detect. We can found slight trace on the Taras’s head and his left hand. I believe this is the reason that the pattern looks very sharp while the high points (such as dolphin’s eyes and tail ) are flat.
Leo
Vlasto_976.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos28 views3.34 gm. Magistrate Sogenes. Nude youth on horseback left, crowning horse with wreath; IΩ to right, ΣΩΓENHΣ below / Taras astride dolphin left, holding cornucopia and Nike, who crowns him with wreath. Vlasto 975-7. HN Italy 1079. Struck on a broad flan and attractively toned. Extremely Rare.
The climax of the Carthaginian invasion of Italy was reached when Tarentum changed sides in 212 BC. The takeover of the city was a carefully planned coup by Hannibal and members of the city's democratic faction who opened the gates to Hannibal's army. The Carthaginians failed to take the citadel, but subsequent fortifications around this enemy stronghold enabled the city to remain under Punic control. Hannibal installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
1 commentsLeo
Sybaris-both-web~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Sybaris Nomos 540-520 BC Gillette Collection486 viewsNomos circa 540-520, AR 7.82 g. 31mm Bull standing l. on dotted bar, head reverted; in exergue, VM. The whole within dotted border. Rev. Same type incuse on broken bar, without legend. The whole within radiate border. Historia Numorum Italy 1729. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 1388.

Gorini 1 and enlarged p. 107 (this coin).

An extremely rare variety. Nicely toned and good very fine
Ex Triton sale 1, 1998, 121. Barry Fierstein Collection. From the Gillette collection 1924

NAC 39 Lot 5 May 17th, 2007


Sybaris (Greek: Σύβαρις; Italian: Sibari) was a celebrated city of Magna Graecia on the western shore Gulf of Taranto, a short distance from the sea, between the rivers Crathis (Crati) and Sybaris (Coscile). The last of these, from which it derived its name, at the present day falls into the Crati about 5 km from its mouth, but in ancient times undoubtedly pursued an independent course to the sea. Sybaris was apparently the earliest of all the Greek colonies in this part of Italy, being founded, according to the statement of Scymnus Chius, as early as 720 BCE. The site is located within the limits of the present-day comune of Cassano allo Ionio, in the province of Cosenza (Calabria), Italy.

Sybaris was Italy’s most prosperous Achaean colony. Sybaris was destroyed in 510 BC by Croton which exiled the colonists. The Athenians and Sybarite descendants established themselves in a joint colony, New Sybaris, in 443. Eventually, making themselves unpopular, the Sybarites were expelled and the remaining colonists refounded their city near the spring of Thuria.

The word Sybaritic has become a byword meaning extreme luxury and a seeking for pleasure and comfort
4 comments4to2CentBCphilia
86217q00.jpg
Greek, Kyzikos, Mysia, c. 550 - 450 B.C., Electrum stater22 viewsSH86217. Electrum stater, Von Fritze I (Nomisma VII) 104 & pl. 3, 23; Boston MFA 1433; SNG BnF 245; SNG Cop -; SNGvA -; BMC Mysia -, VF, tight flan, edge cracks, Kyzikos mint, weight 16.091g, maximum diameter 19.9mm, die axis 0o, c. 550 - 450 B.C.; obverse winged dog seated left, head turned back right, curved archaic wing, wearing collar, tunny fish below to left; reverse quadripartite incuse square; extremely rareJoe Sermarini
Alexander_III_Drachm_EF~0.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III Drachm, Colophon.412 viewsALEXANDER III. THE GREAT - DRACHM - COLOPHON - ZEUS - HERAKLES - SPEAR HEAD - STAR

Alexander III. The Great. Struck at Colophon. AR Drachm.

Obv. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin right.
Rev. ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ Zeus seated left with sceptre and eagle. left in field star, right in field spear head.

Condition: almost extremely fine. 4.2 g., 18 mm. Price 1759
5 commentsPhiloromaos
AG-Macedon,_Alexander_III-3~0.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III, 336-323 BC –Drachm - Signed Die34 viewsAR Drachm (16mm, 4.26g): Price 2090A

Obv.: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress, K on skin behind ear

Rev.: AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus seated left, holding scepter and eagle; monogram in left field.
This drachm is a lifetime issue from Miletos, circa 325-323 BC. It is signed by the artist who placed a "K" on the lion skin headdress behind Alexander's ear.

One could say Ho Hum just another drachm of Alexander III, however this coin is a little more interesting than most. From Roma Numismatics Limited’s 2012 description of a specimen it sold – “Extremely Rare. Only two specimens noted in ADM I (both in the ANS collection). This, and an equally rare contemporary issue at Magnesia ad Maeandrum are the only two instances of signed dies struck for Alexander.”

I was able to find two specimens in auction records. The Roma Numismatics Limited’s 2012 specimen in ACSEARCH (don’t use Price 2090A in the search use “signed die”). The Roma Numismatics Limited’s 2012 specimen should really be listed here, as pleased as I am with my specimen the Roma Numismatics Limited’s specimen is truly superior. The second specimen I found was this specimen in the NGC ancient coin auction records. The specimen shown here was sold twice in 2015 by Heritage I purchased the coin from the second sale.
Richard M10
MYSIA_LAMPSAKOS_DIOBOL.JPG
GREEK, MYSIA, LAMPSAKOS DIOBOL JANIFORM ATHENA 243 viewsGreek
MYSIA
LAMPSAKOS
4th-3rd centuries BC. AR Diobol
1.26 g , 11 mm
Vs: Female janiform head, ΘΕΟ below chin.
Rs: ΛΑΜΨΑ, Helmeted head of Athena right .
Extremely Fine
5 commentsXLi
86204q00.jpg
GREEK, Phokaia, Ionia, c. 625 - 522 B.C., Electrum hekte21 viewsSH86204. Electrum hekte, Triton XVI, lot 464; Bodenstedt - (cf. Em. 1), aEF, well centered and struck, small edge cracks, weight 2.575 g, maximum diameter 10.3 mm, die axis 0o, Phokaia (Foca, Turkey) mint, c. 625/0 - 522 B.C.; obverse forepart of seal right, dolphin swimming downward behind, annulet or ring below; reverse irregular incuse square punch; ex Numismatik Naumann auction 40, lot 270; extremely rareJoe Sermarini
06869p00~0.jpe
Greek, Ptolemy VI, 204-181 B.C730 views6869. Silver tetradrachm, BMC-, SNG Cop -, gVF, 13.87g, 26.2mm, 40o, Salamis, Cyprus mint, 177-176 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis; reverse PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, owl in left field, LE (regnal year 5) over SA (Salamis mint, Cyprus) in right field; superb portrait, fantastic style, extremely rare, possibly unique;3 commentssalem
V_1235_Plate.JPG
Greek, Ravel; Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto - #1235103 viewsTaras, Calabria (Plate Coin)
380-325 BC
AR Diobol (11.5mm, 1.15g, 2h)
O: Head of Athena right, helmet decorated with hippocamp.
R: Naked Herakles seated left on dead lion right, holding cup in right hand and club in left.
Vlasto 1235 (this coin); HN Italy 910
Very rare
From the AG Collection.; ex Michel Pandely Vlasto Collection; ex Vecchi 17; ex CNG

This coin is extremely rare, and Vlasto cites only this single die combination. While I am sure it isn’t unique I could find no other specimen of this type listed anywhere.
2 commentsEnodia
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GREEK, SICILY, The Sileraioi, ca 357-336 BC. AE Litra147 viewsSICILY, The Sileraioi. ca 357-336 BC. AE Tetras over Ć Litra (Calciati II S. 86 N 41). SILERAIWN retrograde, forepart of a man-headed bull right / Naked Leukaspis charging right with spear & shield. Calciati III S. 301 Em. 2/9. Almost Extremely fine/Very Fine.

Tetras, 357 - 339, Überprägung einer Bronze-Litra Dionysios' I. (vgl. Calciati II S. 86 N 41). S-ILEPAIW-N(retrograd). Androkephaler Stier nach rechts. Rs: Nackter Krieger mit Schild und Speer nach rechts stürmend, im Feld SIL-A. Campana, CNAI "; Calciati III S. 301 Em. 2/9. 6,86g. Fast vorzüglich/sehr schön.

Ex. Lanz, Auction 153 (2011), Numismatiche Raritaeten, Los 0101

I've only seen a handful of these in records of the last ten years, and this is by far the best I've found.
2 commentsMolinari
85577q00.jpg
Greek, Western Anatolia, c. 620 - 600 B.C., Plain Globular Type Electrum Hekte39 viewsSH85577. Electrum hekte, Phokaic standard 1/6 stater; unpublished, EF, flan cracks, uncertain western Anatolia mint, weight 2.721g, maximum diameter 8.96mm, c. 620 - 600 B.C.; obverse plain globular surface; reverse one small incuse square punch; extremely rare

Unpublished! The majority of the earliest electrum issues were struck on the lighter Milesian weight standard, with hectes weighing approximately 2.35 grams. This example, however is on the heavier Phocaic standard that was used at mints such as Cyzicus, Mysia and Phocaea, Ionia.
Joe Sermarini
Hadrian_As_Leaping_Griffin.jpg
Hadrian As Leaping Griffin83 viewsObv.
HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate & draped bust right

Rev.
COS III
SC
Griffin leaping right

24.1 mm 6.635g

RIC II 681 corr. McAlee 549 Cohen 443

Ex. Lindgren collection, Ex. Butte College Foundation

Extremely Rare

FORVM (seller) says:

"The only plate coin known to us is the McAlee coin. All the references other than McAlee refer to Cohen, and none actually hold an example of the type. We did not find any examples online. Lindgren identified this coin as a Semis. Sear lists Rome and Antioch as possible mints. McAlee identifies the type as struck in Rome for use in Syria."
2 commentsancientdave
Hadrian_sestertius.jpg
Hadrian portrait sestertius22 viewsDescription: Hadrian, 117-138 Sestertius circa 134-138, Ć 32mm., 26.08g. HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP Laureate and draped bust r. Rev. FELICITAS AVG Hadrian, togate, standing r with scroll, clasping r. hand with Felicitas standing l., holding caduceus. C 636. RIC 754. Ex Glendining , April 1952, 2511. From the Ryan Collection.
Hadrian in the last years of his reign, c. 134 to 138 A.D., after returning to Rome from his lengthy journeys through the Empire.
About Extremely Fine, fine style and patina.
1 commentsTiberiusClaudius
HadrQu01.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 1012, Quadrans, undated (extremely rare coin of the mines)14 viewsĆ quadrans (3,4g, Ř 17mm, 6h). PINCVM mint, AD 119-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: AELIANA / PINCEN/ SIA, in three lines within oak wreath.
RIC 1012 (R2); Cohen 120; Strack 455a
Ex D. Ruskin, Oxford, March, 2003
Charles S
happy horses~0.jpg
Happy Horses319 viewsTwo horses on a provincial coin of Gordian III from Seleuceia ad Calycadnum in Cilicia showing Nike in a biga, .
It's one of my favourite coins. It's rare, but not extremely so - there is a similar coin in SNG France, Bibliotheque Nationale, 1031 (variant) - and it's not in amazingly good condition, and the proportions of Nike and the horses are a bit unusual, but it's a great design, full of movement and filling out the coin in a pleasing manner, and the little horses look as though they're having fun (in fact, I call it my "happy horses coin"). It cheers me up just to look at it!
- Britannicus
Britannicus
217.jpg
Head of emperor right (possibly NE behind)153 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Domitian. Ć 24. A.D. 86/87 (year 15). Obv: (AYTOKPATΩPΔOMITIANOΣKAIΣAP)ΣEBAΣTOΣГEP or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on head. Rev: ΦΛAOYI-NEAΠ-(ΣAM) or similar in three lines, LEI beneath. Crossed cornucopiae. Ref: RPC 2224 (1 pc!). Axis: 180°. Weight: 14.24 g. Note: Since the second letter of the date line, although resembling an "E" rather than an "A", is heavily worn it is difficult to say wheather this coin was struck in year 11 (LAI) or year 15 (LEI) based solely on that letter. The obverse legend seems to end "ГEP", though, which is not the case on coins of year 11. The coins of year 15, though, are extremely rare. CM: Head of emperor right (possibly letters NE behind), in rectangular punch, 5 x 6 mm. Howgego 32 ? (7 pcs). Note: There does not seem to be space enough for the letters "NE" (which probably refer to Neapolis rather than Nerva) behind the head. Howgego 32 is, however, applied to most of these coins. Collection Automan.Automan
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Herakles and Zeus150 viewsMacedonian Kingdom, Philip III and Alexander IV, 323 - 317 B.C.
GS70917. Silver drachm, Price 1515; ADM II Series V, 91 - 95; SNG München 474; Müller Alexander -, VF, attractive style, Troas, Abydus mint, weight 4.097g, maximum diameter 18.1mm, die axis 180o, Leonnatos, Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I;

obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck;

reverse AΛEΞAN∆POY, Zeus seated left on throne, right leg drawn back, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, horse leg left, Ξ under throne; ex Nemesis;

Herakles is the son of the divine Zeus and mortal Alcemene who was cursed by the jealous Hera to murder his entire family. He then had to overcome twelve labors given to him by King Eurystheus to repent for the atrocity. The first labor (defeating the Nemean Lion) is portrayed on the obverse of this coin.

