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Search results - "Ephesus"
Vespasian_RPC_832.jpg
10 Vespasian AR Ephesus27 viewsVespasian
AR Denarius.
Ephesus Mint,
71 AD.

O: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right

R: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus & Domitian standing, heads left, each holding a patera, EPHE monogram in ex.

RIC 1430c, RSC 250, RPC 832, sear5 #2401
RI0064
1 commentsSosius
Ephesus_tessera.JPG
145 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. 1st-2nd century AD
Æ Tessera (18mm, 2.74 g)
KHPIΛIC ωΔE ΠPOC ΠAΛVPIN
Bee
CKωΠI, recumbent stag; E to left, Φ to right
BMC 186; SNG Copenhagen 355


Head interprets the legend ΠAΛYPIN as related to υρoν, beehive, and ύppις, basket and conflated with πaλιν, bring back. From this, he suggests that the token would have been placed in a jar and shaken to produce a ringing sound, while the magical words were spoken. Thus, the piece would be a magical token, related to the folk tradition of ringing the bees into their hives. Such an explanation is perhaps overly fanciful.
4 commentsArdatirion
00018x00.jpg
37 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.30 g)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 53 var. (reverse type)

Ex Mark Staal Three Graces Collection; Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 232, lot 515 (part of). Found near Ephesus.
Ardatirion
Ephesus_cult_statue_tessera.JPG
35 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.98 g, 7 h)
Diana Ephesia, uncertain legend around
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm frond
Gülbay & Kireç -
Ardatirion
m_antony_octavia_cist_tet_f_res~0.jpg
(00001) OCTAVIA (with MARK ANTONY)72 viewsOctavia
(sister of Augustus; 4th wife of Mark Antony)
b. 69 BC- d. 11 BC
AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm 27 mm - 11.35 g; struck 39 BC
O: M ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers
R: III. VIR. R.P.C, draped bust of Octavia right above cista; flanked by coiled snakes.
Ephesus mint.
RPC I 2201; CRI 262; Sydenham 1197; RSC 2.
2 commentslaney
Janus119BCCrawford281_1.jpg
(500a) Roman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 1881 viewsRoman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 18. Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529; 19mm, 3.23 grams. aVF, Rome; Obverse: laureate head of Janus, M FORVRI L F around; Reverse: Roma standing left erecting trophy, Galic arms around, PHLI in exergue. Ex Ephesus Numismatics.

Gauis Marius
As a novus homo, or new man, Marius found the rise in the Roman cursus honorum ( "course of honours"-- the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in the Roman Republic) a daunting challenge. It is certain that he used his old family client contacts and his military relations as a source of support. Among these contacts were the powerful Metelli family, and their early support was to prove to be a disaster for them. Just a few short years after his service as Quaestor, Marius was elected Tribune of the Plebes in 119 BC. In this position so soon after the political turmoil and murder of the Gracchi brothers (Gaius murdered 123 BC), Marius chose to follow the populares path, making a name for himself under similar auspices. As Tribune, he would ensure the animosity of the conservative faction of the Senate, and the Metelli, by passing popular laws forbidding the inspection of ballot boxes. In do doing, he directly opposed the powerful elite, who used ballot inspection as a way to intimidate voters in the citizen assembly elections.

Marius would go on to be elected Consul seven times and figure prominantly in the civil unrest of the early eighties as Lucius Cornelius Sulla's opponent. In 88 BC, Sulla had been elected Consul. There was now a choice before the Senate about which general to send to Asia (a potentially lucrative command): either Marius or Sulla. The Senate chose Sulla, but soon the Assembly appointed Marius. In this unsavory episode of low politics, Marius had been helped by the unscrupulous actions of Publius Sulpicius Rufus, whose debts Marius had promised to erase. Sulla refused to acknowledge the validity of the Assembly's action.

Sulla left Rome and traveled to "his"army waiting in Nola, the army the Senate had asked him to lead to Asia. Sulla urged his legions to defy the Assembly's orders and accept him as their rightful leader. Sulla was successful, and the legions murdered the representatives from the Assembly. Sulla then commanded six legions to march with him opon Rome and institute a civil war.

This was a momentous event, and was unforeseen by Marius, as no Roman army had ever marched upon Rome—it was forbidden by law and ancient tradition.

Sulla was to eventually rule Rome as Dictator. In his book Rubicon, historian Tom Holland argues that Sulla's actions had no lasting negative effect upon the health of the Republic, that Sulla was at heart a Republican. However, once a Roman general has defied Republican tradition, once a Roman general has used his command to combat fellow Romans, once a Roman general has set-up himself as Dictator--it follows that the decision to replicate these decsions (think: Caesar and Rubicon) is that much more easiely taken.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
EphesusDomitian.jpg
-Ionia, Ephesus. Domitian. AD 81-96. Æ 27mm.51 viewsLaureate head right / River-god Marnas reclining left, holding reed and resting arm on overturned urn from which water flows.
RPC 1074
1 commentsancientone
BB9A8DCA-2A63-4B43-A44B-3504D8D3795E.jpeg
006c. Statilia Messalina 18 viewsIONIA, Ephesus. Nero, with Statilia Messalina. AD 54-68. Æ . Struck AD 66. Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Messalina right. RPC 2631; SNG von Aulock 7864. Very rare.
ecoli
020_Vespasian,_AR-Den,_IMP_CAESAR_VESPAS_AVG_COS_II_TR_P_P_P,_CONCORDIA_AVG,_BY,_RIC-2_1416,_RPC_II_824,_Ephesus,_Byzantium,-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_19mm,_3,6g-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² 1416, Ephesus (Byzantium), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres, #1104 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² 1416, Ephesus (Byzantium), AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres, #1
avers: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres, enthroned left, holding grain ears and a cornucopiae, BY (monogram) mintmark for Byzantium in the exergue.
exergue: -/-//BY(monogram, mintmark for Byzantium), diameter: 17,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,60 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ephesus (Byzantium), date: A.D., ref: RIC² 1416, RPC II 824, Sear/RCV 2266var., RSC 66a,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
020_Vespasian,_AR-Den,_IMP_CAESAR_VESPAS_AVG_COS_III_TR_P_P_P,_PACI_AVGVSTAE,_EPHE,_RIC_1431,_BMC_457,_RSC_276,_RPC_833,_Ephesos_71_AD_Q-001,_6h,_17-18mm,_3,41g-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² 1431, Ephesus, AR-Denarius, PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory, draped, advancing right, #169 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² 1431, Ephesus, AR-Denarius, PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory, draped, advancing right, #1
avers: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory, draped, advancing right, holding wreath extended in right hand and palm over the left shoulder. EPHE lower right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,41 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ephesus, date: 71 A.D., ref: RIC² 1431, RPC II 833, BMC 457, RSC 276,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
25.jpg
025 Domitia.AE21 5.3gm26 viewsobv DOMITIA SEBASTH drp.bust r.
rev: Homonoia,Ephesus
"wife of Domitian"
1 commentshill132
augustus as2.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE As - struck c.25 BC48 viewsobv: CAESAR (bare head of Augustus right)
rev: [AVGVS]TVS (within laurel wreath)
ref: RIC 486, BMCRE 731, RPC 2235
mint: Ephesus (?)(Uncertain mint in Cyprus or Syria)
11.18gms, 28mm
Scarce
berserker
Denarius MARCO ANTONIO y OCTAVIO.jpg
03-01 - MARCO ANTONIO y OCTAVIO (43 - 30 A.C.)48 views2do. Triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR Denario 17 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de MARCO ANTONIO viendo a derecha - "M ANT·IMP AVG III VIR R·PC·M·BARBAT Q P" Leyenda alrededor del busto.
Rev: Cabeza desnuda de un joven e inmaduro OCTAVIO con incipiente barba viendo a derecha - "CAESAR·IMP·PONT·III·VIR·R·P·C·" Leyenda alrededor del busto.

Acuñada primavera/verano 41 A.C.
Ceca: Ephesus - Hoy Turquía
Moneyer: Barbatius Pollio

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1504 Pag.289 - Sear CRI #243 - Craw RRC #517/2 - Syd CRR #1181 - BMCRR (este) #100 - RSC Vol.1 #8a Pag.128 - Cohen Vol.1 #8 Pag.50 - Kestner #3793
mdelvalle
Craw_517_2_Denario_Marco_Antonio_y_Octavio.jpg
03-01 - MARCO ANTONIO y OCTAVIO (43 - 30 A.C.)20 views2do. Triunvirato (43 - 30 A.C.)
AR Denario 17 x 18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de MARCO ANTONIO viendo a derecha - "M ANT·IMP AVG III VIR R·PC·M·BARBAT Q P" Leyenda alrededor del busto.
Rev: Cabeza desnuda de un joven e inmaduro OCTAVIO con incipiente barba viendo a derecha - "CAESAR·IMP·PONT·III·VIR·R·P·C·" Leyenda alrededor del busto.

Acuñada primavera/verano 41 A.C.
Ceca: Ephesus - Hoy Turquía
Moneyer: Barbatius Pollio

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1504 Pag.289 - Sear CRI #243 - Craw RRC #517/2 - Syd CRR #1181 - BMCRR (este) #100 - RSC Vol.1 #8a Pag.128 - Cohen Vol.1 #8 Pag.50 - Kestner #3793
mdelvalle
RI_030r_img.jpg
030 - Vespasian, Denarius, Ephesus, RIC 1457 48 viewsObv - IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, right
Rev - PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. right, with wreath and palm; at lower right, star; annulet beneath
Minted in Ephesus, A.D. 74
References:- RIC 1457. BMCRE 475. RSC 277.
Dimensions:- 22.04 mm x 19.07 mm

Severely double struck.

It looks like there was a very off-centre initial strike and the coin was re-struck with a central strike.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Rep_AR-Den_L_HOSTILIVS-SASERNA_Crawford-448-3_Syd-953_Rome_48-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18mm_3,93g-s.jpg
048 B.C., L.Hostilius Saserna, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing faceing,223 viewsL.Hostilius Saserna (48 B.C.), Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing,
avers: Head of Gallia right, Gallic trumpet (carnyx) behind.
reverse: L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing, holding spear and stag by its antler.
exergue: - /-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,93g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 48 B.C., ref: Crawford 448/3, Sydenham 953, CRI 19, Hostilia 4,
Q-001
8 commentsquadrans
dom_1445.jpg
09 Domitian as Caesar RIC-1445121 viewsAR Denarius, 3.01g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F; Bust of Domitian, cuirassed, seen from front, Medusa head on breast of cuirass, fold of cloak on left shoulder, head bare, r.
Rev: AVG and EPHE in oak wreath
RIC 1445 (R). BMC 469. RSC 22. RPC 846 (4 spec.). BNC 362.
Ex CNG E88, 14 September 2011, lot 1302.

Minted in 71 AD, this denarius is part of the first series ever issued for Domitian. The draped and cuirassed bust type chosen here is unusual for the Flavian era...one wonders why it was used only for Domitian and not Vespasian or Titus. The reverse is a standard type shared with Vespasian and Titus at Ephesus.

I'm not sure why it has taken me so long to obtain a Domitian as Caesar denarius from Ephesus, these are wonderful coins.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1446dark.jpg
09a Domitian as Caesar RIC 1446113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F; Bust of Domitian, cuirassed, seen from front, Medusa head on breast of cuirass, fold of cloak on left shoulder, head bare, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1446 (C). BMC 470. RSC 38. RPC 847 (10 spec.). BNC 363.
Acquired from Lucernae, eBay, January 2015.

In Domitian's first imperial coinage issue he was given special treatment regarding the bust type chosen. The engravers at Ephesus depicted him cuirassed with a cloak draped over his left shoulder. Vespasian and Titus were not engraved so elaborately (although at Antioch Titus' bust is draped). Why this is so is a mystery. Unusually Domitian shares the same reverse types as Vespasian and Titus in this series, unlike at Rome where he largely had his own unique types. This Ceres reverse is probably the most common of his Ephesus denarii.

A worn coin to be sure, but the handsome bust shines through the wear.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
V1492.jpg
09b Domitian as Caesar RIC-1492112 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS IIII across field; Eagle stg. facing on garlanded base, wings open, head r.
RIC 1492 (R). BMC 487. RSC 45c. RPC 1466 (3 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, group lot 806.

A delightful Domitian as Caesar denarius from the rare 'o' mint. RIC speculates the mysterious mint is Ephesus based on the use of the 'o' mint mark which was also used at that mint in its last known series in 74.

This reverse type of Eagle on garlanded base is known from Rome for Vespasian and Titus. A wonderful portrait accompanies this large flan specimen.


5 commentsDavid Atherton
V1494a.jpg
09c Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1494126 viewsAR Denarius, 2.81g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS IIII above; Pegasus r.
RIC 1494 (R2). BMC 488 bis. RSC 47 var. RPC 1465 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Ex G&N, eBay, 27 August 2015.

An unknown eastern mint struck a spate of denarii in 76 which copied many contemporary types from Rome. Both RIC and RPC speculate it possibly could be Ephesus, citing a similar style with a previous Ephesian issue from 74 and the use of an annulet as a mint mark. The issue is extremely rare. This denarius copies the much more common Pegasus type struck at Rome for Domitian. Domitian's connection to this unusual type perhaps can be explained by Pegasus' association with Athena/Minerva, Domitian's patron goddess. These eastern denarii are understandably confused with the issues from Rome, however, they can be distinguished by style and the annulet (if visible) below the bust.

A fine styled, nicely toned denarius.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
V1495.JPG
09d Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1495125 viewsAR Denarius, 3.26g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: FIDES PVBL; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
RIC 1495 (R). BMC 491. RSC -. RPC 1467 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Solidus, eBay, 29 November 2013.

In 76 AD a mysterious series of denarii appeared in Asia Minor for Vespasian and his sons two years after Ephesus stopped minting denarii. The reverse types were copied from those contemporaneously produced at Rome and featured many mules and blundered legends. Often an 'o' mint mark is visible below the busts, giving rise to the theory that these may be the product of Ephesus. The style is also similar to the last series known from that mint.

Here is a rare reverse type for Domitian as Caesar. At Rome this type is only known for Vespasian and Titus. BMC 491 is listed as no mint mark below bust. A fine style portrait struck on a large flan. Same obverse die as my V1492.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1496lg.jpg
09e Domitian as Caesar-RIC 1496110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS IIII; Winged caduceus
RIC 1496 (R2). BMC 489. RSC 369. RPC 1469 (2 spec.). BNC 377.
Acquired from Britaly Coins, April 2016.

The small series struck under Vespasian this coin comes from is quite mysterious. The mint is not known for certain, although Ephesus is a prime suspect. K. Butcher and M. Ponting in The Metallurgy of Roman silver Coinage analysed the Ephesian and 'o' mint series and their data shows both issues are made from the same bullion. Not definitive proof the two series are from the same mint, but good evidence of a strong link. Unlike the Ephesian series, the 'o' issue is full of blundered legends and mules. This denarius struck for Domitian Caesar has a PON MAX reverse legend, an impossible title for the young prince. However, what the mint masters lacked in competency, the engravers made up for in their stylish portraits.

A wonderful portrait struck on a large flan. An obverse die match with my RIC V1494.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
Hostilius_Saserna_Den_2.jpg
1) The Caesarians: L. Hostilius Saserna AR denarius27 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
L. Hostilius Saserna
AR denarius (20mm, 3.79 g, 12h). 48 BC

Head of Gallia r., hair in disarray; carnyx (Gallic trumpet) behind / L. HOSTILIVS [S]ASERNA, Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus standing facing, holding spear and stag by its antler.

Crawford 448/3. CRI 19. RSC Hostilia 4. Obverse flan flaw, otherwise ~EF

Ex Heritage
RM0028
1 commentsSosius
931_P_Hadrian_RPC1329.jpg
1329 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint, Ephesian Artemis32 viewsReference
RPC III, 1329; Metcalf 6; RIC II 525

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bust draped r. seen from behind

Rev. DIANA EPHESIA
Cult image of Ephesian Artemis flanked by stags

10.02 gr
27 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
745_P_Hadrian_RPC1332.jpg
1332 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 132-34 AD Tetrastyle temple Artemis standing63 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1332; Metcalf 8; RIC 475; RSC 536; BMCRE 1091; Pinder 70; Sear 3449.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right.

Rev. DIA-NA / EPHESIA
Tetrastyle temple on three or four steps; within, cult image of Artemis of Ephesus

10.15 gr
28 mm
6h

Note.
Overstruck on an uncertain cistophorus of Mark Antony and Octavia.
5 commentsokidoki
789_P_Hadrian_RPC_1335A.jpg
1335A Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 132-34 AD Tetrastyle temple Artemis standing52 viewsReference.
RPC --; Metclaf 10; RIC 475 var. (legend); RPC III 1335 var. (obv. legend).

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head right

Rev. [D]IA-NA / EPHESIA
Tetrastyle temple on three or four steps; within, cult image of Artemis of Ephesus (no stags)

10.97 gr
27 mm
5h

note.
There is evidence of the undertype on the obverse, below the truncation of Hadrian's neck: 'IMP CAE
3 commentsokidoki
1304_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1340A Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint, Jupiter seated left12 viewsReference.
RPC III, -- ; Metcalf --; cf RIC II 478 var. (obverse legends). cf RPC III, 1340

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right.

Rev. IOVIS OLYMPIVS
Jupiter seated left holding sceptre in l. and cult image of Ephesian Artemis in right

9.91 gr
31 mm
7h
okidoki
956_P_Hadrian_RPC1348.jpg
1348 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 128-38 AD Asclepius standing43 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1348; RIC II 481a; Metcalf, Cistophori type 20 (unlisted dies); RSC 290.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right

Rev. COS III
Asclepius standing front head l. holding serpent-wreathed rod in r., l. arm at side.

11.06 gr
28 mm
6h

Note.
CNG 409 lot 602
Ex Classical Numismatic Group Inventory 761612 (December 2005).
4 commentsokidoki
932_P_Hadrian_RPC1349.jpg
1349 Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint 132-34 AD Artemis Leukophryene23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1349; Metcalf 21

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right

Rev. COS III
Cult image of Artemis Leukophryene flanked by two birds; crowning Victories flank her

10.04 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
rjb_fjun2_08_06.jpg
161a16 viewsFaustina Junior
AE 22 mm
Ephesus in Ionia
Rev Nike walking left
mauseus
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1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius236 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
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18-06 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)27 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACI AVGVSTAE" - Victoria avanzando a derecha, portando corona de laureles y Palma. "EPE" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 71 D.C.
Ceca: Ephesus
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #333 Pag.54 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2270 Pag.433 - BMCRE #457 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #38 Pag.101 - CBN #351 - RSC Vol. II #276 Pag.44
mdelvalle
RIC_333_Denario_Vespasiano.jpg
18-18 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)17 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PACI AVGVSTAE" - Victoria avanzando a derecha, portando corona de laureles y Palma. "EPE" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 71 D.C.
Ceca: Ephesus
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #333 Pag.54 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2270 Pag.433 - BMCRE #457 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #38 Pag.101 - CBN #351 - RSC Vol. II #276 Pag.44
mdelvalle
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1ba Caesar's Siege of Massilia11 viewsL Hostilivs Saserna, moneyer
49-44 BC

Denarius, 48 BC

Head of Gallia, right, Gaulish trumpet behind
HOSTILIVS SASTERNA, Diana of Ephesus with stag

Seaby, Hostilia 4

This piece appears to refer to Julius Caesar's siege of Massilia (Marseille) during the civil war in 49 BC.

In The Civil Wars, Julius Caesar recorded: While this treaty was going forward, Domitius arrived at Massilia with his fleet, and was received into the city, and made governor of it. The chief management of the war was intrusted to him. At his command they send the fleet to all parts; they seize all the merchantmen they could meet with, and carry them into the harbor; they apply the nails, timber, and rigging, with which they were furnished to rig and refit their other vessels. They lay up in the public stores, all the corn that was found in the ships, and reserve the rest of their lading and convoy for the siege of the town, should such an event take place. Provoked at such ill treatment, Caesar led three legions against Massilia, and resolved to provide turrets, and vineae to assault the town, and to build twelve ships at Arelas, which being completed and rigged in thirty days (from the time the timber was cut down), and being brought to Massilia, he put under the command of Decimus Brutus; and left Caius Trebonius his lieutenant, to invest the city.
Blindado
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1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
Bithynia_Kalchedon,_AR_Drachm_4th_Cent__BC.jpg
2. Bithynia, Kalchedon, 340-320 BC, AR Siglos 17 viewsBull standing left on grain ear, KAΛX above.
Granulated mill-sail incuse square.

SNG BM Black Sea 112; SNG von Aulock 482; Sear 3738.

(18 mm, 5.31 g).
Ephesus Numismatics.

The symbolism of the bull and the heifer on the obverse of the coins of twin cities of Kalchedon (Asia Minor) and Byzantion (Europe) respectively is striking and points to a shared identity. They stood astride the southern entrance to the Bosporus. Both were 7th century BC foundations of Megara and jointly they controlled the vital grain trade from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean.

The grain ear upon which the bull of Kalchedon stands alludes to this fact. That of the dolphin beneath the Heifer of Byzantion is a reflection of the maritime orientation of the city and the bountiful pods of dolphins that even to this day frolic in swift flowing waters of the Bosporus beneath the old city walls of Constantinople which succeded Byzantion and was in turn succeded by Istanbul.

The twin cities merged in the modern era to become the great and fascinating metropolis of Istanbul. Ancient Kalchedon dominated the Asian side of the Bosporus. The remains of the ancient city lie be
n.igma
452_P_Hadrian.JPG
2061 IONIA, Ephesus Hadrian, Artemis 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2061; BMC 229

Obv. ΑΥT ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕ
Laureate head right

Rev: ΕΦΕ-СΙΩΝ
tetrastyle temple within which cult statue of Artemis Ephesia with supports

8.2 gr
24 mm
okidoki
799_P_Hadrian_RPC2065.jpg
2065 IONIA, Ephesus Hadrian, Kenchrios riclining15 viewsReference. very rare
RPC 3, 2065; Type reference K 182; Helios 3, 29 April 2009, lot 375

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕ
Laureate head of Hadrian right

Rev. ΕΦΕСΙΩΝ, ΚΕΝΧΡΙΟС (in exergue)
River-god Kenchrios reclining, l., holding branch in his r. hand, cornucopia in his l., his l. arm on an inverted vase from which water flows.

11.45 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
435_P_Hadrian_BMC230.jpg
2072 IONIA, Ephesus Hadrian, Artemis34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2072 BMC Ionia 230 (pag. 77)

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC KAIKAP
Laureate head right.

Rev. ЄΦЄ / CΙΩΝ
Artemis holding torch, in biga of galloping stags.

3.89 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
1247_P_Hadrian_RPC2074.jpg
2074 IONIA, Ephesus Hadrian, cult statue of Artemis5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2074; SNG von Auock 7866; SNG Copenhagen 388; SNG München 128

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian right

Rev. ΑΡΤΕΜΙС ΕΦΕСΙΑ
Cult statue of Artemis Ephesia with supports between two stags

18.08 gr
29 mm
6h
okidoki
1222_P_Hadrian_RPC2078.jpg
2078 IONIA, Ephesus Hadrian, Wreath6 viewsReference
RPC III, 2078; SNG COP. -. SNG v. Aulock -. SNG München -. BMC -

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕ СΕΒΑСΤΗ СΑΒΕΙΝΑ
Laureate head of Hadrian, l. looking r. facing draped bust of Sabina with hair coiled and piled on top of head above double stephane, r., looking l.

Rev. ΕΦΕ/СΙΩΝ
Wreath

7.75 gr
22 mm
6h
okidoki
rjb_2011_05_02.jpg
219b20 viewsAnnia Faustina
Ephesus in Ionia
Æ 28mm
ANNIA ΦAVCTЄINA CЄB
Diademed and draped bust right
ЄΦЄCЄΩN Δ NЄΩKOPΩN
Elagabalus standing facing with head right being crowned by Sol
BMC 309
mauseus
Antony_and_Octavia_cisto.jpg
4) Antony and Octavia49 viewsThe Triumvirs.
Mark Antony and Octavia.
Summer-autumn 39 BC.
AR Cistophorus (27mm, 10.90 g, 2h). Ephesus mint.

Head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath; lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers / Draped bust of Octavia right above cista mystica, flanked by interlaced serpents.

CRI 262; Sydenham 1197; RSC 2; RPC 2201. Fine, toned, light scratches.

Ex CNG - Nov 2013
4 commentsSosius
normal_Antony_and_Octavian_001.jpg
4) Antony and Octavian Denarius35 viewsMark Antony and Octavian
AR Denarius, 2.97g
Ephesus, spring/summer, 41 BC

M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram), Bare hd of Mark Antony right / CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, Bare head of Octavian right

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.

Photo and text credit goes to FORVM member Jay GT4, from whom I purchased the coin in 2011. Thanks, Jay!
RM0034
1 commentsSosius
claudius_AE18_RPC2624.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS & AGRIPPINA Junior AE18 of Ephesos - struck 49-50 AD37 viewsobv: Jugate laureate heads of Claudius and draped bust of Agrippina II, right
rev: EFE / KOYCI-NIOC / TO-D (stag standing right) (D = episcopus for the fourth time)
ref: BMC 205, RPC 2624, SNG Cop.373
mint: Ephesos
6.49 gms, 18 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Julia Agrippina (Agrippina the Younger) was the 4th wife of the emperor Claudius. She was murdered by her son, Nero, in 59 A.D.
1 commentsberserker
Anthony_Octavian.jpg
517/2 Octavian and Antony106 viewsMarcus Antonius and Octavian. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, Spring-Summer 41 B.C. (3.42g, 19.1m, 0h)). Obv: M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R PC M BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony r., Rev: CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR [R P C], bare head of Octavian r. Craw. 517/2, RSC 8a, RCV 1504.

A duel portrait of two of the three triumvirs. This example has fairly complete legends, and high relief portraits. This coin was minted before the Treaty of Brundisium, where the empire was apportion between the triumvirs.
1 commentsLucas H
770Hadrian_RIC706~0.jpg
706 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Galley left58 viewsReference
RIC 706; Strack 837; C. 657; Banti 337

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate head right.

Rev. FELICITATI AVG COS III P P S-C in field
Galley moving left with stearman and five rowers; vexillum on prow.

23.61 gr
31 mm
12h

Ex.
Stack's Bowers Galleries January 2013 N.Y.I.N.C. lot 5210

Note.
An acrostolium is an ornamental extension of the stem post on the prow of an ancient warship. Often used as a symbol of victory or of power at sea. (numiswiki)
1st-4th Century AD:
The Ship in Imperial Rome

Realizing its importance, Augustus established the Roman navy along lines similar to that of the legions. In addition to a number of key harbors, from which ships could be deployed, he stationed several fleets (Latin classes) in key areas throughout the empire. Among these, the classis Britannica patrolled the channel between Gaul and Britannia, protecting the shipping lanes. Its strategic regional importance is commemorated in the coinage of several of the period usurpers from the area. M. Aurelius Postumus was the first to do so (lots 676-679). His bronze ship issues carry the legend LAETITIA AVG, emphasizing the source of imperial well-being resides in a strong navy. The usurper M. Aurelius Carausius, commander of the classis Britannica under Diocletian, struck coins commemorating, in part, his control of that fleet and its abilities in keeping the sea lanes open (lot 680). His short-lived successor, Allectus, continued the type (lots 681-684).

One important function of the navy was the transportation of the imperial family on state visits. From the time of Augustus, vessels were dispatched to carry the emperor between the capital and the provinces. One such instance is commemorated in a rare bronze as, struck at Patrae in AD 66/7 (lot 609). The reverse depicts the quinquereme used to carry Nero on his infamous tour of Greece. Hadrian’s extensive travels were recorded with a wide variety of ship types struck at Rome (lots 610-622), and in the East (lot 623). An inscription from Ephesus (Syll. III 3241), records that a local captain, L. Erastus, used his ship to transport the emperor while he was in that area. A coin struck at Alexandria (lot 624) is of particular importance for, in the same year as the coin was struck Antinoüs drowned as the imperial party was sailing up the Nile. Hadrian’s successors continued to travel, now to shore up border conflicts or prepare for one of the periodic wars with Persia (lots 625-627; 631-675). By the middle of the third century AD local issues, rather than those minted at the imperial capital, recorded these events, a sign that the center of power was drifting away from Rome itself.