Zeus is the main king of the Olympians ruling over the realm of man. He is known to be a notorious womanizer having affairs with several divine and mortal women, which constantly makes his wife Hera extremely jealous. He is associated with lightning and the eagle (as shown on the reverse of this coin) among other symbols.
Colby S
01190q00.jpg
Honorius18 viewsHonorius, 393-423Solidus circa 404-416, AV 4.45 g. D N HONORI – VS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev. VICTORI – A AVGGG R – M Emperor standing r., holding standard in r. hand and Victory on globe in l., spurning captive with his l. foot. In exergue, CONOB. C 44. RIC 1352. Depeyrot 34/2.1 commentsTLP
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_578_Pohl_118-9_#2.jpg
Huszár 578, Pohl 118-9, Unger 450c, Réthy II 124A, Fryas H.27.6 # 2 51 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar (nominal fineness 0.540 AR; average weight 0.77 g.), .72 g., 16.12 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: mO•n • SIG—ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, K—L (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: + REGI[S] • VnGARIE ETC, Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1427-1437. This privy mark was struck in 1436 in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Leonardo Bardi-Noffry, kammergraf, or Petrus Lang, kammergraf.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4, Unger value 6 DM, Frynas rarity C. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of a cross on the reverse and the placement of pellets in the legends. This is a variation that is neither described nor depicted in any of the references, in that there is not a pellet between the ET and the C on the reverse.

This emission was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.540 silver and an average weight of 0.77 g., which is the same fineness and weight as its predecessor (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that Sigismund introduced this emission as a monetary reform, to address the deterioration in value of that earlier emission. The new emission, then called the “new greater money,” had the value of 100 to the aranyforint, and maintained its value until Sigismund’s death. In 1387, the bishop of Transylvania, who had long been reluctant to collect the tithe due to the poor quality of the coinage, demanded that all arrears be paid – and in this new currency. The result was a peasant revolt!

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-1.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-1, Unger 451a, Réthy II 125A45 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, .29 g., 11.62 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

This emission is typically struck on a small flan. This coin is unusually well struck for the type.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-14.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-14, Unger 451u, Réthy II 125A54 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, o to the left of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel) at Offenbánya (now, Baia de Arieș, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-46.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-46, Unger 451ζ, Réthy II 125A55 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, I-C flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck at Kassa (now, Košice, Slovakia) by Jacobus and Christianus before 1410 (per Pohl), who also states that they were joint kammergraffen at Kassa under Maria from 1385-1387, suggesting that this coin was struck early in Sigismund’s reign.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-58.jpg
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-58, Unger 451gg, Réthy II 125A23 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, .29 g., 9.77 mm. max.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms, r-B (privy mark) flanking the S.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-29_2.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-72, Unger 451ll, Réthy II 125A52 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 8x10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, symbols to the left and right of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) by Onofrio Bardi, kammergraf, from 1418-1424 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-8_2.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-8.2, Unger 451o, Réthy II 125A50 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, h to the right of the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel) at Nagyszeben, in Transylvania (Hermannstadt, in German, which is why the privy mark is an ‘h”; now, Sibiu, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_581_2.JPG
Huszár 581, Pohl 120, Unger 453, Réthy II 125B67 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11-12 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—[V—R] above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with M and three crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1404-1405 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Markus von Nürnberg, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-__2.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124- , Unger 456 , Réthy II 129 99 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 12-13 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, I–symbol (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) (per Pohl), known as Istropolis in the middle ages (hence the I in the mark), but the precise combination of marks is unlisted.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This privy mark is unrecorded.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, 223-224)
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Huszár 586, Pohl 124-44, Unger 456h, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1427 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .47 g., 13.19 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, n--n in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya/now Baia Mare, Romania, under a collective authority (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586_Pohl_124-55.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-55, Unger 456hh, Réthy II 129 50 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, S–P (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Segesvár, Transylvania (now Sighișoara, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is of a better strike than many.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, 223-224).
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Huszár 586, Pohl 124-9, Unger 456v, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1422 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .50 g., 14.21 mm. max., 90°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, A--n in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Székesfehérvár (per Poh).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
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HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-__Unger_456__2.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-_, Unger 456_, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1419 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .31 g., 12.56 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, P--uncertain privy mark in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár). This privy mark is not listed in Pohl, Huszár and Unger.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
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HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-__Unger_456_.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-_, Unger 456_, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1427 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .48 g., 12.54 mm. max., 270°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, uncertain privy mark in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár). This privy mark is not listed in Pohl, Huszár and Unger.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_598_Pohl_135-20.jpg
Huszár 598, Pohl 135-20, Unger 469v, Réthy II 449A, Frynas H.30.2.30 viewsHungary. Wladislaus/Ulászló I (1440-1444).

Billon denar,, .43 g., 13.29 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: M ...DISL-..., Patriarchal cross, retrograde P-W (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: Central cross surrounded by three shields bearing (in clockwise order) Lithuanian rider, Árpádian stripes and Polish eagle, all within border.

Type struck in 1440 (per Huszár) or 1440-1441 (per Pohl, Unger, Gyöngyössy & Frynas). Privy mark struck in Pécs in 1441 (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl 4, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_598_Pohl_135-5.jpg
Huszár 598, Pohl 135-5, Unger 469e, Réthy II 449A, Frynas H.30.2.24 viewsHungary. Wladislaus/Ulászló I (1440-1444)

Billon denar, .45 g., 14.02 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: MWL[ADI]S[-L]AI[REGI]S, Patriarchal cross, retrograde D/retrogradeC–n (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: Central cross surrounded by three shields bearing (in clockwise order) Lithuanian rider, Árpádian stripes and Polish eagle, all within border.

Type struck in 1440 (per Huszár) or 1440-1441 (per Pohl, Unger, Gyöngyössy & Frynas). Privy mark struck in Kronstadt/Brassó (Corona in Middle Ages; now Braşov, Romania) in 1440 (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl 4, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_605_Pohl_141-2.png
Huszár 605, Pohl 141-2 Unger 470b, Réthy II 14177 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, .1.03 g., 18.61 mm. max., 0°

Obv: * MOnETA • [WLADISL]AI • DEI, Polish eagle facing left

Rev: [* REG]IS • VnGARIE • ET • C . . ., Crowned shield w/ Árpádian stripes & patriarchal cross, A-G flanking

The type was struck in 1442 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Alsólendva (now, Lendava, Slovenia) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_607_Pohl_145-1.png
Huszár 607, Pohl 145-1, Unger 472a, Réthy II 145A 72 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, .69 g., 13.58 mm. max., 0°

Obv: [M W]LADISL]AI . . ., Crowned shield w/ Árpádian stripes & patriarchal cross

Rev: + REGIS V[nGARIE EC], Shield with Lithuanian charging knight

The type was struck in 1443 (per Huszár & Pohl) or 1442-1443 (per Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_607_Pohl_145-25.JPG
Huszár 607, Pohl 145-25, Unger 472z, Réthy II 145A 109 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 15 mm.

Obv: [M WLA]DISLAI • DEI, Crowned shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), W–O (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [+ R]EGIS VnGARIE EC, Shield with Lithuanian charging knight.

The type was struck in 1443 (per Huszár & Pohl) or 1442-1443 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Veszprém (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-1.jpg
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-1, Unger 475a, Réthy II 143B47 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, .66 g., 17.51 mm., 0°

Obv: + MOnETA • WLADISLAI DEI, Polish eagle.

Rev: + REGIS • VGARIE • ETCETE, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), no privy mark in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin has a higher silver content than most.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-4.JPG
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-4, Unger 475g, Réthy II 143A 158 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 1.18 g., 17-18 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA WLDISLAI D, Polish eagle.

Rev: + REGIS VnGARIE ETCR, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), B-n/* (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck at Buda (now Budapest) under a collective mark (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963). This coin is a superb example of the type.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-8.JPG
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-8, Unger 475k, Réthy II 143A 97 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 17 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA W[LAD]ISLAI DEI, Polish eagle.

Rev: + REGIS • [VGARIE • ET]CETE, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), h-R (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck at Hermannstadt (formerly Nagyszeben, Hungary (Translyvania), now Sibiu, Romania) by Nikolaus Pfeffersack, Altbürgermeister (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coins has a higher silver content than many of this emission.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-8_var.jpg
Huszár 609, Pohl 147-8, Unger 475k, Réthy II 143A, Frynas H.30.826 viewsHungary. Wladislaus/Ulászló I (1440-1444)

Billon denar, .1.22 g., 17.19 mm., 0 °

Obv: [ + MOnETA • WLA]DISLAI • [DEI], Polish eagle.

Rev: + • REGIS • WL . . . ETE •, two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), h-R in fields.

The type was struck in 1444.

Hermannstadt=Nagyszeben/now Sibiu, Romania mint, by Nikolaus Pfeffersack, altbürgermeister.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl rarity5, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N. This coin has a reverse legend (apparently including WLADISLAI or similar) that is unrecorded in any of the catalogs, and a higher silver content than most (which strongly suggests that it was an official issue).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609a_Pohl_148-7.jpg
Huszár 609a, Pohl 148-7, Unger 475b var., Réthy II 143B, Frynas H.30.8b28 viewsHungary. Ulászló/Wladislaus I (1440-1444).

Billon denar, .63 g., 16.73 mm., 270 °.

Obv: [+ MOnETA • WLADISLAI DEI], Polish eagle.

Rev: + • REGIS • VnG[ARIE • ETCETE], two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), A-B in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár, Pohl, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy). This privy mark was struck at Alsólendva, now Lendava, Slovenia, by the Bánfi family (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl rarity5, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N. Ratings pertain to the usual variety, in which the Árpádian stripes are to the left of the patriarchal cross.
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HUN_Laszlo_V_Huszar_670_Pohl_166-2.png
Huszár 670, Pohl 166-2, Unger 499b, Réthy II 191, Frynas H.33.8.27 viewsHungary. Lászlö/Ladislaus V "Posthumous" (1440-1457).

AR denar, .45 g., 15.30 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: [⁎ m]OnET[A ⁎ LADIS]LAI, double cross on top of crown, S-D flanking.

Rev: + RE[GIS VnGAR]IE • [E]T[ • C], Three-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes, Bohemian lion and Austrian fess/single stripe).

Type struck 1453-1457 (per Huszár), 1452 (per Pohl), 1442-1443? (per Unger) on behalf of Ladislaus by the Hussite warlord, Jan Giskra, but only in those parts of upper Hungary under Giskra’s control. This privy mark was tentatively struck as a civic mark in Schmöllnitz/Szomolnok, now Smolnik, Slovakia (per Pohl).

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Unger value 20 DM, Frynas rarity N.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_575.JPG
Huszár 575, Pohl 116, Unger 448, Réthy II 120249 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: + MOnET S[IGISM]VnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS Vn[GA]RIE, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle).

The type was struck in 1387-1389 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Onofrio Bardi (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of pellets in the reverse legend. This coin comports with the description and depictions in Unger and Réthy.

This emission was disparagingly called a “bardus” (stupid, slow or dull, in Latin) by contemporaries, and remained in circulation until 1427. It was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that early in the reign of Sigismund, the process of devaluation of the denar, which had begun under Louis I (1342-1382), continued at an accelerating rate, and “collapse[d].” Thus, while 240 denars were the equivalent of an aranyforint in 1386, by 1390 300 denars were the aranyforint’s equivalent.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).


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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-1.JPG
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-1, Unger 449a, Réthy II 121216 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: MOn • SIG—ISMVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + • REGIS VnGARIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle).

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of pellets in the reverse legend. This coin comports with the description and depictions in Huszár.

This emission was withdrawn from circulation after 1427. It was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_578_Pohl_118-9.JPG
Huszár 578, Pohl 118-9, Unger 450c, Réthy II 124A 191 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: [M]On • SIG—IS[M]VnDI, Patriarchal cross, K—L (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: + R[EGIS] VnGARIE • ETC, Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1427-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in 1436 in Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Leonardo Bardi-Noffry, kammergraf, or Petrus Lang, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of a cross on the reverse and the placement of pellets in the legends. This is a variation that is neither described nor depicted in any of the references, in that there is not a pellet between the ET and the C on the reverse.

This emission was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.540 silver and an average weight of 0.77 g., which is the same fineness and weight as its predecessor (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that Sigismund introduced this emission as a monetary reform, to address the deterioration in value of that earlier emission. The new emission, then called the “new greater money,” had the value of 100 to the aranyforint, and maintained its value until Sigismund’s death. In 1387, the bishop of Transylvania, who had long been reluctant to collect the tithe due to the poor quality of the coinage, demanded that all arrears be paid – and in this new currency. The result was a peasant revolt!

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Unger_451ww.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119--, Unger 451ww, Réthy II 125A94 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, •--• flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This mintmark is recorded in Huszár and Unger but not in Pohl.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-10.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-10 or 15, Unger 451q or v, Réthy II 125A153 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 9-11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, K or P (privy mark) above at right.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in either Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) or in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This privy mark is a less common variant (described in Pohl but not in Unger) in which the mark is on the right side of the S instead of on the left side.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-24.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-24, Unger 451b, Réthy II 125A204 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11.5 mm., .27 gr.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, * (privy mark) above at left.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan. This coin is unusually well struck for the type, and on a full flan.
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580_Pohl_119-64.JPG
Huszár 580, Pohl 119-64, Unger 451ii, Réthy II 125A88 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 10.5 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), S—V—R above and flanking, T-O flanking the S (privy mark).

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_580a.JPG
Huszár 580a, Pohl 119-1 var., Unger 451a var., Réthy II 125C165 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 8-9 mm., .18 gr.

Obv: Four-part shield (eagle and Árpádian stripes) [S—V—R above and flanking].