Warships were not the exclusive vessel of the Roman navy. Providing the empire with an uninterrupted supply of grain, as well as other necessary supplies, necessitated the construction of ship for such a purpose. Unlike the warship, which required speed and strength for ramming, the merchantman (Greek nau~ stroggulh; Latin navis oneraria) was of broader beam. Many of these vessels, like the ponto or more common actuaria resembled the shape of a trireme and could be powered by both oars and sails. Since ships of this type were used to transport vital commodities such as wine and grain, they, like the large ponto, are often those shown on coins from the Black Sea (lots 655 and 664-666). The great Roman merchantman, or corbita, often seen in part on imperial issues commemorating the annona, is more familiar (lots 607-608). Powered by two large sails, it featured a rear cabin in the shape of a swan and was the true workhorse of Roman merchant vessels; its type continued well into the Byzantine period.
3 commentsokidoki
Alexander_the_Great_drachm.JPG
Alexander the Great, Ephesus18 viewsdrachm
336-323 BC
4.19 grams
Alexander in the guise of Herakles with lion skin headdress
Zeus seated left on throne with eagle on outstretched hand. Symbol to left of Zeus.
Ephesus was an important Greek city thus it is no surprise that their coinage shows a more refined sense of artistry. Coins struck in Ehesus signal a higher level of sophistication.
JBGood
AntonyOctaviaTetra.jpg
Antony & Octavia tetradrachm115 viewsM ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT
Conjoined heads of Antony and Octavia right, Antony wearing an ivy wreath

VIR RPC
Dionysus standing left, holding cantharus and thyrsus on cista mystica flanked by two interlaced snakes

Ephesus, summer-autumn 39 BC

11.22g

Imperators 263, RPC 2202, Babelon Antonia 61, Syndenham 1198, BMCRR east 135

Punch mark on the obverse protrudes onto the reverse

Ex-Numisantique

This series of Cistophori from Asia commemorates the marriage of Antony and Octavia and celebrate's Antony's divine status in the east as the "New Dionysus" which was bestowed on him when he arrived in Ephesus in 41 BC. Antony's titulature of "Imperator and Consul designate for the second and third times" fixes the period of issue to the latter part of 39 BC after the Pact of Misenum in July and before Antony's second Imperatorial acclamation in the winter of 39-38BC
7 commentsJay GT4
Diana_of_Ephesus_-_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Artemis, (Diana of Ephesus), in her Temple138 viewsTI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)

The statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the statue, or the temple that housed it, other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt around 330 BC in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The columns and marble of the temple were used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base. The rectangles on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as tables, or altars. However, it is more likely that these are windows in the pediment to facilitate lighting of the statue in the interior of the temple. The Ionic style of the columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
1 commentsLloyd T
Geta_02_artemis.jpg
Artemis, Ionia, Ephesus7 viewsIonia, Ephesus
Rev.: ЄΦЄCIΩN, Artemis driving biga of stags right, drawing arrow from quiver and holding bow.
AE, 3.15g, 17mm

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
ephesus_artemis.jpg
Artemis, Ionia, Ephesus6 viewsEphesos (Circa 50-27 BC)
Jason, magistrate
Obv.: Ε - Φ, Artemis advancing right, drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder and holding bow; hound at her feet.
AE, 10.88 g, 25 mm.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
ephesus_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesos AE2512 viewsEphesos (Circa 50-27 BC)
Jason, magistrate
Obv.: Ε - Φ, Artemis advancing right, drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder and holding bow; hound at her feet
Rev.: ΙΑΣΩΝ, Cock standing right with palm over wing within laurel wreath.
AE, 10.88 g, 25 mm.
Ref.: SNG Copenhagen 344
shanxi
R668_Domitia_Ephesus_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesos, Domitia, two Nemeses15 viewsDomitia
Ionia, Ephesos
AE20
Obv: ΔΟΜΙΤΙΑ CΕ-ΒΑCΤΗ, Draped bust right
Rev: OMONOIA ANΘY KAICEN ΠΑΙΤΟΥ / ZMYP - EΦΕ, Two Nemeses standing facing one another.
Ae, 4.30g, 20 mm
Ref.: RPC 1092
2 commentsshanxi
R658_Domitia_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesus, Domitia, Venus20 viewsDomitia
Ionia, Ephesus
Cistophorus (AD 82-96).
Obv.: DOMITIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
Rev.: VENVS AVG, Venus standing right, back facing, leaning upon column to left, holding helmet and sceptre.
Ag, 10.39g, 26mm
Ref.: RIC² 847 (Domitian); RPC II 870.
2 commentsshanxi
Geta_02.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesus, Geta, Artemis15 viewsGeta
Ionia, Ephesus
Obv.: Λ CЄ Π ΓЄTAC K, bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: ЄΦЄCIΩN, Artemis driving biga of stags right, drawing arrow from quiver and holding bow.
AE, 3.15g, 17mm
Ref.: SNG München 169-70
Ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser, 1995
Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 49, lot 430
shanxi
Augustus_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesus, Octavian, Pax28 viewsOctavian
Ionia, Ephesus
Cistophorus (ca. 28 BC).
Obv.: IMP CAESAR DIVI F COS VI LIBERTATIS P R VINDEX, Laureate head right.
Rev.: PAX, Pax standing left, holding caduceus; to right, serpent rising left from altar; all within wreath.
Ag, 11.51g, 26mm
Ref.: RIC² 476, RPC I 2203, CRI 433.
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 53, lot 447
2 commentsshanxi
Augustus_07.jpg
Asia Minor, Uncertain, Ephesus or Pergamon, Augustus34 viewsAugustus
27-14 BC
Uncertain, Ephesus or Pergamon
Obv.: CAISAR, bare head right
Rev.: AVGVSTVS (AVGV-STVS) within wreath
Æ, 24mm, 8,31g
Ref.: RIC² I 485, RPC I 2231
4 commentsshanxi
ben5.jpg
AUGUSTUS46 viewsAR cistophoric tetradrachm. (12.07 gm). Ephesus mint, 25-20 BC. Bare head right. IMP CAESAR / Capricorn right, head left, holding cornucopiae ,AVGUSTVS below ; all within laurel wreath. RIC I 480; Sutherland Group VI, 241a (O35/R45-same reverse die); RSC 16. Toned.
Ex. Glenn.W.Woods. Triton VII, Lot: 847. Sternberg XI (20-21 November 1981), lot 566.
benito
00augcist.jpg
AUGUSTUS56 viewsAR cistophoric tetradrachm. (12.07 gm). Ephesus mint, 25-20 BC. Bare head right. IMP CAESAR / Capricorn right, head left, holding cornucopiae ,AVGUSTVS below ; all within laurel wreath.
RIC I 480; Sutherland Group VI, 241a (O35/R45-same reverse die); RSC 16.Triton VII, Lot: 847. Sternberg XI (20-21 November 1981), lot 566
2 commentsbenito
00740.jpg
Augustus (RIC 479, Coin #740)40 viewsRIC 479 (R2), AR Cistophori, Ephesus, 25 BC.
OBV: IMP CAESAR; Bare head right.
REV: AVGVSTVS; Garlanded altar sculpted with two confronting
deer, linear border.
SIZE: 26.6mm, 11.80g
6 commentsMaynardGee
augustuscist.JPG
Augustus - Cist Tetradrachm81 viewsAugustus Cistophoric Tetradrachm
19-18 BC
Ephesus Mint

OBV: IMP CAESAR
REV: AUGUSTUS
Garland alter, 2 hinds standing facing

RIC 482, RSC 33, RPC 2215, Sear 1587
1 commentsmarcvs_traianvs
Augustcist2.jpg
Augustus - Cist Tetradrachm43 viewsAugustus Cistophoric Tetradrachm
28-20 BC
Ephesus Mint

OBV: IMP CEASAR DIVI F COS VI LIBERTATIS P R VINDEX
REV: PAX
Pax standing left holding caduceus, serpent arising from cista mystica to right, all within laurel wreath

RIC 476, RPC 2203, RSC 218


PROVINZ ASIA. Augustus, 27 v.Chr. - 14 n.Chr. Cistophor (11,44g). ca. 28 v. Chr. Mzst. Ephesos. Vs.: IMP CAESAR DIVI F COS VI LIBERTATIS P R VINDEX, Kopf des Augustus mit Lorbeerkranz r. Rs.: PAX, auf einem Parazonium stehende Pax mit Kerykeion, r. cista mystica mit Schlange. RIC 476. RPC 2203. Sutherland Group I Taf.1f. ss

Ex Gorny & Mosch
marcvs_traianvs
BrettAugustusAs.jpg
Augustus As84 viewsBare head of Augustus right, CAESAR / AVGVSTVS in one line in laurel-wreath. Ephesus mint, c. 25 BC. RIC I 486 (pg. 80).
socalcoins
AAFXb_small.png
Augustus provincial9 viewsAugustus 27 BC - 14 AD. Antioch or Ephesus

25 mm., 9,87g.

CAESAR, bare head right

AVGVSTVS in laurel wreath

References: Either RPC 4100 or RPC 2235; RIC 486; Hunter 290; Cohen 34

AAFX
RL
Augustus_RIC_I_486.jpg
Augustus, AE26, RIC I 4866 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. – 14 A.D.

Coin: AE26

Obverse: CAESAR, bare headed bust facing right.
Reverse: AVGVSTVS, within a Laurel Wreath.

Weight: 12.93 g, Diameter: 26.5 x 25.6 x 2.8 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: Ephesus, struck in 25 B.C. Reference: RIC I 486
Masis
Augustus,_Ephesus,_AE26.JPG
Augustus, Ephesus ?14 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD Ephesus (or Mysia, Pergamon) 26 mm, 10.8 g. Obverse: bare head of Augustus right. Reverse: laurel wreath, AVGVSTVS within. ex areich, photo credit areich. Ref if Ephesus: RIC 486; RPC 2235.

Podiceps
RIAugustusAsCounterM~0.JPG
AVG and TICAE on AUGUSTUS AS (25 BC)316 views(26mm - 10.8g). Obv: Bust right (CAESAR), countermarked "AVG" (AVGUSTUS) & "TICAE" (TIBERIUS CAESAR). Rev: Legend within wreath (AVGVSTVS). Minted in Ephesus. Reference for this coin is RIC 486. Augustus was adopted by Julius Caesar as heir. After the assassination of Caesar, Octavian and Mark Antony fought together and won the resulting Civil War. They shared the rule of the Roman Empire. Antony's alliance with Cleopatra provoked a split with Octavian that led to a new Civil War. At the Battle of Actium (31 BC) Antony was defeated and Octavian became the sole ruler of the Empire. He was declared "Augustus" and became the proto-type emperor of Rome.1 commentskerux
BCC_LT26_Zeus_h2.jpg
BCC LT2630 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
Obv: Cult statue of Artemis, or
possibly Zeus Heliopolites?
Rev: Blank
A fragmentary cult statue of
the Artemis of Ephesus was
found at Caesarea, Raban,
Holum, 1996.
12 x 8mm. 0.54gm.
cf. BCC LT25, LT35, or LT9
cf Hamburger #15 and #16
v-drome
BCC_LT81_Artemis_tessera.jpg
BCC LT819 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
Late Roman 1st-4th cent.
Obv: Cult statue of Artemis?,
facing, stags? to right and left.
Rev: Blank.
11x8.5x1mm. 0.66gm.
cf. Hamburger, "Surface Finds from
Caesarea Maritima - Tesserae Excavations
at Caesarea Maritima 1975, 1976,
1979 - Final Report, Levine, Netzer.
#15 and #16
cf. BCC LT25, LT26, LT35, LT72,
and LT82.
This collection of very small lead
pieces from Caesarea, a corpus of
around ninety objects, includes six
very similar tesserae which display
the image of an Eastern-style mummiform
diety. This is possibly the Artemis of Ephesus,
a fragmentary statue of which was found
at Caesarea in the 1960's.
v-drome
John_Ephesus.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal: John, Archbishop of Ephesus262 viewsObv: Cruciform invocative monogram - Θεοτόκε βοήθει τῷ σῷ δούλῳ
Rev: Inscription of four lines - Ἰωάννῃ ἀρχιεπισκόπῳ Ἐφέσου

"Mother of God, help your servant John, archbishop of Ephesus"
1 commentsSpongeBob
coin118.JPG
Cappadocia, Caesarea; Gordian III24 viewsCappadocia, Caesarea, Gordian III 238-244 Æ26

The city has been continuously inhabited since perhaps c. 3000 BCE[citation needed] with the establishment of the ancient trading colony at Kultepe (Ash Mountain) which is associated with the Hittites. The city has always been a vital trade centre as it is located on major trade routes, particularly along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies nearby.

As Mazaca, the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East also crossed the city.

The city stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). Only a few traces of the ancient site survive in the old town. The city was the centre of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the centre of an autonomous Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in around 250 BC. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence, and was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator of Cappadocia (163–130 BCE). Under the new name of Caesarea, by which it has since been known, given to it by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus[5] or perhaps by Tiberius,[6] the city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 BCE.
Walls of the Seljuk era Sahabiye Medresesi, built in 1267 by the Seljuk vizier Sahip Ata Fahreddin Ali.

Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. The city gradually recovered, and became home to several early Christian saints: saints Dorothea and Theophilus the martyrs, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea.

Obv: Laureate bust of Gordian, right.
Rev: Agalma of Mount Argaeus set on altar. Year 243 AD
ecoli
ben5~0.jpg
Capricorn274 viewsAR cistophoric tetradrachm. (12.07 gm). Ephesus mint, 25-20 BC. Bare head right. IMP CAESAR / Capricorn right, head left, holding cornucopiae ,AVGUSTVS below ; all within laurel wreath. RIC I 480; Sutherland Group VI, 241a (O35/R45-same reverse die); RSC 16.
Triton VII, Lot: 847.
AIGIPAN (or Aegipan) was one of the goat-footed gods known as Panes. When the gods fled from the monstrous giant Typhoeus and hid themselves in animal form, Aigipan assumed the form of a fish-tailed goat. Later he came to the aid of Zeus in his battle with creature, by stealing back his stolen sinews. As a reward the king of the gods placed him amongst the stars as the Constellation Capricorn. The mother of Aigipan, Aix (the goat), was perhaps associated with the constellation Capra.


benito
Caracalla_Ephesus_boar_AE17_2_65g.jpg
Caracalla, Ephesus, boar, AE1723 viewsAE17, 2.65g
obv: []WNEINOC; laureate head right
rev: EFECIWN, Calydonian boar right, pierced by spear
ex Lord Grantley via Sayles & Lavender
areich
1156887333_e6579cdaf2.jpg
Carradice Type III AR Siglos - Artaxerxes I - Darius III62 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire.
Time of Artaxerxes I - Darius III, c. 420-375 B.C.
AR Siglos (16mm, 5.56 g).
Persian king or hero in kneeling/running stance right, holding spear in his right and bow in his left bow / Incuse punch.
Carradice Type IIIb; S 4682. Struck on a good metal. Very large die. Choice pleasing VF.

Provenance: Ephesus Coins
Caffaro
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Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
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DOMITIAN23 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus. 71 AD. 3,12 grs. Bust draped and cuirassed,wearing aegis,,head right. DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F / Female bust,draped and towered right. PACI ORB TERR AVG. Under bust E PHE (ligate).
RIC 350 (Vespasian),
2 commentsbenito
00domitefe.jpg
DOMITIAN78 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus. 71 AD. 3,12 grs. Bust draped and cuirassed,wearing aegis,,head right. DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F / Female bust,draped and towered right. PACI ORB TERR AVG. Under bust E PHE (ligate).
RIC 350 (Vespasian),
2 commentsbenito
4330386.jpg
Domitian23 viewsAR Denarius (18mm, 2.72 g, 7h). Ephesus mint. Struck AD 71. bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, wearing aegis / Victory advancing right, holding palm frond and wreath; EPE mintmark to lower right. RIC II 1447 (Vespasian); RPC 848; RSC 336. VF, minor roughness.

ex CNG Auc 433 lot 386
2 commentsarash p
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_II_V1447.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC II V1447 Overstrike65 viewsDomitian as Caesar under Vespasian. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 71 A.D. (2.59g, 20.6m, 7h). Obv: DOMITIAN[VS CAES]AR AVG F, bare bust right, draped and cuirassed with aegis. Rev: PACI AVGUSTAE, Victory adv. R. with wreath and palm, lower r. [EPE]. RIC V1447. Overstruck on RIC II V1433.

Overstrike on identifiable under type of Vespasian RIC II 1433. Obv: IMP CAESAR VEPAS AVG COS III TR PPP, laureate head r. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory adv. L. with wreath and palm, lower l. EPE. Unusual to have an overstrike of an emperor still in life, and of a coin as a part of the same series at the same mint.

3 commentsLucas H
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Domitian as Caesar RIC II V149254 viewsDomitian as Caesar. 69-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Uncertain Asian Mint (“o” mint) 76 A.D. (3.07g, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITANVS, laureate head right. Rev: COS IIII across field; Eagle stg. facing on garlanded base, wings open, head right. RIC II V1492 (R), BMC V487, RSC 45c.

The Flavian’s mysterious “o” mint was likely in Ephesus given stylistic links with earlier issues from that mint and the use of an annulet similar to the “o” in the last issue from 74 A.D.. This example has the same dies as the Oxford example illustrated in the updated RIC, previously owned by Curtis Clay, and coming from the BMC collection through Bob Arnold before that. The small number of dies from this mint speaks to the “o” mint’s limited output.
5 commentsLucas H
Domitian_Cistophoric_Tetradrachm_Domitia.jpg
Domitian Cistophoric Tetradrachm Domitia98 viewsObv.
IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII
Laureate head right

Rev.
DOMITIA AVGVSTA
Draped bust of Domitia right

Minted in Rome for circulation in Asia 82 A.D.

26mm 10.55 g

RIC II 845 RPC II 866 RSC 2
7 commentsancientdave
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Domitian RIC-843122 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.65g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand
RIC 843 (C). BMC 252. RSC 667. RPC 865 (9 spec.). BNC 222.
Acquired from Coldwater Coins, February 2014.

Domitian minted a small series of cistophori at Rome early in his reign for distribution in Asia Minor. This military type was newly introduced previously by Titus on his cistophori and continued to be identically struck under Domitian. It is not clear why a military type was struck for such a prosperous and peaceful region. Previously these cistophori were attributed to Ephesus, but it is fairly clear style wise they belong to Rome.

Honest wear with clear legends and devices. A real beauty in hand.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian, AD 81-9675 viewsAR denarius, 19 mm (3.21 gm).

CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right, small 'o' below neck truncation / COS IIII, eagle standing facing on garlanded base, wings open, head right. Ephesus (?) mint, struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1492 (R); BMCRE II, 487; RSC II, 045c var. (no annulet noted); RPC II, 1466.
3 commentssocalcoins
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Domitian, AD 81-9661 viewsAR denarius.

CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III, laureate, right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / FIDES PVBI, hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn-ears. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?); struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1488 (R2); BMCRE II, unlisted; RSC II, unlisted; RPC II, unlisted.

The 'F' in FIDES in the reverse legend almost looks like a Γ... perhaps an unlisted variety?
3 commentssocalcoins
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Domitian, AD 81-9642 viewsAR denarius.

CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III, laureate, right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / PRINCEPS IVVENTVT, Spes standing left, with flower. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1489 (R2); BMCRE II, 481; RSC II, 375a; RPC II, 1462.

From the collection of A. Lynn.
1 commentssocalcoins
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Domitian, AD 81-9659 viewsAR denarius, 19.03mm (3.33 gm).

CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right, small 'o' below neck truncation / COS IIII, Pegasus right. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1494 (R2); BMCRE II, 488 bis (pg.422); RSC II, 047; RPC II, 1465.

RSC 047 cross-references both BMCRE V193 and V488 bis, as well as old RIC II V238, which cross-walks to RIC II.1 V921. RIC II.1 V921 is not an 'o'-mint type.

6 commentssocalcoins
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Domitian, AD 81-9642 viewsAR denarius, 18.91mm (3.18 gm).

CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right, small 'o' below neck truncation / COS IIII, eagle standing facing on garlanded base, wings open, head right. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1492 (R); BMCRE II, 487; RSC II, 045c; RPC II, 1466.
1 commentssocalcoins
Domitian_o-mint_G_M_212_Lot_2766.jpg
Domitian, AD 81-9658 viewsAR Denarius (3.32 gm).

CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right, small 'o' below neck truncation / PON MAX TR P COS IIII, winged caduceus. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1496 (R2); BMCRE II, 489; RSC II, 369; RPC II, 1469.

3 commentssocalcoins
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Domitian. AD 81-96. AR Cistophorus (26mm, 10.35 g, 6h). Ephesus mint (or Rome for circulation in Asia). Struck AD 8210 viewsJOE GERANIO COLLECTION- Domitian. AD 81-96. AR Cistophorus (26mm, 10.35 g, 6h). Ephesus mint (or Rome for circulation in Asia). Struck AD 82. Laureate head right / Aquila between two signa. RIC II 843; RPC II 865; RSC 667.Joe Geranio
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Eagle, wings half-spread, head left152 viewsIONIA. Ephesus. Otacilia Severa. Æ 28. A.D 244-249. Obv: MAPΩT(A)-CEYHPACEB. Diademed and draped bust right; countermark on shoulder. Rev: (APTEMIC)-EΦE-CIAC or similar? Artemis huntress, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver, stands in biga drawn right by two stags. Ref: BMC 343 (var. rev. leg.); SNG Aul -; SNG Cop 487 (var. rev. leg.). Axis: 360°. Weight: 6.77 g. CM: Eagle, wings half-spread, head left, in cicular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 324 (92 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably applied at Tralles. Collection Automan.Automan
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EB0538 Caracalla / Artemis & stag14 viewsCaracalla, AE 23 of Ephesus, Ionia, 198-217 AD.
Obv: A[YT] K M AY[P] ANTΩNINOC, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΕΦΕCΙΩ−Ν Β ΝΕΟ−ΚΟ/ΡΩΝ, Artemis huntress seizing with left hand stag by horn and with right hand drawing arrow from quiver at her shoulder.
References: SNG Copenhagen 420?
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 5.66 grams.
This coin mentions the Second Neocoria of Ephesus, i.e.
the building of a second imperial temple.
EB
EB0696_scaled.JPG
EB0696 Commodus / Statue of Artemis8 viewsCommodus 177-192, AEZANIS, Phrygia, AE 18, c. 184-192.
Obverse: ΑV (ΚΑΙ) ΚΟΜΟΔΟС, laureate head of Commodus (with traces of drapery) right.
Reverse: ΑΙΖΑΝƐΙΤΩΝ, cult statue of Artemis of Ephesus standing, facing, wearing kalathos, having supports.
References: vA Aezani 68, BMC 124-5, Cop 103.
Diameter: 17.5mm, Weight: 3.08g.
EB
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Ephesian Artemis88 viewsI took this photo while visiting the ancient city of Ephesus, Turkey, in August of 2013. Along one of the avenues was this relief of one of Ephesus' most unique symbols: the Ephesian Artemis. Large cult statues of this goddess would be placed in the Artemis Temple just outside the city. Ephesian Artemis can occasionally be found on the reverse sides of Seleucid coins.ThatParthianGuy
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Ephesos8 viewsObv: Laur. r.
Rev: Coresus r. clasping the hand of Androclus l.; Androclus was the mythical founder of Ephesus, Coresus the personification of a nearby mountain.

4.68g, 19mm
RPC III, 2049
klausklage
EPHESUS_BEE_COIN.jpg
EPHESOS - Ionia13 viewsEPHESOS - Ionia, AE15. 350-288 BC Obv.: Bee with straight wings, within a laurel-wreath Rev.: Stag grazing right. Magistrate's name unclear in exergue. Reference: Sear #4406dpaul7
Ephesus_AE11,_bee___stag_left.JPG
Ephesos AE 118 viewsIonia, Ephesos, AE 11, 4th/3rd century BC, 11 mm, 1.35 g, Ephesos mint, obverse E-F, bee in wreath; reverse stag standing right, head turned back, quiver above, magistrate's name right. cf. SNG Cop 265 – 6. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
ephesos.jpg
Ephesos bee & stags Diobol9 viewsIonia, Ephesus, 4th Century BC, Diobol, Bee & Two Stags, 0.97g. BM-53, SNG von Aulock-1835, SNG Cop-243. Obv: Bee. Rx: Foreparts of two stags facing one another. . F+; a bit corroded. Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
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Ephesos, Ionia, c. 48 - 27 B.C.6 viewsEphesos, on the west coast of Anatolia, was one of the 12 cities of the Ionian League. It was famous for its Temple of Artemis, completed around 550 B.C., one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The usual symbols of this nature-goddess are the torch, stag, and the bee. Coins of Ephesos most frequently depict a bee on the obverse. The high-priest of the temple of Artemis was called the King Bee, while the virgin priestesses were called honey-bees (Melissae). Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia cited in the Book of Revelation and the Gospel of John may have been written there.
GB88324. Bronze AE 16, SNG Cop 350 - 351, SNG München 92, Head Ephesus p. 76, BMC Ionia -, SNGvA -, SNG München -, SNG Kayhan -, F, dark green patina with buff earthen highlighting, slightly off center, scratches, Ephesos mint, weight 3.305g, maximum diameter 16.1mm, die axis 0o, magistrate Iason, c. 48 - 27 B.C.; obverse bee with straight wings seen from above, tiny E-Φ flanking head inside forelegs, all within laurel wreath; reverse stag standing right, head right, fillet in mouth, grounded long torch on far side of stag in center background, IAΣΩN (magistrate's name) in exergue; ex Münzhandlund Ritter
Mark R1
Ephesus_Tyche.jpg
Ephesus - AE 1115 views305-288 BC
draped and turreted bust of Tyche? left, wearing earring and necklace
bee
E _ Φ
BMC 68-70; SNGvA 1839; SNGCop 256
1,13g 10,5mm
Johny SYSEL
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Ephesus - Antoninus Pius38 viewsReverse : ΔIC NEOKOPΩN / EΦECIΩN , Temple of Artemis with Statue of Ephesian Artemis inside.

This temple was considered one of the 7 wonders of the Hellenistic world.
Ginolerhino
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Ephesus Antoninus Pius 8 viewsEphesus Antoninus Pius with three temples and Artemis central. 35.6mm, 19gm, RPC Online, Volume IV, 8474. Rare.
Obverse inscription Τ ΑΙΛ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС
Obverse design laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
Reverse inscription ƐΦƐСΙΩΝ ΔΙС ΝƐΩΚΟΡΩΝ
Reverse design temple with four columns enclosing statue of Artemis of Ephesus standing, facing, wearing kalathos, having supports; between two temples, each in perspective, with two frontal columns and an enclosed imperial statue
Ancient Aussie
Ephesus_AR.JPG
Ephesus, Ionia61 views390-320 BC
AR Diobol (10mm, 1.02g)
O: Bee with straight wings, within dotted border.
R: Confronted heads of two stags; EΦ above.
SNG Cop 242-43; SNG von Aulock 1835; SNG München 32; Sear 4375v; BMC Ionia 53, 53; 
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

The bee was sacred to the goddess Artemis, whose famous sanctuary at Ephesus was tended by Her priestesses, known collectively as Melissae, a word which translates as ‘bee’, or by some accounts ‘honey gatherer’. It is no surprise then that the coins of this city should feature the bee on their obverse.
5 commentsEnodia
Ephesos5.jpg
Ephesus, Ionia25 viewsProvincial coin, 98 - 117 AD
Obv: AY NER TRAIANOS KAI SE ARI GER DA
Cuirassed bust r.
Rev: O NEW EP'ESIWN DH EPEC'ARAXATO
Woman (Amazon? Dacia?) kneeling r.; Artemis Ephesia frontal; man (emperor?) standing l.

19.32g, 33mm
IMHOOF KM S59,64(1) / COLL IMHOOF(1)
1 commentsklausklage
Ephesus_AE2.JPG
Ephesus, Ionia16 views280-258 BC
AE19 (19mm, 4.51g)
O: Bee with spread wings, E - Φ to either side, all within wreath.
R: Stag grazing right, quiver above; ΕΥΠΟΛΙΣ in ex.
cf SNG Cop 268; cf SNG München 60; Sear 4406
ex Kölner Münzkabinett 


Enodia
Ephesus_Obol.JPG
Ephesus, Ionia26 views500-420 BC
AR Diobol (11mm, 1.06g)
O: Bee with curved wings and volute-shaped antennae; E - Φ flanking.
R: Quadripartite incuse square.
SNG Kayhan 125; Sear 3517v (Drachm)
ex Tom Vossen
1 commentsEnodia
coins12.JPG
Ephesus, Ionia; Salonina16 viewsEphesus, Ionia; Salonina

CΑΛΩΝ ΧPΥCΟΓΟΝΗ CEBAC
ΕΦΕCΙΩΝ ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC
ΧPΥCΟΓΟΝΗ = Chrysogona "golden child"
Artemis in reverse.
ΠΡΩΤΩΝ ΑCΙΑC = "First (city) of Asia"
ecoli
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ephesus001a6 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ƐΦƐСΙΩΝ ΠΡΩ-ΤΩΝ ΑСΙΑС, Artemis advancing, right, drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow; at feet, dog running right.
30mm, 10.81 gms

RPC Online 4892; Karwiese 642.1
Charles M
1495.jpg
ephesus001b3 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ƐΦƐСΙΩΝ Δ ΝƐΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Artemis advancing, right, drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow; at feet, dog running right.
28 mm, 9.85 gms

RPC Online 4891; Karwiese 643
Charles M
1767.jpg
ephesus001b_20 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ƐΦƐСΙΩΝ Δ ΝƐΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Artemis advancing, right, drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow; at feet, dog running right.
29 mm, 16.76 gms

RPC Online 4891; Karwiese 643
Charles M
1807.jpg
ephesus001c0 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: ƐΦƐСΙ[ΩΝ Δ] ΝƐΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Artemis advancing, right, drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow; behind, to right, tree; at her feet, to left, deer, left, looking back.
30 mm, 12.26 gms

RPC Online 4893 variant (reverse legend); for this reverse type and legend, Mionnet 628 for Annia Faustina
Charles M
131.jpg
ephesus002a4 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΠΡΩ[Τ-ΩΝ] ΑСΙΑС →ƐΦƐСΙΩΝ, Artemis on left advancing right, seizing stag by the horns, and placing knee on its back.
21 mm, 4.44 gms

RPC Online 4921; Karwiese 648
Charles M
285.jpg
ephesus003a4 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС ΑΥΓ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ƐΦƐСΙΩ →Ν, boar running right pierced by spear.
17 mm, 2.17 gms

RPC Online 4949; Karwiese 666
Charles M
429.jpg
ephesus004a4 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ƐΦƐСΙΩΝ →ΝƐΩΚΟΡΩ to right Ν, in field Δ, galley sailing, right, with aplustre on stern, standard on prow, with helmsman and four rowers.
21 mm, 3.09 gms

RPC Online 4928; Karwiese 673-5
Charles M
755.jpg
ephesus005a11 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: [ΑΥΤ] Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС C[ЄB0, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: [ƐΦƐСΙΩ]Ν Δ ΝƐΩΚΟΡΩΝ, Tyche standing facing, looking lleft, holding rudder and cornucopia.
22 mm, 6.06 gms

RPC Online 4930; Karwiese 686
Charles M
1886__Numismatik_Naumann,_Auction_82_lot_241.jpg
ephesus006a3 viewsElagabalus
Ephesus, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟϹ ϹƐΒ, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: ΔΟΓΜΑΤΙ ϹΥΝ/ΚΛΗΤΟΥ →ƐΦƐϹΙΩΝΟΥ/TOΙ ΝΑΟΙ, frontal view of two distyle temples between two distyle temples seen in perspective, each holding cult-statue; the central ones having Artemis of Ephesus, to left, and the Emperor, to right.
36 mm, 20.82 gms

RPC Online 4867; Karwiese 680

From Numismatik Naumann Auction 82, lot 241.
Charles M
214- Faustina II Ephesus.JPG
Faustina II Ephesus32 viewsAE 19, Ionia , Ephesus
Obverse: FAVCTEINA..? , Draped bust right , hair in bun.
Reverse:EFECIL-NBNC, Nike stading, facing with wreath and palm.
BMC 81, 245; SNG Cop. 402
19mm , 6.5gm
Jerome Holderman
gaius.jpg
Gaius Caesar, Phyrigia, Laodikeia13 viewsÆ15, 2.8g, 12h; Laodikeia, Polemon Philopatris, magistrate, AD 5.
Obv.: ΓΑΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ; Bare head of Gaius Caesar right.
Rev.: ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ; Eagle standing right, head left, between two monograms which expand to ΠOΛE and ΦIΛOΠAT.
Reference: RPC 2900 (This type was formerly attributed to Caligula).
Notes: ex-G-N; ex-Ephesus Numismatics (Baltimore Expo); 3/28/15, sold to JB, 9/15.
John Anthony
ephesus_drachm.jpg
GREEK, Ephesos, Ionia, Silver drachm56 viewsEphesos, Ionia,c. 500 - 420 B.C.,Silver drachm.
SNG Kayhan 119 - 120, VF, porous, Ephesos mint.
Size: 13.2mm.
Weight: 3.218g.
Obverse: Ε−Φ, bee.
Reverse: quadripartite incuse square.
1 commentsnekto
bpGS1I2Ephesus.jpg
GREEK, Ephesus, Ionia, AR Diobol51 viewsDiobol, .9 gm, 10.3 mm, 390-330 BC, Sear (GC) 4375
Obv: Bee with streight wings, E to left, Φ to right.
Rev: Two stags' heads, confronted, Ε Φ above.
Massanutten
ArsinoeEphesus.JPG
GREEK, Ionia, Ephesus, Arsinoe, AE1535 viewsAE 15.9x16.5mm
Obv. Head of Arsinoe right, veiled.
Rev. Stag (fallow deer) left, kneeling,
head reverted, astragalus above
295-280 BC
gparch
09059q00.jpg
GREEK, Kingdom of Thrace, Lysimachos, 305 - 281 B.C., Portrait of Alexander the Great, Gold stater22 viewsSH09059. Gold stater, Thompson 164, EF, weight 8.50 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 180o, Ephesus mint, posthumous, 305 - 297 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great right wearing the horn of Ammon; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY, Athena seated left, resting elbow on shield and holding Victory, bee and E-Φ in left field; struck with beautiful dies, mint luster!Joe Sermarini
Seleucid_Kingdom,_Antiochos_II_AR_tetradrachm_-_SC_Plate_coin_.jpg
GREEK, Antioche de Syrie, p. 46, pl.4, G (this coin), Seleucid Coins 534.3 (this coin illustrated on Plate 25)80 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochos II Theos, 261-246 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Tralles
Diademed head of Antiochos II right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrow with left hand resting on bow; YA monogram in inner left field and ME in exergue.
Antioche de Syrie, p. 46, pl.4, G (this coin) dies A1-P5, referenced to W K Raymond coll., Fresno California; SC 534.3 (this coin - illustrated on Plate 25); HGC 9, 238i.
Tralles mint.
(30 mm, 16.45 g, 12h).
ex- Eukratides Ancient Numismatics; consigned from the William K. Raymond Collection.

This coin is referenced in Seleucid Coins (Volume I page 190 and Volume II Plate 25) with the comment, ‘Antioche de Syrie p.46. 14. Pl 4 G dies A1-P5 in W. K. Raymond coll, Fresno, California. Obverse die link with cat. Nos. 534.1-2 above, die in a very worn state, reverse die of barbarous style’. In describing the series to which this coin belongs, Seleucid Coins notes that it employs an obverse die of fine style, which after receiving considerable wear, is ultimately paired with a barbarous reverse die.

Tralles where this coin was struck was located in Ionia, about 50 kilometres inland from Ephesus.

References:
Georges le Rider. Antioche de Syrie sous les Séleucides Corpus des monnaies d'or et d'argent. I: De Séleucos I à Antiochos V, c. 300-161. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, 1999.

Houghton A. and Lorber C. Seleucid Coins A Comprehensive Catalogue Part I Seleucus I through Antiochus III Volumes I & II. The American Numismatic Society, New York in association with Classical Numismatic Group Inc Lancaster/London 2002.
n.igma
Temple_of_Artemis.jpg
Hadrian, Ephesus18 viewsIONIA, Ephesus. Hadrian. AD 117-138. Æ (23mm, 10.25 g, 6h). Laureate head right / Cult statue of Artemis Ephesia within tetrastyle temple.Obv. ΑΥT ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕ Laureate head right Rev: ΕΦΕ-СΙΩΝ tetrastyle temple within which cult statue of Artemis Ephesia with supports RPC III 2061. BMC 229; SNG von Aulock 1885. good fine, pale green patina,
Ancient Aussie
rjb_gal_ephe_04_06.jpg
Ionia24 viewsAE 20 mm
Ephesus, Ionia
ЄΦЄCΙΩN Γ ΝЄΩΚΟΡΩΝ
mauseus
Ephesus cista mystica.jpg
Ionia - Ephesus - Tetradrachm130 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 12.5g, 29.9mm, 0o, 166 - 160 B.C.

Grade EF - obverse slightly off-center; rare

Obverse cista mystica with snake within ivy wreath;
Reverse bow-case decorated with apluster, two snakes around, Artenus head right on left, EFE on right;

A scarce and unusual type because almost all Cistophoric tetradrachm of Ephesus have the ethinic left and symbol right. This is from the third series, before the format had become uniform.

references: Kleiner and Noe page 41, 6c and plate XI, 7; SNG Cop -; BMC Ionia -; SNG Von Aulock -
2 commentsjimwho523
coin147.JPG
Ionia, Colophon27 viewsColophon (/ˈkɒləfɒn/;[1] Ancient Greek: Κολοφών) was an ancient city in Ionia. Founded around the turn of the first millennium BC, it was likely one of the oldest of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. In ancient times it was located between Lebedos (120 stadia to the west) and Ephesus (70 stadia to its south). Today the ruins of the city can be found south of the town Değirmendere Fev in the Menderes district of Izmir Province, Turkey.

The city's name comes from the word κολοφών, "summit", which is also the origin of the bibliographic term "colophon", in the metaphorical sense of a 'crowning touch', as it was sited along a ridgeline. The term "colophony" for rosin comes from the term colophonia resina, that is, resin from the pine trees of Colophon, which was highly valued for the strings of musical instruments.

Ionia, Colophon, c. 389-350 BC, 0.80g. ANSNNM 96, Milne, Kolophon-57. Obv: Head of Apollo l. Rx: Lyre.
ecoli
GRK_Ephesus.JPG
Ionia, Ephesos11 viewsSear 4406, cf. SNG Copenhagen 268-269

AE 16 mm., struck ca. 280-150 B.C.

Obv: Bee [within laurel wreath, E-]Φ.

Rev: Stag grazing right, quiver above, [magistrate’s name in exergue].
Stkp
Ionia_Ephesus_SNG-Cop208.jpg
Ionia, Ephesos12 viewsEphesos. Late 6th C. BC. AR Drachm (3.35 gm). Bee w/ curved wings, four pellets and tendrils above, seen from above. Anepigraphic / Quadripartite incuse punch, off center. gVF. SNG Cop 208; SNG ANS Berry 1052; SNG Kayhan 140; Karwiese Series VI; Head Period 1. Christian T
Ionia_Ephesus_SNGvAulock7833.jpg
Ionia, Ephesos9 viewsEphesos. 180-67 BC. AR Tetradrachm (12.73 gm) struck 140-137 BC. Cysta mistica containing serpent, within ivy wreath / Bow in case between two coiled serpents; ethnic EΦE to l., K to upper l., bust of Artemis to r., quiver over shoulder. EF.  BMC 145; Kleiner-Noe Series 33 (obv. 44); SNG von Aulock 7833.Christian T
c11.jpg
IONIA, EPHESOS (Ephesus) 24 viewsIONIA, EPHESOS (Ephesus) AE 3rd century BC. Bee within laurel wreath Reverse, Stag grazing right,ecoli
Ephesus,_Ionia__BMC_54,_AR_Trihemiobol,_0_85g,_E-_#934;,_Bee_with_straight_wings,_E-_#934;,_Forepart_of_stag_right,_SNG_Cop_241,387-295_BC__Q-001,_0h,_8mm,_0,86g-s.jpg
Ionia, Ephesos, (c.387-295 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, BMC 54, E/Φ//--, Forepart of stag right,98 viewsIonia, Ephesos, (c.387-295 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, BMC 54, E/Φ//--, Forepart of stag right,
avers: E-Φ, Bee with straight wings.
reverse: E-Φ, Forepart of stag right, head turned back.
exergue: E/Φ//--, diameter: 7,0-8,0mm, weight: 0,86g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ionia, Ephesos, date:c.387-295 B.C., ref: BMC 54, SNG Cop 241, Babelon Traite 1889, SNG Turkey 190-192,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
ephesus_septimius_severus_.jpg
Ionia, Ephesos, Septimius Severus unpublished48 viewsSeptimius Severus AD 193-211
AE 17, 2.6g
obv. AV KL [CEP - C]EVHROC
Bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. EFEC - I / WN
Boar running r., transfixed by spear
unpublished
Rare, good F
A similar issue is known for Caracalla, BMC 280 and for Macrinus, SNG Copenhagen 438.

The boar belongs to the local founder myth of Ephesos.
For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
coin152.JPG
Ionia, Ephesus20 viewsIonia, Ephesus c.390-330BC Silver Diobol

Obv: EΦ, Bee with straight wings, border of dots.
Rev: EΦ, Stag's heads facing.

SNG Copenhagen 242; SNG Kayhan 194f.
ecoli
eph_bee_stag_quivbres.jpg
IONIA, EPHESUS16 views4th - 2nd Century BC
AE 16 x 15 mm, 2.74 g
O: E-Φ, Bee with straight wings, within laurel wreath.
R: Stag grazing right, quiver above
laney
bee_torch_res.jpg
IONIA, EPHESUS26 viewsca. 133-44 BC
Æ 14.5 mm; 2.64 g
Obv: E-Φ, Bee with straight wings, within laurel wreath.
R: Stag standing right, head turned back; long torch in background, monogram above left, MENA in exergue
cf. SNG Copenhagen 345
laney
EphesusBee.JPG
Ionia, Ephesus c. 380-370 B.C. AR Tetradrachm42 viewsIonia, Ephesus. AR tetradrachm (24mm, 15.35 gm, 12h). Polykles, magistrate, c. 380-370 B.C.
Obv: Φ, bee with straight wings, seen from above.
Rev: Forepart of stag running right, head looking back at palm tree to left, ΠΟΛΥΚΛΗΣ to right.
Ref: BMC Ionia pg. 53, 51. SNG Copenhagen 237.
Iridescent toning, otherwise Good Very Fine.
3 commentsmjabrial
image.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus, AE 10mm, C. 400 - 300 BC.9 viewsIonia, Ephesus, AE 10mm.
Obv. Female head Left
Rev. Bee.
Ref.BMC 68-70

This was an easy cleaner, just a few soaks and brushes, then on with the wax... I have wanted one of these Ephesus coins for a while, so I was grinning ear to ear as the dirt washed away revealing a Bee ;D . Unfortunately it is quite "flat" being a small coin with a lick patina, so I can only get a decent photo on my fingers catching the light, and not with my usual set up, I am however delighted with it!
Lee S
Ionia_Ephesus_ARTrihemiobol_Bee_Stag_9mm_0.7g.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus, AR Trihemiobol21 viewsIonia, Ephesus, AR Trihemiobol ca. 390-330 BC.
9 mm, 0.7g
Obv.: Bee with straight wings
Rev.: Forepart of a stag right, .E-Q in field (off flan)
areich
EphesusSaloninaAE26_BMC397.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus. Salonina, Augusta. BMC 397.21 viewsIonia, Ephesus. Salonina, Augusta (AD 254–268). Æ 26mm, 8.30 g, 6h.
Obverse: • CΑΛ ΧΡΥCΟ–ΓΟΝΗ CЄ •, draped bust right, wearing stephane; crescent behind bust.
Reverse: ΑΡΤЄΜΙC ЄΦЄCΙ–[Α], Artemis running right, drawing bow, with hound dashing beside her.
References: BMC Ionia, p. 109, #397.
Ex “laboralde” via Andreas Reich, 4-21-2013.

Same obverse die as CNG E160, lot 191: http://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=101314
Mark Fox
tiberiusmen1.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus. Tiberius Anepigraphic AE18 Cult Statue of Artemis50 viewsIonia, Ephesus Tiberius anepigraphic AE18
The obverse is anepigraphic, showing the portrait of Tiberius.
There are two rings of inscription on the reverse.
They all have the name and title of the Archiereus Alexander in the outer ring,
along with the ethnic E-Φ to either side, near the arms of the goddess.
The crucial part of the legend is contained within the inner-ring of the reverse,
and within the lower part of the struts or supports of the statue.
This gives the additional name of a magistrate, of which six are presently known.
ancientone
5171LG_Ionia,_Ephesus__Valerian_II_Caesar_AD_256-258,_20_5mm_(4_06g)___Possibly_unpublished.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus. AE20.5mm, Bust right/ TVXH EΦECIΩN; Tyche standing left17 viewsIonia, Ephesus. Valerian II Caesar A.D. 256-258, 20.5mm (4.06g) KOP OVΛEPIANOC KAI; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. TVXH EΦECIΩN; Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae. Possibly unpublished; Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
Ephesus2.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus. Elagabalus AE16. Stag52 viewsObv: Elagabalus bust r., ..TΩEINOC
Rev: Stag standing r., EΦECIΩN
ancientone
EphesusSevAlex.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus. Severus Alexander AE21.22 viewsObv: AVT K M AVP CEVH CEB ALEXANDPOC
Rev: EphECWN PWTWNLCILC
ancientone
Gülbay_Kireç-40a.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus: Anonymous (ca. 2nd-3rd Century CE) Pb Tessera (Gülbay-Kireç 40a)8 viewsObv: Hermit crab right; below, grain ear right
Rev: Blank
Quant.Geek
Gülbay_Kireç-___.jpg
Ionia, Ephesus: Anonymous (ca. 2nd-3rd Century CE) Pb Tessera (Gülbay-Kireç ???)3 viewsObv: Filleted cornucopia; Isis crown to left
Rev: Blank
Quant.Geek
51C76C64-5344-4E97-BC10-49162E5560AA.jpeg
Ionia, Ephesus; Augustus 6 viewsIONIA, Ephesus. Augustus, with Livia. 27 BC-14 AD. Æ 22mm (7.53 gm). Asklas and Euphron, magistrates. Jugate heads of Augustus and Livia right / Stag of Artemis right; bowcase above. RPC I 2591; SNG Copenhagen 360.ecoli
1_Ionia,Ephesus-Bee,Stag.jpg
Ionia-Ephesos; 202-133 BC 18 viewsAE18-Bee/Stag
Obv: Bee with rounded wings, E-Φ, either side of body; all within laurel wreath.
Rev: Stag standing right, palm tree behind,
Exergue: magistrates name unknown.
Size: 18mm;3.25gms
Ref: BMC Ionia,Vol.16,Pg.62,No.134-142
SG4411v; SNG Cop 299-300
1 commentsBrian L
AntPius-AE35-IONIEN-EPHESUS-TEMPELmitARTEMISEHESIA.jpg
IV - ANTONINUS PIUS - b- AE33 IONIA - EPHESOS; see SEAR 140911 viewsAv) T AIΛ KAICAP ANTΩЄINOC
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

R) ЄΦЄCIΩN ΔIC NЄKOPΩN
The temple of the Artemis Ephesia, in the middle the idol of Artemis Ephesia

Weight: 27,4g; Ø: 35mm; Reference: compare SEAR 1409;
EPHESOS mint in IONIA
sulcipius
julianapostatastier.jpg
Julian II. Apostate, double maiorina63 viewsJulian II. Apostate,
Double maiorina, 361-363, HERACLA in ex., Heraclea, 1. Offizin, 8.52g, 30 mm.
Obv.: D N FL C L IVLIANVS P F AVG; bareheaded beardes bust right.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REI PVB; bull right, two stars above.
RIC 104; Sear 4072
good VF
nice black patina, some roughness in fields.

The bull on the reverse cannot be, as often assumed, the one of apis, as it is always depicted with the sun betwenn its horns and the crescent moon above. Probably the picture shows us Julians horoscope, but not as in Augustus' capricorn coins the horoscope of his birth, but his conception. The idea came probably from his religious advisor Maximus of Ephesus. It was interpreted as a fortunate sign for the upcoming war against the Persians. After his military debacle and his death Christian theologists and historians used this as an argument against fortune-telling and astrology.

1 commentshelcaraxe
Julius_Caesar_Elephant_Crawford_443_1.jpg
Julius Caesar - [Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49; Kestner 3515-20; BMCRR Gaul 27-30; RBW 1557]105 viewsSilver denarius, 3.88g, 18.40mm, 90 degree, military mint traveling with Caesar, April-August 49 B.C.

Obv. - Elephant advancing right, trampling on horned serpent, CAESAR in exergue

Rev. - Emblems of the pontificate: simpulum, aspergillum, securis, and apex

An old tone with a slight rainbow highlight when presented in sunlight. Suspected graffiti in upper left reverse field forming a "X".
___________

Purchased from VCoins seller Ephesus Numismatics (Tom Wood) at the 2013 BRNA Dalton, GA coin show
4 commentsrenegade3220
L__Hostilius_Saserna.png
L. Hostilius Saserna – Hostilia-426 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC L. Hostilius Saserna denarius c. 48 BC. Head of Gallia right, hair long and dishevelled, Gaulish trempet behind. / L HOSTILIVS SASERNA Diana of Ephesus facing with stag and spear. Crawford 448/1; SRCV 419; Hostilia 4; Syd 953Bud Stewart
hostilius_saserna_Cr448_3.jpg
L. Hostilius Saserna, Crawford 448/331 viewsRoman Republic, L. Hostilius Saserna, gens Hostilia
AR - Denarius, 3.38g, 18.7mm, 35°
Rome, 48 BC
obv. Bare head of Pallor, with dishavelled hair, falling down, behind a wind instrument
rev. Cult statue of Diana Ephesus, stg. frontal, laureate, long hair falling down over her
shoulders, long floating garment, resting with raised l, hand on spear and holding with r.
hand stag, stg. l., at antlers
in l. field SASERNA in a curve upward, r. L.HOSTILIVS downward
ref.: Crawford 448/3; Sydenham 953; Hostilia 4; Sear Imperators 19; BMCRR Rome 3996;
SRCV I, 419; Kestner 3541
scarce, well centered, toned, some flat areas
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The rev. of this coin refers to the conquest of Massilia (Marseille) by Julius Caesar 1 year before at the begin of his war against Pompeius after a siege and a naval battle. Artemis Ephesia was particularly worshipped in Massilia, an ancient Greek foundation, and had its own temple.

The obv. is disputed. Today you often can read that the depicted portraits of the Hostilius coins represent Gallia and Vercingetorix. But that the Romans put on the obv. of their coins the portrait of their enemies would be very unusual. I went into the matter and actually these designations came into vogue not before the end of the 19th century, and of cause in France, when the French national sentiment was at its height. And naturally coins with the name of Vercingetorix are selling much better than without, especially today in the time of Asterix.
2 commentsJochen
hostiliu_saserna.jpg
L.HOSTILIUS SASERNA43 viewsAR denarius. 48 BC. 4,12 grs. Head of Gallia right; carnyx behind / Diana of Ephesus standing facing with stag in right hand, spear in left; L • HOSTILIVS to right, [SASERNA] to left.
Crawford 448/3. RSC Hostilia 4.
1 commentsbenito
hostilia10.jpg
L.HOSTILIUS SASERNA22 viewsAR denarius. 48 BC. 4,12 grs. Head of Gallia right; carnyx behind / Diana of Ephesus standing facing with stag in right hand, spear in left; L • HOSTILIVS to right, [SASERNA] to left.
Crawford 448/3. RSC Hostilia 4.

benito
Rsc37.jpg
Leg IX22 viewsThis worn denarius has an IMP VES countermark on the reverse. Most likely the countermark was applied at Ephesus early in Vespasian's reign. Proof that more than 100 years after being minted this coin was still circulating around the Roman world!Paul F
LucillaSestVenus~1.jpg
MAFJ7 Daughter and Empress16 viewsLucilla

Sestertius
Draped bust, right, LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F
Venus standing facing left holding apple, drawing out robe, VENUS

RIC 1767

Marcus Aurelius betrothed Lucilla to Lucius Verus upon his elevation to the purple in 161. In 164, while Lucius was in the East waging the Parthian war, Marcus sent his daughter off to be wed. According to the Historia Augusta, "In the middle of the war, [Marcus] conducted as far as Brundisium both Civica, Verus' uncle, and his own daughter who was about to be married, in the care of her sister, having endowed her with money, and sent them to Verus." Lucius received her in Ephesus. She was implicated in a plot against her brother Commodus and dispatched in 182.
1 commentsBlindado
1168.jpg
magnesia001a3 viewsElagabalus
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΜΑΓΝ-[ΗΤΩΝ], cult statue of Artemis of Ephesus standing, facing, wearing kalathos, with supports, being crowned by two Nikai flying on both sides.
22 mm, 4.40 gms

RPC Online 5102
Charles M
1459.jpg
magnesia002a5 viewsElagabalus
Magnesia ad Maeandrum, Ionia

Obv: ΑΥΤ ΚAI Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟС, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ƐΠΙ ΓΦMΜΑΤƐΩС ΥΛΛΟΥ →ΜΑΓΝΗΤΩΝ, front view of tetrastyle temple (with shield in pediment), within which cult statue of Artemis of Ephesus standing, facing, wearing kalathos, having supports, being crowned by Nike flying on either sides; at her feet, eagle with spread wings on either side.
31 mm, 13.78 gms

RPC Online 5119
Charles M
00mantoct.jpg
MARC ANTONY and OCTAVIAN 61 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus 41 BC. 3.78 grs. Bare head of Antony right. M.ANT.IMP.AVG.III.VIR.R.P.C.M.BARBAT.Q.P. / Bare head of Octavian right. CAESAR.IMP.PONT.III.VIR.R.P.C. Craw 517/2. RSC Mark Antony and Augustus 8.
Stack 11/90,N 14.
benito
00manyoct.jpg
MARC ANTONY AND OCTAVIAN35 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus 41 BC. 3.78 grs. Bare head of Antony right. M.ANT.IMP.AVG.III.VIR.R.P.C.M.BARBAT.Q.P. / Bare head of Octavian right. CAESAR.IMP.PONT.III.VIR.R.P.C. Craw 517/2. RSC Mark Antony and Augustus 8.
Stack 11/90,N 14.

1 commentsbenito
Antony_Octavian_denarius.jpg
Marc Antony and Octavian denarius portraits45 viewsMARK ANTONY and OCTAVIAN. Silver denarius. Moneyer: M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore. Ephesus, Spring-Summer 41 BC. Obv: M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P. Bare head of Mark Antony right. Rev: CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C. Bare head of Octavian right. Crawford 517/2; CRI 243. Weight: 3.91 g. Diameter: 13 mm.
This coin was struck to pay Antony's troops shortly after he and the young Octavian completed their defeat of Caesar's assassins. Several months later would come his first meeting with Cleopatra.
3 commentsOctavianus
89794q00.jpg
Marc Antony LEGIO ? - IMPVES Countermark22 viewsSilver Denarius
Roman Imperatorial

Marc Antony LEGIO ? IMPVES Countermark

? Patrae Mint. Fall 32-Spring 31 BC. Countermarked 74-79 AD at Ephesus.
Coin fair to poor. Countermark aVF.
18.7 mm / 2.873 g

Obverse: Galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow. "ANT*AVG / III VIR*R*P*C"
Reverse: "LEG ?", aquila between two legionary standards. Countermark "IMPVES" (IMP ligate, VE ligate)

Ex: Forum Ancient Coins (2019)
Ex: L.O.H.

cf Crawford 544/14, BMCRR II East 190. RSC I 27 ff. Countermark Howgego 839 (Vespasian).

MyID: 059A.

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
1 commentsTenthGen
McAlee262.jpg
Marc Antony Tetradrachm12 viewsMinted in 39 B.C. at Ephesus to commemorate the wedding of Marc Antony and Octavia, sister of Octavian.1 commentsPaul F
syd1181.jpg
Marcus Antonius and Augustus45 viewsMark Antony and Octavian (Augustus)
Spring or summer 41 BC
Ephesus
3.72 g
22 mm
--- M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P.
Bare head of Mark Antony, right.
--- CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C.
Bare head of Octavian, right.
Sydenham 1181 - Crawford 517/2
2 commentsArgentoratum
AntonyOctavian.jpg
Marcus Antonius and Octavian Denarius211 viewsM ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram)
Bare hd of Mark Antony right

Rev
CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C
Bare head of Octavian right

Ephesus spring/summer 41 BC

3.54g

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.

From the Enrico collection
6 commentsJay GT4
madeerOR.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, SNG Cop 4016 viewsIonia, Ephesus mint, Marcus Aurelius 161–165 A.D. AE, 18mm 4.0g, SNG Cop 401
O: Μ ΑΥΡ ΚΑΙΣ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝ, laureate-headed bust of Marcus Aurelius wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r.
R: ΕΦΕΣΙΩΝ, stag standing, r.
casata137ec
Antony.jpg
Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius64 viewsWhat can I say? I'm a sucker for iridescent toning.

Mark Antony & Octavian AR Denarius. Ephesus mint, 41 BC. M. Barbatius Pollio, moneyer. M ANT. IMP AVG III VIR. R. PC. M. BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony right / CAESAR. IMP. PONT. III. VIR. R. P. C., bare head of Octavian right, in slight beard. Cr517/2.

EXTREMELY FINE
Ex. Kunker 2007
2 commentsTrajan
Antony_Octavia.jpg
Mark Antony & Octavia150 viewsSilver Cistophorus

M ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT
Head of Antony right, wreathed with ivy, lituus below, all within ivy wreath

III VIR R P C
Draped bust of Octavia right above cista mystica flanked by two snakes

Ephesus, summer-autumn 39 BC
10.42g

Sear 1512, RPC 2201

Ex-Incitatus

This issue commemorates the marriage between Antony and Octavia and also celebrates Antony as "the new Dionysus". The honor was bestowed on Antony in 41 BC when he arrived in Ephesus. Antony is named as Imperator and Consul designate for the second and third time. This fixes the date towards the end of 39 BC. after the pact of Misenum in July. At that time the consular designations were agreed upon for the next eight years. However it must also be dated before the winter of 39-38 BC when Antony was acclaimed as Imperator for the second time.

Octavia is not specifically mentioned by name, but certainly there can be no doubt it is her image found on the reverse given the time this coin was minted.
5 commentsJay GT4
126e.jpg
Mark Antony & Octavian Denarius (Syd 1181; RCV 1504)93 viewsMark Antony & Octavian, Silver Denarius, mint of Ephesus, 41 B.C. 3.55g

Obv: M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P, head of Antony right

Rev. CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, head of Octavian right

12h (Cr 517/2; Syd 1181; RCV 1504). Small banker’s mark on obverse, attractive old iridescent cabinet tone, nearly extremely fine.

Ex. Baldwin & Sons
Summer 2011 Argentum Auction, Lot 26, 04/06/2011
David Heuer Collection, David Heuer of Memphis, Tennessee, USA
5 commentsKained but Able
AR_DENARIUS_OF_MARK_ANTONY_AND_OCTAVIAN_CAESAR_THE_TRIUMVIRS_PERIOD_41_BC_5.jpg
Mark Antony (Triumvir) Gens: Antonia Moneyer: M. Barbatius Pollio Coin: Silver Denarius 17 viewsM ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P, - Bare head of Mark Antony right
CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C - Bare head of Octavian right.
Mint: Ephesus (41 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.00g / 19mm / 12h
References:
RSC 8
Crawford 517/2
CRI 243
Sydenham 1181
Acquisition/Sale: imperatorcoins-and-estatesales eBay $0.00 07/19
Notes: Jul 14, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

(Coin broken probably from crystallization and repaired.)
2 commentsGary W2
01b~0.jpg
MARK ANTONY AND OCTAVIA42 viewsAR Cistophoric tetradrachm. 39 BC. 11.88 gm, 1h. Ephesus mint. Head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers .M ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT / Draped bust of Octavia right above cista, flanked by coiled snakes. III VIR R P C . RPC I 2201; CRI 262; Sydenham 1197; RSC 2.
Triton VII.Lot 838
CNG photograph.
benito
00mantoct~0.jpg
MARK ANTONY AND OCTAVIA 132 viewsAR Cistophoric tetradrachm. 39 BC. 11.88 gm, 1h. Ephesus mint. Head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers .M ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT / Draped bust of Octavia right above cista, flanked by coiled snakes. III VIR R P C . RPC I 2201; CRI 262; Sydenham 1197; RSC 2.


4 commentsbenito
m_antony_octavia_cist_tet_f_res.jpg
MARK ANTONY and OCTAVIA73 views39 BC
AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm 27 mm - 11.35 g
O: M ANTONIVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT, head of Antony right, wearing ivy wreath, lituus below; all within wreath of ivy and flowers
R: III. VIR. R.P.C, draped bust of Octavia right above cista; flanked by coiled snakes.
Ephesus mint.
RPC I 2201; CRI 262; Sydenham 1197; RSC 2.
(ex VAuctions)
1 commentslaney
Antony_and_Octavian_001.jpg
Mark Antony and Octavian 147 viewsM ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram)
Bare hd of Mark Antony right

Rev
CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C
Bare head of Octavian right

Ephesus spring/summer 41 BC

2.97g

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.