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1387-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger, although this emission terminated in 1410 per Engel). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4. This is a rare variety in which the eagle is on the upper left and lower right, instead of the opposite.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15). This emission is typically struck on a small flan.
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_581.JPG
Huszár 581, Pohl 120, Unger 453, Réthy II 125B117 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and eagle), [S]—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with M and three crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1404-1405 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Markus von Nürnberg, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_582_Pohl_121-1.JPG
Huszár 582, Pohl 121-1, Unger 452, Réthy II 126167 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR parvus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Bohemian lion), S—V—R above and flanking.

Rev: Cross with four crowns between its arms.

The type was struck in 1402 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1402-1403 (per Pohl) in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.

The parvus (also called the “small denar” fillér or pankart) was struck with an average nominal fineness of 0.353 silver. Because of many worn out and counterfeit coins it was pulled from circulation after 1427 (per Huszár). Although not specifically discussed in this context in Engel, the parvus must have experienced the same rampant debasement as the denar did.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
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HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_584_Pohl_123-5.JPG
Huszár 584, Pohl 123-5, Unger 455e, Réthy II 128175 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR ducat, 10-11 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, K—f (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: Standing nimbate St. Ladislaus with halberd and globus cruciger.

The type was struck in 1427-1430 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Folbrecht von Thorn, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-_.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124- , Unger 456_ , Réthy II 129 172 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 12-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, B–H (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This privy mark is unrecorded. This specimen is of a superior alloy (suggesting that it was struck very early in the history of the emission) and is of a better strike than many.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-24.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-24, Unger 456 eta, Réthy II 129 161 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, .56 g., 12-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, c–n (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is of a better strike than most.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586_Pohl_124-39.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-39, Unger 456a, Réthy II 129 178 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, K–W (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Patriarchal cross.

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Valentin Winche (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-49.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-49, Unger 456 alpha-alpha, Réthy II 129 162 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, Q or koppa–L (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Patriarchal cross.

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was probably struck in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is poorly struck, even for the emission, with the obverse devise also appearing on the reverse.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_602_Pohl_140-6.JPG
Huszár 602 var., Pohl 140-6 var., Unger 477g var, RĂ©thy II 148 var.115 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 15 mm.

Obv: [M W]LADIS—LAI RE?GEIS, Patriarchal cross, W–h (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [S LAD]I[SL]—VS REX, Standing nimbate king, facing, holding halberd and imperial orb,.

The type was struck in 1440-1441 (per Huszár and Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Veszprém (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. The obverse legend on this coin is slightly bungled. The reverse legend conforms to Réthy and not to Huszár and Unger (which both comport with Réthy II 147). The nimbate king is not recorded in any of the catalogs.

Ladislaus I (László in Hun.) (1077-1095) was canonized in 1192. His name typically appeared, albeit in an increasingly decaying form, on the reverse of 12th century emissions, and his stylized image and name appeared on this and other later emissions.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_602_Pohl_140-8.JPG
Huszár 602, Pohl 140-8, Unger 477h, RĂ©thy II 147-14894 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 14.5 mm.

Obv: [M WLA]DIS—[LAI REGIS], Patriarchal cross, W–crossed pitchforks (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [S L]ADIS[L—AV REX, Standing king, facing, holding halberd and imperial orb,.

The type was struck in 1440-1441 (per Huszár and Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Veszprém by Bishop Matthias Gathalóczy (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6.

Ladislaus I (László in Hun.) (1077-1095) was canonized in 1192. His name typically appeared, albeit in an increasingly decaying form, on the reverse of 12th century emissions, and his stylized image and name appeared on this and other later emissions.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_603_Pohl_143-21.JPG
Huszár 603, Pohl 143-21 Unger 471v, RĂ©thy II 146A 130 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 16 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA WLADISLAI, Crown, P[?]–S (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: + [REGIS •] VnGARIE • T • D •, Two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross).

The type was struck in 1441 (per Huszár) or 1442-1443 (per Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The reverse legend depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differs from the legend depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. This is a variant in which the reverse legend differs from both. It is neither recorded nor described.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_603a_Pohl_143-2.JPG
Huszár 603a, Pohl 144-1, Unger 471d var., RĂ©thy II 146C 109 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 15 mm.

Obv: [+ MOnETA WLA[DISLA]I, Crown, A–B (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [+ RE]GIS • VnG[ARIE • I • D •, Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes).

The type was struck in 1441 (per Huszár) or 1442-1443 (per Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Alsólendva (now Lendava, Slovenia) by the Bánfi family (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This rarity rating pertains to the more common Huszár 603, although Polh assigns it the same rating. Huszár 603a is the variation in which the devices on the shield are reversed. According to Huszár, this variety does not bear privy marks, but Pohl lists this and several other privy marks. The reverse legend depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differs from the legend depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. The legend on this coin is not legible enough to match with either.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).

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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_605_Pohl_141-6_2.JPG
Huszár 605, Pohl 141-6 Unger 470f, RĂ©thy II 141170 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 16 mm.

Obv: * MOnETA • WLADISLAI • DEI • GRA, Polish eagle facing left.

Rev: * REGIS • VnGARI • ET • CETERA, Crowned two-part shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), B–P (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1442 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The obverse and reverse legends depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differ from the legends depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. To the extent that the legends on this coin can be discerned, it appears to conform to Huszár and Pohl.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_607_Pohl_145-.JPG
Huszár 607, Pohl 145- , Unger 472η, RĂ©thy II 145A 187 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 14 mm.

Obv: [M WLADISLAI •] DEI, Crowned shield (Árpádian stripes and patriarchal cross), S–I (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: + REGIS VnGA[RIE] [EC], Shield with Lithuanian charging knight.

The type was struck in 1443 (per Huszár & Pohl) or 1442-1443 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Segesvár (now Sighişoara, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The legends depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differ from the legends depicted and described in Unger and Réthy. The legend on this coin is per Unger and Réthy. This privy mark is described by Unger but not by Huszár and Pohl.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_I_Huszar_609_Pohl_147-16.JPG
Huszár 609, Pohl 148-3, Unger 475n, RĂ©thy II 143B 176 viewsHungary. Wladislaus I (Ulászló in Hun.) (1440-1444). Billon denar, 18 mm.

Obv: + MOnETA WLADISLAI DEI (bungled legend), Polish eagle.

Rev: + RE]GIS • VGARIE • ETCETE (some inverted letters), Two-part shield (patriarchal cross and Árpádian stripes), I—n[?] (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1444 (per Huszár & Pohl & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. The reverse legend depicted and described in Huszár and Pohl differs from the legend depicted in Unger which differs slightly from that depicted and described in Réthy. The legend on this coin is closest to Unger. This privy mark is recorded in Unger but not in Huszár or Pohl.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963).
Stkp
551~0.jpg
IMP C M AVR PROBVS INVICT AVG / CONCORDIA MILITVM RRR48 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS INVICT AVG
REVERSE: CONCORDIA MILITVM
BUST TYPE: A2 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: MS//KAΔ
WEIGHT 3.15g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC: UNLISTED WITH CONCORDIA MILITVM REVERSE
COLLECTION NO. 646
NOTE: extremely rare reverse type for Serdica!
This is only the 2nd known specimen in the world! (information from P.Gysen + my own database)
Barnaba6
707~0.jpg
IMP C M AVR PROBVS INVICT AVG / CONCORDIA MILITVM RRR after cleaning11 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS INVICT AVG
REVERSE: CONCORDIA MILITVM
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: MS//KAΔ
WEIGHT 3.15g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22-24mm
RIC: UNLISTED WITH CONCORDIA MILITVM REVERSE
COLLECTION NO. 707
NOTE: extremely rare reverse type for Serdica!
This is only the 2nd known specimen in the world! (information from P.Gysen + my own database)
Barnaba6
400~0.jpg
IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG / CONCORDIA MILITVM RRR11 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: CONCORDIA MILITVM
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: MS//KA•Δ•
WEIGHT 4.24g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC: UNLISTED WITH CONCORDIA MILITVM REVERSE
COLLECTION NO. 400
NOTE: extremely rare reverse type for Serdica!
This is only the 7th known specimen in the world! (information from P.Gysen + my own database)
Barnaba6
1348~0.jpg
IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG / CONCORDIA MILITVM second example new photo22 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: CONCORDIA MILITVM
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: MS//KA•Δ•
WEIGHT 3.86g / AXIS: 11h / WIDTH 21-24 mm
RIC: UNLISTED WITH CONCORDIA MILITVM REVERSE
COLLECTION NO. 1348

NOTE: extremely rare and unpublished reverse type for Serdica!

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
118.jpg
IMP C M AVR PROBVS PIVS AVG / VIRT PROBI AVG - UNICUM !!! (new photo)26 views OBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PIVS AVG
REVERSE: VIRT PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//KA•Δ•
WEIGHT 4.18g / AXIS: 4h / DIAMETER: 21-23mm
RIC: UNLISTED WITH VIRT PROBI AVG REVERSE LEGEND
COLLECTION NO. 1069
NOTE: extremely rare and desirable abbreviated VIRT PROBI AVG reverse legend (instead of the full VIRTVS PROBI AVG legend). This legend was first published by Ph. Gysen in 2000 in the article: Nouvelles données concernant l'atelier de Serdica sous le rčgne de Probus.

Currently only 23 specimens of this reverse legend are known (information from Ph. Gysen). My specimen is however the only one from officina delta and the only one to have the scarce IMP C M AVR PROBVS PIVS AVG obverse legend. Therefore it is a true unicum and of the highest numismatic interest!
Barnaba6
Chandragupta_II,_Gold_Dinar,_7_75g,_Archer_type.jpg
India, Gupta Empire, Chandragupta II, Gold Dinar, Archer Type78 viewsGupta Empire, Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, Gold Dinar, 7.75g, Archer type

The above coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya is a celebration of the exquisite and sublime skills of the artist who designed the die for this coin which demonstrates why the Gupta Age is called the golden period of Indian history. This time period saw all round development in science, astronomy, poetry, sculptor, metallurgy etc and coinage was no different with original coins bearing Indian motifs introduced by the Guptas.

The above coin is more of a tribute to the skills and artistry of the die engraver than the image that the coin itself bears. In the above coin, the die cutter has managed to achieve the following objectives simultaneously:

1. The features of the King is portrayed as extremely youthful. 'Chir-Yauvana' or Eternal Youth is an elixir that mankind, and more so the Ruler, has sought since time immemorial. This coin shows how the die cutter wishes the King to be remembered amongst his subjects and for posterity as a handsome youthful King.

2. The body of the King is lithe, supple, muscular and well proportioned. This complements and brings out the relative youthfulness of the King. I can almost visualize the thoughts running in the die engravers mind as he thinks of the message to be conveyed by this coin 'Hail the King, Glory be to Him, our benevolent King, our Protector, the Strong and Valiant Chandragupta'.

3. The King exudes an aura of energy, vigour and vitality even as he stands in the 'dvibhanga' pose (head and torso inclined to the right with lower limbs in opposite direction, a common feature applied in Indian sculptor and classical dance, especially Odissi). The King appears calm, composed and serene. This is a delicate balance that has admirably been achieved by the die cutter. You can actually sense the King trying to communicate with you and about to step out of the coin to hold your hand and draw you back into time.

4. The King holding a Bow in his left arm while drawing an Arrow from his right hand only accentuates the powerful image of the King as a young, energetic warrior who is well disposed and endowed with the bodily strength to overcome his enemies and detractors. Symbolically, the bow and arrow represent the female and male energy as also love and death-wish, respectively. It is well acknowledged that a person has manifestations of both the feminine and masculine aspects that reveal themselves interchangeably. The soft features of the King together with his slender frame accentuates the feminine aspect while the weapons of war amplifies his masculinity. The die engraver has blended these two concepts perfectly.

5. The swaying 'mudra' or pose of the standing King is a feature of Gupta coins to reflect the King as divine and higher than a mere mortal as a man's body is imperfect being straight, rigid and stiff. The graceful sway is achieved by giving a curve or twist at the neck (head) and waist (out thrust hips), the Dvibhanga pose, or the neck, waist and knee, the Tribhanga pose. This is done to reflect that the King's body is aligned alike to the statues of the Gods and Goddesses at the temple with which the common man can more closely associate the King's divinity. The die cutter has achieved this admirably.

6. Similarly, the image of the Goddess on the Reverse is slim and sensual without being erotic. The Goddess holds a flower by a short stalk in her upraised left arm, a 'pasa' or noose in her right hand and sits in the yogic 'Padmasana' posture atop a Lotus. It must be remembered that these symbols on the coin are a depiction of the iconographic manifestation of the ancient Hindu philosophy. The Lotus flower blooms amidst the muck and filth of muddy swamps and marshes and symbolizes man's ability to rise, similar to the Lotus flower, from the dark depths of ignorance and gain happiness with the beauty and radiance of spiritual knowledge. The open flowers of the Lotus that blossoms and spreads out signifies the Sun, an essential life nourishing source as well as the light that destroys ignorance and illuminates wisdom. The 'pasa' (noose or lasso) signifies an attachment to worldly matters as well as the capability of the God to capture evil and (blind) ignorance.

Its a pity we do not have any details of the die engravers name in the historical records but given the finesse and fine style achieved in executing the portrayal of the King on the coin, I am certain he must have been a person held in high esteem for his die engraving skills. Perhaps he may even have been the same person who was also the chief architect of the fabulous temples built during the reign of Gupta Kings.

All in all, this is a great masterpiece of the Gupta miniature art on a Gold Coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. It is my all time favourite coin simply because of the beautiful rendition of the Kings feature, body, posture and message it seeks to convey.
2 commentsmitresh
sultan7.jpg
India. Sultanates. Sultans of Malwa. Ghirath Shah as heir apparent A.H. 860 - 873 (A.D. 1456 - 1469) Copper falus (16.93mm, 3.9 grams) A.H. 865 (A.D. 1461). G&G (2001) M-58. Extremely rare.16 viewsoneill6217
Wo2EioH4kD9fz7tLG7x5t3rZjmQ8Ay.jpg
Indo-Greeks. AZES II. AR tetradrachm. 58-20 B.C.. Extremely Fine5 viewsObverse: King on horseback right.

Reverse: Athena Pallas standing right.

Weight:9.51 grams.

Diameter: 23.62 mm.
Mark R1
Ionia_Magnesia_SNGvAulock2034v.jpg
Ionia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum11 viewsIonia, Magnesia ad Maeandrum. 350-325 BC. AR Didrachm (6.77 gm). Armed horseman prancing r., wearing helmet, chlamys and cuirass, holding spear. / Humped bull butting l. ΜΑΓΝ above, ear of barley to r., and magistrate ΔIOΠEIΘHΣ (Diopeithes) below. gVF.  SNG Kayhan 410v (no grain stalk); SNG vAulock 2034v (same); P. Kinns, Two Studies in the Silver Coinage of Magnesia on the Maeander, KME, p. 137, n. 4. Extremely rare. cf Leu Numismatik A83 #312 (same dies); CNG A97 #185 (same); Gorny & Mosch 211 #359 (same); Peus 407 #550 (same). Christian T
IONIA,_Miletos__Late_6th-early_5th_century_BC__AR_Obol_.png
IONIA, Miletos. Late 6th-early 5th century BC. AR (Silver) Obol. 57 viewsObverse : Forepart of lion.
Reverse : Stellate pattern within incuse square.
Grade : Very Fine /Superb Extremely Fine of the type. A fine example of the very early coins in history.
W : 1.34 Gr.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
*12 of these were a month pay for a soldier at that time , with this wage soldier would have super life.

Given as a Present to a dear friend and brother, Mr. Nathan Suggs , on 01/16/2019 .

1 commentsSam
Philippus_II_IOVI_CONSERVATORI_ph4_b.jpg
IOVI CONSERVATORI16 viewsPhilippus II. as Caesar antoninianus
Rome(?) mint
cca. 5-6 known examples only
extremely rare
Tibsi
IOVIS_STATOR.jpg
IOVIS STATOR19 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev: IOVIS STATOR Jupiter standing front head right holding vertical sceptre in right hand and thunderbolt in left hand

RIC 112
C 113

refered R by RIC but seems more likely C

1 extremely rare variety is refered from Georges His collection with Jupiter standing front head LEFT seel picture on http://wildwinds.com/coins/ric/gordian_III/i.html on reference RIC 112v
leseullunique
ogedei.jpg
ISLAMIC, Mongol Empire, Ogedei Khan, AR Dirham, AD 1227-124138 viewsISLAM. CHINGIZIDEN (GREAT MONGOL). Ögedei (624-639 H. / 1227-1241). Dirham.
O: Kalima.
R: Mint, protective formula. Bow.
Baylaqan. 636 H. Album 1973.1. Extremely rare; 2.67g; 20 mm
Helios Numismatik 8 lot 823 13th October 2012; Pecunem 13 lot 277

Ogedei Khan was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father. He continued the expansion of the empire that his father had begun, and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the Mongol invasions of Europe and East Asia.
chance v
Italy- Pompeii- Brothel.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- Brothel59 viewsSome of the most fascinating clues about the lives of the ancient peoples who made their lives in Pompeii can be found in the numerous brothels in the city. It is an indication of the prosperity of the city -- people had money to burn. Here is one example of the Pompeian "houses of ill repute". I chose this one because of its unusual architecture and fine frescoes.

Ancient Pompeii was full of erotic or pornographic frescoes, symbols, inscriptions, and even household items. The ancient Roman culture of the time was much more sexually permissive than most present-day cultures.

When the serious excavation of Pompeii began in the 18th century, a clash of the cultures was the result. A fresco on a wall that showed the ancient god of sex and fertility, Priapus with his extremely enlarged penis, was covered with plaster and only rediscovered because of rainfall in 1998.[1] In 1819, when king Francis I of Naples visited the exhibition at the National Museum with his wife and daughter, he was so embarrassed by the erotic artwork that he decided to have it locked away in a secret cabinet, accessible only to "people of mature age and respected morals." Re-opened, closed, re-opened again and then closed again for nearly 100 years, it was made briefly accessible again at the end of the 1960s (the time of the sexual revolution) and has finally been re-opened in the year 2000. Minors are not allowed entry to the once secret cabinet without a guardian or a written permission.As previously mentioned, some of the paintings and frescoes became immediately famous because they represented erotic, sometimes explicit, sexual scenes. One of the most curious buildings recovered was in fact a Lupanare (brothel), which had many erotic paintings and graffiti indicating the services available -- patrons only had to point to what they wanted. The Lupanare had 10 rooms (cubicula, 5 per floor), a balcony, and a latrina. It was one of the larger houses, perhaps the largest, but not the only brothel. The town seems to have been oriented to a warm consideration of sensual matters: on a wall of the Basilica (sort of a civil tribunal, thus frequented by many Roman tourists and travelers), an immortal inscription tells the foreigner, If anyone is looking for some tender love in this town, keep in mind that here all the girls are very friendly (loose translation).

The function of these pictures is not yet clear: some authors say that they indicate that the services of prostitutes were available on the upper floor of the house and could perhaps be a sort of advertising, while others prefer the hypothesis that their only purpose was to decorate the walls with joyful scenes (as these were in Roman culture). The Termae were, however, used in common by males and females, although baths in other areas (even within Pompeii) were often segregated by sex.

John Schou
judaea_alex_jannaeus_TJC_Q45.jpg
Judaea, Alexander Jannaeus, TJC Q45 9 viewsAlexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103-76 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.29g, 14.38mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 4 lines within laurel wreath:
יהונ / תןכהן / דולוח / ידמ
from r. to l.:
= YHWN / TN KHN / [G]DWL W (Ch) / YDM
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Ch[aver] Yehudim
= Yehonatan Highpriest and Council of [the] Yews
rev. Double cornucopiae with pomegranate
ref. Hendin IV, 474; AJC Fb3; TJC 45
F+, black green patina, rev. extremely excentric
Jochen
judaea_hyrcanusII_TJC_S13.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), TJC S136 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 2.30g, 13.97mm, 0°
Jerusalem
obv. Paleo-Hebrew legend in 5 lines in laurel wreath:
יהונת / ןכהןגד / לוחבר / יהוד
from r. to l. (transcription):
YHWNT / N KHN GD / L W (Ch)BR / YHWD[M]
= Yehonatan Kohen Gadol We Chaver Yehudim
= Yehonatan High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, pomegranate between
ref. GBC4 479-80; AJC Ha10; TJC S13 (last M missing)
about VF/F, rev. extremely excentric

cursive letters, crude style
Jochen
Julia_Domna_Crescent_and_Star~0.JPG
Julia Domna Crescent and Star20 viewsJulia Domna, mint Nicaea, 16.6mm, 1.7g
AD 194-217
OBV: IOVLIA AVGOVCTA, draped bust right
REV: NIKAIEWN, a single star above a crescent

Extremely Rare, Unpublished in any references
Romanorvm
Domna AE24. Cilicia, Anemorium. Apollo.jpg
Julia Domna, AE-24. Anemurium, Cilicia. Apollo59 viewsRoman Empire, Julia Domna, AD 193 - 217. AE-24. Anemurium, Cilicia. Year 15? 207 – 208 AD. Her draped bust rt. / Nude Apollo standing lt., holding laurel branch, lyre on stand to left.

Unpublished and the first coin I have ever come across of Julia Domna from this Cilician city. Issues for the Severans are extremely rare before Severus Alexander from Anemurium. The date is speculative and relies on my reading of the inscription, which is half off the flan where the date is. Another specimen would be most helpful in placing this coin into context. The reverse type is the same as one used for Julia Mamaea, SNG Levante Supp. 118.
Fausta
newJD.jpg
Julia Domna, Eumeneia mint 66 viewsJulia Domna, Eumeneia mint

IOVLI-A(dot) CEBAC
draped bust right

EUMENEWN AXAIWN
Dionysos standing facing, head left, thyrsos in left, kantharos in right, panther at feet;

unpublished in the many references checked; extremely rare (Lindgren I 953)
Bronze AE 23, VF, 6.592g, 22.6mm,
Prov. Forvm Ancient Coins
Wildwinds example (this coin)
4 commentsarizonarobin
32678q00.jpg
Julia Domna, Fortuna80 viewsJulia Domna
Emesa
(prov. FORVM Ancient Coins)

Silver denarius, unpublished in major references, RSC III -, RIC IV -, BMCRE V -, SRCV II -, EF, Emesa mint, weight 3.004g, maximum diameter 18.4mm, die axis 0o, obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse FORT AVG, Fortuna seated left on throne without back, rudder in right, cornucopia in left; extremely rare

Wildwinds Example
2 commentsarizonarobin
32680q00.jpg
Julia Domna, Moneta91 viewsJulia Domna
AR Denarius; 2.942g, 18.9mm; Emesa mint

IVLA DOMNA AVG (sic),
draped bust right

MONETA AVG,
Moneta seated left on throne without back, polos or kalathos on head, scales in right, cornucopia in left

unpublished in major references, RSC III -, RIC IV -, BMCRE V -, SRCV II -;extremely rare; (Prov. FORVM Ancient Coins)
Wildwinds example
4 commentsarizonarobin
39908p00.jpg
Julia Domna, Thessalonica55 viewsJulia Domna
Bronze AE 25; 6.050g, 19.8mm, 225o,

IOVLIA DOMNA
draped bust right

QECCALONIKEWN
Ares advancing right in military garb, spear in right, shield in left

Thessalonica mint, c. 196 - 211 A.D.;

Unpublished; Varbanov III -; SNG Cop -; SNG ANS -; BMC -; AMNG III -; Lindgren -; Weber -; SNG Righetti -,
Wildwinds example

Prov. Forum Ancient Coins
Information from Forum purchase:
This reverse is known for Septimius Severus from Moushmov 6737, but it is not in the plates. Varbanov lists the Severus coin (4351, referencing Moushmov, printed in 1912) but apparently never having seen an example, he was unable to identify the diameter and did not list rarity. Our coin, entirely unpublished, has this extremely rare war god reverse inappropriately on the reverse of the empress
2 commentsarizonarobin
Julia_Mamaea_AE18_Antioch_SC.jpg
Julia Mamaea AE18 Antioch16 viewsObv.
IOY A MAMEA CEBACTH
Draped bust of Julia Mamaea right, wearing stephane

Rev.
SC above eagle, encircled by wreath fastened at top with garland

McAlee 859a Extremely Rare
ancientdave
W4.png
Julia Paula (wife of Elagabalus) AR Denarius.9 viewsRome, AD 219-220. IVLIA PAVLA AVG, draped bust right / CONCORDIA, Elagabalus and Julia Paula standing facing each other, clasping hands. RIC 214 (Elagabalus); BMCRE 318 (same); RSC 12. 2.69g, 21mm, 12h. Near Extremely Fine. Lightly toned.Chris C2
KANISHKA__MAO__Copper_Tet__KUSHAN_EMPIRE_Bactrian.jpg
KANISHKA. MAO. Copper Tet. KUSHAN EMPIRE Bactrian 81 viewsKing Kanishka c. 127 to 152 A.D.
(KA)NHPKOY
King Standing, Facing Left, Holding Sceptre, sacrificing over altar
Heavy Kushan Coat, Long Boots
Rev:MAO standing facing left, raising right hand
Four Pronged Tamgha - In Left Field

Copper Tetradrachm = four Drachms
Reference: This Coin is Currently Unlisted
Need more info? see this link:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=317039&AucID=569&Lot=797
similar style coins fetched up to $705 recently at CNG auction
Large Heavy Copper Module
17.0 Grams; 24 MM; 4 MM thick
Good to Very Fine details
Kushan Empire, Bactrian LegendUS 2400

King Kanishka coinage bears eloquent testimony to his zeal for Buddhism. Lord Shiva and bull, Nandi were commonly portrayed on his gold and copper coins, but the most important numismatic contribution of him is as follows: he was the first ruler (and perhaps only one in ancient world) who minted coins with image of Buddha. The coins depicting Buddha are extremely rare. There exist only 5 gold coins (2 dinars and 3 quarter dinars) in the world having portrait of Buddha. There are some copper coins which show Buddha which are also rare. All these coins have been minted by Kanishka, most likely to commemorate building of great stupa of Purushpur (modern Peshawar, in Pakistan).
Antonio Protti
sai_029.JPG
KANISHKA. MAO. Copper Tet. KUSHAN EMPIRE Bactrian 29 viewsKing Kanishka c. 127 to 152 A.D.
(KA)NHPKOY
King Standing, Facing Left, Holding Sceptre, sacrificing over altar
Heavy Kushan Coat, Long Boots
Rev:MAO standing facing left, raising right hand
Four Pronged Tamgha - In Left Field

Copper Tetradrachm = four Drachms
Reference: This Coin is Currently Unlisted
Need more info? see this link:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=317039&AucID=569&Lot=797
similar style coins fetched up to $705 recently at CNG auction
Large Heavy Copper Module
17.0 Grams; 24 MM; 4 MM thick
Good to Very Fine details
Kushan Empire, Bactrian LegendUS 2400

King Kanishka coinage bears eloquent testimony to his zeal for Buddhism. Lord Shiva and bull, Nandi were commonly portrayed on his gold and copper coins, but the most important numismatic contribution of him is as follows: he was the first ruler (and perhaps only one in ancient world) who minted coins with image of Buddha. The coins depicting Buddha are extremely rare. There exist only 5 gold coins (2 dinars and 3 quarter dinars) in the world having portrait of Buddha. There are some copper coins which show Buddha which are also rare. All these coins have been minted by Kanishka, most likely to commemorate building of great stupa of Purushpur (modern Peshawar, in Pakistan).