SOLD!
1 commentsTitus Pullo
mark.jpg
Mark Antony and Octavian (41 B.C.)62 viewsAR Denarius
M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore
O: Bare head of Mark Antony right.
R: Bare head of Octavian right, wearing slight beard.
Ephesus mint, Spring-early summer 41 B.C.
3.5g
20mm
Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; Sydenham 1181

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.
6 commentsMat
Antony_Octavian.jpg
Mark Antony and Octavian Caesar - AR denarius10 viewsmoneyer M. Barbatius Pollio
Ephesus?
spring - early summer 41 BC
head of Mark Antony right
M·ANT·I(MP)·(AV)G·III·VIR·R·P·C·M·BARBAT·Q·P
head of Octavian Caesar right
CAESAR·IMP·PONT·III·VIR·R·P·C·
Crawford 517/2, RSC I Mark Antony and Augustus 8, BMCRR 103, Sydenham 1181, SRCV I 1504
3,3g
ex Künker

Moneyer held unusal office quaestor pro praetore in the east in 41-40 BC. He accompanie Mark Antony after the battle of Philippi. He was probably also Curule Aedile. He restored aedicula shrine on the Forum Romanum and fountain of goddess Juturna (Lacus Iuturnae).
Johny SYSEL
ANTVESPcounter.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary denarius LEG X IMPVESP139 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley r. mast with banners at prow
IMPVESP counter mark above galley

LEG X?
Legionary eagle between two standards IMPVESP countermark


Patrae mint 32-31BC

3.01g

Ex-Incitatus

Obverse countermarked IMPVESP during Vespasian's reign showing this denarius was in circulation for well over 100 years! In hand I can make out X for the legion number but can't be sure if any other numerals appear after it. This countermark appears mostly on late Republican and Imperatorial denarii, although denarii of Augustus and denarii of the Flavians struck at Ephesus are also recorded. The MP VES countermarks circulated specifically within the province of Asia Minor. Martini noted that the output of silver coinage in relation to the civic bronze for this region was much smaller during the Julio-Claudian period. This suggests the denarii were countermarked to validate locally circulating silver coinage at an acceptable weight while the regional mints opened by Vespasian were gearing up production, a theory which the countermarking of cistophori with the contemporary MP VES AVG countermarks seems to support. The similarly countermarked Flavian denarii struck at Ephesus can be accounted for then as examples accidentally countermarked by unobservant mint workers during the transition.



LEG X (later called Gemina) was levied in 59 BC or earlier by Julius Caesar. It was the first legion levied by him personally and was raised in Spain. It played a major role in the Gallic war featuring prominently in Caesar's "Gallic Wars." Legio X was his most trusted and loyal Legion. In 45 BC the Legion was disbanded and given land grants in Southern Gaul.

During the civil war that followed Caesar's assassination, Legio X was reconstituted by Lepidus in the winter of 44/43 BC making use of many retired legionaries who re-enlisted. It was eventually turned over to Antony and fought for him until the final Battle of Philippi. The veterans obtained lands near Cremona, and an inscription reports that the name of the legion at the time was Veneria, "devoted to Venus." This alluded to Julius Caesar's claimed descent from Venus.

The newly levied Tenth was then taken by Antony to Armenia for his Parthian campaign. During Antony's civil war, the legion fought for him until his defeat at the Battle of Actium, after which the legion changed sides and moved into Octavian's army. They were then taken to Egypt to finish off Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian never fully trusted the 10th Legion as it had been fiercely loyal to both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After Antony's death Octavian left the legion in the East in Syria. In 29 BC the legion was due to be discharged. When the legionaries pressed for their release and land grants Octavian was slow in complying. Suetonius says that the entire legion rioted and Octavian dishonorably discharged the entire legion.

Octavian now recruited new legionaries to fill the 10th Legion in its traditional recruiting grounds of Spain. Some of the senior Centurions may have re-enlisted for a third term to serve with the 10th. These men would have been in their late 40's or early 50's. The new legionaries marched over land to Syria to take up their posting. The new 10th Legion's home base was on the Euphrates to keep an eye on the Parthians.

The next discharge date would be 14-13 BC. This time the 10th Legion was settled in Beirut and the city was given Colony status. Ten years later the 10th Legion under Publius Quintilius Varus was marched down to Jerusalem to garrison the city after Herod the Great died. The 10th Legion would remain in Jerusalem until 6 AD.
5 commentsJay GT4
Mehmed_II.jpg
Mehmed II Fatih - The Conqueror of Constantinople 1444-1481 A.D.126 viewsOTTOMAN/TURKEY: MEHMED II FATIH, THE CONQUEROR OF CONSTANTINOPLE [AH 848-886 / 1444-1481 AD], AR AKCHE, 10mm, 1.0gm.; Mint: AYASLUK (EPHESUS/EPHESOS), dated in AH 855/1451 AD. MEHMED BIN MURAD HAN AZZE NASRUHU 855 / HULLIDE MULKUNU DURIBE AYASLUKb70
Antoninos_Ephesos_X-001_6h_34,5-35,5mm_24,38ga-s.jpg
Modern Fake Caracalla , Ephesus, 78 viewsModern Fake Caracalla , Ephesus, quadrans
PergamonEphesosCommodus.jpg
Mysia, Pergamon. Alliance with Ephesos. AE34 of Commodus81 viewsObv: laureate-headed bust of Commodus (short beard) wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r.
Rev: to l., Asclepius standing, facing, (head, r.), holding serpent-staff; to r., cult statue of Artemis of Ephesus standing, facing, wearing kalathos, having supports.
34mm and 20.8g.
Howgego 70, Caracalla laureate, and reported on 114 coins from Pergamum.
Howgego 811 meaning revalued to 6 assarii, and reported on
32 coins from Ephesus.

ancientone
OCTAVIA-1.jpg
Octavia, 4th wife of Marc Antony. Died 11 BCE177 viewsAR Cistophorus (25.6 mm)
Ephesus mint, 39 BCE.
Obv: M ANTONINVS IMP COS DESIG ITER ET TERT, Jugate hds. r. of M. Antony, wreathed with ivy, and Octavia.
Rev: III VIR RPC, Dionysus, standing on cista mystica flanked by two snakes.
RPC-2202; Sear-1513; BMC-135; RSC-3; CRI-263; Syd-1198; Vagi-199; Bab. (Antonia)-61.
EmpressCollector
octant.jpg
Octavian & Marc Antony90 viewsOCTAVIAN & MARCUS ANTONIUS (Marc Antony) AR silver Triumvirate issue denarius. CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, bare head of Octavian right. Reverse - M ANT IMP AVG (MP and AV both in monogram) III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony right. Struck at Ephesus mint, Spring - Summer 41 BC. RCV 1504, RARE. 19mm, 3.7g. Holed for suspension in antiquity.1 commentsfordicus
Hierapolis.jpg
Phrygia, Hierapolis in alliance with Ephesus. AE22 Pseudo-autonomous. Boule/Men. 101 viewsObv: IEPAPOLEITWN K EFECIWN, Veiled bust of Boule r.
Rev: NEWKOPWN OMON(OIA), Men in Phrygian cap standing r., head l., r. foot on bull's skull, holding pine cone and scepter.

BMC 187, pl. 52.5 and SNG Copenhagen 470, but seems to be from new dies on both sides.

Commemorating the harmony with Ephesus in Ionia, assigned to the time of Valerian/Gallienus.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for help with attribution.
1 commentsancientone
c4.jpg
Phrygia, Hierapolis in alliance with Ephesus. AE22 Pseudo-autonomous. Boule/Men.19 views
Obv: IEPAPOLEITWN K EFECIWN, Veiled bust of Boule r.
Rev: NEWKOPWN OMON(OIA), Men in Phrygian cap standing r., head l., r. foot on bull's skull, holding pine cone and scepter.
BMC 187, pl. 52.5 and SNG Copenhagen 470, but seems to be from new dies on both sides.

Commemorating the harmony with Ephesus in Ionia. Assigned to the time of Valerian/Gallienus.
ancientone
VespasianCista~0.jpg
RIC 0776 Vespasian48 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG.
Laureate head right.

PON MAX TR P COS VI.
Victory standing left upon cista mystica, holding wreath and palm frond; coiled serpent to left and right.

Rome 75 AD

3.25g

RIC² 776 (R).
Only 5 specimens in the Reka Devnia hoard


Minted in Rome but likely intended for circulation in the East. The reverse copies the earlier quinarii of Augustus and the Cistophoric tetradrachms of Ephesus.

Ex-Jerusalem Haydaya
5 commentsJay GT4
DomitianCistophorus.jpg
RIC 0841 Domitian Cistophorus133 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII
laureate head of Domitian to right

CA PIT across field, RESTIT in exergue
tetrastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus, containing statues of the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter seated left between standing figures of Juno and Minerva

Ephesus or more likely Rome for circulation in the East
A.D. 82

Rare
10.83g

RIC 841 (C), S.2715, BMC 251, RSC 23, RPC 864

From the MS collection
Ex-G&M auction 147 lot 1813 March 2006
Ex-Calgary Coin
4 commentsJay GT4
Screen_Shot_2018-12-07_at_11_54_40_PM.png
RIC 139556 viewsVespasian, 69-79. Denarius (Silver, 17 mm, 3.11 g, 1 h), Ephesus, 69-70.
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG Laureate head of Vespasian to right.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS Titus and Domitian, veiled and togate, standing front, each with patera.
BMC 430. Cohen 248. RIC 1395. RPC II 805. Rare.
Minor marks and slightly rough, otherwise, about very fine.
From the R. Marbacher Collection, Switzerland.
Leu Numismatic December 09 2018 Web Auction 6Lot 908
4 commentsorfew
VESPAVG.jpg
RIC 1399 var. Vespasian denarius76 viewsIMP CAES VESPAS AVG
Laureate head right

AVG within laurel wreath, ΘI monogram above ties.

Ephesus mint. AD 69-70.

2.63g

RIC 1399 unlisted variant (laurel wreath rather than oak) this coin, footnote in the upcoming RIC II addenda ; RPC 808; RSC 37.

Ex Gorny & Mosch 152 (10 October 2006), lot 2071; Ex-Cheesman collection; Ex-CNG 433 Lot 379
9 commentsJay GT4
VespPaci.jpg
RIC 1406 Vespasian Ephesus denarius272 viewsIMP CAES VESPAS AVG
Laureate head of Vespasian right

PACI AVGVSTAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm, tilted Φ before her right foot.

Ephesus mint

69/70 AD

3.05g

RIC 1406 (R ). BMCRE 435. RPC 812 (8 specimens cited).

Released from an NGC slab. Graded as a fouree but shows no signs of plating. This is an official coin!

Ex-Ancient Galleon
8 commentsJay GT4
Vespasian_Paci.jpg
RIC 1407 Vespasian Eastern Denarius128 viewsIMP CAES VESPAS AVG
Laureate head of Vespasian right

PACI ORB TERR AVG
Turreted and draped female bust right below, horizontal Φ

Ephesus, 69-70 AD

3.23g

RIC 1407 (R); V1407, RPC 813

Rare

Ex-T.C. collection, Ex-Calgary Coin.

The Flavians as bringers of peace to the world.
8 commentsJay GT4
DSC00194.jpg
RIC 1407 Vespasian Eastern Denarius72 viewsIMP CAES VESPAS AVG
Laureate head of Vespasian right

PACI ORB TERR AVG
Turreted and draped female bust right below, horizontal Φ

Ephesus, 69-70 AD

3.23g


RIC V1407 (R); RPC 813

Rare

Ex-T.C. collection, Ex-Calgary Coin.

The Flavians as bringers of peace to the world.

New photo
8 commentsJay GT4
Vesp_141_savoca.jpg
RIC 141449 viewsRoman Empire, Vespasian 69-79, Denarius, 3.24g:
Obv: Laureate head of Vespasian right "IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TRPPP" Rev: "AVG" within an wreath, Phi-Alpha monogram above ties. "AVG" in the center.
RIC 1414.
Ephesos mint, Some roughness on the reverse.
Ex Savoca Auction #9, lot 533 8/21/16
Lot 152 Aegean Nuismatics Agora Auctions July 20. 2017.




Yes, this is yet another denarius of Vespasian. I like his coins for the variety they offer. There are many interesting reverses on his coinage. this one has an exceptional portrait. You might notice a difference in the portrait style of the denarius when compared to other denarii of Vespasian. This coin was minted in Ephesus. Apparently, the engravers that worked in that mint included some masters of the art. Compare the portrait style to the Rome mint denarii in this gallery.

The other interesting thing abut this coin is the reverse. It only has very simple design elements, the wreath and the title AVG forAugustus. Yet there is a real elegance to this reverse for all of its simplicity. There are other Vespasian denarii with this reverse, but my example is one of the rare examples.

As long as there are interesting and artistic example such as this one, I will continue to add Vespasian's denarii to my collection.
4 commentsorfew
Ephesus_Concordia.jpg
RIC 1416 Vespasian Ephesus denarius67 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR PPP
Laureate Head of Vespasian right

CONCORDIA AVG
Ceres seated left, holding poppy with ears of corn and cornucopia BY in exergue

Ephesus, 70 AD

3.31g

RPC 824; RIC 1416 (R2)

Ex- TC collection; Ex-Calgary Coin
3 commentsJay GT4
Vespasian_ric_1421_new_copy_2.jpg
RIC 142129 viewsVespasian AR Denarius 70 AD, Ephesus
3.03g
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR PPP
Laureate head right
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm.
RIC 1421 (R), BMCRE 446, RSC 278 determined by die match.
Ex-Flavian Logic Ancient Numismatics (1999), Ex-Ancient Numismatic Enterprises
1 commentsorfew
VESPephesus.jpg
RIC 1421 Vespasian Ephesus denarius116 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P
Laureate head of Vespasian right

PACI AVGVSTAE
Victory advancing left with wreath and palm; horizontal Φ

2.98g

Ephesus mint

70 AD

Rare.

RIC 1421 (R), BMCRE 446, RSC 278

Ex-Roy's Coins

The BY mint mark is faintly visible in the lower left reverse.

New Photo
7 commentsJay GT4
Vespasian_Paci_3.jpg
RIC 1421 Vespasian Ephesus denarius105 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR PPP
Laureate head right

PACI AVGVSTAE
Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm.

70 AD, Ephesus

2.03g

Rare

RIC 1421 (R), BMCRE 446, RSC 278 determined by die match.

Ex-FLAN (1999), Ex-ANE

Much better in hand, not as porous looking with a dark patina

Sold March 2018
7 commentsJay GT4
Screen_Shot_2018-09-02_at_12_39_50_PM.jpg
RIC 142571 viewsVESPASIAN (69-79). Denarius. Ephesus.
(3.00 g. 17 mm.)
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P.
Laureate head right.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE.
Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm frond; monogram to right.
RIC² 1425. (R3)
Condition: Very fine.
Numismatik Naumann Auction 69 Lot 348

Here is another Vespasian denarius minted in Ephesus. The quality of the engraving on these issues never fails to impress me. While the portrait on this example is a bit worn, the reverse is truly impressive. The victory is lovely and the legend is clear and crisp. This is an example where, in my opinion, the reverse outshines the obverse.

The other interesting aspect of this coin is its rarity. According to a reliable source this example is the second known of its type. It is listed in RIC II Part One as R3-one known example in the collections examined. The RIC example is the other known example. I feel very lucky to be the custodian of this coin.

I will continue to pursue these Ephesian denarii mostly for their style and because the reverse themes make them interesting. I hope that more will find their way into my collection.
6 commentsorfew
RIC_1422_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 1426 Vespasianus34 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, Laureate head of Vespasian, right
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG, Female turreted head right; mint symbol BY under the neck
AR/Denarius (16.49 mm 2.79 g 6 h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 71 A.D. (4th group)
RIC 1426 (R2), RSC 293a, RPC 828, BMCRE 450
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_1429_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 1429 Vespasianus42 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, Laureate head of Vespasian, right
Rev: LIBERI IMP / AVG VESPAS (from low right), confronting bare heads of Titus and Domitian; mintmark EFE between the busts.
AR/Denarius (18.39 mm 3.133 g 6h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 71 A.D. (6th issue)
RIC 1429 (C), BMCRE 455, RPC II 831, RSC-BNF unlisted
ex Dirk Löbbers, ex Künker Auction 257 lot 8925
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_1430_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 1430 Vespasianus52 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, Laureate head right
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus and Domitian veiled, togate, standing front (head left), each with patera; in exergue mint symbol EPE.
AR/Denarius - 17.58 mm 2.93 g 12h - Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 71 A.D. (6th group)
RIC 1430 (C) - RSC 250
Ex Soler Y Llach Subasta 1076 Lote 0123
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
DomitianEphesus.jpg
RIC 1445 Domitian Ephesus denarius74 viewsDOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG
Bare-headed and cuirassed bust of Domitian to right, wearing aegis.

AVG and mint mark EPE within oak wreath.

Ephesus 71 AD

3.28g

RIC 1445 (R). RPC 846.
7 commentsJay GT4
RIC_V_1446_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1446 Domitianus35 viewsObv : DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F, Laureate head right, bust draped and cuirassed.
Rev : CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres seated left, on ornate high-baked chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue "EPE" (out of flan)
AR/Denarius (18,46 mm 3.192 gr 6h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 71 A.D. (6th group)
RIC 1446 (C, Vespasian), RSC 38, RPC 847, BMCRE-BNF unlisted
ex Numismatik Naumann Pecunem Auction 43 lot 869
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_1448_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1448 Domitianus39 viewsObv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F, Laureate head right, bust draped and cuirassed
Rev : PACI ORB TERR AVG "EPE", (in exergue), Turreted female head right
AR/Denarius (17.25 mm 3.26 g 6h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 71 A D
RIC 1448 (R, Vespasian), RSC 337, RPC II 849
ex Rauch Auktion 94 Lot 816 (ex Rauch 88 Lot 354)
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Vespasian_Eph_Paci.jpg
RIC 1457 Vespasian Ephesus denarius93 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P
Laureate head right

PACI AVGVSTAE
Victory advancing right, holding wreath in extended right hand and palm across left shoulder, annulet at lower left, at lower right, star.

Ephesus 74 AD.

3.01g


RIC 1457 (C); RPC 853; RCV 2271 var

Ex-Sphinx Numismatics
6 commentsJay GT4
RIC_1457_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 1457 Vespasianus31 viewsObv : IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P, Laureate head of Vespasian, right
Rev : PACI AVGVSTAE, (from high right) Victory advancing right, with wreath and palm; at lower right, star
AR/Denarius 18.63 mm 2.96 g 6 h - Struck in Ephesus 74 AD (Group 8)
RIC 1457 (C), BMCRE 475, RSC 277, RPC II 853
ex H.D. Rauch eAuktion 13 Lot 340
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
VespasianEph.jpg
RIC 1464 Vespasian Ephesus denarius180 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR PPP
Laureate head right

CONCORDIA AVG
Concordia seated left, annulet below, star in Exergue

3.41g

Ephesus 74 AD

RIC 1464 (R2)

Rare

Ex-Calgary coin

about XF
10 commentsJay GT4
Vespasian_RIC_1473.png
RIC 1473114 viewsVespasian (69-79). AR Denarius
(18.5mm, 2.77g, 6h).
Ephesus? , c. AD 76.
Obv: Laureate head r.
Rev: Pegasus stepping r.
RIC II 1473; RSC 114a; RPC II 1451.
Rare, Good Fine
St Paul Antiquities Auction 18 Lot 347 October 13, 2018


I knew when I saw this coin that I wanted it. I already have the Domitian with the Pegasus reverse. When I saw this Vespasian with a Pegasus reverse I wondered why this reverse would be on a coin of Vespasian. It appears as if this coin is a mule. The obverse portrait is muled with the Domitian Pegasus reverse.

The mysterious 'O' mint is one mint where this practice is known. There is an 'O' on these coins but little else is known about this mint. In RIC II Part one, the authors tentatively assign this group of denarii to Ephesus. The truth is the location of the 'O' mint is unknown.

This coin is another example of where the obverse is not the most attractive side of the coin. Imho the reverse is not only more interesting but features a very well rendered depiction of Pegasus. The engraving is truly artistic.

This leads me to another aspect of these coins-the legends are often blundered for this mint. Why the celators would take so much care with the devices and not as much with the legends is another 'O' mint mystery.

Mysterious or not, I was immediately attracted to this coin. I feel very lucky to have landed it because it is one of only a handful of examples I have seen or know about.
8 commentsorfew
vespasian_ric_1475.jpg
RIC 147516 viewsVespasian (69 - 79 A.D.) silver denarius.
Unknown ‘o’ mint Ephesus?, (‘O’ beneath bust in obverse.
76 A.D.
19mm., 3,00g
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: FIDES PVBL, hands clasped over caduceus. two poppies and two corn-ears.
Ric 1475
Catawiki auction May 7, 2019 Sold by Lucernae
1 commentsorfew
RIC_1477_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 1477 Vespasianus27 viewsObv : IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, Laureate head right. Small annulet under neck truncation (out of flan)
Rev : PON MAX TR P COS VII, Winged caduceus
AR/Denarius (18.63 mm 2.99 g 5 h) Struck in 76 A.D. Uncertain Asia Minorr mint (Ephesus?)
RIC 1477 (R), RSC 375a, RPC 1453, BMCRE 483, Paris 371
FlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_1494_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1494 Domitianus54 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, Laureate head right, small 'o' below neck truncation
Rev: COS IIII, Pegasus right
AE/Denarius - 19.12 mm 3.11 g 6 h - Struck in Uncertain Asia Minor mint (Ephesus ?) 76 A.D.
RIC 1494 Vespasian (R2) - BMCRE 488bis (pg. 422) - RPC II 1465
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_1519_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1519 Domitianus33 viewsObv : CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG F, Laureate head of Domitian, right
Rev : COS V PRINCEPS IVVENTVT / S C, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising her robe
AE/Denomination 2 (25.28 mm 9.01 g 6h) Struck in Uncertain Asia Minor mint (Ephesus?) 77-78 A D
RIC 1519 (R2, Vespasian), RPC 1486
ex H.D. Rauch Auktion 94 Lot 418
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_1520_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1520 Domitianus46 viewsObv: CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG F - Laureate head of Domitian, right
Rev: COS V PRINC IVVENT / S C - Domitian riding right, with spear
Denomination 2 (24,96mm 7,60g 6h) Struck in Uncertain Asia Minor Mint (Ephesus?) in 77-78 A.D.
RIC 1520 (R2), RPC 1487
Ex Rauch Auktion 712 Lot 422
FlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_1521_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1521A Domitianus40 viewsObv: CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG F - Laureate head of Domitian, right
Rev: COS V PRINC IVVENT / S C - Cornucopiae
Denomination 4 (18,67mm 3,18g 12h) Struck in Uncertain Asia Minor Mint (Ephesus?) in 77-78 A.D.
RIC 1521 (R2) variant, RPC 1488 variant
FlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_1521var_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 1521B Domitianus38 viewsObv: CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG F - Laureate head of Domitian, right
Rev: COS V PRINC IVVENT / S C - Femle figure seated right on cuirass, foot on helmet
Denomination 4 (16,36mm 2,01g 12h) Struck in Uncertain Asia Minor Mint (Ephesus?) in 77-78 A.D.
Obverse as RIC 1521 (R2), RPC 1488; Reverse unpublished.
FlaviusDomitianus
Vespasian_cista.jpg
RIC 776 Vespasian Cista Mystica denarius57 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG.
Laureate head right.

PON MAX TR P COS VI.
Victory standing left upon cista mystica, holding wreath and palm frond; coiled serpent to left and right.

Rome 75 AD

2.93g

RIC² 776 (R).


Minted in Rome but likely intended for circulation in the East. The reverse copies the earlier quinarii of Augustus and the Cistophoric tetradrachms of Ephesus.

SOLD! July 2019
1 commentsJay GT4
92074.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Elagabalus, AE 1 Assaria, Ephesus393 viewsIONIA, Ephesus. Elagabalus. 218-222 AD. Æ 1 Assaria (17mm, 2.69 gm). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / A within wreath. BMC Ionia -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG Turkey -; Lindgren-Kovacs -; Lindgren III -. VF, green patina. Extremely rare denomination.

2 commentsfeatherz
1304_P_Hadrian_RPC--~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Hadrian, Cistophorus IONIA Ephesus mint, Zeus seated left16 viewsReference.
RPC III, -- ; Metcalf --; cf RIC II 478 var. (obverse legends).

Obv. HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS P P
Bare head right.

Rev. IOVIS OLYMPIVS
Jupiter seated left holding sceptre in l. and cult image of Ephesian Artemis in right

9.91 gr
31 mm
7h
okidoki
vespasian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Vespasian, AR denarius481 viewsVictory reverse, Ephesus mint, very high relief, smooth surfaces3 commentsOptimus
Vespas10b.jpg
Roman Empire, Vespasian, unpublished variant of RIC 1497 and RPC II 147095 viewsDescription: Vespasian medium bronze, 11,1g, 30mm, 6h
Obv.: IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVGVST, laureate head right
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT P P.COS.VIII.CENS (around) S C (field), Ceres, veiled, standing left with two corn ears and cornucopiae.
RIC 1497 (not Roman mint, possibly Ephesus, AD 77-78) var. (obv. legend ends in AVGVST (B-type) not AVGVSTVS (A-type)). The coin as a B-type is probably unpublished so far in combination with this reverse.
RIC 1497 matches with RPC II 1470 and was R3 (only one known). The recent RPC S3 Supplement reports of another example found in Athens during excavations (To Mouseio kai è anaskaphè. Eurèmata apo ton chôro anegersès tou neou mouseiou tès Akropolès (Athens, 2006), p. 45, n° 90.)

1 commentsCharles S
Ephesus,_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Roman Ephesus37 viewsIonia, Ephesus, Claudius, 41-54, AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm

TI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left.
DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.

RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.

(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h).

The Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the temple other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt at the direction of Alexander III the Great around 330 BC, in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt, it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The marble of the temple was used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four-tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base, the same as that found on the Parthenon. The rectangles visible on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as depictions of tables, or altars attended by flanking figures. However, architectural reconstructions of the temple show these rectangles as windows permitting light into the temple interior, a fact supported by the presence of pediment window frame moldings amongst the remains of other temples from the period in Asia Minor. The Ionic style of the temple’s columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
4 commentsn.igma
004.jpg
Roman Imperators, Mark Antony & Octavian, 43 to 33 BC.175 viewsMarcus Antonius, 43–33 BC.
AR Denarius, Ephesus mint, spring-summer 41 BC.
Obv. M ANT IMP AVG III R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram), bare head of M. Antonius right.
Rev. CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, bare head of Octavianus right.
RSC 8 (I, 128); Crawford 517/2; Sydenham -.
3,83g, 19mm.
Provenance: Dr.Busso Peus Nachf, Auction 395, lot 232.
1 commentsapyatygin
0023-070.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORS, MARK ANTONY and LUCIUS ANTONIUS denarius132 viewsEphesus mint, 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Lucius Antonius was the youngest brother of Mark Antony, and Consul in 41 BC
His coinage is rare, one type of aureus, two types of denarius
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Mark Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Mark Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Mark Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
5 commentsPotator II
49BC_SiciniusCoponius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius. AR denarius, 49 BC.39 viewsObv. Diademed head of Apollo right, star below. Q SICINIVS before, III VIR behind.
Rev. Club or Hercules surmounted by facing lions scalp, arrow left, bow right. C COPONIVS PR SC.
Ref. Albert 1377; Crawford 444/1; Sear 413.
Coin: The praetor C. Coponius was the naval commander of Pompeius Magnus fleet operating in the East. This issue might have been to pay the soldiers. The star on the obverse could signify the comet seen in that year. Q. Sicinius was one of the 3 monetary quaestors ( III VIR ) for the year 49 BC. He decided to join Pompeys army to the east. The place of mint is unknown but possible places considering the design on the reverse suggests Ephesus, Pergamum, Sardis, Tralles and Apamea. Ephesus, as the residence of the proconsul, perhaps has the strongest claim.
***Special thanks to Steve Minnnoch for his comments on place of mint***
16mm.
Bohemond
vespasianconcord~1.jpg
Roman, VESPASIAN115 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus. 71 AD. 3,61 grs. Laureate head right. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P / Ceres? seated left,holding corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae.
CONCORDIA AVG. In exergue E PH (ligate) E.
RIC 329. C 67.
A breathtaking portrait from an eastern mint.
benito
RPC_II_1079_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 1079 Domitianus68 viewsObv: ΔOMITIANOC KAICAP CεBACTOC ΓεPMANIKOC - Laureate head of Domitian, right, with drapery and aegis on left shoulder
Rev: EПI ANΘYПATOY POYCΩNOC OMONOIA - Cult statue of Artemis (with supports) between two Nemeses; above εΦε; below ZMYP
AE (32.62mm 21.43g 6h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 92-94 A.D. Ruso proconsul - Alliance between Ephesus and Smyrna
RPC 1079
Ex Triton XIII lot 1446
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RPC_II_1080_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 1080 Domitianus53 viewsObv: ΔOMITIANOC KAICAP CεBACTOC ΓεPMANIKOC - Laureate head of Domitian, right, with drapery and aegis on left shoulder
Rev: EПI ANΘYПATOY POYCΩNOC OMONOIA - Two amazons, holding double axes, clasping hands; to left ZMYP; to right εΦε
AE (33.89mm 20.76g 6h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 92-94 A.D. Ruso proconsul - Alliance between Ephesus and Smyrna
RPC 1080
Ex CNG Electronic Auction 229 Lot 293
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RPC_II_1083_Domitia.jpg
RPC II 1083 Domitia48 viewsObv: ΔOMITIA CεBACTE - Draped bust of Domitia, right
Rev: OMONOIA ANΘI POYCΩNOC - Cult statue of Artemis; to left ZMYP; to right εΦε
AE (21.04mm 5.22g 6h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 92-94 A.D. Ruso proconsul - Alliance between Ephesus and Smyrna
RPC 1083
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RPC_II_1090_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 1090 Domitianus51 viewsObv: ΔOMITIANOC KAICAP CεBACTOC ΓεPMANIKOC - Laureate head of Domitian, right, with drapery and aegis on left shoulder
Rev: ANΘY KAICεN ПAITOY OMONOIA - Two Nemeses standing facing; to left ZMYP; to right εΦε
AE (24.71mm 9.94g 12h) Struck in Ephesus (Ionia) 91-95 A.D. Caesennius Paetus proconsul - Alliance between Ephesus and Smyrna
RPC 1090
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RPC1647.jpg
RPC-1647-Vespasian88 viewsAR Didrachm, 6.71g
Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, 76-77 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: NIKH CЄBACTH; Nike standing, r., wreath in r. hand, palm in l. hand
RPC 1647 (24 spec.).
Acquired from CGB, July 2016. Ex MG Collection.