Antonivs Protti
KANISHKA__NANA_-_MOON_Head_Dress!_KUSHAN_EMPIRE.jpg
KANISHKA. NANA - MOON Head Dress! KUSHAN EMPIRE 133 viewsKing Kanishka the Great c. 127 to 152 A.D.
King Standing, Facing Left, Holding Sceptre, sacrificing over altar
Heavy Kushan Coat, Long Boots
Rev:NANA written in Retro
standing Right, Moon Head Dress
Four Pronged Tamgha - In Right Field

Copper Tetradrachm = four Drachms
Reference: This Coin is Currently Unlisted
Need more info? see this link:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=317039&AucID=569&Lot=797
similar style coins fetched up to $705 recently at CNG auction
Large Heavy Copper Module
15.6 Grams; 26 MM; 4 MM thick
Good to Very Fine details
Kushan Empire, Bactrian Legend 2400
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
King Kanishka coinage bears eloquent testimony to his zeal for Buddhism. Lord Shiva and bull, Nandi were commonly portrayed on his gold and copper coins, but the most important numismatic contribution of him is as follows: he was the first ruler (and perhaps only one in ancient world) who minted coins with image of Buddha. The coins depicting Buddha are extremely rare. There exist only 5 gold coins (2 dinars and 3 quarter dinars) in the world having portrait of Buddha. There are some copper coins which show Buddha which are also rare. All these coins have been minted by Kanishka, most likely to commemorate building of great stupa of Purushpur (modern Peshawar, in Pakistan).
Antonio Protti
sai_019.JPG
KANISHKA. NANA - MOON Head Dress! KUSHAN EMPIRE 31 viewsKANISHKA. NANA - MOON Head Dress! KUSHAN EMPIRE
King Kanishka the Great c. 127 to 152 A.D.
King Standing, Facing Left, Holding Sceptre, sacrificing over altar
Heavy Kushan Coat, Long Boots
Rev:NANA written in Retro
standing Right, Moon Head Dress
Four Pronged Tamgha - In Right Field

Copper Tetradrachm = four Drachms
Reference: This Coin is Currently Unlisted
Need more info? see this link:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=317039&AucID=569&Lot=797
similar style coins fetched up to $705 recently at CNG auction
Large Heavy Copper Module
15.6 Grams; 26 MM; 4 MM thick
Good to Very Fine details
Kushan Empire, Bactrian Legend 2400
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
King Kanishka coinage bears eloquent testimony to his zeal for Buddhism. Lord Shiva and bull, Nandi were commonly portrayed on his gold and copper coins, but the most important numismatic contribution of him is as follows: he was the first ruler (and perhaps only one in ancient world) who minted coins with image of Buddha. The coins depicting Buddha are extremely rare. There exist only 5 gold coins (2 dinars and 3 quarter dinars) in the world having portrait of Buddha. There are some copper coins which show Buddha which are also rare. All these coins have been minted by Kanishka, most likely to commemorate building of great stupa of Purushpur (modern Peshawar, in Pakistan).

Antonivs Protti
KANISHKA__VADO_WIND_GOD_King_Kanishka_127_to_152_A_D__16_9_Grams_large;_26_MM_Heavy.jpg
KANISHKA. VADO WIND GOD. KUSHAN 47 viewsKANISHKA. VADO WIND GOD.

King Kanishka 127 to 152 A.D.
King Standing, Facing Left, Holding Sceptre, Heavy Kushan Coat, Long Boots

Rev: "VADO" OADO The Wind God
Copper Tetradrachm = four Drachms
Reference: MACW 3098

Need more info? see this link:
http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=44527
One similar style Kushan Empire coin fetched $91 plus fees recently at CNG auction

16.9 Grams large; 26 MM Heavy
Looks Good to Very Fine
Kushan Empire, Bactrian Legend
2800
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
King Kanishka coinage bears eloquent testimony to his zeal for Buddhism. Lord Shiva and bull, Nandi were commonly portrayed on his gold and copper coins, but the most important numismatic contribution of him is as follows: he was the first ruler (and perhaps only one in ancient world) who minted coins with image of Buddha. The coins depicting Buddha are extremely rare. There exist only 5 gold coins (2 dinars and 3 quarter dinars) in the world having portrait of Buddha. There are some copper coins which show Buddha which are also rare. All these coins have been minted by Kanishka, most likely to commemorate building of great stupa of Purushpur (modern Peshawar, in Pakistan).


Antonivs Protti
sai_007.JPG
KANISHKA. VADO WIND GOD. KUSHAN 27 viewsKANISHKA. VADO WIND GOD. KUSHAN
KANISHKA. VADO WIND GOD.

King Kanishka 127 to 152 A.D.
King Standing, Facing Left, Holding Sceptre, Heavy Kushan Coat, Long Boots

Rev: "VADO" OADO The Wind God
Copper Tetradrachm = four Drachms
Reference: MACW 3098

Need more info? see this link:
http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=44527
One similar style Kushan Empire coin fetched $91 plus fees recently at CNG auction

16.9 Grams large; 26 MM Heavy
Looks Good to Very Fine
Kushan Empire, Bactrian Legend
2800
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King Kanishka coinage bears eloquent testimony to his zeal for Buddhism. Lord Shiva and bull, Nandi were commonly portrayed on his gold and copper coins, but the most important numismatic contribution of him is as follows: he was the first ruler (and perhaps only one in ancient world) who minted coins with image of Buddha. The coins depicting Buddha are extremely rare. There exist only 5 gold coins (2 dinars and 3 quarter dinars) in the world having portrait of Buddha. There are some copper coins which show Buddha which are also rare. All these coins have been minted by Kanishka, most likely to commemorate building of great stupa of Purushpur (modern Peshawar, in Pakistan).


Antonivs Protti
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Khusro II AR Drachm. 17 viewsKhusro II AR Drachm.
Bust right, wearing mural crown with frontal crescent, two wings, and star-in-crescent, ribbons and crescents on shoulders; monogram behind head, stars flanking crown, double border, star-in-crescents in margin.

Fire altar with ribbons; flanked by two attendants; date in Pahlavi to left, mint to right.
SK (SISTAN, Zarang) mint, dated RY 37 (AD 628).

Göbl II/3, Pl. no. 212. 4.14g, 33mm, 2h.Extremely Fine.
Paul R3
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King George III2 viewsKing George III (1760-1820) Silver Halfcrown Dated 1816

Obverse:Laureate bust with date below.GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX legends.

Reverse:crowned garter and shield with BRITANNIARUM REX FID: DEF: legends. S. 3789; ESC 621. Extremely fine.
discwizard
Ariobarzanes.jpg
Kings of Cappadocia. Ariobarzanes I Philoromaios. AR Drachma.58 viewsCirca 96-63 B.C. AR Drachm (17mm, 3.92g, 1h). Simmoneta-9a. Obverse diademed head of Ariobarzanes to right. Reverse BASILEUS ARIOBARZANOU PHILOROMAIOU Athena standing left, holding Nike and spear and shield; to left monogram; to right, A; in exergue, gamma. Extremely Fine, beautifully toned.

Ex Nomos AG 6th Price List Sale, lot 44.

Ariobarzanes I (nicknamed Philoromaios or “Lover of Rome” in the literal sense but should be properly translated as “Friend of Rome”) was a client king of Cappadocia during Roman expansion and hegemony in Asia Minor. He was elected by his people with the backing of Lucius Cornelius Sulla. He was removed several times by either Mithradates IV of Pontus or Tigranes II of Armenia but reinstated by the Roman Senate each time. He eventually abdicated and was replaced by his son, Ariobarzanes II.

The detail and artistry is surprisingly elegant on this small coin with a diameter of only 17mm. It is a masterpiece of miniature numismatic portraiture: most of Ariobarzanes’ coins are of inferior quality and finding one with fine portraiture of good style, such as this, is rarely encountered.
3 commentsJason T
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Kushans, Vima Taktu ("Soter Megas”) (80 - 100 A.D.)39 viewsĆ Tetradrachm
O: No legend. Diademed, radiate bust right, holding scepter; behind, tamgha; 12 rays above head.
R: BACIΛEV BACIΛEVWNCWTHP MEΓAC ("King of Kings, the Great Savior"). Horseman right, holding whip; before, tamgha.
20mm
9.09g
MACW 2935 ("Taxila series").

The actual name of the Kushan king called by the epithet "Soter Megas"("Great Savior") on his coins was unknown until the 1993 discovery of an inscription at Rabatak in Afghanistan, written by the Kushan king Kanishka. The Rabatak inscription lists the lineage of Kushan kings who had ruled up to that time: his great-grandfather Kujula Kadphises; his grandfather, Vima Taktu, his father, Vima Kadphises; and himself, Kanishka. Mention is seemingly also made of Vima Taktu in the Chinese chronicle Hou Hanshu, in relation to his father, Kujula Kadphises:

“Qiujiuque [Kujula Kadphises] was more than eighty years old when he died. His son, Yangaozhen [apparently Vima Taktu] became king in his place. He defeated Tianzhu [northwestern India] and installed generals to supervise and lead it. The Yuezhi then became extremely rich. All the kingdoms call [their king] the Guishuang[Kushan] king, but the Han call them by their original name, Da Yuezhi”.

Sequential (annual?) issues have been defined in the literature by counting the number of rays around the king's head, more rays being earlier and fewer rays being later.
2 commentsMat
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LAETIA AVG N9 viewsGordianus III. denarius
LAETIA... (instead of LAETITIA...)
extremely rare

Tibsi
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LIBERLITAS AVG III17 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Rome mint
Rev.: LIBERLITAS... (instead of LIBERALITAS...)
3 specimens are known only
extremely rare
Tibsi
Trebonianus_Gallus_LIBERTAS_PVBLICI_tr6_b.jpg
LIBERTAS PVBLICI7 viewsTrebonianus Gallus antoninianus
Rev.: ...PVBLICI (instead of PVBLICA)
extremely rare
Tibsi
IMG_0591.JPG
Lokri Opuntii17 viewsHead of Hermes l. Rev. Bunch of grapes hanging from stalk. LOK r. down, RWN l. down. Corpus group 11, 4a. BMC 41 corr.

Extremely rare, one of five(Now six or more?) known of this variety with the head to left
ecoli
3412194.jpg
Lokris. Locri Opuntii circa 360 BC. Stater AR13 views22mm., 11,96g.
Head of Persephone to left, hair wreathed with three leaves of wheat, wearing necklace and a triple drop earring / OΠON-TIΩN; Ajax advancing to right, holding a sword in right hand and a shield decorated with griffin or a snake in left, below, helmet and spear.
extremely fine
BMC 18; McClean 5428
This wonderful head of Persephone reminds us of Euainetos and his Syracusan Arethusa heads. Ajax on reverse (ΑΙΑΣ Ο ΛΟΚΡΟΣ) was son of Oileus, the king of Locris. He was called the "lesser" or "Locrian" Ajax to distinguish him from Ajax the Great, son of Telamon. The Opuntian Locrians worshiped Ajax as their national hero, and so great was their faith in him that when they drew up their army in battle, they always left one place open for him, believing that, although invisible to them, he was fighting for and among them.
Leo
Jeton_1.jpg
Low Countries, silver jeton 1590: the capture of Breda72 viewsObverse: PARATI•VINCERE•AVT•MORI•+•NONAR•MARTII, Dutch soldiers leaving ship which is carrying peat
Reverse: BREDA•A•SERVITVTE•HISPANA•VINDICATA•DVCTV•PRINCIPIS•MAVRITII•A•NASS•Anno 1590

Minted in: Dordrecht

The Siege of Breda in 1590 was an extremely short battle during the Eighty Years' War during which a Dutch army led by Maurice of Nassau captured the heavily protected city of Breda by a clever tactic reminiscent of the Trojan horse. The Dutch commander was informed that a ship carrying peat to the city was never checked by the Spanish soldiers. Together with the ship's captain he thought of a plan which involved 70 Dutch soldiers hiding in the peat. The plan worked and the city was taken with an absolute minimum of casualties on the Dutch side.
RomaVictor
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Lucius Verus21 viewsEXTREMELY RARE 1 Specimen in the BMC

Lucius Verus AE23, Aeolis Myrina, 161 - 180 AD, 23.49mm, 8.3g
OBV: AV K dot AV - PHLIOC OVHPOC, laureate bust right
REV: EPI M OYL ARISTOP"ANOYS MYRINAIWN

Per Curtis Clay: AV K L AV - PHLIOC OVHPOC = IMP CAES L AVRELIVS VERVS


Possible ISEGRIM match:
PRO: AEOLIS
PO : MYRINA
PZ : Between 161 and 180
BNG: M OYL ARISTOP'ANOYS
Obverse
VSG: AY KAI AYRHLIOS OYHROS
VT : PORTRAIT MAN R / MARC AUREL
VA : WREATH LAUREL
Reverse
RSG: EPI M OYL ARISTOP'ANOYS MYRINAIWN
RT : MAN STANDING HL(1) / APOLLO(1) / ALTAR LE(2) RA : PATERA(1) / BRANCH LAUREL(1) / FLAMING(2)
Technical details
M : AE
GR : 25.4(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: BMC 13 S139,43(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: AY KAI AYRHLIOS OYHROS RS: EPI M OYL ARISTOP'ANOYS MYRINAIWN
BMC entry and plate (reverse only), entering 139 and 321 respectively in the page-window next to the Contents-bar:
http://books.google.com/books?id=qmwCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q&f=false
Romanorvm
RIC122_LugundumB.jpg
Lugdunum_RIC12217 views3.19 gr., max 19 mm, die-axis 7. Extremely rare, two known.
UKDFD no. 4300, found in Staffordshire. CNG e-auction 241: lot 325.
jmuona
LV2196.jpg
LV 219617 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC -, VF+, 3.210g, 21.4mm, 0o,

Obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right

Reverse CONCORD MILIT, Tacitus standing right clasping hands with Concordia standing left,

Field: Q between them

Exergue: XXI

Mint: Siscia - 4th Emission

Extremely Rare
(1 in the BN Paris and 1 La Venera Hoard)
rick fox
LV 2365.jpg
LV 236519 views
Bronze antoninianus, EF/VF, 3.847g, 21.8mm, 0o,

Obverse IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right

Reverse PAX AVGVSTI, Pax advancing left holding olive branch in right and transverse scepter in left

Exergue: VI

Mint: Siscia
Officina: 5th

near full centering, same dies as Forvm #12555

Extremely Rare: 1 coin w/ this obv / rev in La Venera Hoard
rick fox
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LYONS 2 S [crescent]SLG8 viewsAn extremely rare example of the second issue from the second workshop; at this stage the second workshop's output was almost non-existent compared to that of the first.
Norfolk.
Adrianus
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Macedon, Alexander III, 336-323 BC209 viewsAlexander the Great (Greek:Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1], Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death; he is frequently included in a list along with Napoleon Bonaparte, Julius Caesar, and Ghengis Khan, as the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever lived. Alexander is also known in the Zoroastrian Middle Persian work Arda Wiraz Nāmag as "the accursed Alexander" due to his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital Persepolis. He is known as Eskandar in Persian and even acclaimed during the construction of the Great Wall Sadd-e Eskandar by the Parthian Dynasty[citation needed]. He is often identified as Dhul-Qarnayn in Middle Eastern traditions and is called al-Iskandar al-Kabeer in Arabic, Sikandar-e-azam in Urdu, Skandar in Pashto, Dul-Qarnayim in Hebrew, and Tre-Qarnayia in Aramaic (the two-horned one), apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon. He is known as Sikandar in Urdu and Hindi, a term also used as a synonym for "expert" or "extremely skilled".

Following the unification of the multiple city-states of ancient Greece under the rule of his father, Philip II of Macedon, (a labour Alexander had to repeat twice because the southern Greeks rebelled after Philip's death), Alexander would conquer the Persian Empire, including Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia and extend the boundaries of his own empire as far as the Punjab. Alexander integrated foreigners (non-Macedonians, non-Greeks known as the Successors[2]) into his army and administration, leading some scholars to credit him with a "policy of fusion." He encouraged marriage between his army and foreigners, and practised it himself. After twelve years of constant military campaigning, Alexander died, possibly of malaria, typhoid, or viral encephalitis. His conquests ushered in centuries of Greek settlement and rule over distant areas, a period known as the Hellenistic Age. Alexander himself lived on in the history and myth of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. Already during his lifetime, and especially after his death, his exploits inspired a literary tradition in which he appears as a legendary hero in the tradition of Achilles.

Alexander III, 336-323 BC, Bronze AE18, Price-275, struck 336-323BC at Macedonia, 7.09 grams, 17.3 mm. Choice VF

Obv: Head of Herakles with a lion scalp headdress
Rev: Club above legend with bow and quiver below, thunderbolt above club, 'Delta' below quiver

A wonderful bronze issue from the lifetime of Alexander III 'the Great.' Perfectly centered and struck with minimal, if any, actual wear. Highly attractive.
Ex-Glenn Woods g28
ecoli
A6BA3100-4054-448F-9B1D-4DB46FBD870A.jpeg
Macedonia, Koinon; Septimus Severus8 viewsMacedonian Koinon. Bronze. AU K L СÎP СюUHROС. Draped armor with laurel wreath to the right. Perlkreis; Rs: KOINON MAKEDONWN. Makedonia sitting to the left, in the hands spear and shield. Section, pearl circle. AMNG III 292. 11,42g. St. 11. Extremely rare.ecoli
Macedon_Philip_II_Tetrad_-_SNG_ANS_740.jpg
Macedonia, Philip II34 viewsMACEDONIAN KINGDOM
Philip II (359-336 BC)
AR tetradrachm (13.77 gm). Amphipolis, posthumous issue under Cassander as regent, ca. 316-311 BC.
Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth, holding palm frond, on horseback right; aplustre below; • in Π below raised foreleg.
Le Rider pl. 46, 18. SNG ANS 740.
Attractively toned. Insignificant flan crack at 4:00 on obverse, otherwise Extremely Fine.
Ex Heritage
1 commentsSosius
Alexander_III_The_Great_Lifetime_Issue_Ionia_,_Miletos_Mint__Signed_by_the_artist.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom ,Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue. Ionia, Miletos mint. Signed By the Artist.34 viewsSilver drachm, Price 2090A, ADM I 80 (same dies), VF, 4.214g, 16.0mm, 0o, Miletos mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck, K on lion's jaw behind Herakles' ear; Reverse:ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ ( means " Of Alexander " in Ancient Greek ), Zeus seated left, legs uncrossed, right leg forward, feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, monogram before.

Lifetime Issue! Signed by the artist!(?) The K behind Herakles ear had traditionally been identified as the signature of the artist. Matt Kreuzer, however, believes the K (the Greek numeral 20) was used c. 325 B.C. to introduce the Attic drachm to Miletos by indicating either that 20 of these was equal to a gold stater, or that one of these drachm was equal to 20 of the 3 to 4 gram bronzes circulating at the time.


*Although Kreuzer theory raises the value of this coin, as a humble coin collector for very long time, I humbly join my friends in the field and believe, the K here is the initial of the engraver artist. I have seen also 4 examples ONLY in hand, all with the letter M.

What makes our theory stronger is the other examples later Struck by Lysimachus (who took all the most of the good artists worked in the mint during Alexander lifetime with him later to Thrace , so he can use them in his mint)

Some very rare , and extremely valuable Coins of Lysimachos ( Alexander the Great bodyguard who became a general , then claim him self King of Thrace ), has the initial K too, under Alexander ‘s neck, and it is an extra letter on Lysimachus coins , mostly on Tetradrachms , in other words if the idea is the number 20 , it has no meaning a Tetradrachm .
Man loves beauty and art like Lysimachos would not miss an Artist made such beauty to be part of his team mint , as a part of his inheritance.


Who engraves such a beauty, and makes two silent dies talk, will be proud of his work with his initial, yet with the ruler blessing.

FORVM Ancient Coins / The Sam Mansourati Collection.

2 commentsSam
Alexander_III_The_Great_Lifetime_Issue_Babylon_Mint.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue , Babylon Mint.28 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies), Müller Alexander 67, EF, obverse off-center, 17.208g, 26.1mm, 270o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
Obverse : head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck; Reverse:ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ ( means " Of Alexander " in Ancient Greek ), Zeus enthroned left, right leg forward (archaic lifetime style), feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, ΦIΛH monogram over M below throne.

An Extremely Fine Masterpiece.

Struck with dies by "The Alexander Dekadrachm Master," the same highly-skilled hand who engraved the famous Dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. These coins are from a huge issue struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. Perhaps the very best style of the entire lengthy issue of Alexander coinage.

FORVM Ancient Coins / The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
Alex_Tetradrachm__Lifetime_Babylon.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, 336 - 323 B.C., Lifetime Issue.195 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Price 3599 (same dies), Müller Alexander 67, EF, obverse off-center, 17.208g, 26.1mm, 270o, Babylon mint, lifetime issue, c. 325 - 323 B.C.;
Obverse : head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean Lion skin headdress knotted at base of neck; Reverse:ΑΛΕΞΑΝ∆ΡΟΥ ( means " Of Alexander " in Ancient Greek ), Zeus enthroned left, right leg forward (archaic lifetime style), feet on footstool, eagle in extended right, long scepter vertical behind in left, ΦIΛH monogram over M below throne.

An Extremely Fine Masterpiece.

Struck with dies by "The Alexander Dekadrachm Master," the same highly-skilled hand who engraved the famous Dekadrachms, including Price 3598, with which this shares all symbols and their arrangement. These coins are from a huge issue struck for the mass-weddings of the soldiers of Alexander the Great to Persian women, and their subsequent return to Macedonia. Perhaps the very best style of the entire lengthy issue of Alexander coinage.

FORVM Ancient Coins.
The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO MKX 134 BLif.

4 commentsSam
KALA1539.jpg
Macrinus25 viewsROMAN EMPIRE. Macrinus (AD 217-218). Silver denarius (3.12 gm). Apr.-Dec. 217. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right / PONTIF MAX TR P COS P P, nude Jupiter standing half-left, holding thunderbolt and grounded scepter. RIC 15 (S). RCV 7342.2 commentsTLP
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MARCUS AURELIUS59 viewsAE As. 154-155 AD. 12,57 grs. Draped bust right. Head bare. AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII FIL / Minerva, helmeted, draped, standing left, holding owl on extended right hand and vertical spear in left, round shield at feet right. TR POT VIIII COS II . In fields SC .
Refs. by Curtis Clay.
" This coin is one of the types that is preferentially found in Britain, so may have been struck there from dies cut by Roman engravers, or struck in Rome and shipped in bulk to Britain. On these issues see David Walker, Roman Coins from the Sacred Spring at Bath, 1988, and my own review-article of Walker, The Supply of Bronze Coins to Britain in the Second Century AD, Num. Chron. 149, 1989.On p. 212, note 7, I specifically discuss this TR P VIIII Minerva standing middle bronze of Marcus: Strack 1108 records three specimens, the BM acquired two specimens in 1937, and even before that there had been four specimens in the Croydon Hoard, Num. Chron. 1907, p. 371, pl. 12, 3-4. Walker found only one specimen among the Bath coins, but also 11 of the same type dated TR P VIII, many of which were probably in fact illegible and actually TR P VIIII, though Walker reconstructed VIII since VIIII is not in RIC and therefore (he assumed) rare! In fact Walker pl. 37, 363, read as VIII, is from the same dies as the Croydon coin Num. Chron. 1907, pl. 12.4, which clearly reads TR P VIIII.
All of the "British-association" bronzes in the Croydon Hoard were in extremely fine condition. Since I know Benito wants top condition, it wouldn't surprise me if his new acquistion is in fact identical with one of the four coins of that type contained in that hoard!"

benito
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Marcus Aurelius / Poseidon39 viewsCassandreia, Macedonia
161-180 AD
AE21 (21mm, 6.78g)
O: Laureate head right; M AVR ANTON AVG.
R: Poseidon nude, standing slightly right; trident in right hand, dolphin in extended left hand; COL IVL AVG CASS.
RPC Online IV 10319; Leake HN 3722 corr. (same coin); Varbanov III 2791 (R6) var. (Poseidon left)
Extremely Rare
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

One of only two known examples with Poseidon standing right.

“The noble acceptance of the prison of oneself is the ultimate, and only, duty of man.”
2 commentsEnodia
M_Aurelius_ric_280.jpg
Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius99 viewsMarcus Aurelius, 161-180. Denarius (Silver, 19 mm, 3.31 g, 6 h), Rome, 173. M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII Laureate head of Marcus Aurelius to right. Rev. IMP VI COS III German captive seated left at foot of a trophy. Cohen 300. RIC 280. Well centered and attractively toned. Nearly extremely fine.
From the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland, acquired prior to 1975.
Obolos 9 by Nomos. March 25, 2018

Marcus Aurelius ruled at a time referred to by some as the "Five good emperors". These leaders were known for the lack of excesses that characterized some earlier emperors such as Nero and Caligula. They ruled during a relatively stable period of Roman history unlike the tumult caused by the 'Year of the four Caesars".

However, this is not to say that all was peace and felicity. The reverse of this coin depicts a German captive under a trophy of arms. The message is clear, Marcus Aurelius has defeated the Germans in battle. The larger context of this coin refers to a series of conflicts known as the Macromannic wars.

I love this coin for the reverse, but I think the portrait is also excellent. The engraver was a person of considerable skill. I also like this coin for its provenance. It was a part of the Stoecklin collection. I would like to know more about when and where it was acquired but the auction house only knew that it was purchased by W.F. Stoecklin sometime before 1975.

This coin is a bit of a departure for me as I usually stay firmly in the 1st century CE with my purchases. However I wanted an interesting coin of this philosopher-emperor and so when I saw it I had to have it.
9 commentsorfew
maause38.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, RIC (Antoninus Pius) 1271[var.], Sestertius of AD 147-14827 viewsĆ Sestertius (25,03g, Ř 33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 147-148 (under Antoninus Pius).
Obv.: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F, bare head right of Marcus Aurelius, draped left shoulder.
Rev.: TR POT II COS II around, HO - NOS / S C (in two lines across field), Honos facing. head turned r., holding long sceptre and cornucopiae.
RIC (Antoninus Pius) unlisted (1271 only as dupondius and as); BMCRE p.296 † (footnote); Cohen unlisted; Strack 1017 (only As; sestertius unlisted); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali III-1) 117 ("Collezione P. Tinchant", no plate, no other spec.).
Ex Jean Elsen, Auction 112 (2012).
Extremely rare, only mentioned in a footnote BMCRE IV p. 296 †: "P. Tinchant Coll.".
Charles S
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Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius64 viewsWhat can I say? I'm a sucker for iridescent toning.

Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius. Ephesus mint, 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, moneyer. M ANT. IMP AVG III VIR. R. PC. M. BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony right / CAESAR. IMP. PONT. III. VIR. R. P. C., bare head of Octavian right, in slight beard. Cr517/2.

EXTREMELY FINE
Ex. Kunker 2007
2 commentsTrajan
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Mark Antony & Octavian Denarius (Syd 1181; RCV 1504)92 viewsMark Antony & Octavian, Silver Denarius, mint of Ephesus, 41 B.C. 3.55g

Obv: M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P, head of Antony right

Rev. CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, head of Octavian right

12h (Cr 517/2; Syd 1181; RCV 1504). Small banker’s mark on obverse, attractive old iridescent cabinet tone, nearly extremely fine.

Ex. Baldwin & Sons
Summer 2011 Argentum Auction, Lot 26, 04/06/2011
David Heuer Collection, David Heuer of Memphis, Tennessee, USA
5 commentsKained but Able
legio_VI_ferrata.jpg
Mark Antony Legio VI Ferrata Silver Denarius97 viewsLEGIO VI FERRATA (The Sixth Legion "Ironclad")

This legion was recruited in 52 BCE by Julius Caesar in Gallia Cisalpina, and saw its first action during the campaign against the Gallic leader Vercingetorix, who was besieged at Alesia.

AR silver Legionary Denarius. 32-31 BC. 18mm, 3.6g.
Obverse - ANT AVG III VIR R P C, Praetorian galley.
Reverse - LEG VI, eagle between standards.

An extremely odd and interesting specimen, apparently either overstruck due to an error, struck on clashed dies, or partially double-struck. The III VIR RPC part is laid overtop of the left hand side of the ship itself, rather than below the galley as usual. The lettering is the overtype, or the doublt-struck part, since it cuts into the galley underneath.
b70
Treb4.jpg
MARTEM PROGNATOREM67 viewsTrebonianus Gallus antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Rev.: ...PROGNATOREM (instead of ...PROPVGNATOREM)
cca. 5-6 examples known only
extremely rare
1 commentstibsi67
Galerius_Shrine_2_.JPG
MAUSOLEUM or SHRINE, GALERIUS79 viewsAE Follis of Thessalonica, struck A.D.311 under Licinius.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: MEM DIVI MAXIMIANI. Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors; in right field, A; in exergue, •SM•TS•.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 48 (r5).
EXTREMELY RARE
*Alex
H8b.jpg
Maximianus Herculius AR Argenteus73 viewsMaximianus Herculius AR Argenteus. Carthage mint. 300 AD. MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / XC -VI, surrounded by laurel wreath, dot placed centrally between two lines of legend. RIC 16a
VERY RARE - R2
EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Th. Voltz Collection
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 81 (1995), 326.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
3 commentsTrajan
H9a.jpg
Maximianus Herculius AV Aureus105 viewsMaximianus Herculius AV Aureus. Cyzicus mint. 293 AD. MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / CONCORDIAE AVGG NN, Emperors seated l., each holding globe and parazonium, corned by Victory. RIC 601

VERY RARE - R2
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 66 (1984), 847.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
1 commentsTrajan
CofLondonMedal9ArrivalofAlexandra.JPG
Medal 09. Entry of Princess Alexandra into the City of London.111 viewsObv: Bust of Alexandra ALEXANDRA
Rev: City of London welcomes Princess led by Prince of Wales; on left is Hyman and on right are Peace and Plenty WELCOME ALEXANDRA
Exergue: MAR: 1863 Separated by the Arms of the City of London
Signed: J.S. WYON SC./J.S. & A.B. WYON SC.
Mintage: 350
AE77.

This group of medals, commonly called The City of London Medals, constitutes a series struck by THE CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF LONDON to celebrate the accomplishment of their most notable public works, or to commemorate events of national and civic importance. The standard reference book, published in London, 1894, is NUMISMATA LONDINENSIA, which includes those medals issued from 1831 to 1893. In this wonderful book, the medals are photographed and the events prompting their issue are described in great detail by Charles Welch. Subsequent to the publication of Numismata Londinensia, several other medals have been issued by the Corporation of London. Those medals issued from 1831 to 1973 are described in Coins and Medals, November 1977, where their mintage figures are provided (most of the medals were struck in numbers between 350 and 450; a notable exception is the lead, glass enclosed piece commemorating the Removal of Temple Bar from the City of London, which is extremely rare). Descriptions and other interesting historical notes are included in excellent compendia published more recently. (see British Historical Medals by Laurence Brown, and British Commemorative Medals and their values by Christopher Eimer.)
(shamelessly stolen from historicalartmedals.com)


1 commentsLordBest
0059.jpg
Mn. Acilius Glabrio, Denarius13 viewsRRC 442/1b
49 b.c.

Avers. Laureate head of Salus; Reverse: Valetudo left, resting left arm on column, holding snake.
According to Crawford the issue "seems reasonable to regard is as a Ceaesarian issue".

Grüber identifies the moneyer as: "At the time of the issue of these coins there were several members of the Acilia gens with the praenomen Manius, but this moneyer is usually identified with Manius Acilius Glabrio, one of Caesar's lieutenants, and the son of Mn. Acilius Glabrio, consul B.C. 67, and Aemilia, daughter of M. Aemilius Scaurus, whom Sulla, in B.C. 82, compelled him to divorce."

For there reverse there is an intersting part in Mommsen: "Man erinnert,...dasz in Rom in der acilischen Gasse dem ersten nach Rom gekommenen griechischen Arzt von Staatswegen ein Laden angewiesen ward (Plinius)" -
------

Ex NAC Auction 72, lot 1226
The JD collection of Roman Republican Coins part II – session II

Described as:
Mn. Acilius Glabrio Denarius 49, AR 3.96 g. SALVTIS Laureate head of Salus r. Rev. MN·ACILIVS – III·VIR·VALETV Valetudo standing l., resting l. arm on column and holding snake in r. hand.

Babelon Acilia 8. Sydenham 922. Sear Imperators 16. Crawford 442/1b. Extremely fine Ex Hirsch sale 159, 1988, 1226.
Norbert
markianopolis_geta_crescent_4stars_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 23. Geta, HrHJ (2013) 6.22.48.02 (plate coin)10 viewsGeta as Caesar, AD 198-209
AE 16, 2.98g, 15.96mm, 180°
obv. [P CEPT?] - GETAC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. MARKIANOPOLITWN
Crescent surrounded by 4 stars
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.22.48.2 (plate coin)
d) not in Pfeiffer
extremely rare, F+, dark green patina
Jochen
markianopolis_macrinus_diadum_HristovaJekov6_24_34_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 24. Macrinus & Diadumenian, HrJ (2013) 6.24.34.05 (plate coin)42 viewsMacrinus & Diadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 10.37g, 26.89mm, 15°
struck under governor Furius Pontianus
obv. AVT KM OPELLI CEV [MAKREINOC] KM OPELLI ANTWNEINOC
Confronted busts of Macrinus, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r., and
Diadumenian, draped and cuirassed(?), bare-headed, l.
rev. VP PONTIANO - V- M- ARKIANOPOLEI / TWN (AR ligate)
Emperor, with mantle over back, riding r., holding sceptre in l. hand and raising r.
hand in greating attitude; horse with raised r. forefoot over bearded captive,
kneeling l., head turned back
E in upper l. field (for pentassarion)
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.24.34.5 (plate coin)
extremely rare (R9), about VF, green patina

This type is not listed in AMNG nor in Varbanov (engl.). I found it in Hristova/Jekov's monography about Marcianopolis. Here the obv. legend is listed as KM OPEL ANTWNEINOC, but the depicted specimen is so worn, that I think the legend is added without evidence. So it is possible that the legend is identical with the legend on my coin.
2 commentsJochen
markianopolis_elagabal_maesa_Serapis_unknown.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 28. Elagabal & Julia Maesa, HrJ (2013) 6.28.06.01 (plate coin)15 viewsElagabal & Julia Maesa, AD 218-222
AE 28, 14.65g, 28.46mm, 165°
struck under Julius Antonius Seleucus
obv. AVT KM AVR ANTWNEINOC AVG IOVLIA MAICA AVG . (NE ligate)
Confronting busts of Elagabal, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r., and Julia
Maesa, draped and wearing stephane, l.
rev. VP IOVL ANTO CELEVK - OV MARKIANOPOLIT / WN (1st OV ligate)
Hades/Serapis in himation and with kalathos stg.l., holding wreath (or taenia) in r. hand and
resting with raised l. hand on sceptre.
in r. field E
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.28.6.1 (plate coin)
extremely rare (R9), F+, dark green patina

The iconographical meaning of the wreath (or taenia) is not known.
Jochen
markianopolis_sev_alex_Hermes_retrograd_neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 32. Severus Alexander, HrJ (2014) 6.32.10.05 corr. (plate coin)24 viewsSeverus Alexander, AD 222-235
AE 26, 9.18g, 26.06mm, 195°
struck under governor Julius Gaetulicus
obv. AVT KM AVR CEVH - ALEZANDROC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP IOVL GETO - VLIKOV - MARKIANOPOTWN(sic!) (1st and 3rd OV ligate)
Legend retrograde, starting at 5h and counterclockwise
Hermes, nude, stg. l., holding chlamys and kerykeion in l. arm and purse in r. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf. #1759 for correct version (but different legend distribution)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.32.10.5 corr. (plate coin, doesn't mention the legend error!)
extremely rare, brown-green blunt patina

There is not only the retrograde rev. legend but another rev. legend too: The die cutter has forgotten the LI of MARKIANOPOLITWN and written MARKIANOPOTWN!
Jochen
markianopolis_mamaea_AMNG1086.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 35. Julia Mamaea, HrJ (2014) 6.35.13.01 (plate coin)24 viewsJulia Mamaea, AD 222-235
AE 23 (Dreier), 8.13g, 23.41mm, 45°
obv. IOVLIA - MA[M]A[IA]
Bust, draped and with stephane, r.
rev. MARK[I]AN - O - POLITWN
Artemis huntress, in short chiton and wearing boots, advancing r., chlamys waving behind, holding bow in
extended l. hand and drawing arrow from quiver over r. shoulder; at her l. foot hound leaping r.
in lower l. field Gamma (retrograde)
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1086 (1 ex., St.Petersburg)
b) Varbanov 1882 corr. (writes in error MAMMAIA), R9
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.35.13.1 (plate coin)
extremely rare, VF, nice glossy green patina

The only type for Mamaea from Markianopolis
1 commentsJochen
markianopolis_gordianIII_serapis_demeter_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 37. Gordian III & Serapis, HrJ (2014) 6.37.05.05 (plate coin)15 viewsGordian III & Serapis, AD 238-244
AE 26, 10.24g, 26.36mm, 0°
struck under governor Tullius Menophilus
obv. ANTWNIOC GO[RDIANOC A]VG (VG ligate?)
beneath AVT K.M.
Confronting busts of Giordanus III, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r., and Serapis,
draped and wearing kalathos, l.
rev. VP M[HNO]FILOV - M - ARKIANOPOL
in r. field one below the other I / T / W / [N]
Demeter, in long girded double chiton and mantle hanging over her shoulders, veiled,
stg. l., holding grain-ears in extended r. hand and resting with raised l. hand on long
torch.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.37.5.5 (plate coin)
d) not in Pfeiffer
extremely rare, F+, stripped
Jochen
106727q00_-_Copy_(2).jpg
MOESIA INFERIOR, Nicopolis. Septimius Severus. 193-211 AD17 viewsMOESIA INFERIOR, Nicopolis. Septimius Severus. 193-211 AD. Ć 26mm (10.18 gm: h 8). Aurelius Gallus, magistrate. AVT L CEPT CEVHP PER, laureate head right / UP AUP GALLOU NIKOPOLEITWN PROC ICTP, city gate, small temple seen through doorway, ornate large colonnaded building above. AMNG I 1331; BMC Thrace pg. 42, 7; SNG Copenhagen -; Price & Trell 45 (fig. 26). Sear GIC 2124. H&J 8.14.46.1 (R7); Varbanov 2733 (R6) 
Very rare, dark green patina, near extremely fine.
Ex Gorny & Mosch 186, 8 March 2010, lot 1524.
1 commentsAncient Aussie
nikopolis_ant_pius_HrJ(2012)8_6_9_1corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 06. Antoninus Pius, HrHJ (2018) 8.6.09.01 (plate coin)14 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE 34(!), 22.11g, 33.81mm, 345°
obv. AVT AI ADRIA - ANTWNEINOC
laureate head r.
rev. NEIKOPO - LEITWN - PROC ICTRW
Nike in long garment and open wings stg. r., r. foot set on helmet(?), writing with r. hand on shield hold
with l. hand on garlanded stele
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1219, pl. XVI, 14 (1 ex., Copenhagen)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2129
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.6.9.1 (plate coin)
Extremely rare (R9), about VF/F+, black green patina, flan damage on rev.