Caesarea, Cappadocia struck a fairly large issue of silver coins in 76/77 AD. There are two distinct styles: "Roman" (6 o'clock die axis) struck at Rome for Cappadocia , and "local" (12 o'clock die axis) struck at Caesarea. This didrachm, struck in local style features Nike on the reverse. There are two variants of the Nike type catalogued in RPC, one with and the other without Nike on an elongated base. This is the more common one without the elongated base. RPC consulted 24 specimens of the non base type and only 9 with the base. Oddly enough, RPC describes the non base type as Nike "standing right", as opposed to those with the base as "advancing right". Why this is so I cannot say.

Struck in hyper-veristic style similar to the denarii coined at Ephesus.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1650.JPG
RPC-1650-Vespasian109 viewsAR Didrachm, 7.22g
Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, 76-77 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AYTO KAI OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOY YIOC, Head of Titus, laureate, r.
RPC 1650 (38 spec.).

Caesarea, Cappadocia struck a fairly large issue of silver coins in 76/77 AD. There are two distinct styles: "Roman" (6 o'clock die axis) struck at Rome for Cappadocia , and "local" (12 o'clock die axis) struck at Caesarea. This didrachm, struck in local style, features a portrait of Titus on the reverse and probably is the most common type minted at Caesarea. This reverse emphasised Vespasian's desire to found a dynasty with Titus as his heir and mirrors those minted at Antioch and Alexandria, evidence of how important this message was to the imperial authorities.

A coin in very fine style (similar to denarii struck at Ephesus) and struck on a thick flan with dark toning.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1651a.jpg
RPC-1651-Vespasian (1)120 viewsAR Didrachm, 6.77g
Caesarea, Cappadocia mint, 76-77 AD
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ΔOMITIANOC KAICAP CЄB YIO ЄT Θ; Domitian standing, l., holding branch
RPC 1651 (19 spec.).
Ex Pegasi VAuction 32, 19 May 2015, lot 314.

For dynastic reasons Vespasian frequently featured his sons on the coinage, even in far-flung provinces. Here we see Domitian "son of the Augustus" togate as consul, holding an olive branch in a suggestion of peace.

Although a bit worn, it's a decent example in good "local" style, similar to the denarii struck at Ephesus.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
w0993.jpg
S (lunate sigma)180 viewsIONIA. Ephesus. Gallienus. Obv: AUT K PO LIKIN GALLIHNOC, Bust laur.; countermark. Rev: EFESIWN G NEWKORWN, Artemis seated on rock, holding patera and bow, at her shoulder quiver. Ref: SNG Cop 511; SNG Aul 1929; BMC 371; SNG München 250. CM: S (Lunate Sigma). Howgego 811 (?). Note: The lunate sigma is the Greek number 6, possibly indicating that the coin was valued at 6 assaria. Howgego notes a number of different lunate sigma countermarks, dividing them into groups partly based on how the letter is shaped. It is by no means certain that this categorisation represents different times and places of application. It is not unlikely that this countermark was applied at Ephesus, though. Collection: Mueller.Automan
9727.jpg
Selinus in Cilicia, Philippus I., AE 29, Apollo136 viewsSelinus in Cilicia, Philippus I., AE 29, 244-249 AD
Obv.: AY K M IOYΛ [ΦI]ΛΠΠOC CE , Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right (seen from behind
Rev.: TPAIANO[Π CEΛINO]YCI ΘHC [IEPAC] , Apollo standing front, patera in his right hand, rod/staff in left hand, on right side: bird (raven?) beneath
SNG France 2,686; SNG Levante 467; Lindgren I,1595; SNG Pfalz 6,1105 , (thanks to Markus for ID)

Selinus: City in Cilicia Aspera, among the principal ones on this coast and mentioned by most of the ancient geographers from Pseudo-Skylax on. It was one of the towns taken by Antiochos III in 197 B.C. (Livy 33.20), but is best known as the place where Trajan died in A.D. 117 on his way back from the East. Then it took the name of Trajanopolis (as on this), but the old one prevailed (as on this), shown by coins and other documents.

In mid-summer 117, when Trajan was returning from his Parthian campaigns, he fell ill while at Selinus in Cilicia and died on August 8. The following day his adoption of Hadrian was announced by Plotina and Attianus, the praetorian prefect who had earlier been Hadrian's guardian, with some question whether Trajan had indeed performed the act or whether it was posthumous, thanks to his widow. On August 11, which he considered his dies imperii, the army of Syria hailed its legate, Hadrian, as emperor, which made the senate's formal acceptance an almost meaningless event. This was an example of the historian Tacitus' famous dictum that an emperor could be made elsewhere than at Rome. Hadrian must then have proceeded to Selinus at once from Antioch, to catch up with Attianus, Plotina, and Matidia. He then returned to his province no later than September and stayed there at least into the new year, consolidating his administration.

Basil,of Seleucia (Vita S. Theclae, II, 17) said that the city cof Selinus, which was formerly of much importance, lost it from his time to the fifth century. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the tenth century, called it a small town. Today it is the little village of Selinti (near the city Gazipaşa) in the vilayet of Adana; there are ruins of a theatre, aqueduct, market-place, bath, etc. .
The coinage begins under the kingdom of Antiochos IV of Kommagene, and continues later from Trajan to Philip. A bishop of Selinos is recorded, under the metropolitan of Seleukeia. . Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 1019) names four bishops: Neon, present at the council of Constantinople, 381; Alypius, at Ephesus, 431; AElianus, at Chalcedon, 451; Gheon, signer of the letter of the bishops of the province to Emperor Leo, 458. The see is in the Greek "Notitiae Episcopatuum" of the Patriarchate of Antioch from the fifth to the tenth century (Vailhé in "Echos d'Orient", X, 95, 145). It was also perhaps an Armenian bishopric until the tenth century. (Alishan, Sissouan, Venice, 1899, p. 60). Eubel (Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, I, 468) names a Latin bishop in 1345.

my ancient coin database
Arminius
SeptimiusSeverus_Ephesus_Stag_AE18_2_47g.jpg
Septimius Severus, Ephesos (Ionia), stag, AE1826 views18mm, 2.47g
obv: [] CEOVNPOC; laureate head right
rev: EΦECIΩN; stag right
SNG Cop 413, BMC 83.262

ex HD Rauch, summer auction 2009, lot 948
areich
Synnada,_Phrygia,_c__133_-_30_B_C_.jpg
Synnada, Phrygia, c. 133 - 30 B.C.39 viewsBronze AE 22, SNG Cop 706; SNGvA 3973; SNG Tübingen 4196; BMC Phrygia p. 392, 3; Imhoof Blumer KM p. 292, 2; Lindgren III 619; SNG München -, aVF, green patina, large flan, weak strike, Synnada mint, 7.431 grams, 21.8 mm, die axis 0o, c. 133 - 30 B.C.; obverse turreted and draped bust of Tyche right; reverse SUNNADE / MAI-ANDRI, Zeus standing left, himation over left shoulder and around waist and legs, thunderbolt in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left; from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren .


Synnada (Suhut, Turkey today) was of considerable importance as a station on the road from Apameia to the north and east. Synnada was celebrated throughout the Roman Empire for its precious Synnadic marble, a light color marble interspersed with purple spots and veins. From quarries on Mount Persis in neighboring Docimeium, it was conveyed through Synnada to Ephesus, from which it was shipped over sea to Italy.


EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Sam
Claudius,_Ephesus,_Tetradrachm_1.jpg
TEMPLE, CLAUDIUS, (Temple of Artemis at Ephesus) 221 viewsIonia, Ephesus, Claudius, AD 41-54, AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm
TI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)
5 commentsLloyd T
KymeAmazonArtemisQuad.jpg
The Amazon Kyme 18 viewsCity of Kyme
Bronze 17mm
2d century BC

Artemis, holding long torch, greeting the Amazon Kyme, holding scepter

KY; Two figures (Apollo and Kyme?) in quadriga right

SNG München 512; SNG Copenhagen 113; SNG von Aulock 7698

According to the geographer Pomponius Mela, writing about 43 AD, amazons had long camped in Pontus when they dominated Anatolia. They had worshipped Artemis at Ephesus and named the town Kyme (Cyme) after the amazon leader who drove out the native inhabitants. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons, 47-48). Kyme wears Scythian garb as depicted elsewhere, but an amazon most likely would not have worn a helmet.
1 commentsBlindado
Mark_Antony_and_Octavian.JPG
The Triumvirs. Mark Antony and Octavian18 viewsSpring-early summer 41 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.82 g, 12h). Ephesus mint. M. Barbatius Pollio, quaestor pro praetore.
Bare head of Antony right; M • ANT • I(MP) • (AV)G • III • VIR • R • P • C • M BARBAT • Q • P around
Bare head of Octavian right, wearing slight beard; CAESAR • IMP • PONT • III • VIR • R • P • C • around.
Crawford 517/2; CRI 243; RSC 8a; Sydenham 1181; Kestner 3793-5; BMCRR East 100. VF, toned, a few light scratches under tone.
Leo
greece~0.jpg
Thracian Kingdom - Lysimachus (305-281 BC)35 viewsAR tetradrachm (16.96 gm). Ephesus. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right, wearing horn of Ammon / Helmeted Athena seated left, holding Victory; bee to left. Müller 424.RobertBohn
Commodus,_Tiberiopolis_(Phrygia),_Artemis_Ephesia,_AE26.JPG
Tiberiopolis (Phrygia), Artemis Ephesia, AE2611 viewsCommodus, Tiberiopolis (Phrygia), Artemis Ephesia, AE26. 26mm, 10.95g. Obverse: ΑΥ ΚΑΙ Μ ΑΥΡ ΚΟΜΟΔΟΣ; laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r. Reverse: ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ; cult statue of Artemis of Ephesus standing, facing, wearing kalathos, having supports; between two stags. Attribution: Aulock, Phrygien II, 1282. Ex areich, photo credit areich

Podiceps
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-u7D9Sg7AbSAsb-Tiberius_sestertius_Asia.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsCIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS - Statue of Tiberius seated left on curule chair with patera and sceptre.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.90g / 34mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 48
Cohen 3
Sear 5 #1764
Acquisition/Sale: northsidety eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS=The Cities of Asia Re-established.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII =Tiberius Caesar, Divi Augusti Filius, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunitiae Potestatis 24.


AD 17 Lydia Earthquake

Location of some of the affected towns and cities in Asia Minor
The AD 17 Lydia earthquake caused the destruction of at least twelve cities in the region of Lydia in the Roman province of Asia in Asia Minor. The earthquake was recorded by the Roman historians Tacitus and Pliny the Elder, and the Greek historians Strabo and Eusebius. Pliny called it "the greatest earthquake in human memory". The city of Sardis, the former capital of the Lydian Empire, was the most affected and never completely recovered from the destruction.

Damage
Historical records list up to fifteen towns and cities that were destroyed or damaged by the earthquake: Sardis, Magnesia, Temnos, Philadelphia, Aegae, Apollonis, Mostene, Hyrkanis, Hierapolis, Myrina, Cyme, Tmolus, Pergamon, Ephesus and Kibyra. Of these, Pergamon, Ephesus and Kibyra are not mentioned by Tacitus. The record of damage at both Ephesus and Kibyra may refer instead to an earthquake in AD 23. In Pergamon the Heroon of Diodoros Pasparos was remodelled after the earthquake.

Earthquake
There are very few extant details for this earthquake. It is known that it occurred during the night, in AD 17 and that it affected a series of cities. A variety of epicenters have been used in catalogues, near Ephesus in the NGDC database, at Sardis in the CFTI4MED database and near Magnesia in the IISEE catalogue.

Aftermath
The Roman Emperor, Tiberius, agreed to waive all taxes due from Sardis and the other cities for a period of five years after the earthquake. He further sent Sardis ten million sesterces and appointed Marcus Aletius, an ex-Praetor, to assess their needs. In recognition of the aid received and the tributes that were waived, twelve of the cities raised a colossal statue in Tiberius' honour in Julius Caesar's Forum in Rome, with each of the cities represented by a recognisable figure. Two additional figures were added later, representing Kibyra and Ephesus as they had also received aid from Tiberius. A copy of this statue, with the figures transferred to a frieze around the base, was erected in Puteoli where it can still be seen.

A statue was raised in Tiberius' honour at Sardis in AD 43, with an inscription calling him the "founder of the city". Another incomplete inscription, found at Sardis, is thought to have been a copy of a formal document from the cities to the emperor expressing their gratitude. The surviving part includes signatories from representatives of eight of the cities.

Commemorative coins were struck in AD 22–23 in Rome, showing Tiberius with the inscription "CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS" or "cities of Asia restored". Provincial coins were also struck, including one from the city of Magnesia, bearing the inscription "ΤΙΒΕΡΙΟΝ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΝ ΚΤΙΣΤΗΝ" or "Tiberius Augustus Founder".

Some of the cities changed their names in honour of the emperor. Hierapolis became Hierocaesarea, Kibyra added Caesarea after its name, Philadelphia was renamed Neocaesarea, and Sardis added "Caesarea" briefly to its name.

Additional images: Cities affected by the earthquake of 17 AD and the marble base from Puteoli (Naples).

Provinces of Asia
The marble base, which was found at Puteoli (Naples) in 1793, dates to the second quarter of the first century AD (30-37 AD). It was built at the behest of the Collegium of the Augustales, in order to celebrate the magnanimity of Tiberius, and it supported a statue of the emperor.

One of the long sides bears a dedicatory inscription, which is flanked by the personifications of 14 Asian towns that were damaged by devastating earthquakes between 17 and 29 AD and had always received the emperor’s help, so that they built him a monument in Rome in about 30 AD, of which the Puteoli base is a small copy.
Important are the figures that symbolize the towns (on the right: Philadelphia, Tuolos and Kyme with a trident; on the left: Mostene, Aegre and Hierokaisareia;on the back: Temnos, Kibyra, Myrina, Ephesos, Apollonidea and Hyrcania), since they are the reproductions of famous ancient sculptures, of which they contribute to reconstruct the iconography.
Gary W2
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TITUS AR Denarius14 viewsOBVERSE: T CAES IMP VESP CENS, laureate head right, "o" beneath neck
REVERSE: FIDES PVBL, hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn-ears
Struck at Uncertain Asian Mint or Ephesus, 76AD
2.9g, 19mm
RIC V 1485 (Vesp), RPC 1459
Ex David Atherton; ex Harry Sneh Collection; ex Sayles; ex Lavender
1 commentsLegatus
Titus_as_Caesar_RIC_II_1460.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC II V146030 viewsTitus as Caesar. 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint. 74 A.D. (2.85g., 17.0mm, 6h). Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III, laureate head right. Rev: CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres std. l. on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue star. RIC II V1460 (R2), BMC V477, RSC 39a, RPC 856. Ex. Forum.

This is another from the series issued in Ephesus with issue marks. On this worn example, there is just a star in exergue. RIC rates this issue as more scarce that the same reverse sporting both a star and annulet under Ceres’ chair.
Lucas H
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Titus as Caesar RIC II V147029 viewsTitus as Caesar. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 74 A.D. (3.18g, 18.6m, 6h). Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III, bearded, laureate head r. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE (from high r.), Victory advancing r., with wreath and palm, at lower r., star, below annulet. RIC II 1470, RPC 857, RSC 123. Ex CNG 277/227.

The PACI AVGVSTAE reverse shown here is unique to the Ephesus mint, as are the issue marks. There are a number of issues with the star from this mint, but fewer with the annulet in conjunction with the star.
The condition of this coin makes it one of my better Titus specimens. His beard is clearly visible, and the star and annulet are pristine.
1 commentsLucas H
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1426(5A)484 viewsAR Denarius, 2.78g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r., no mint mark
RIC 1426(5A)4. BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This coin should have the EPHE mint mark on the lower left of the reverse, however it is clearly not there. This is the second coin from the series I have seen which has no mint mark. It has been added to the Flavian RIC II Addenda.

Better in hand than the photo suggests.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-143690 viewsAR Denarius, 2.89g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F; Head of Titus, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG and EPHE in oak wreath
RIC 1436 (R2). BMC 464. RSC 23. RPC 841 (3 spec.). BNC 357.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This R2 denarius has the rare occurrence for Flavian silver of IMPERATOR actually spelled out. A very neat thing!

The portrait has an almost Otho-like quality to it, especially the hair. Another variant of the type is bareheaded.

Please forgive the flan crack and the blotchy toning.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1440118 viewsAR Denarius, 3.27g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1440 (R). BMC 467. RSC 39. RPC 843 (4 spec.). BNC 358.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 741.

Another great portrait of the young Titus from this artistically pleasing mint. The reverse is one shared with Vespasian.
An obverse and reverse die match to the RIC plate coin, perhaps an indication of its rarity.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1440A108 viewsAR Denarius, 2.69g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI E (sic); Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1440A. BMC 467 var. RSC 39 var. RPC 843 var. BNC 358 var.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N Sneh Collection, lot 742. Acquired from Ponterio, c. 2003.

This denarius features an engraver's error in the obverse legend. Instead of ending in the normal F the engraver mistakenly engraved an E. It is also an obverse die match to the unique British Museum aureus RIC V1437. A wonderful example of aurei and denarii sharing dies! The coin has been assigned by Carradice as V1440A (obv 2B) in the upcoming RIC II addenda.

Not only is this coin interesting for the engraver's error and die link - it's also in excellent style with an outstanding portrait. Truly a gorgeous coin.


6 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-144199 viewsAR Denarius, 3.23g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F; Head of Titus, bare, bearded, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. r., with wreath and palm; at lower r., EPHE
RIC 1441 (R2). BMC p. 98 note. RSC 124. RPC 838 (1 spec.). BNC 360.
Acquired from Beast Coins, August 2010.

A most rare denarius from Ephesus with a bare headed portrait.

The entire series itself is rare, but the bare headed portraits are even scarcer. I'm not sure what the rarity ratio is between the two types....10 to 1? At any rate, this coin is both an obverse and reverse die match with the RIC plate coin.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1442105 viewsAR Denarius, 3.38g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PACI - AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. r., with wreath and palm; at lower r., EPHE
RIC 1442 (R). BMC 468. RSC 125. RPC 844 (5 spec.). BNC 361.
Ex CNG E260, 20 July 2011, lot 469. Ex Gorny and Mosch 170, 13 October 2008, lot 2068. Ex Gorny & Mosch 142, 10 October 2005, lot 2392.

The obverse is slightly off center but contains a wonderful portrait.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1444128 viewsAR Denarius, 3.42g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r; below EPHE
RIC 1444 (R2). BMC p. 98 note. RSC 127. RPC 845 (0 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from Ephesus Numismatics, April 2010.

The reverse features a turreted female bust, most likely Tyche with the attributes of a City Goddess. Here she is symbolic of the world peace Vespasian has inaugurated after the recent Civil War and revolts in Judaea and Batavia. The type was also struck for Vespasian and Domitian as Caesar and is one of the more fascinating reverses minted at Ephesus.

8 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1459 91 viewsAR Denarius, 2.93g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: AVG and star in oak wreath
RIC 1459 (R2). BMC plate 17.6. RSC 21. RPC 855 (2 spec.). BNC 369.
Ex Gemini IX, 8 January 2012, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 428. Acquired from Freeman and Sear, 2010 (A. Lynn Collection). Ex Gorny and Mosch 126, 14 October 2003, lot 2353.

According to the Gemini catalog listing of this coin, one of only 5 known specimens, so very rare indeed. Same dies as the BMC plate coin and same obverse die as my V1460.

Another wonderful portrait from the artistically pleasing Ephesus mint. Titus here exhibits a slight heavenward gaze.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-146078 viewsAR Denarius, 3.35g
Ephesus Mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA-AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, star
RIC 1460 (R2). BMC 477. RSC 39a. RPC 856 (2 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This reverse type (shared with Vespasian), a common issue at Rome and to some degree Ephesus, is rare with the star mint mark. The Eastern denarii are usually done in a fine style and are very distinct from the much more abundant Rome issues. Here we see Titus gazing heavenwards, a trait of this particular series. Another group minted around the same time used annulets as mint marks along with the star. The star alone rates an R2 in RIC.

Perhaps a bit worn with a few stains, but IMHO a handsome example from this very rare series.
David Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-146993 viewsAR Denarius, 2.74g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r., annulet at tip of bust
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; below throne, annulet; in exergue, star
RIC 1469 (R2). BMC 477. RSC -. RPC 856 var. BNC -.
Ex Gemini IX, 8 January 2012, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 429

The annulet before the obverse bust is an important distinction, it may signify a new series for Ephesus. For now it is cataloged with Ephesus group 9. The annulet is barely visible in hand.

In wonderful condition with a pleasing style. There seems to be no end to the high quality output from this mint!
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1470102 viewsAR Denarius, 3.00g
Ephesus Mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE (from high r.); Victory adv. r., with wreath and palm; at lower r. star; below, annulet
RIC 1470(C). BMC 479. RSC 123. RPC 857 (3 spec.). BNC 370.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

Even at the mint of Ephesus Titus shared many reverses with Vespasian, this Victory included; 'The Imperial Peace'.

A wonderful, stylish obverse die was employed here making this coin a good example of what Ephesus was capable of. A bit off-center, but it can be forgiven.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1481117 viewsAR Denarius, 3.29g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESP CENS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck off flan
Rev: COS V across field;Eagle stg. facing on garlanded altar, wings open, head r.
RIC 1481 (R). BMC 485. RSC 61. RPC 1457 (4 spec.). BNC 373.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

Ephesus stopped minting Imperial denarii in 74 AD. Mysteriously, a series of denarii were minted in 76 in Asia Minor with no apparent purpose. The mint is thought to be Ephesus as well. However, previously the mint had excellent quality control...the 76 series lacks all of that and then some! Mules, muddled titles (PON MAX for Titus!), and reverse types mixed between Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian. A truly odd series. Most likely minted for local use.

This Titus denarius from the series has no blundered mistakes. A fabulous portrait, different in style from the previous Ephesus series but still artistic, IMHO.

3 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-148586 viewsAR Denarius 3.28g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAES IMP VESP CENS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: FIDES PVBL; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
RIC 1485 (R). BMC p. 102 note. RSC 87. RPC 1459 (2 spec.). BNC 375.
Ex eBay, October 2016.

A rare type copied from Rome and struck presumably at Ephesus, although the identity of the mint is not certain. The issue is often wrought with mistakes in the form of blundered legends and mules. This denarius is happily correct!

Stylish portrait and nearly full legends.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus as Caesar RIC-1486103 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAES IMP VESP CENS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck off flan
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS V; Winged caduceus
RIC 1486 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. RPC 1460 (2 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Ancient Treasures, eBay, March 2011.

The small series this coin comes from is quite mysterious. The mint is not known for certain, although Ephesus is a prime suspect. The reason for the series being minted at all is not known either. The issue is full of blundered legends and mules, however, stylistically the coins are very pleasing.

7 commentsDavid Atherton
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Titus, AD 79-8145 viewsAR denarius.

T CAES IMP VESP CENS, Laureate, right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / COS V, bull, humped, standing right. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1483 (R2); BMCRE II, 486; RSC II, 056a; RPC II, 1458.
1 commentssocalcoins
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Titus, AD 79-8145 viewsAR denarius, 18.93mm (3.32 gm).

T CAES IMP VESP CENS, Laureate, right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / COS V, eagle standing facing on garlanded altar, wings open, head right. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 1481 (R); BMCRE II, 485; RSC II, 061a; RPC II, 1457.
3 commentssocalcoins
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Titus/Clasped Hands71 viewsAR Denarius Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD
Obv: T CAES IMP VESP CENS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PVBL FIDES; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
- RIC 1485 (R). BMC p. 102 note. RSC 87. RPC 1459 (2 spec.).
5 commentsNemonater
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TRAJAN58 viewsAR Cistophoric Tetradrachm . Ephesus. 98-99 AD. 10.63 gm. Laureate head right. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M. / Six grain ears tied in a bundle. TR POT COS II. RIC II 717. RSC 607.
CNG 755833
2 commentsbenito
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TRAJAN24 viewsAR Cistophoric Tetradrachm . Ephesus. 98-99 AD. 10.63 gm. Laureate head right. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M. / Six grain ears tied in a bundle. TR POT COS II. RIC II 717. RSC 607.
CNG 755833
benito
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Trajan Decius; Tarsus, Cilicia24 viewsCILICIA, Tarsus. Trajan Decius. AD 249-251. Æ (33mm, 19.74 g, 6h). Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Lion attacking bull right. SNG Levante 1161 (same dies); SNG France 1764 (same dies). VF, earthen black-green patina.

From the Kelly J. Krizan, M.D. Collection.

Pompey subjected Tarsus to Rome, and it became capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, the metropolis where the governor resided. In 66 BC, the inhabitants received Roman citizenship. To flatter Julius Caesar, for a time it took the name Juliopolis. It was also here that Cleopatra and Mark Antony met and was the scene of the celebrated feasts they gave during the construction of their fleet (41 BC). In William Shakespeare's 1606 play Antony and Cleopatra (Act 5, Scene 2), after Antony's death Cleopatra says she is going to Cydnus to meet Antony, i.e., she will commit suicide to meet him in the afterlife; "Go fetch / My best attires: I am again for Cydnus, / To meet Mark Antony"

When the province of Cilicia was divided, Tarsus remained the civil and religious metropolis of Cilicia Prima, and was a grand city with palaces, marketplaces, roads and bridges, baths, fountains and waterworks, a gymnasium on the banks of the Cydnus, and a stadium. Tarsus was later eclipsed by nearby Adana, but remained important as a port and shipyard. Several Roman emperors were interred here: Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Maximinus II, and Julian the Apostate, who planned to move his capital here from Antioch if he returned from his Persian expedition.

Tarsus was the city where, according to the Acts of the Apostles, "Saul of Tarsus"[Acts 9:11] was born, but he was "brought up" ([Acts 22:3]) in Jerusalem. Saul became Paul the apostle after his encounter with Christ (Acts 9:11; 21:39; 22:3), and he briefly returned here after his conversion (Acts 9:30). From here Barnabas retrieved him to help with the work in Syrian Antioch (Acts 11:25).

Already by this time a Christian community probably existed, although the first recorded bishop, Helenus, dates only from the third century; Helenus visited Antioch several times in connection with the dispute concerning Paul of Samosata. Later bishops of Tarsus included Lupus, present at the Council of Ancyra in 314; Theodorus, at the Council of Nicaea in 325; Helladius, who was condemned at the Council of Ephesus and who appealed to the bishop of Rome in 433; above all the celebrated exegete Diodorus, teacher of Theodore of Mopsuestia and consequently one of the fathers of Nestorianism. From the sixth century the metropolitan see of Tarsus had seven suffragan bishoprics; the Greek archdiocese is again mentioned in the tenth century , and existed until the twentieth century upheavals, part of the Patriarchate of Antioch.

Owing to the importance of Tarsus, many martyrs were put to death here, among them being Saint Pelagia, Saint Boniface, Saint Marinus, Saint Diomedes, Saint Quiricus and Saint Julitta.

At about the end of the tenth century, the Armenians established a diocese of their rite; Saint Nerses of Lambroun was its most distinguished representative in the twelfth century.

A cave in Tarsus is one of a number of places claiming to be the location of the legend of the Seven Sleepers, common to Christianity and Islam.
ecoli
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Trihemiobol, AR, Bee/ stag15 viewsIonia, Ephesos, AR Trihemiobol. ca. 390-330 BC. 9 mm, 0.7g Obv.: Bee with straight wings Rev.: Forepart of a stag right, .E-Q in field (off flan). Ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
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Turkey, Ephesus - Library of Celsus218 viewsThis building had two-storied façade but was three-storied.
built ca. CE 125 by Gaius Julius Aquila
once held nearly 12,000 scrolls
Johny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - Central Square464 viewsPart of the central square of the terrace houses in Ephesus.memphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - Central square of Terrace Houses561 viewsPart of the central square of the terrace houses in Ephesus.1 commentsmemphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - Curetes Street1268 viewsLooking down Curetes Street named after the priests who presided over the sacred fire of Hestia. The street is paved with marble slabs with sidewalks covered in mosaics.
3 commentsmemphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - Domitian's temple175 viewsMay 2011FlaviusDomitianus
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Turkey, Ephesus - Gate of Augustus237 viewsgate to agoraJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - Library285 viewsEaster 20071 commentsPotator II
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Turkey, Ephesus - Library of Celsus198 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - Library of Celsus224 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - Public Toilets683 viewsMinus the slaves to warm the seats in winter and the live entertainment1 commentsmemphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - Relief inside temple of Hadrian604 views1 commentsmemphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - Sculptured Drum of Column from Ephesus1082 views
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Turkey, Ephesus - street connecting upper and lower town233 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - street in upper town225 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - street leading from harbour to agora176 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - street leading to harbour208 viewsIn ancient times Ephesus had harbour but alluviums of local river moved coast 5,6 km further.Johny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - temple of Artemis - 1 of the 7 wonders of ancien world384 viewsWe can only dream up what it was once.2 commentsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - temple of Hadrian959 viewsA magnificent relief of Medusa filling the interior arch of the temple of Hadrian. Other reliefs of Amazons and the Olympian gods grace the interior.memphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - temple of Hadrian220 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - Temple of Hadrian - Easter 2007186 viewsPotator II
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Turkey, Ephesus - Terrace House526 viewsLocated in the ongoing excavation of the upper-class terrace houses. Lovely floor mosaicmemphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - Theater501 viewsOne of the largest in the ancient world. The apostle Paul spoke here before getting booted out for causing riots.1 commentsmemphius
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Turkey, Ephesus - theatre194 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - theatre229 views44000 spectators - maybe the largest ancient theatreJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - theatre184 viewsJohny SYSEL
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Turkey, Ephesus - Wall fresco440 viewsLocated in the ongoing excavation of the upper-class terrace houses. Note the opening in the wall for circulation. The entire complex must have appeared like a luxury hotel with a central arbitorium.memphius
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Turkey, Ephesus, Library of Celsus1387 viewsOne of the true glories of Ephesus is the reconstructed facade of the Library of Celsus. Dedicated in 120 A.D to the former governor of Asia Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, the library contained up to 12,000 scrolls. It was burned when the Goths sacked the city in 260 A. D. The edifice to the right is the Gate of Hadrian which connected the library to the public agora or marketplace.1 commentsmemphius
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Turkey, near Denizli, Laodicea on the Lycus26 viewsLaodicea on the Lycus was an ancient city built on the river Lycus (Curuksu), in Lydia, later the Roman Province of Phrygia Pacatiana. It contained one of the Seven churches of Asia mentioned in the Book of Revelation. It is now near the modern city of Denizli. In 2013 the archaeological site was identified as a of World Heritage Site. The existing remains attest to its former greatness. Its many buildings include a stadium, baths, temples, a gymnasium, theaters, and a bouleuterion (Senate House). On the eastern side, the line of the ancient wall may be distinctly traced, with the remains of the Ephesus gate; there are streets traversing the town, flanked by colonnades and numerous pedestals. North of the town, towards the Lycus, are many sarcophagi, with their covers lying near them, partly embedded in the ground, and all having been long since rifled.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Laodicea_(2).JPG

Photo by Rjdeadly, 16 May 2012
Joe Sermarini
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Uncertain satraps, possibly Memnon of Rhodos (350-333 B.C.) AE12, Persian King/ fire altar?16 viewsUncertain satraps, possibly Memnon of Rhodos (350-333 B.C.) AE12, Ephesus (?). 12mm, 1.41g. Obv: Persian king in Knielauf right, holding bow and spear. Rev: uncertain symbol (Persian fire altar?). SNG Alock 7810, Klein KM 365. Good very fine, edge chip. Rare. This issue is usually attributed to Memnon of Rhodos, a mercenary general in service of the Persian king Dareius. Memnon was quite successful in fighting Alexander the Great in the early stage of the latter’s campaign, but finally died of illness at Mytilene in 333 B.C. Ex Rutten & Wieland.Podiceps
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Valerian / Hekate50 viewsEphesus, Ionia
253-260 AD
AE26 (7.86g)
O: Laureate and draped bust of Valerian right; AYT K ΠO ΛIK BAΛEPIANOΣ.
R: Hekate standing facing, head left, wearing long chiton and holding two torches; EΦEΣIΩN Γ NEΩKOPΩN.
Lindgren 474; SNG Cop 499
ex Gerhard Rohde

"The Sibyl first lined up four black-skinned bullocks, poured a libation of wine upon their foreheads, and then, plucking the topmost hairs from between their brows, she placed these on the altar fires as an initial offering, calling aloud upon Hecate, powerful in heaven and hell.
While other laid their knives to these victim’s throats, and caught the fresh warm blood in bowls, Aeneas sacrifices a black-fleeced lamb to Nox, the mother of the Furiae, and her great sister, Terra, and a barren heifer to Proserpine. Then Aeneas set up altars by night to the god of the Underworld, laying upon the flames whole carcasses of bulls and pouring out rich oil over the burning entrails. But listen! - at the very first crack of dawn, the ground underfoot began to mutter, the woody ridges to quake, and a baying of hounds was heard through the half-light: the goddess was coming, Hecate!"
~ Virgil (Aeneid 6,257)
3 commentsEnodia
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Valerian I14 viewsDiana

In Roman mythology, Diana was the virgin goddess of the hunt, the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis. Born with her twin brother Apollo on the island of Delos, Diana was the daughter of Jupiter and Latona.

Diana was the perpetually virginal huntress goddess, associated with wild animals and woodlands. She also later became a moon goddess, supplanting Luna, and was an emblem of chastity. Oak groves were especially sacred to her. She was praised for her strength, athletic grace, beauty and hunting skill. She made up a trinity with two other Roman deities: Egeria the water nymph, her servant and assistant midwife; and Virbius, the woodland god.

Diana was worshipped in a temple on the Aventine Hill and at the city of Ephesus, where the Temple of Artemis stood. Being placed on the Aventine, and thus outside the pomerium, meant that Diana's cult essentially remained a 'foreign' one, like that of Bacchus; she was never officially 'transferred' to Rome as Juno was after the sack of Veii. It seems that her cult originated in Aricia, where her priest, the Rex Nemorensis remained. Diana was regarded with great reverence by lower-class citizens and slaves; slaves could receive asylum in her temples. She was worshipped at a festival on August 13, when King Servius Tullius, himself born a slave, dedicated her shrine on the Aventine.

Diana is usually depicted with a deer. This is because Diana was the patroness of hunting. It is also a reference to the myth of Acteon (or Actaeon), a prince who saw her bathing naked. Diana transformed Acteon into a deer and sent his own hunting dogs to kill him.

IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG Radiate draped cuirassed bust right
FELICITAS SAECVLI Diana, with crescent on head, walking right, drapery flying, carrying long traverse torch.

RIC 291 (Thanks!)
ecoli
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VESPASIAN33 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus. 71 AD. 3,61 grs. Laureate head right. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P / Ceres? seated left,holding corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae.
CONCORDIA AVG. In exergue E PH (ligate) E.
RIC 329. C 67.
benito
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VESPASIAN23 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus,71 AD. 3.41 grs. Laureate head right . IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P PP. / Within oak wreath AVG, EPHE (PHE ligate) above ties.
RIC 328. RSC 40.
benito
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VESPASIAN27 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus,71 AD. 3.41 grs. Laureate head right . IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P PP. / Within oak wreath AVG, EPHE (PHE ligate) above ties.
RIC 328. RSC 40.
1 commentsbenito
vespasianconcord.jpg
VESPASIAN44 viewsAR denarius. Ephesus. 71 AD. 3,61 grs. Laureate head right. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P / Ceres? seated left,holding corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae.
CONCORDIA AVG. In exergue E PH (ligate) E.
RIC 329. C 67.
benito
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Vespasian - [RIC 1422C, BMCRE -, RSC -]72 viewsSilver denarius, 2.76g, 17mm, 180 degree, Ephesus mint, 71 A.D.

Obv. - IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right

Rev. - CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres seated left on ornate high-backed chair, corn ears and poppy in right, cornucopia in left, BY in ex.

An unlisted type for Vespasian's Ephesus Group 5 denarii. In the upcoming RIC II addenda this type should be assigned 1422C.

This is the third known example. Other examples are ex Lynn collection and David Atherton collection in which both share the same dies. This example is from a different die set, making it the first of a second die set.

The BY mint mark does not show up well in the photo, however, in hand it is quite apparent.
___________

Purchased from eBay
4 commentsrenegade3220
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Vespasian / Pax Denarius107 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. Fourrée Denarius (19mm, 3.48).
Obverse style and legend copying Ephesus mint denarii. Reverse copying extremely rare aureus from Antioch - RIC 1539
O: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG Laureate head right
R: PONT MAX – TRIB POT Pax seated r. on throne, holding olive branch and vertical scepter.

For some reason the forger decided to match a denarius obverse from Ephesus with an aureus reverse from Antioch.
Although the weight is good, the poor style, muling of types indicates a possible fourrée.
5 commentsNemonater
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Vespasian / Pax Ephesus Mint44 viewsVespasian AR Denarius, 3.33g, Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
O: Laureate head right, IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P
R: Turreted and draped female bust right; PACI ORB TERR AVG [EPHE below]
- RIC 1433 (C). BMC 459. RSC 293. RPC 835 (14 spec.).
Minted to celebrate the Flavian Pax Romana. I was able to confirm the attribution with matching dies.
3 commentsNemonater
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Vespasian / Shield Within Wreath RIC 139353 viewsVespasian; 69-79 AD, Ephesus, c. 69-70 AD, Denarius, 2.80g.
O: IMP CAES - VESPAS AVG Head laureate r.; on neck rectangular countermark IMP VES with IMP and VE ligate (Howgego-839).
R: AVG on round shield within oak wreath; rectangular countermark IMP VES with IMP and VE ligate.

Extremely rare, apparently the second recorded specimen, the first having appeared in Schenk-Behrens 76, 26 Nov. 1998, lot 186, as reported but not illustrated by RIC-1393. I believe this is the only example of a Vespasian denarius mistakenly countermarked not just once, but twice!

The attribution of this reverse type to Ephesus, suggested by the use on later marked coins of that mint of a simplified version of the same type, AVG within oak wreath but without the shield, is confirmed by the countermark of Vespasian on this specimen, since the few Flavian denarii known to have been marked with that countermark are all coins of the Ephesus mint.
5 commentsNemonater
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Vespasian Denarius Victory advancing left26 viewsVespasian Denarius. Ephesus mint for Philipi, 70 AD. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P, laureate head right / PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory advancing left, carrying wreath & palm, sideways Φ at foot left. RIC 1412, RSC 278a, RPC 820.
Weight - 2.2g
Diameter - 18.2mm approx
lorry66
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Vespasian denarius with the PACI AVGVSTAE reverse (from the Ephesus mint)128 viewsVespasian Denarius. Ephesus mint, 71 AD.
Grs 3,48 and 16 mm.
Observe : IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right. Reverse : PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory walking right, holding wreath in right hand, palm over left shoulder, EPHE at foot right (but looks like EPE H - this last one very soft - in my exemplar).
RIC 1431.
Rarity : C.

A little bit short but a very powerful portrait (consistent with Vespasian's tough military record).
3 commentslabienus
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Vespasian Ephesus14 viewsVespasian AR Denarius (2.77g, 18mm, 6h). Ephesus, AD 71. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right / Oak wreath surrounding AVG and monogram. RIC 1422AA.

This coin was struck during the crossover phase when the use of the monogrammatic mintmark ceased and was replaced by EPE on the gold and silver issues of Ephesus. The obv. can be die-linked to RIC's Group 6 (cf. RIC 1429, Pl. 77), however an older rev. die that features the monogram was utilised.
Ajax
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Vespasian Ephesus RIC 32647 viewsVespasian Denarius. Ephesus, 71 AD.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right
Reverse: PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory advancing left with wreath & palm.
18mm, 2.5gm
RIC 326;RSC 279.

1 commentsJerome Holderman
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Vespasian RIC 16447 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Rome Mint, January - June 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CAESAR AVG F COS CAESAR AVG F PR; Bare heads of Titus on l. and Domitian on r., facing one another
RIC 16 (R). BMC 2. RSC 5. BNC 1.
Acquired from Ephesus Numismatics, November 2005.

This coin was issued by Vespasian during the first year of his reign to announce the beginning of a new dynasty. After the chaos of the Civil War, Rome badly needed stability and Vespasian would provide it.

This has become one of my favorite coins in my collection. The toning is superb and the fine style of the portraits are to "die" for.
4 commentsVespasian70
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Vespasian RIC 49226 viewsAR Denarius, 3.08g
Rome mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VE-SP AVG P M; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: No legend. Vespasian laureate, standing in triumphal quadriga r., horses pacing, holding branch in r. hand and sceptre in l.
RIC 49 (R2). BMC p. 14 note. RSC 643 var. BNC -.
Acquired from Ephesus Numismatics, December 2005.

This reverse celebrates Vespasian and Titus' Judaean Triumph at Rome.

Most examples of this reverse type are Antioch mint issues which copy the Rome mint type.

This example is unusual because of the obverse legend IMP CAES VESP AVG PM. RSC records this reverse with COS IIII, which is the Antioch type.

This type is a rare official variant which Ian Carradice knows of only three other specimens.

RIC II plate coin.

Kind thanks to Harry Sneh for the attribution help.
2 commentsVespasian70
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Vespasian RIC II 077647 viewsVespasian. 69-79A.D. Rome Mint. 75 A.D. (3.38g, 19.7m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VI, Victory stg. l. on cista mystica flanked by snakes. RIC II 776 (R), BMC 169, RSC 369. Ex CNG.

The silver issues of Ephesus seem to have ended in 74 A.D., and this type may have been minted in Rome for circulation in the east. This was a new type for the Flavians, but again, a resurrection type of older coins. This example is worn, but a wonderfully full flan and full weight as well.
2 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 140445 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint, 69-70 A.D. (2.97g, 17.4m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus and Domitian veiled, togate, standing front, heads left, each with patera, sideways ɸ in exergue. RIC II 1404 (R).

The reverse inscription roughly translates as “the children of the Emperor Augustus Vespasian.” Vespasian acted early to establish his sons as his successors as shown by this example minted in his first year as Emperor. Initially attributed to Philipi, this series, characterized by the sideways ɸ, has been attributed to Ephesus by recent scholarship.
3 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 1406108 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 69-70 A.D.. (3.16g, 17.7m, 7h). Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm, sideways ɸ in lower left filed. RIC II 1406 (R), RPC 812, RSC 280.

Early denarius minted in the East, possibly before Mucianus secured Rome. Initially attributed to Philipi, this series, characterized by the sideways ɸ, has been attributed to Ephesus by recent scholarship. The lettering is irregular compared with Roman mint coins, and the portrait lacks the distinctive look of Vespasian of later issues.
7 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 140834 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 70A.D. (2.63g, 17.4mm, 7h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR PPP, laureate head r. Rev: AVG and Ɵ in oak wreath. RIC II 1408, RPC 817.

The obverse legend is worn on the right side, but the portrait is high relieve- typical of Ephesus. The reverse is off center, but the Ɵ is still visible in the center of the bottom of the wreath marking this coin’s mint. Thanks to Forum’s David Atherton for identifying this coin for me.
Lucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 1408-1422 Brockage39 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Obverse Brockage Ephesus Mint. 70 A.D. (2.33 g. 17.2 mm, 0 h.). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG CO[S II] TR P P P. Rev: brockage. Incuse, mirror-image reproduction of the obverse portrait and legend. cf. RIC II 1408-1422.

The coin from the previous strike stuck in the reverse die and transferred an obverse image in reverse on the obverse. As common as these coins are, they must not have been considered a major flaw at the mint. There appear to be enough brockage coins around that the defect was not significant enough for remelting the flan.
2 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 141155 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 70 A.D. (3.14g, 19mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR PPP, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus and Domitian, veiled, togate, stg. front, heads l. each with patera; in exergue, Ɵ. RIC II 1411 (R), BMC 443, RSC 249.

This example of a scarce Vespasian from Ephesus has striking weakness on the obverse, but the reverse is quite nice with the issue mark, Ɵ, clear on in the exergue. Vespasian acted early to promote his two sons as successors. The issue marks from Ephesus remain one of the mysteries of Flavian coinage.
3 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 141224 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint. 70 A.D. (3.09g, 17.9m, 0h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR PPP, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm, at lower l. sideways ɸ. RIC II 1412 (R), RSC 278a. Ex. Forum.

A wonderful high relief portrait typical of the Ephesus mint. This is a fairly scarce issue with the issue mark clear at the lower left of Victory’s feet. This reverse is unique to the Ephesus mint as is the abbreviation VESPAS.
Lucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 141444 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 70 A.D. (2.64g, 17.3mm, 7h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR PPP, laureate head right. Rev: AVG and symbol in oak wreath. RIC II 1414 (R3).

When the RIC II was updated, this type was only known by one example. Since, a couple of others have surfaced including another at CNG, and one in a private collection displayed in a Forum gallery to which mine is a reverse die match. This could be the fourth known specimen of this type. It pays to know your symbols in these series as this was listed by the seller as RIC 1408, a more common issue.
3 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 1422C51 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint. 71 A.D. (2.59g, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right. Rev: CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres std. l. on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears, poppy, and cornucopiae, in exergue, BY in monogram. RIC 1422C.

This type was unknown when updated RIC was published, but a few have surfaced since. There are two more in private collections here at the forum, and at least two others as well. In the upcoming addendum to the RIC, this type is tentatively assigned 1422C.
5 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 142643 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, 71 AD. (2.12g, 17.3m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head r. Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG, turreted and draped female bust right; symbol below. RIC 1426 (R2), BMC 450, RPC 828, RSC 293a.

This reverse, the turreted and draped female bust, is unique to this mint.
Lucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 142723 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint 71 A.D. (3.13g, 16.4mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right. Rev: AVG and EPHE in oak wreath. RIC II 1427, RPC II 8129, RSC 40. Ex CNG.

Although the reverse of this coin is off center, neither side of the coin shows much wear. With a tight flan, it’s amazing the obverse legend is complete. While nice, it is also a very shiny coin with no signs of toning. This is my first coin from Ephesus with a "mintmark."
1 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 1427 Variant63 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint. 77-78 A.D. (2.98g, 17.4mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR PPP, laureate head right. Rev: AVG in oak wreath (no mark). RIC II 1427 Varian.

The interest in this coin is its identity. The Ephesus mint issued the AVG in an oak wreath with EPHE, V1427. I have carefully examined this coin in various types of light, with, and without a loop and other types of magnification. The tassel above the bottom of the wreath is clearly visible and not that worn, and any issue mark would likely be visible in that area. It is my opinion there is no mint or issue mark on this coin.

David Atherton, another Flavian collector at the Forum has a Vespasian 1429 with no mint mark and a Titus as Caesar V1444 with no mint mark as well making it possible there was a series in Ephesus in 71 A.D. without the marks.
3 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 142835 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint. 71 A.D. (3.02g, 16.6m, 7h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right. Rev: CONCORXIA AVG, Ceres std. l. on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears, poppy, and cornucopiae, in exergue, EPHE. RIC II 1428, BMC 453, RSC 67. Ex CNG.

Although porous, this eastern issue denarius has full legends and is well centered. The EPHE in exergue is on the flan, and very clear. This is part of the series of Flavian denarii minted in Ephesus with a series of issue marks, making an interesting collection area in its own right.

Lucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 143126 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint. 71 A.D. (3.20g, 17.5mm 11h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P PP, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE (from high r.); Victory adv. r. with wreath an palm, at lower r., EPE. RIC II 1431, BMC 457, RSC 276, RPC 833.

This specimen has a tight flan but full weight. While the obverse is slightly off center, it retains full legends, and the reverse is well centered.
Lucas H
Vespasian_RIC_II_1432.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 143221 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint 71 A.D. (3.15g, 18.3mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR PPP, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. left, with wreath and palm, at lower right EPE. RIC II 1432 (R2).

A scarce issue from the East. This example seems to have a die flaw on the EPE, but otherwise the obverse lettering is strikingly sharp.
1 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 143473 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint. 71 A.D. (3.36g, 17.1m, 7h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right. Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r; EPE in left field. RIC II 1434 (R); BMC 459; RPC 835.

This reverse type is unique to Ephesus, and identity of the female isn’t clear. Mattingly speculates she could be Tyche describing the crown as composed of towers bringing to mind a city, or perhaps Cybele, or Great Mother. The message of peace brought to the world by Vespasian however, is clear. This type with the EPHE to the left of the female, is more scarce that V1433 with EPHE below. Neither Mattingly, nor the authors of RPC distinguish between the types with differing placements of the monogram as Carradice and Buttrey do.

This example is a pleasure in hand. The lettering is sharp on both sides. While the reverse is a bit off center, the details of the figures are well preserved as is the monogram.
5 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 145357 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint. 73 A.D. (late). (2.69g, 19.9mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS IIII TR PPP, laureate head right. Rev: CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres std. l. on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and coruncopiae; in exergue, star. RIC II 1453 (R2); RPC 850.

Very few of the Ephesus denarii are classified as common in the updated RIC, but those with COS IIII are exceedingly rare. Of three denarii types know with COS IIII, all but this type are R3 (only one example known to the authors at the time of publication). This is the only one of this series I've seen outside the RIC II plate coin and another in a personal collection here at the Forum. Given its scarcity, I was surprised mine was not an obverse or reverse die match to that plate coin.

The Concordia reverse was contemporaneously used in Rome, but the Ephesus examples used an ornate, high-backed, chair, and she is holding corn ears and poppy compared with a patera in the Rome example on a plain chair. Despite some wear, this coin has full legends and devices on a large flan. The portrait is also the high relief typical of coins minted in Ephesus.
2 commentsLucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 146450 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. Ephesus Mint. 74 .D. (3.41g, 0 h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR PPP, laureate head right. Rev: CONCORDIA AVG, Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and coruncopiae; below throne, annulet; in exergue star. RIC II 1464 (R2).

This is a rare issue from Ephesus with both an annulet and star. The meaning of the marks used in Ephesus remain a mystery. This reverse was contemporaneously used in Rome, but the Ephesus examples used an ornate, high-backed, chair, and Ceres is holding corn ears and poppy compared with a patera in the Rome example on a plain chair.
4 commentsLucas H
Vespasian_RIC_II_1465.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 146530 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. . Ephesus Mint. 74 A.D. (3.19g, 17.7mm, 0h). Obv: [IMP CAE]SAR VESPAS AVG COS V [TR P P P], laureate head right. Rev: [P]ACI AVGVSTAE (from high right); Victory advancing right; with wreath and palm; at lower l, annulet, at lower r., star. RIC II 1465 (R2).

Due to the death, disruption, and devastation of the Civil War, each of emperors, after Nero, during the Year of Four Emperors used Peace as a theme on their coinage as a theme to try and assure the Romans the carnage was over. The coins from Ephesus with the star and annulet marks are all scarce. While off center on the obverse, this specimen has a well centered reverse. This example also has an interesting 0h die axis.
2 commentsLucas H
Vespasian_RIC_II_1475.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 147513 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. . Uncertain Asian Mint (“o” mint) 76 A.D. (2.79g, 18.9mm, 6h ). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right, small “o” under head (not visible on this example). Rev: FIDES PVBL; hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears. RIC II 1475, BMC 490, RSC 163a, RPC 1452.

Another example from the “o” mint which produced a brief series in 76 A.D. Based on stylistic links, this is thought to have originated from Ephesus, but that is not certain. All of the coins from this series are scarce. This specimen is worn, but well centered.
Lucas H
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Vespasian RIC II 147733 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius, Uncertain Mint, possibly Ephesus 76 A.D. (3.35g, 18.6m, 12h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right, “o” under neck. Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VII, winged caduceus. RIC II 1477 (R). RPC 1453.

An unknown mint produced these coins with an “o” on the obverse, probably in Asia Minor, and maybe Ephesus. Only denarii were produced in this manner. The coins were limited to 76 A.D. This type, as many in this series copies an earlier Roman reverse, but the quality of the engraving is lacking, even from earlier issues of Ephesus. RIC II p. 43-44.
Lucas H
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Vespasian(us)67 viewsVespasian, denarius.
Ephesus mint, 70 A.D.
RIC 1411, RSC 249.
18 mm 3.37 gr.
Obv. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, right.
Rev. LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Titus and Domitian, togate, veiled, standing left, each holding patera in right hand, left hands at sides.
This is a rare and interesting Asian mint emission. Finally I own a denarius with a portrait of the three Flavian emperors!
4 commentsMarsman
Vespasian_RIC_1456.jpg
Vespasian(us)54 viewsVespasian, denarius.
RIC 1456, RSC 68.
74 AD, Ephesus mint.
2.66g, 19mm.
Obv. IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P PP; laureate head right.
Rev. CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres seated left, holding poppies & corn-ears in right hand & cornucopia in left, star in ex.
The second eastern denarius in my collection. I love the style.
2 commentsMarsman
Vespasian_RIC_334~0.JPG
Vespasian, 69 - 79 AD39 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TRP PP, laureate head of Vespasian facing right.

Rev: PACE ORB TERR AVG, Turreted, draped female bust facing right, EPHE (PHE in monogram) in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Ephesus mint, 71 AD

3.4 grams, 17.5 mm, 180°

RIC II 334, RSC 293, S2274, VM 39
SPQR Coins
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Vespasian, 69 - 79 AD38 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TRP PP, laureate head of Vespasian facing right.

Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Victory walking right, holding a wreath in extended right hand, and a palm frond in the other; ɸ lower left (unstruck).

Silver Denarius, Ephesus Mint, 70 AD

3.099 grams, 17.3 mm, 0°

RIC IIi 1412, RSC II 278a, S2272 (mm variety), VM 38

Ex: FORVM
2 commentsMatt Inglima
BrettVespasian1.jpg
Vespasian, AD 69-7984 viewsAR denarius, 17.29mm (3.33 gm).

IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right / AVG EPE in two lines within oak-wreath. Ephesus mint, AD 71.

RIC II.1, 1427; BMCRE II, 451; RSC II, 040.
1 commentssocalcoins
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Vespasian, AD 69-7941 viewsAR denarius, 20.52mm (2.83 gm).

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, Laureate head right; small 'o' visible below the neck truncation / PRINCEPS IVVENTVT, Spes standing left, with flower. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76.

RIC II.1, 1479; BMCRE II, 492; RSC II, 393a; RPC II, 1455.
2 commentssocalcoins
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Vespasian, AD 69-7932 viewsAR denarius, 19.26mm (3.50gm).

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / ION MAX TR P COS V, winged caduceus. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76.

RIC II.1, 1476 (R3); BMCRE II, unlisted; RSC II, unlisted; RPC II, unlisted.
1 commentssocalcoins
67.jpg
Vespasian, AD 69-7919 viewsAR denarius, 18.90mm (3.39 gm).

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / COS VII, eagle standing facing on garlanded altar, wings open, head right. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76.

RIC II.1, 1471 (R2); BMCRE II, unlisted; RSC II, unlisted; RPC II, unlisted.
socalcoins
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Vespasian, AD 69-7925 viewsAR denarius, 17.48mm (2.93 gm).

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / PON MAX TR P COS VII, winged caduceus. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76.

RIC II.1, 1477 (R); BMCRE II, 483; RSC II, 375a; RPC II, 1453.
socalcoins
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Vespasian, AD 69-7939 viewsAR denarius, 19.24mm (3.27gm).

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; a small 'o' is usually visible below the neck truncation / ION MAX TR P COT II, winged caduceus. Mint(s) of Asia Minor (Uncertain: Ephesus?), struck AD 76.

RIC II.1, 1477 note; BMCRE II, unlisted; RSC II, unlisted; RPC II, unlisted.
2 commentssocalcoins
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Vespasian, RIC 1497 var., orichalcum coin of AD 77-78 (Spes)24 viewsVespasian, orichalcum coin (11,1g, 30mm, 6h), mint of Asia Minor (Ephesus?), AD 77-78
Obv.: IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN·AVGVST, laureate head right
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT P P·COS·VIII·CENS around, S | C, Ceres, veiled, standing left with two corn ears and cornucopiae.
RIC 1497 var. (obv. legend ends in AVGVST (B-type) not AVGVSTVS (A-type)). The coin as a B-type is probably unpublished so far in combination with this reverse.

RIC 1497 matches with RPC II 1470 and was R3 (only one known). The recent RPC S3 Supplement reports of another example found in during excavations Athens, 2006.
2 commentsCharles S
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Vespasian-RIC-1395122 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Ephesus Mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Titus and Domitian veiled, togate, stg. front (heads l.), each with patera
RIC 1395 (R3). BMC 430. RSC 248. RPC 805 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Ex CNG E368, 10 February 2016, lot 406.

Part of the first group of denarii struck at Ephesus. Unlike the other groups struck at the mint, this very rare early issue did not use mint-marks. My specimen is apparently the second known of the Titus and Domitian togate type (although the other specimen in the BM is off-centre and a possible mint-mark could be off flan).

A pleasing coin with a fine Ephesian style portrait. Much better in hand.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1396a.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-139676 viewsAR Denarius, 3.15g
Rome mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory, advancing l., holding wreath in extended r. hand and palm curving up in l.
RIC 1396 (R2). BMC 431. RSC 280b. RPC 806 (2 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from Pars Coins, September 2017. Ex Hirsch 326, 16 February 2017, lot 1924. Ex Savoca Live Auction 9, 21 August, 2016, lot 532.

Ephesus struck a small issue of denarii for Vespasian between 69 and 74. The vast majority of these Ephesian denarii have a mintmark of one sort or another. Those without one are preciously rare.
The earliest and rarest are undated with no mint mark and were minted in late 69 or early 70. This unmarked type with Victory on the reverse has been a most elusive one to acquire! Very scarce in trade.

Struck in fine Ephesian style.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
V1397ccc.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1397128 viewsAR Denarius, 3.29g
Ephesus mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r.
RIC 1397 (R). BMC p. 89,†. RSC 291. RPC 807 (5 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from NB Numismatics, March 2017. Ex VAuctions 292 (Imperial Coins), 6 December 2012, lot 130.

The first denarius issue at Ephesus was struck without mint marks and all of them are quite rare. This particular denarius has a peculiarly crude style compared with other Ephesian denarii. RIC II.1 authors Carradice and Buttrey comment about this coin in the introduction on p. 8 - 'a recent example seen in trade (Imperial Coins 2004) had the correct legend (and good weight for a denarius, at 3.29g) but a very different, inferior style on both the obverse and reverse. Is such a coin a barbarous imitation, or simply the product of a less able die-engraver employed at the start of a mint's output?' Curiously, the RIC plate coin of this same type from Oxford is in a similarly crude style. Interesting to note that Mattingly in BMCRE II doubted the type existed without mint mark, which indicates how rare it is!