From the seller: "This coin strikes me as somewhat odd. First, it seems that the face of the obverse die was slightly different than the face of the obverse die. The next characteristic is that I believe the planchet is an imperial sestertius."
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_attalus_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.01.01 (plate coin)93 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
struck 184/185 (Curtis Clay)
AE 29, 15.01g, 29.46mm, 210°
struck under hegemon Claudius Attalus
obv. AVT KAI M AV[R] - KOMODOC
bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. HGE KL ATTALOV N - IKOPOL / PROC I
Zeus, wearing himation, std. l., holding sceptre in l. hand and patera in r.
hand; l. before him the eagle
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4302 corr. (this coin!, listed in error under Nikopolis ad Nestum and as
AE23
c) not in RPC online
d) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.1.1 (R9)
extremely rare, VF, not published in major works, Curtis Clay has another specimen
added to Wildwinds

Claudius Attalus is known from coins of Pautalia. He is mentioned by Cassius Dio. He was killed by Elagabal because he was fallen in disgrace with Elagabal's favourite Comazon, prefect of the Praetorian Guard.
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_commodus_HrHJ(2014)8_10_7_2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.07.02 (plate coin)13 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 22, 6.83g, 22.15mm, 105°
obv.: [M ANTW]NEIN - OC KOMOD[OC]
Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev.: NEIK[OPOLI - PR]OC ICTR.
Apollo Sauroktonos, nude, with crossed legs stg. r., resting with l. hand on tree stump, on
which lizard is creeping upwards, and holding in r. hand twig; l. behind him bow and
quiver
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.7.2 (plate coin)
d) cf. Gorny&Mosch, Auktion 212, Lot 2321 corr. (Heavily tooled and then misinterpreted as Artemis!)
extremely rare (2 ex. known), F+, dark green patina, corroded

The dot behind ICTR could well be a part of the tree stump too! Although corroded a beautiful and interesting example of the coinage of Nikopolis at the time of Commodus!
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2015)8_14_4_-_neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.04.20 (plate coin)7 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 28, 11.06g, 28.29mm, 195°
struck under governor Pollenius Auspex
obv. [AV K]AI CEP - CEVHROC P[ER]
Laureate head r.
rev. VPA P[OL AVCPIK] - OC NIKOPOLI PROC IC
Athena, helmeted, in long double Chiton, stg. frontal, head r., resting with raised r. hand on spear and holding in
lowered l. hand shield set on small base
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) not in Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) No. 8.14.1.04.20 (this coin)
For Auspex is no Athena listed, probably unique
extremely rare (unique?), S-S+, nearly black, corroded
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2017)8_14_10_36.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.10.36 (plate coin)30 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193--211
AE 16, 3.26g, 15.64mm, 180°
obv. AV KAI CEP - CEVHROC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT - PROC ICT
Cock advancing r., stepping on snake which is erecting in front of him
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1416, pl. XX, 7 (1 ex., Bukarest)
b) not in Varbanov
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.10.36 (this coin)
extremely rare (R9), EF, dark green patina

Pick writes: "An unusual type!" The rev is known from a coin of Caracalla HrHJ (2017) No. 8.18.10.22, extremely rare too.
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2015)8_14_46_5.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.46.0513 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 27, 10.37g
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. AV.K.L.CEP. - CEVHROC.P
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VPA.OOV.TERT - VLLOV.NIKOP. / PROC ICT
Tetrastyle temple on simple base, dot in pediment, acroterias on corners; in central intercolumnare statue of
Dionysos stg. l. with kantharos and thyrsos, panther at his feet
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.46.5 (same dies)
extremely rare (R9), VF, dark green Patina

There is a similar type of Tertullus for Caracalla, but with statue of Zeus within.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2018)8_14_47_13(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.47.13 (for Severus, rev. only)6 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 16, 2.23g, 15.62mm, 0°
obv. [AV K M A] - ANTWN[I?]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPOLI[T] - PROC ICT.
Altar with basket (cista mystica?) from which a snake is coiling up
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) not in Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov (2018):
rev. cf. No. 8.14.47.31 corr. (for Severus, same die)
obv. e.g. No. 8.18.46.14
probably unpublished
extremely rare, F+, dark green patina

This type was described as "altar, on which snake is coiling, head l." This new coin has far the best preserved rev. I have seen. And now my suspicion that the old description is not correct is proven. It can't be a snake alone because there are structures above the altar not compatible with a snake. So I think it is a basket or a similar container set on the altar in which the snake is coiling up.

This type was until now only known for Severus. Another example for a parallel issue for members of the imperial family!
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrJ(2012)8_18_3_5+.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.03.05 (plate coin)27 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 195-198
AE 17, 2.98g, 16.95mm, 15°
obv. M AV KAI - AN[TWNIN] (read from outside)
bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT PR[OC ICTR]
Peacock stg. r.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.3.5 (plate coin)
extremely rare (R10), F+, black-brown patina

The obv. is from the same die as No. 8.18.52.8. So the obv. legend could be completed and the bust type corrected.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_Hermes_neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.10.22 (plate coin)14 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 15, 2.31g, 15.42mm, 330°
obv.. [A]V K M [AVR] - [AN]TWNIN[OC]
laureate head r.
rev. NIK[OPOLIT] - [PROC] ICTR
Hermes, nude, stg. l., holding kerykeion in l. arm and purse in extended r. hand; at his
feet the cock
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.10.22 (plate coin)
extremely rare, S, nice green patina

The rev. is known from Severus too: HrHJ (2018) 8.14.10.28.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_AMNG1416(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.10.23 (plate coin)33 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 18, 1.97g, 17.47g, 30°
obv. M AVR K[A] - ANT[WNINOC]
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT PROC ICT
Cock, stg. r., attacking serpent erecting l.
ref. a) not in AMNG
rev. AMNG I/1, 1416 (for Severus)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.10.23 (plate coin)
d) 1 ex. in CNG electronic auction 109, lot 84
extremely rare (R9), F/F+

This motive appears too on a coin of Appolonia Pontica. Its meaning is absolutely unclear.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_Nemeischer_Löwe_neu.JPG
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.14.19 (plate coin)17 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 17, 2.69g, 16.76mm, 210°
obv. [A]V K M AV - ANTWNINO
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPO - LIT PROC I
Herakles, nude, stg. r., strangling the Nemean lion
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.14.19 (plate coin)
extremely rare, F+, green patina

This type (from same die?) is known for Severus, HrHJ (2015) 8.14.14.29, and Geta, 8.22.14.2. So it is not surprisingly that this type now appears for Caracalla too.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2015)8_18_31__neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.31.2 (plate coin)8 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 27, 10.26mm, 26.91mm, 15°
struck under Aurelius Gallus
obv. AV M AV - ANTWNINOC
laureate head r., slightly draped on l. shoulder
rev. VP AVR GALLOV - NIKOPOLITWN / PROC I
Kybele, wearing mural crown, enthroned l., resting with l. arm on tympanon and holding in
extended r. hand patera; on both sides of throne a lion
Ref.: a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.31.2 (this coin)
extremely rare, S/G, dark green patina

The rev. is known too for Severus, No. 8.14.31.6.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrJ(2011)8_18_46_8.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.46.08 (plate coin)23 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 28, 12.47g, 27.69mm, 210°
struck under governor Flavius Ulpianus
obv. AV.K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed with scale armour, seen from rear, laureate, r.
rev. V FL OVLPIAN - NIKOPOLIT / PROC IC
Portal with 2 projecting side wings; thereupon a similar structured building whose central
part has 3 gate openings and a pediment with shield and spear; the side wings seem to
be open halls with 4 pillars each and pitched roof; through the open gate of the lower
building the front of a tetrastyle temple is visible.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1585, pl. III, 20 (for Severus)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3145
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.46.8 (plate coin)
extremely rare (R9), F/about VF, green somewhat patchy patina
Pedigree:
ex Gorny&Mosch (attributed to Severus in error!)

Pick: Nature and purpose of this building found on coins of Severus and Caracalla I don't know. It is hardly identical with the building on coins of Macrinus (pl. III, 21)
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_geta_HrHJ(2018)8_20_34_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 20. Caracalla & Geta, HrHJ (2018) 8.20.34.016 viewsCaracalla & Geta as Caesar, AD 198-201
AE 26, 9.87g, 25.5mm, 225°
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. AV.K.M.AVR.ANTONINOC.K.L.CEP. / .KAI GETAC (small c above G)
Busts of Caracalla, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r., and Geta, draped, bare-headed, l.
rev. VPA OOV TERTVLLOV.NIKOPOLIT[WN] / [PROC I]
Emperor (Severus), bearded, in military cloak and with boots, stg. frontal, looking l., resting with raised l.
hand on spear and holding in extended r. hand small Nike
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1624 (1 ex., München)
b) Varbanov 3167 (R9)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.20.34.1 corr.
Extremely rare (R9), F+, porous
Pedigree:
ex coll. Tom Cederlind
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Small c above G of GETAC not mentioned. At No. 8.20.32.1 Pick writes: "The small c naturally belongs to KAIC". So on this coin Geta has the titel KAICAR twice: (1) As K in K L CEP, and (2) as KAIC below the busts.
Pick writes "in ex. PROC I". But here and on the depicted coin in HrHJ (2018) the ex. seems to be outside the flan.

One of the rarest coins of Nikopolis. HrHJ (2018) does know of only 1 ex. of this type. So it was called R10. Now this 2nd ex. turned up and the rarity has to be reduced to R9. And BTW It's the only coin of Nikopolis depicting the entire Severan family on one coin!
Jochen
nikopolis_geta_HrHJ(2017)8_22_13_5var(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 22. Geta, HrHJ (2018) 8.22.13.01 (plate coin) 7 viewsGeta as Caesar, AD 198-209
AE 20, 2.82g, 19.75mm, 195°
obv. LOV AV KAICAR GETAC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, bare-headed. r.
rev. NIKOPOL - PROC ICTR
Artemis, in short hunting cloak, advancing r., holding bow in extended l. hand and drawing
with r. hand arrow from quiver over r. shoulder
ref. a) no Artemis for Geta in AMNG
b) no Artemis for Geta in Varbanov
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.22.13.1 (this coin)
extremely rare, F+, dark green patina

The rev. is kown for Severus, No. 8.14.13.5 (has NIKOPOLI)
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2015)8_26_10_-_neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.10.07 (plate coin)9 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 11.20g, 26.82mm, 165°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVR - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, radiate, r.
rev. VP CTA[ LO?N]OBIOV NI - KOPOLITWN PROC IC / [TRW?]
in l. and r. upper field ROV - FOV (last OV ligate)
Hermes, nude, chlamys over l. shoulder, wearing boots, stg. frontal, head l., holding
kerykeion in l. arm and purse in extended r. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.10.7 (this coin)
extremely rare, F, dark green patina

Comment by Curtis Clay (thanks!):
Presumably it was an old die of Longinus under Macrinus, with the governor's name altered in the die to Novius Rufus so that it could be used under Elagabalus.

The original legend began
VP CTA LONGINOV NI - KO etc.
LONGINOV was then altered in the die to
LONOBIOV, the first two letters LO perhaps being eradicated.
ROV - FOV was added in the field, and presto!, a usable die naming Novius Rufus under Elagabalus.

In HHJ 2012, I cannot find this actual rev. die in its original state being used to strike coins naming Longinus under Macrinus. Maybe such coins will eventually turn up, or maybe the die was engraved under Macrinus but for some reason never used to actually strike coins.

Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrJ(2012)8_26_14_1+_barbaric_imitation.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Elagabal, HrJ (2012) 8(?).26(?).14.1 (this coin), barbarious imitation36 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 19, 3.8g, 19.27mm, 330°
obv. AV KM AVR - [ANTWNINOC]
(somewhat blundered legend)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPO - LITWN (from lower r. counterclockwise)
(blundered legend)
Club of Herakles, handle downwards
ref. Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. 8(?).26(?).14.1 (this coin)
barbarious imitation, resembles HrJ (2012) No. 8.26.14.1
extremely rare, about VF, black-brown patina

A so-called 'barbaric imitation'. May be evidence that provincial coins of Nikopolis were used in a larger region?
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_caracalla_Crescent_barbarous_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, X barbaric imitation, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8(?).18(?).48.01 (plate coin)53 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 16, 2.60g, 15.85mm, 135°
so-called barbaric imitation
obv. [M AV KAI AN]TWNIN (from upper right)
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. NI[KOPOLITWN PR]OC IC.
Crescent with 1 star in the cavity
ref. Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8(?).18(?).48.1 (plate coin)
extremely rare (R9), F+

The legible parts of the blundered legends suggest Nikopolis and Caracalla.
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2017)8_26_8_20cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, X barbaric imitation, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8(?).26(?).08.01 (plate coin) 14 viewsElagabal, AD 8-222
AE 16, 3.19g, 16.07mm, 0°
Av. [...] - ANTONINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
Rv. NIKOPOLITWN PROC (from lower right counterclockwise, some letters mirrored)
Bunch of grapes
Ref.: a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 2036 (for the original type)
b) not in Varbanov:
cf. #3799 (for the original type)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8(?).26(?).8.01 (this coin)
extremely rare, about VF, dark green patina

The seller had written Caracalla, but the rev. is known for Elagabal and the comical portrait too reminds rather of Elagabal than of Caracalla.
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_HrJ8_26_14_7cf_barbaric_imitation.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, X barbaric imitation, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8(?).26(?).14.01 (plate coin)43 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 19, 3.8g, 19.27mm, 330°
obv. AV KM AVR - [ANTWNINOC]
(somewhat blundered legend, R retrograde)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPO - LITWN (from lower r. counterclockwise)
(blundered legend)
Club of Herakles, handle downwards
ref. Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8(?).26(?).14.1 (plate coin)
barbaric imitation, resembles HrJ No. 8.26.14.7
extremely rare (R9), about VF, black-brown patina

A so-called 'barbaric imitation'. May be evidence that provincial coins of Nikopolis have been used in a larger region?
Jochen
nikopolis_elagabal_Stab_neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, X barbaric imitation, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8(?).26(?).20.01 (plate coin)34 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 17, 2.87g, 16.84g, 315°
obv. AV KM AVR - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPO - LITWN (from lower right, counterclockwise)
staff of Asklepi