Struck on a small flan in high relief.

7 commentsDavid Atherton
V1399.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1399123 viewsAR Denarius, 3.18g
Ephesus mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG and horizontal Φ; in oak-wreath
RIC 1399 (C). BMC 434. RSC 37. RPC 808 (10 spec.). BNC 332.
Ex Roma E-Sale 28, 2 July 2016, lot 456. Ex Thersites Collection.

Vespasian's undated Ephesian Group 2 denarii are all fairly scarce. The AVG in oak-wreath type is probably the most common of the issue. These early undated issues were most likely struck in late 69 or early 70.

Despite the strange flan shape, struck in fine style and darkly toned.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
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Vespasian-RIC-1400112 viewsAR Denarius, 2.81g
Ephesus mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, horizontal Φ
RIC 1400 (R). BMC 434A. RSC 65c. RPC 809 (5 spec.). BNC -.
Ex G&N, eBay, 04 June 2012. Ex Hirsch 280, 9 February 2012, lot 4664.

Part of an early series from Ephesus, the coin is quite rare, as are most of the coins from the same issue. The BM has two specimens.

Minted on a fairly tight flan, the coin has a pleasing style and is in good metal.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
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Vespasian-RIC-1404106 viewsAR Denarius, 2.99g
Ephesus Mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Titus and Domitian veiled, togate, stg. front (heads l.), each with patera; in exergue, horizontal Φ
RIC 1404 (R). BMC p. 90 note. RSC 248 var. RPC 811 (4 spec.). BNC 334.
Ex Imperial coins VAuction 274, 15 December 2011, lot 117.

A dynastic type minted in one of the first issues at Ephesus. Despite the ragged flan, the portrait is very noble and the reverse featuring the two young princes is quite charming. The mint mark on the reverse is barely visible below their feet.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
vespasian victory l..jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1406189 viewsAR Denarius, 2.98g
Ephesus Mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory, advancing l., holding wreath in extended r. hand and palm curving up in l.; horizontal Φ in lower l. field
RIC 1406 (R). BMC 435. RSC 280c. RPC 812 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from Amphora Coins, July 2006.

An early issue Eastern denarius of Vespasian, perhaps one of the first. Attributed to an uncertain mint in Asia Minor, the jury is still out concerning the exact location, Ephesus is the most likely candidate.

I love this coin. The portrait is one of my favorites and the style is simply beautiful. A welcomed addition to the collection.
4 commentsVespasian70
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Vespasian-RIC-1407159 viewsAR Denarius, 2.89g
Ephesus mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESPAS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r.; below, horizontal Φ
RIC 1407 (R), BMC 437. RSC 291. RPC 813 (6 spec.). BNC 335.
Ex CNG E281, 20 June 2012, lot 301.

A unique to this mint denarius type minted early in the reign. The turreted female bust symbolises the world and the legend advertises the world peace brought by Vespasian. Flavian propaganda at its most positive.

Both portraits are in fine style and high relief.
12 commentsDavid Atherton
vesp avgwreath.JPG
Vespasian-RIC-1408117 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Ephesus Mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG and horizontal Φ; in oak-wreath
RIC 1408 (C). BMC 439. RSC 37a. RPC 817 (10 spec.). BNC 336.
Acquired from Ancient Imports, June 2005.

This is a fairly common type with the Φ mint mark. A similar type was minted at Rome with SPQR within the wreath, this issue predates it.

Nicely centered with deep toning, large flan, and in excellent style. Good example of this type. Obverse die match with RIC 1411 plate coin.
Vespasian70
V1409.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-140987 viewsAR Denarius, 2.59g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, horizontal Φ
RIC 1409 (R2). BMC 442. RSC 66. RPC 818 (2 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from Incitatus Coins, March 2018.

The Ceres reverse type was consistently struck at Ephesus from 69 through 74. This scarce Group 3 example features an imperfectly struck Φ mintmark. The elaborate high back throne Ceres is seated upon distinguishes it from the Rome mint version of the type.

Struck in typical fine Ephesian style.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
vesp titus dom asia minor.JPG
Vespasian-RIC-1411204 viewsAR Denarius, 2.80g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Titus and Domitian, togate, veiled, standing l., each holding patera in r. hand, l. hands at sides; in exergue, horizontal Φ
RIC 1411 (R). BMC 443. RSC 249. RPC 819 (5 spec.). BNC -.

An early coin issue of Vespasian announcing his intentions of founding a dyansty. Minted at an uncertain mint in Asia Minor, perhaps Ephesus.

A fairly scarce coin that I had trouble finding in good condition. This is one of the better examples I've seen...full legends and nice detail in a wonderful style.
7 commentsVespasian70
Vespasian_Denar_Ephesus.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1412154 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. l., with wreath and palm; at lower l., horizontal Φ
RIC 1412 (R). BMC p. 92 note. RSC 278a, RPC 820 (5 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

A fairly common reverse type from Ephesus that is rare with this mint mark. You could spend a lifetime collecting the mint mark variations for this mint!

Another wonderful high relief portrait, one of the best I've seen.
A bit off-center but with good details and fine style.
(Thanks kc!)
12 commentsDavid Atherton
V1412Aed.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1412A107 viewsAR Denarius, 3.07g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. r., with wreath and palm; at lower r., horizontal Φ
RIC 1412A (R3), BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Munthandel G Henzen, February 2017.

A previously unknown type for Vespasian's Ephesian denarii dated COS II (group 3). Before this specimen surfaced the Victory advancing right type was only known for COS III (group 5) and later issues at Ephesus. Normally for COS II Victory is advancing left, so, this is the earliest example of the Victory advancing right. The mint mark is a bit obscured, but under examination with a loupe I believe it to be Φ. I alerted Ted Buttrey about the coin and he has assigned it as RIC 1412A in the upcoming RIC II Addenda.

Good Ephesian style and large flan. Better in hand.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1414.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1414142 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG and BY in oak wreath
RIC 1414 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. RPC 822 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This is an extremely rare type from the very rare "BY" COS II series. When the new RIC volume was first published only one known example (Vienna) of this type was known, since then my coin and another example from a CNG auction in 2008 have surfaced.

Not only is this coin rare but the portrait is very stylish and the condition is superb. The best known specimen of the type and a beauty in hand.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
Vesp BY Concordia.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1416133 viewsAR Denarius, 2.90g
Ephesus Mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres, Veiled, draped, seated l. holding two corn-ears and poppy in r. hand and cornucopiae in l.; in exergue, BY
RIC 1416 (R2). BMC p. 93. RSC 66a. RPC 823 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Old Roman Coins, eBay, June 2004.

This denarius has a mint mark that the BMCRE attributes to Byzantium, however, modern scholarship is inclined to assign this mark and the other mint marked denarii of Asia Minor to the city of Ephesus.

The reverse type depicts Ceres seated on a throne holding the abundance of harvest. Issued soon after the Civil War, it may be a local expression of the 'fruits of harmony.' (BMCRE lxvi)

A coin which suffers from a touch of porosity due to it's state of preservation. Like many of the coins of Asian Minor, the artistic quality is very high.
Vespasian70
V1418bsm.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1418110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.20g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG V-ESPAS; Heads of Titus, bare, r., and Domitian, bare, l., confronting; BY in r. field (on its side, obscured)
RIC 1418 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Trusted Coins, eBay, September 2016.

The confronting heads of Titus and Domitian is one of the rarest reverse types struck at Ephesus for Vespasian. RIC lists this rare variant with mintmark sideways in right field as 'unique'. I was able to match my specimen's reverse die with another example (Lanz 128, 22 May 2006, lot 322) which showed the BY mintmark, confirming the coin's attribution. Since the publication of the new RIC, I have identified 4 specimens of this extremely rare variant, all from the same reverse die. Also, take note of the unusual break in the reverse legend: V - ESPAS.

Struck with nearly full legends in fine Ephesian style.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
V1420.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-142099 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Titus and Domitian, togate, veiled, standing l., each holding patera in r. hand, l. hands at sides; in exergue, BY
RIC 1420 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Hirsch 323, 22 September 2016, lot 2390.

An extremely rare Ephesus Group 4 denarius. When the new edition of RIC II was published in 2007 only one specimen was known of this dynastic type with mint mark in exergue. Since its publication, several other examples have come to light in addition to mine, bringing the total number of specimens to around a dozen. RIC makes a distinction between two different mint mark placings for this type: in exergue, as seen here, and between T & D.

Struck in fine style with hints of gunmetal toning.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
V1421.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1421115 viewsAR Denarius, 3.02g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. l., with wreath and palm; at lower l., BY
RIC 1421 (R). BMC 446. RSC 278. RPC 825 (5 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from Den of Antiquity, August 2012.

This denarius is part of the fourth series minted at Ephesus. Most of the denarii with the BY mint mark are fairly rare.

A decently toned coin with a good portrait, although flatly struck.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
V1422sm.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-142289 viewsAR Denarius, 2.72g
Ephesus mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS II TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r.; below, BY
RIC 1422 (R). BMC 447. RSC 289. RPC 826 (4 spec.). BNC -.

This was a tough one to ID. The obverse legend is not the most legible at a crucial area - the COS date. Upon having it in hand I can see it is COS II. The reverse should have one of two mint marks below the bust, but it is completely worn away. Luckily I found a reverse die match, amazingly the RIC plate coin for 1422, putting this denarius in group 4 with the BY mint mark.

A decent coin with excellent toning and in fine Ephesian style. Much better in hand.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
26545.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1422AA107 viewsAR Denarius, 3.29g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR PPP; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG and BY in oak wreath
RIC 1422AA (R2). BMC p. 94 note. RSC 38. RPC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Ancient Imports, February 2012.

Struck in 71 AD at Ephesus, the type AVG within wreath is not rare in and of itself, however, what makes this coin special is the mint mark. Normally this type dated COS III should have EPHE as the mint mark, here there is a faint BY mark between the ties. Cohen records this reverse but the new RIC and BMC list it as unverified. Thanks to Harry Sneh I know of two other examples of this type and I was able to find one more online sold by Spink in 2004, so a total of four examples. RIC II author Ian Carradice has been made aware of this and presumably will list it as 1422AA in the RIC II addenda.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
V1422AC.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1422AC150 viewsAR Denarius, 2.64g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue BY
RIC 1422AC (R2). BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

An unlisted type for Vespasian's Ephesus Group 5 denarii. In the upcoming RIC II addenda this type should be assigned 1422AC. The confronting heads of Titus and Domitian is now the only type not known for this series, which Harry Sneh pointed out to me is likely waiting to be discovered. As far as rarity is concerned - one other example is known, ex Lynn collection, so R2. Both share the same dies.

Not only is this a very rare type, stylistically it is quite stunning. One of the best portraits of Vespasian I've seen on a coin.


9 commentsDavid Atherton
V1424_R3.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1424141 viewsAR Denarius, 3.32g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Titus and Domitian veiled, togate, stg. front (heads l.), each with patera; below, BY mint mark
RIC 1424 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. RPC 827 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This coin has a lot going for it. The dynastic reverse type dated COS III normally has the EPHE mint mark on the reverse, here we have BY - extremely rare. The Group 5 series this coin is from is also exceeding rare, full of R3 coins and unpublished types. This particular type is listed in RIC as R3, citing an American Numismatic Society specimen (RIC plate coin), so second known example - both from the same dies.

Well centered with a wonderfully stern portrait. One of my favourite types from this mint.



9 commentsDavid Atherton
V1425a.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1425A94 viewsAR Denarius, 2.54g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. l., with wreath and palm; at lower l., BY
RIC 1425A. BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Savoca Coins, eBay, October 2017.

An unpublished Victory adv. left for Vespasian's Ephesian Group 5 denarii. A unique specimen with Victory adv. right is cited in RIC II.1 (RIC 1425) for the group. A second Victory left specimen, a double die match with mine, has been noted in Doug Smith's collection. With the appearance of these two coins both Victory types can now be attested for Group 5. Tentatively the type will be considered a variant of RIC 1425 until it is officially assigned a place in the upcoming Addenda. It should be noted that COS III denarii are seen much more commonly with the EPHE mintmark where both Victory types are already attested. Generally speaking, denarii dated COS III with the BY mintmark are so rare that Mattingly in BMCRE II doubted many of the standard Ephesian types existed for the group. However, he did note a COS III Victory left with an unclear mintmark, citing Cohen 279 (BMC II p. 94, note).

**Update** Ian Carradice has been informed of the type and has added it to the upcoming Addenda (31/10/2018).

Struck in fine Ephesian style.

4 commentsDavid Atherton
V1426.JPG
Vespasian-RIC-1426118 viewsAR Denarius, 2.95g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r.; below, BY
RIC 1426 (R2). BMC 450. RSC 293a. RPC 828 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Helios, eBay, 15 July 2012.

A rare mint mark for this type with the obverse legend COS III. Normally one would find the EPHE mint mark on the reverse. Apparently all the other coins from the same series are R3! A rare coin indeed.

The obverse is a bit flatly struck but otherwise the coin has excellent eye appeal.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
V1429_no_mm.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1426(5A)2141 viewsAR Denarius, 3.19g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Heads of Titus, bare, r., and Domitian, bare, l., confronting; no mintmark
RIC 1426(5A)2 (R3). BMC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

This Vespasian denarius was minted in Ephesus in 71 AD. Normally this type should have a mint mark on the reverse between the busts of Titus and Domitian, oddly enough on this specimen it is absent. It is quite possible there was a series minted at Ephesus in 71 without mint marks, however the jury is still out. I also have an Ephesus Titus as Caesar from 71 with no mint mark (RIC 1426(5A)4) which lends credence to the no mint mark series.

A great coin in hand with a slightly small flan but a high relief bust.


7 commentsDavid Atherton
V1426(5A)3.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1426(5A)344 viewsAR Denarius, 3.25g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r.; no mintmark
RIC 1426(5A)3 (R3). BMC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, May 2019.

This is an extremely rare denarius from Ephesus struck without a mintmark and the second known example of the Turreted female bust type lacking one. The Ephesian denarius issues struck under Vespasian all have mintmarks, save for the first and one tiny issue dated COS III. Aside from this turreted female type and the accompanying footnote, this issue is not represented in the new RIC II.1. Ted Buttrey wrote in the RIC II Addenda the following concerning the no mintmark issue:

'I’m not terribly happy about this. It’s a convenient way to draw together several pieces which lack the mintmark, placing them after the completion of the ΘΙ and ΘΥ Groups 3-5 and the inception of Group 6 with ΕΡΗ. But why should they have given up on a mintmark in mid-course, when all of Groups 2-9 are marked? The choices are – (i) mintmark on coins worn away; (ii) engraver forgot to add mintmark to the dies; (iii) issue deliberately produced without mintmark. Assuming (iii) for the moment, the new Group takes the place of fnn. 46-47, pp.162-3, and fits here nicely with V’s title for Groups 5-6, and T’s for Group 6, But I have no fixed opinion, and await the appearance of others of this variety.'

IMHO, either ii or iii are the most likely option. There are specimens from this non-mintmark issue (such as the present coin) that have no available space on the flan for a mintmark, thus, one was never intended either deliberately or accidentally. No mintmarks occur on various dies spanning different reverse types for both Vespasian and Titus Caesar, because of this I lean more towards this being intentional.

Struck in high relief with the reverse slightly off centred.

NB: This coin shares a reverse die with my Titus Caesar example of the type.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
VespEpheWreath.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1427189 viewsAR Denarius, 3.34g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG and EPHE in oak wreath
RIC 1427 (C). BMC 451. RSC 40. RPC 829 (16 spec.). BNC 341.
Acquired from Akropolis Coins, February 2008.

An excellent example of Ephesus Flavian coinage. A banker's mark is in the obverse right field.
1 commentsVespasian70
la_vespasian_3.07g_17-18mm_LG.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1428123 viewsAR Denarius, 3.07g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1428 (C). BMC 453. RSC 67. RPC 830 (12 spec.). BNC 343.
Acquired from Rutten and Wieland, March 2008.

The Eastern denarii of Vespasian are one of my favorite issues. Even though style wise this coin is of average quality for Ephesus, it would be above average for Rome. A truly fine denarius with excellent detail in the chair.
3 commentsVespasian70
ric1430.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-143091 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS; Titus and Domitian veiled, togate, stg. front (heads l.), each with a patera; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1430 (C). BMC 456. RSC 250. RPC 832 (10 spec.). BNC 349.
Acquired from Incitatus Coins, January 2012.

I bought this for the portrait (and I needed this type with the EPHE mint mark), and what a portrait it is! Vespasian is shown here with his lips slightly parted as if he is about to speak, the eyes look alive, and the portrait with its bull neck and high forehead exudes an air of confidence. The reverse on the other hand looks a bit rough - it's off center and so worn poor Titus and Domitian are faceless, Titus looking more worse for wear. Still, enough is left of the engravers hand to see the stylish drapery of the robes and the regal stance of the two princes.

A truly great mint's artistic brilliance will shine through even on worn examples, this coin I believe illustrates the point perfectly.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
vesp ephesus victory.JPG
Vespasian-RIC-1431123 viewsAR Denarius, 3.39g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory, draped, advancing r., holding wreath extended in r. hand and palm over l. shoulder. EPHE lower r.
RIC 1431 (C). BMC 457. RSC 276. RPC 833 (14 spec.). BNC 352.
1 commentsVespasian70
V1431a.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1431 (Countermarked)170 viewsAR Denarius, 3.06g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD; Countermarked under Vespasian at Ephesus, circa 74-79 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.; c/m: IMP·VES (ligate)
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory, draped, advancing r., holding wreath extended in r. hand and palm over l. shoulder. EPHE lower r.
RIC 1431 (C). BMC 457. RSC 276. RPC 833 (14 spec.). BNC 352; c/m: GIC 839
Acquired from Ancient Imports, November 2016.

In the mid to late 70's AD, Ephesus stamped older, worn Republican and early Imperial denarii circulating in the region with the IMP·VES countermark. Here is an exceptionally rare appearance of that Vespasian countermark on a denarius struck for Vespasian. I know of less than half a dozen other Vespasianic denarii similarly stamped. Of course the coin does not require any such countermark, therefore it is a remarkable mint error. The terminus post quem for the countermarking is 74, based on the discovery of another Vespasian countermarked Ephesian denarius dated COS IIII (CNG 78, lot 1753). RPC speculates that these countermarked coins represent a later 'issue' of silver from Ephesus struck sometime after 74 and before Vespasian's death in 79.

The mint workers applying the countermark were kind enough not to obliterate the portrait.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
V1432.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1432140 viewsAR Denarius, 3.29g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. l., with wreath and palm; at lower l., EPHE
RIC 1432 (R2). BMC p. 96, *. RSC 281. RPC 834 (2 spec.). BNC 354.
Acquired from Pavlos S. Pavlov, May 2018.

Victory advancing left was a commonly struck reverse type at Ephesus up until Vespasian's COS III issue. From this issue going forward, the mint favoured the Victory advancing right and sparingly struck the advancing left variant. As a matter of fact, the left Victory virtually disappears by the time the COS V issue was produced. So, a very rare type for COS III - just 2 Victory left specimens versus 14 right specimens cited in RPC.

Fabulous Ephesian style!

12 commentsDavid Atherton
vesp tyche.JPG
Vespasian-RIC-1433129 viewsAR Denarius, 3.30g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r.; below, EPHE
RIC 1433 (C). BMC 459. RSC 293. RPC 835 (14 spec.). BNC 356.

This reverse from Asia Minor celebrates the Pax Romana Vespasian brought to the world. Perhaps the female figure is Cybele, the Great Earth Mother.

Not a coin you come across often. Very sharp and clear with some minor wear on the high points of the obverse.
1 commentsVespasian70
V1434a.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1434126 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Ephesus Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Bust of woman, draped, wearing crown of towers, r.; EPHE in l. field
RIC 1434 (R). BMC 459 var. RSC 293 var. RPC 835 (14 spec.) var. BNC 356 var.
Acquired from Künker, June 2016. Ex Nudelman Numismatica Auction 10, 13 June 2011, lot 46.

RIC, alone among the major references, assigns a separate catalogue number to this rare variant with the mint mark behind the reverse bust. It's much more common to find the mint mark below bust. This variant seems to have been struck at a ratio of 1:10 compared with the common variety. A reverse type not struck at Rome.

Fantastic portraits in superb Ephesian style.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
V1453best.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1453110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.01g
Ephesus mint, 73 AD (Late)
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS IIII TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, star
RIC 1453 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. RPC 850 (1 spec.). BNC -.

A very rare Ephesus Group 7 denarius from 73 AD. This series has the rare COS IIII date minted very late in the year. Including my example, there are seven specimens of the Ceres seated type I know of (Coincidentally, Lucas posted one a week ago). As a historical reference, the siege of Masada took place earlier in the year and Vespasian and Titus assumed a joint censorship.

The coin needs a bit more cleaning, but I'm leaving it as is because it looks wonderful, IMHO.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
PCW-R1710LG.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-145589 viewsAR Denarius, 2.86g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: AVG and star in oak wreath
RIC 1455 (R2). BMC p. 99 note. RSC 39, RPC 851 (1 spec.). BNC 367.
Acquired from Pars Coins, October 2009.

A rare type to be sure, but it was the portrait that caught my eye. A beautiful example of what Ephesus seemed to produce almost effortlessly.

Side note: although the type is supposed to have a star within the wreath, I can't see one. Perhaps it has worn completely away?
2 commentsDavid Atherton
2630313.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-145699 viewsAR Denarius, 2.35g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, star
RIC 1456 (R). BMC p. 99. RSC 68. RPC 852 (5 spec.). BNC -.
Ex CNG E263, 31 August 2011, lot 313.

This type is from one of the last major series minted at Ephesus. Also minted at Rome but here distinguished by an ornate high back chair.

Despite this denarius having a few flaws and a cracked flan, the major devices are intact and the details of the reverse are quite well preserved, especially the cornucopiae and the poppies.

4 commentsDavid Atherton
Z7772LG.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-145789 viewsAR Denarius, 3.33g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. r., with wreath and palm; at lower r., star
RIC 1457 (C). BMC 475. RSC 277. RPC 853 (10 spec.). BNC 368.
Acquired from Beast Coins, March 2011.

The obverse is a die match to the RIC plate coins 1457 and 1458. Interestingly, COS V appears to have been re-engraved over an earlier date (COS IIII).

Wonderful Ephesus style portrait on the obverse.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
V1464.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1463A158 viewsAR Denarius, 3.16g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres, std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; below throne, annulet; in l. field, star
RIC 1463A (R3). BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Roma E6, 22 February 2014, lot 329.

An unlisted variant of an already rare type from Group 9. RIC 1464 has the obverse legend ending with an annulet and on the reverse a star in the exergue, annulet below throne. My coin has no annulet on the obverse and the star is in left field on the reverse. However, the annulet below the throne firmly places the coin in this group. RIC notes other coins with variant placings of mint marks in the series but has not assigned them unique RIC numbers.

UPDATE: Ian Carradice has assigned this variant its own RIC number 1463A in the upcoming addenda.

The coin needs a bit more cleaning but I shall leave it as is. The major devices and mint marks are quite visible and the dirt is not too distracting, IMHO.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1464~0.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1464100 viewsAR Denarius, 3.49g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., annulet at tip of bust
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres, std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; below throne, annulet; in exergue, star
RIC 1464 (R2). BMC p. 99, †. RSC 68 corr. RPC 852 (5 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Savoca, eBay, 2 March 2018.

A rare COS V Ephesian denarius notable for three control marks (one on the obverse, two on the reverse). Certain variants may have all three marks present but with different placements, lack one or two marks, or be any combination of the former and latter possibilities. I would assume the marks had something to do with the internal organisation of the mint's workshops. Also of note, this is the last denarius issue which can inarguably be attributed to Ephesus.

A bit off-centre, but in fine style.

8 commentsDavid Atherton
V1465a.jpeg
Vespasian-RIC-1465107 viewsAR Denarius, 3.02g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS V TR P P P; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE; Victory adv. r., with wreath and palm; at lower l., annulet, at lower r., star
RIC 1465 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.
Ex Ancient Treasures, eBay, 26 July 2015.

The various mint marks found on the denarii struck for the Flavians at Ephesus are somewhat mysterious in purpose and meaning. There is no blatant reason why they are present in the issue. This denarius struck for Vespasian in 74 towards the end of the series has not one, but two mint marks on the reverse, an annulet and star. Perhaps they were internal mint control marks?

A victorious peace bestowed by the emperor is advertised on the reverse, while a severe looking Vespasian on the obverse demands you love and accept that peace, or else.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
V1473bsm.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-147392 viewsAR Denarius, 2.78g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., a small 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS VII above; Pegasus r.
RIC 1473 (R). BMC 482. RSC 114a. RPC 1451 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Welch Collection. Acquired from eBay, January 2013.

The 'o' mint struck the Pegasus type for Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian, while Rome struck the type only for Domitian. The 'o' mint is infamous for mixing up types and titles incorrectly. This coin features Vespasian with correct titles. Very rare.

Worn, but in fine style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
RFales121410aLG.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1475112 viewsAR Denarius, 3.48g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., a small 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: FIDES PVBL; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
RIC 1475 (R). BMC 490. RSC 163a. RPC 1452 (6 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from Malter Galleries, December 2010.

Anyone with a passing knowledge of Flavian coinage is aware of the series of denarii Ephesus issued early in Vespasian's reign, but few know about a later group of denarii Ephesus(?) issued a couple of years later in 76 AD

This later issue can be identified by the use of a letter 'o' mint mark below the bust. The style and use of a mint mark suggests the minting city is Ephesus, however the exact location is unknown. If it is indeed Ephesus then something went horribly awry with their quality control since the previous issue in 74. Reverse types clearly meant for Vespasian may end up on a coin of Titus or Domitian and vice versa (see RIC 1480 for a good example of this type of error).

Why this short lived series was minted at all is a mystery.

The reverse itself is a copy of a Rome mint type from 73 AD and most likely symbolizes good faith in agricultural prosperity. I believe the overall style is much better than the Rome mint examples for both obverse and reverse. The poppies in particular seem to be more pronounced and better executed.

For lovers of the eastern Flavian mints there is a lot to admire here.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
IMG_0264sm.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1477160 viewsAR Denarius, 2.58g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., a small 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VII; Winged caduceus
RIC 1477 (R). BMC 483. RSC 375a. RPC 1453 (7 spec.). BNC 371.
Acquired from Incitatus Coins, October 2014.

These 'o' mint denarii (the 'o' is often not visible) struck for Vespasian, Titus Caesar, and Domitian Caesar are thought to have been minted at Ephesus due to a similar 'o' mint mark previously used at that mint. The types are the same as those struck somewhat contemporaneously at Rome. Mules are a hallmark of the series, perhaps indicating a lack of care in their production. The cadeceus type here is not a mule and copies a Rome reverse of Vespasian from 74.

Curtis Clay wrote these insightful comments concerning the series - "You write, 'thought to have been minted at Ephesus due to a similar 'o' mint mark previously used at that mint'. I regard that as a clear mistake by Buttrey and Carradice. Yes, annulets appear on some late Ephesus denarii too, but everything else is against attributing this later annulet series to Ephesus. Ephesus had its own reverse types, faithfully repeated from issue to issue. But the new series copies its rev. types from Rome, as you note. Ephesus had its own obv. legends too, usually dated with consulships. Quite different in the new series, again copied from Rome. The style is totally different. Errors, such as calling Titus PON MAX and many mules mixing obverses of one emperor with reverses of another, occur only in the later series, never at Ephesus. Against these blatant differences, the shared annulets are I think a mere trifle. A clear case of different mints in my eyes! So 'Ephesus (?)' should be dropped, and we should return to 'uncertain Asia Minor mint'."

Porous and fairly worn, however the major devices are intact and the portrait is quite fine.



6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1477A.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1477A133 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., a small 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VII (from high l.); Winged caduceus
RIC 1477A (R3). BMC -. RSC -. RPC -. BNC -.

A unique specimen of the caduceus type from the rare and mysterious 'o' mint. This rare variant has the reverse legend starting from the upper left, all other known examples start from the lower right. I informed Ted Buttrey of the coin and he has assigned it 1477A in the upcoming RIC II.1 Addenda.

Struck in good style on a large flan.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
V1565.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-156568 viewsÆ As, 6.57g
Rome mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESP AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, l.
Rev: S • C in laurel wreath
RIC 1565 (C2). BMC 894. RPC 1984 (20 spec.). BNC 913.
Acquired from Ephesus Numismatics, January 2019.

In 74 AD the Rome mint produced an extraordinary issue of bronze coinage of dupondii, asses, semisses, and quadrantes with a somewhat Eastern theme. Previously, these coins had been attributed to either Commagene (BMCRE) or Syria (RPC, and doubtfully so in RIC), but more recent scholarship has shown they actually were struck in Rome. The circulation pattern confirms this - out of a total of 112 of the smaller denominations cited by RPC, all but 4 were found in Western Europe. Ted Buttrey confirms 'The Eastern finds appear to be simply the débris of Mediterranean circulation.' But why was this series produced in such a fashion? Buttrey proffers a plausible theory - 'There is nothing like this series in the whole of Roman imperial coinage. It is a deliberate act of Orientalism, imposing the flavour of the East on a Western coinage. The key to its understanding is the reverse type of the dupondius, two crossed cornuacopiae with a winged caduceus between. It replicates the type of an obscure issue of the Galilean city of Sepphoris, an issue which had been, astonishingly, signed by Vespasian himself (ΕΠΙ ΟΥΕCΠΑCΙΑΝΟΥ, “on the authority of…”) when on duty there in the last days of Nero. The dupondius-sized bronze was accompanied by a half-unit with the type of a large, central S C – again signed by Vespasian, and now imitated on the As of the orichalcum series with the wreath of the As of Antioch (RPC I 4849-50). The whole of this series memorializes not Vespasian the conquering general (IVDAEA CAPTA, VICTORIA AVGVSTI), but the man. His re-use of earlier coin types is well-known; here he re-uses his own, harking back to his career just prior to his final success in seizing the empire. And the series was struck in 74 A.D., co-terminous with the celebration of Vespasian’s first quinquennium.' So, in essence, a very personally important issue for Vespasian.

Curtis Clay has a few objections for Buttrey's theory why the issue was struck. 'As far as I am aware, there is nothing "astonishing" about Vespasian's "signing" of the two coins of Sepphoris. EΠI followed by the governor's name appeared frequently on Roman provincial coins, meaning simply, "Struck while the man named was governor". So there was no evident reason for Vespasian to consider it extraordinary that he had been named as governor of Syria on coins of Sepphoris struck for Nero near the end of his reign (Year 14), and no evident reason why he should have referred to the Sepphoris coins in his orichalcum issue struck at Rome five years later. It seems quite probable that Vespasian never even noticed his name on the coins of Sepphoris, and certainly very few Romans in the West will ever have seen such a coin, though Buttrey thinks the orichalcum coins were struck for circulation in the West in 74 in order to recall precisely those Sepphoris coins with their reference to Vespasian some months before his accession. Why waste coin types on references that were inconsequential, and that nobody was likely to comprehend?

If the orichalcum issue was meant to recall those two coins of Sepphoris, shouldn't it have been struck for Vespasian only, and using only those two rev. types, caduceus between crossed cornucopias and large SC? But that was not the case. Both the caduceus between crossed cornucopias type and the large SC type were struck not only for Vespasian, but also for Titus and Domitian as Caesars. Moreover those were not the only two rev. types of the issue: other coins showed a bust of Antioch with legend ANTIOCHIA , and (on small coins only) the same winged caduceus as on the crossed cornucopias dupondii, but without the cornucopias (see images below). It seems to me highly unlikely that the three main types of this issue, all struck for Titus and Domitian as well as Vespasian, were inspired by and meant to recall the far simpler issue of Sepphoris, using just two changing types (obv. types in this case) and of course naming Vespasian only.'

If Buttrey's argument is wrong it brings us back to the original question - why was an Eastern flavoured coinage struck for circulation in the West? Perhaps the issue may be nothing more than Vespasian paying homage to the part of the world that elevated him.

This As is a fine example of the smaller denomination, nicely centred with a beautiful emerald green patina.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
CorinthARStaterI402.jpg
[103d] Corinth, Corinthia, Greece, c. 386 - 307 B.C.37 viewsSilver stater, Pegasi I 402, ICG VF25, Corinth mint, obverse Pegasos flying left, koppa below; reverse head of Athena left in Corinthian helmet over leather cap, behind, A below chin, Thessalian helmet behind; ICG Certified (slabbed). Ex FORVM.

Corinth (Greek Κορινθία) is an ancient city about 48 miles west of Athens on the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece. Corinth was an important city in ancient Greece and it played a major role in the missionary work of the Apostle Paul. Today, Corinth is the second largest city in the Peloponnese with several sites of interest to pilgrims and tourists.


The site of ancient Corinth was first inhabited in the Neolithic period (5000-3000 BC), and flourished as a major Greek city from the 8th century BC until its destruction by the Romans in 146 BC.

Its commanding position on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow strip of land that separates the Peloponnese from northern Greece, was the primary basis of its importance. Corinth controlled the diolkos (Greek for "haul across"), the 6th-century BC stone-paved roadway that connected the Saronic Gulf with the Gulf of Corinth. This overland route was highly valuable in that it allowed passengers and cargo to avoid the difficult and time-consuming trip around the southern end of the Peloponnese.

Being a leading naval power as well as a rich commercial city enabled ancient Corinth to establish colonies in Syracuse on the island of Sicily and on Corcyra (modern Corfu). These colonies served as trading posts for the richly ornamental bronze works, textiles, and pottery that Corinth produced.

Beginning in 582 BC, in the spring of every second year the Isthmian Games were celebrated in honor of the sea god Poseidon. The Doric Temple of Apollo, one of Corinth's major landmarks, was constructed in 550 BC at the height of the city's wealth.

Corinth was conquered by Philip II of Macedon in 338 BC, but it was named the meeting place of Philip's new Hellenic confederacy. After Philip was assassinated, Alexander the Great immediately came to Corinth to meet with the confederacy, confirm his leadership, and forestall any thoughts of rebellion. At the Isthmian Games of 336 BC, the Greeks chose Alexander the Great to lead them in war against the Persians.

Corinth was partially destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC, but in 44 BC it was rebuilt as a Roman city under Julius Caesar. Roman Corinth prospered more than ever before and may have had as many as 800,000 inhabitants by the time of Paul. It was the capital of Roman Greece, equally devoted to business and pleasure, and was mostly populated by freedmen and Jews.

The Apostle Paul visited Corinth in the 50s AD and later wrote two letters to the Christian community at Corinth (the books of 1 and 2 Corinthians in the New Testament). When Paul first visited the city (51 or 52 AD), Gallio, the brother of Seneca, was proconsul of Corinth.

Paul lived in Corinth for 18 months (Acts 18:1-18), working as a tentmaker and converting as many Jews and pagans as he could. Here he first became acquainted with Aquila and Priscilla, who became his fellow-workers.

Although Paul intended to pass through Corinth a second time before he visited Macedonia, circumstances were such that he first went from Troas to Macedonia before stopping at Corinth for a "second benefit" (2 Corinthians 1:15). This time he stayed in Corinth for three months (Acts 20:3).

It was probably during this second visit in the spring of 58 that Paul wrote the Epistle to the Romans. Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians, written from Ephesus, reflects the difficulties of maintaining a Christian community in such a cosmopolitan city.

A canal through the isthmus of Corinth was begun under the emperor Nero in 67 AD. Wielding a gold shovel, Nero himself was first to break ground, but the canal was not completed. Up to the 12th century, ships were dragged on rollers across the isthmus.

In 267 AD, the invasion of the Herulians initiated the decline of the city. During Alaric's invasion of Greece in 395–396, he destroyed Corinth and sold many of its citizens into slavery. Nevertheless, Corinth remained inhabited for many centuries through successive invasions, destructions and plagues.

After 1204, when Constantinople fell to the Fourth Crusade, Corinth was a prize sought by all. Corinth was captured by the Turks in 1458; the Knights of Malta won it in 1612; the Venetians took a turn from 1687 until 1715, when the Turks returned; and the city finally came into Greek hands in 1822.

In 1893 a 4-mile (6-km) Corinth canal was finally completed, providing an essential shipping route between the Ionian and Aegean seas. Like its ancient predecessor, modern Corinth is the center of commerce between northern and southern Greece. Today, it has a population of about 30,000.

Systematic archaeological excavations of the area, initiated by the American School of Classical Studies in 1896, are still continuing today and have brought to light the agora, temples, fountains, shops, porticoes, baths and various other monuments. The finds are exhibited in the on-site Archaeological Museum of Ancient Corinth.
http://209.85.175.104/search?q=cache:ZxwVNIAQkZoJ:www.sacred-destinations.com/greece/corinth.htm+corinth+alexander+the+great&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=uk

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PhiletairosMyFirstCoinPortrait250408.jpg
[2400d] Pergamene Kingdom, Mysia, Western Asia Minor, Philetairos I, 282 - 263 B.C.46 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 3000, SNG Paris 1603 var, SNG Von Aulock -, SNG Cop -, VF, Pergamon mint, 16.629g, 28.1mm, 0o, c. 265 - 263 B.C. Obverse: head of Philetaerus right in taenia; Reverse: FILETAIROU downward on right, Athena enthroned left, right hand on shield before her, spear over shoulder in left, leaf above arm, bow right; high relief portrait; very rare. Ex FORVM. Photo by jpfjr.

This coin bears the first portrait of Philetairos, the founder of the Pergamene Kingdom, 282 -263 B.C. Hoard evidence and recent studies indicate it was struck at the end of his reign. Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I, then Seleukos and Herakles (see coin 309p) portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly this type with his own portrait. This same reverse was used for the Seleukos I portrait types. Philetairos' coinage is known for its magnificent realistic portraits and this coin is an excellent example. Very rare and absent from most major collections (Joseph Sermarini).

Attalid Dynasty(270-133 BC) - capital at Pergamum

Founded by Philetairos, the Greek secretary of Alexander the Great's general Lysimachus.

In his monograph "The Pergamene Mint Under Philetaerus" (The American Numismatic Society, No.76, 1936), Edward T. Newell notes, "The event which precipitated the end of Lysimachus' empire and resulted in the rise to power of the Attalid Dynasty, was the execution in 286-5 B.C. of his son, the heir apparent Agathocles. For Philetareus the situation had now become impossible. He belonged to the faction which had gathered about that able and much beloved young man--in opposition to the party headed by Lysimachus' wife, the ambitious Arsinoe, scheming for the preferment of her own children. So after having functioned for many years as the governor of Pergamum and the trusted guardian of the great treasure there deposited, Philetaerus was now forced to take steps for his own safety. Sometime between 284 and 282 B.C. many of the Asiatic cities and certain officers of Lysimachus openly rebelled and called upon Seleucus for aid. Philetaerus also wrote to the Syrian king, placing himself, and the treasure under his care, at the latter's disposal. Seleucus led his army, together with a large contingent of elephants, into the Asiatic provinces of Lysimachus. On the plain of Corupedium in Lydia there occurred the final and decisive battle in which, as is well known, Lysimachus lost both life and empire" (3-5).

When [Lysimachus] fell fighting Seleucus, Philetairos (a eunuch) withdrew with his commander's military war chest to a mountain fortress that ultimately became his palace acropolis of Pergamum. He gained royal recognition through his successful efforts at repulsing the Gallic invasion of western Anatolia in 270-269 BC. Philetairos drove the Gauls into the Phrygian highlands where they settled in the region thereafter known as Galatia. He became recognized by the Greek cities of the coastal region as a liberator and savior and established his hegemony over them. Since he had no children, his domain passed to the four sons of his brother, Attalus I. Normally, so many rival dynasts would have spelled disaster (as it eventually did in Syria and Egypt), but the Attalids became celebrated for their cooperation at state building. They handed the royal authority from one to another in succession and managed to elevate their realm into the top echelon of Mediterranean states.

Particularly skillful diplomacy with Rome enabled the Attalids to enjoy further success during the early second century BC. At their peak under Eumenes II, c. 190-168 BC, they controlled the entire western seaboard of Anatolia and much of Phrygian highland as well. In direct competition with the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, the Attalids succeeded at establishing Pergamum as a leading cultural center, its library second only to that of Alexandria, its sculpture, woven tapestries, and ceramics prized throughout the Mediterranean. An expressive, highly baroque style of sculpture known as the Asian school, set important trends in the Greek world and profoundly influenced artistic development at Rome. The Attalids likewise competed for control of the eastern luxury trade, relying on the overland route of the now ancient Persian Royal Road across Anatolia.

When a dynastic dispute threatened to undermine the stability of Pergamum at the end of the second century BC, King Attalus III (138-133) left his royal domain to the people of the Roman Republic in his will. His nobles were concerned about security after his passing, and to prevent a dynastic dispute (which ultimately did arise) he wrote this into his will as a form of "poison pill." At his demise in 133 BC, ambassadors brought the report of his bequest to Rome, where it was accepted and secured by military intervention. By 126 BC the royal territories of Pergamum became the Roman province of Asia, the richest of all Roman provinces.

Abusive exploitation by Roman tax collectors (publicans) induced a province-wide revolt in Asia in 88 BC (encouraged by Mithridates VI Eupator), culminating in the massacre reportedly of some 80,000 Romans, Italians, their families, and servants throughout the province. L. Cornelius Sulla restored order in 84 BC just prior to his assumption of the dictatorship at Rome. Indemnities imposed by Sulla remained burdensome throughout the following decade, but the resilience and economic vitality of the province ultimately enabled impressive recovery.

In 63 BC the Roman orator and senator, M. Tullius Cicero, stated that approximately 40% of tribute raised by the Republican empire came from Asia alone. The merger of Greco-Roman culture was probably most successfully achieved here. In the imperial era, cities such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis, and Miletus ranked among the leading cultural centers of the Roman world.

http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:n9hG5pYVUV0J:web.ics.purdue.edu/~rauhn/hellenistic_world.htm+Philetairos&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=29

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1stPhiletairosTet.jpg
[2400d] Pergamene Kingdom, Mysia, Western Asia Minor, Philetairos I, 282 - 263 B.C.52 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 3000, SNG Paris 1603 var, SNG Von Aulock -, SNG Cop -, VF, Pergamon mint, 16.629g, 28.1mm, 0o, c. 265 - 263 B.C. Obverse: head of Philetaerus right in taenia; Reverse: FILETAIROU downward on right, Athena enthroned left, right hand on shield before her, spear over shoulder in left, leaf above arm, bow right; high relief portrait; very rare. Ex FORVM.

This coin bears the first portrait of Philetairos, the founder of the Pergamene Kingdom, 282 -263 B.C. Hoard evidence and recent studies indicate it was struck at the end of his reign. Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I, then Seleukos and Herakles (see coin 309p) portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly this type with his own portrait. This same reverse was used for the Seleukos I portrait types. Philetairos' coinage is known for its magnificent realistic portraits and this coin is an excellent example. Very rare and absent from most major collections.

Attalid Dynasty(270-133 BC) - capital at Pergamum

Founded by Philetairos, the Greek secretary of Alexander the Great's general Lysimachus.

In his monograph "The Pergamene Mint Under Philetaerus" (The American Numismatic Society, No.76, 1936), Edward T. Newell notes, "The event which precipitated the end of Lysimachus' empire and resulted in the rise to power of the Attalid Dynasty, was the execution in 286-5 B.C. of his son, the heir apparent Agathocles. For Philetareus the situation had now become impossible. He belonged to the faction which had gathered about that able and much beloved young man--in opposition to the party headed by Lysimachus' wife, the ambitious Arsinoe, scheming for the preferment of her own children. So after having functioned for many years as the governor of Pergamum and the trusted guardian of the great treasure there deposited, Philetaerus was now forced to take steps for his own safety. Sometime between 284 and 282 B.C. many of the Asiatic cities and certain officers of Lysimachus openly rebelled and called upon Seleucus for aid. Philetaerus also wrote to the Syrian king, placing himself, and the treasure under his care, at the latter's disposal. Seleucus led his army, together with a large contingent of elephants, into the Asiatic provinces of Lysimachus. On the plain of Corupedium in Lydia there occurred the final and decisive battle in which, as is well known, Lysimachus lost both life and empire" (3-5).

When [Lysimachus] fell fighting Seleucus, Philetairos (a eunuch) withdrew with his commander's military war chest to a mountain fortress that ultimately became his palace acropolis of Pergamum. He gained royal recognition through his successful efforts at repulsing the Gallic invasion of western Anatolia in 270-269 BC. Philetairos drove the Gauls into the Phrygian highlands where they settled in the region thereafter known as Galatia. He became recognized by the Greek cities of the coastal region as a liberator and savior and established his hegemony over them. Since he had no children, his domain passed to the four sons of his brother, Attalus I. Normally, so many rival dynasts would have spelled disaster (as it eventually did in Syria and Egypt), but the Attalids became celebrated for their cooperation at state building. They handed the royal authority from one to another in succession and managed to elevate their realm into the top echelon of Mediterranean states.

Particularly skillful diplomacy with Rome enabled the Attalids to enjoy further success during the early second century BC. At their peak under Eumenes II, c. 190-168 BC, they controlled the entire western seaboard of Anatolia and much of Phrygian highland as well. In direct competition with the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, the Attalids succeeded at establishing Pergamum as a leading cultural center, its library second only to that of Alexandria, its sculpture, woven tapestries, and ceramics prized throughout the Mediterranean. An expressive, highly baroque style of sculpture known as the Asian school, set important trends in the Greek world and profoundly influenced artistic development at Rome. The Attalids likewise competed for control of the eastern luxury trade, relying on the overland route of the now ancient Persian Royal Road across Anatolia.

When a dynastic dispute threatened to undermine the stability of Pergamum at the end of the second century BC, King Attalus III (138-133) left his royal domain to the people of the Roman Republic in his will. His nobles were concerned about security after his passing, and to prevent a dynastic dispute (which ultimately did arise) he wrote this into his will as a form of "poison pill." At his demise in 133 BC, ambassadors brought the report of his bequest to Rome, where it was accepted and secured by military intervention. By 126 BC the royal territories of Pergamum became the Roman province of Asia, the richest of all Roman provinces.

Abusive exploitation by Roman tax collectors (publicans) induced a province-wide revolt in Asia in 88 BC (encouraged by Mithridates VI Eupator), culminating in the massacre reportedly of some 80,000 Romans, Italians, their families, and servants throughout the province. L. Cornelius Sulla restored order in 84 BC just prior to his assumption of the dictatorship at Rome. Indemnities imposed by Sulla remained burdensome throughout the following decade, but the resilience and economic vitality of the province ultimately enabled impressive recovery.

In 63 BC the Roman orator and senator, M. Tullius Cicero, stated that approximately 40% of tribute raised by the Republican empire came from Asia alone. The merger of Greco-Roman culture was probably most successfully achieved here. In the imperial era, cities such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis, and Miletus ranked among the leading cultural centers of the Roman world.

http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:n9hG5pYVUV0J:web.ics.purdue.edu/~rauhn/hellenistic_world.htm+Philetairos&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=29

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MarcusAureliusLiberalitas_sestertius.jpg
[905a] Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.137 viewsMARCUS AURELIUS AE [b[Sestertius. RIC 1222. 30mm, 24.5g. Struck at Rome, 177 AD. Obverse: M ANTONINUS AVG GERM SARM TR P XXXI, laureate head right; Reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG VII IMP VIIII COS III P P, Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopia, SC in fields. Nice portrait. Ex Incitatus. Photo courtesy of Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161-180)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University


Introduction and Sources
The Vita of the emperor in the collection known as the Historia Augusta identifies him in its heading as Marcus Antoninus Philosophus, "Marcus Antoninus the Philosopher." Toward the end of the work, the following is reported about him, sententia Platonis semper in ore illius fuit, florere civitates si aut philosophi imperarent aut imperantes philosopharentur (27.7), "Plato's judgment was always on his lips, that states flourished if philosophers ruled or rulers were philosophers." It is this quality of Marcus' character which has made him a unique figure in Roman history, since he was the first emperor whose life was molded by, and devoted to, philosophy (Julian was the second and last). His reign was long and troubled, and in some ways showed the weaknesses of empire which ultimately led to the "Decline and Fall," yet his personal reputation, indeed his sanctity, have never failed of admirers. Contributing to his fame and reputation is a slender volume of Stoic philosophy which served as a kind of diary while he was involved in military campaigns, the Meditations, a book which can be described as an aureus libellus, a little golden book.

The sources for understanding Marcus and his reign are varied but generally disappointing. There is no major historian. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, as well as those of Hadrian, Antoninus, Verus, and Avidius Cassius. Debate about this collection of imperial biographies has been heated and contentious for more than a century. In all likelihood, it is the work of a single author writing in the last years of the fourth-century. The information offered ranges from the precisely accurate to the wildly imaginative.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, produced a long history of the empire which has survived, for our period, only in an abbreviated version. Fourth century historians, such as Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, occasionally furnish bits of information. Marcus' teacher, Fronto, a distinguished orator and rhetorician, is extremely useful. Papyri, inscriptions, coins, legal writings, and some of the church writers, such as Tertullian, Eusebius, and Orosius, are very important. Archaeology and art history, with their interpretation of monuments, make the history of Marcus' principate literally visible and offer important clues for understanding the context of his actions.

Early Life
He was born M. Annius Verus on April 26, 121, the scion of a distinguished family of Spanish origin (PIR2 A697). His father was Annius Verus (PIR2 A696), his mother Domitia Lucilla (PIR2 D183). His grandfather held his second consulate in that year and went on to reach a third in 126, a rare distinction in the entire history of the principate, and also served Hadrian as city prefect. The youth's education embraced both rhetoric and philosophy; his manner was serious, his intellectual pursuits deep and devoted, so that the emperor Hadrian took an interest in him and called him "Verissimus," "Most truthful," by punning on his name. He received public honors from an early age and seems to have long been in Hadrian's mind as a potential successor. When Hadrian's first choice as successor, L. Ceionius Commodus, died before his adoptive father, the second choice proved more fruitful. The distinguished senator T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus, from Cisalpine Gaul, did succeed Hadrian, whose arrangements for the succession planned for the next generation as well. He required Antoninus to adopt the young Verus, now to be known as M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, as well as Commodus' son, henceforth known as L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus (PIR2 C606). The former was a bit more than seventeen years old, the latter was eight.

Career under Antoninus Pius
The long tenure of Antoninus Pius proved one of the most peaceful and prosperous in Roman history. The emperor himself was disinclined to military undertakings and never left Italy during his reign. Disturbances to the pax Romana occurred on the fringes of empire. Responses were decisive and successful, with legates in charge in the provinces. As a consequence, neither Caesar gained military experience nor was shown to the armies, a failing which later could have proved decisive and disastrous. Marcus rose steadily through the cursus honorum, holding consulates in 140 and 145, combining magistracies with priesthoods. He received the tribunicia potestas in 147, and perhaps also imperium proconsulare. Yet he never neglected the artes liberals. His closest contacts were with Fronto (c.95-c.160), the distinguished rhetorician and orator. His acquaintance included many other distinguished thinkers, such as Herodes Atticus (c.95-177), the Athenian millionaire and sophist, and Aelius Aristides (117-c.181), two of whose great speeches have survived and which reveal much of the mood and beliefs of the age. Yet it was Epictetus (c.50-c.120) who had the greatest philosophical impact and made him a firm Stoic. In the year 161 Marcus celebrated his fortieth birthday, a figure of noble appearance and unblemished character. He was leading a life which gave him as much honor and glory as he could have desired, probably much more than his private nature enjoyed, yet his life, and that of the empire, was soon to change. The emperor died on March 7, but not before clearly indicating to magistrates and senate alike his desire that Marcus succeed him by having the statue of Fortuna, which had been in his bedroom, transferred to Marcus. There was no opposition, no contrary voice, to his succession. He immediately chose his brother as co-emperor, as Hadrian had planned. From the beginning of the year they were joint consuls and held office for the entire year. Their official titulature was now Imperator Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus and Imperator Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus. The military qualities adumbrated by the word Imperator were soon much in demand, for the empire was under pressure in the year 161 in Britain, in Raetia, and in the east, where Parthia once again posed a significant danger.

The Parthian War (161-166)
The incursion in northern Britain and the difficulties along the Danube were soon satisfactorily managed by legates. The danger in the East was of a different magnitude. Tensions between Rome and Parthia had intensified in the last years of Antoninus' reign over control of Armenia, the vast buffer state which had often aroused enmity between the two powers, since each wished to be able to impose a king favorable to its interests. With Antoninus' death and the uncertainty attendant upon a new emperor (in this case two, a dyarchy, for the first time in Rome's history), the Parthian monarch, Vologaeses III, struck rapidly, placed his own candidate upon the Armenian throne, and inflicted severe setbacks upon the Roman forces sent to oppose him. Marcus decided to send his colleague Lucius Verus, whose imperial prestige would underscore the seriousness of the empire's response. Verus lacked military experience and was sorely lacking in the attributes of leadership and command; further, he was notorious for being chiefly interested in amusements and luxury. But Marcus surrounded him with several of the best generals at the empire's disposal, chief among them Avidius Cassius (c.130-175) (PIR2 A1402). From 162 on, Rome's successes and conquests were extensive and decisive. Most of Parthia's significant cities and strongholds, such as Seleucia and Ctesiphon, were stormed and destroyed, and the army's movements eastward recalled the movements of Alexander the Great some five centuries earlier. By 166, Parthia had capitulated and a Roman nominee sat on the Armenian throne. The victory appeared to be the most decisive since Trajan's conquest of Dacia, but, when Verus returned to Italy with his triumphant army, there came also a devastating plague, which had enormous effect on all provinces.
As is the case with all ancient diseases, it is almost impossible to identify this one. In all likelihood, however, it was smallpox; how severe the toll was is debated. Clearly, it cast a pall over the triumph celebrated by the two emperors, who were honored with the titles Armeniacus and Parthicus. The last years of this decade were dominated by efforts to overcome the plague and provide succour to its victims. But already in 166, the German tribes smashed the Danubian limes, threatening the empire's stability and even existence, more than Parthia had ever done. The first campaigns were punctuated by the death of Verus in 169, leaving Marcus as sole emperor. And so began the most difficult period of his life.

The German Wars
Early in 169, the Marcomanni and Quadi crossed the Danube, penetrated the intervening provinces, and entered Italy. The culmination of their onslaught was a siege of Aquileia. The effect upon the inhabitants of the peninsula was frightful. This was the first invasion of Italy since the late second century B.C., when the Cimbri and Teutones had been separately crushed by Marius. Perhaps more vivid in the collective imagination was the sack of Rome by the Gauls in 387, when the city was saved only by the payment of ransom.
The two emperors hastened north, after a rapid mobilization of forces, which included the drafting of slaves, since the manpower potential of the empire had been so impaired by the consequences of the plague and the losses and troop commitments in the East. Verus died while in the north; Marcus returned to Rome with the body and gave his brother full honors. He then turned north again and began his counterattacks against the barbarians. He did not know it at the time, but he was destined to spend most of his remaining years on the northern frontier. The only interlude was caused by revolt in the east.

We have no record of Marcus' ultimate intentions in these campaigns, yet the various stages were clear. First and foremost, the enemy had to be driven out of Italy and then into their own territory beyond the Danube. He strove to isolate the tribes and then defeat them individually, so that the ultimate manpower superiority of the empire and its greater skill in warfare and logistics could more easily be brought to bear. It was a successful strategy, as one tribe after another suffered defeat and reestablished ties with Rome. But it was a time-consuming and expensive operation, requiring the recruitment of two new legions, II Italica and III Italica, the construction of many new camps, such as the legionary fortress at Regensburg, with success accruing year by year. He intended to create two new provinces, Marcomannia and Sarmatia, thereby eliminating the Hungarian Plain and the headwaters of the Elbe as staging areas for invasion.

This steady, slow progress was interrupted in 175 by the action of the distinguished general Avidius Cassius, governor of Syria, who claimed the empire for himself. Whether he responded to a rumor of Marcus' death or, as gossip had it, conspired with Marcus' wife, the emperor's response was quick and decisive. Leaving the northern wars, he traveled to the East, but Avidius was killed before Marcus arrived in the region. After spending time settling affairs and showing himself to some of the provinces, with particular attention shown to Athens, where he was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, as Hadrian and Verus had been. He returned to Italy and soon answered the call to duty once more on the northern frontier. He took with him as colleague his son Commodus, now merely sixteen years old but already long since marked out as his father's intended successor. The military campaigns proved successful, but in the spring of 180, when Marcus died, at least one more year of warfare was necessary for the attainment of the grand enterprise. Marcus recommended to Commodus continuation of the war, but the new emperor was eager to return to Rome and the ease and luxury of the imperial court and entered into a peace agreement. Never again was Rome to hold the upper hand in its dealings with the Germanic tribes beyond the now reestablished borders of the empire.

Administrative and Religious Policy
Marcus was a conscientious and careful administrator who devoted much attention to judicial matters. His appointments to major administrative positions were for the most part admirable. Difficult tasks were put in the charge of the most capable men; he was not afraid of comparison with his subordinates. Social mobility continued as it had been under his predecessors, with men from the provinces advancing into the upper echelons of the Roman aristocracy. Those of humble birth could make a good career; such a one was Pertinax (126-193), a gifted general, who in early 193 became emperor for a space of less than three months.

The judicial administration of Italy was put in the hands of iuridici, who represented the emperor and thus spoke with his authority. This was a practice which had been established by Hadrian but had been allowed to lapse by Antoninus. The centralization of government continued apace. The imperial finances were sorely stretched by the almost continuous wars. Trajan had brought great wealth, Decebalus' treasure, into the empire after his conquest of Dacia. No such profit awaited Marcus. When preparing for the northern wars, he auctioned off much of the imperial palace's valuables. In spite of the enormous expenses of war, Commodus found ample funds upon his accession as sole emperor for his expenditures and amusements.

Although Marcus was a devoted thinker and philosopher, he was deeply religious, at least outwardly. The state cult received full honor, and he recognized the validity of other people's beliefs, so that the variety of religions in the vast extent of the empire caused no difficulties for inhabitants or government, with one significant exception. The Christians were not hampered by any official policy; indeed the impact of the church spread enormously in the second century. Yet their availability as scapegoats for local crises made them subject to abuse or worse. There was violence against them in 167, and perhaps the worst stain on Marcus' principate stemmed from the pogrom of Christians in Lugdunum in southern France in 177. He did not cause it, nor, on the other hand, did he or his officials move to stop it. Indeed, Tertullian called him a friend of Christianity. Yet the events were a precursor of what would come in the century and a quarter which followed.

Building Programs and Monuments
Many of Marcus' predecessors transformed the face of the capital with their building programs, either by the vast range of their undertaking or by the extraordinary significance of individual monuments. Others did very little to leave a tangible mark. Marcus fell into the latter group. There is record of very few monuments for which he and his brother were responsible. Very early in their reign they honored the deceased Antoninus with a column in the Campus Martius, no longer in situ but largely surviving. The shaft, which seems not to have been sculpted, was used for the restoration of Augustus' obelisk, now in Piazza Montecitorio, in the eighteenth century. The base, which was sculpted on all four sides, is now on display in the Vatican Museum. The chief feature is the apotheosis of the emperor and his long deceased wife, the elder Faustina, as they are borne to heaven. Also presented on this relief are two eagles and personifications of the goddess Roma and of the Campus Martius, represented as a young male figure.

There were three arches which commemorated the military achievements of the two emperors. No trace has been found of an early monument to Verus. Two arches later honored Marcus, both of which have disappeared but have left significant sculptural remains. The eight rectangular reliefs preserved on the Arch of Constantine came from one arch. Similarly, the three reliefs displayed in the stairwell of the Conservatori Museum on the Capitoline Hill came from another. One relief has disappeared from the latter monument.

Certainly the best known monument of Marcus' principate is the column, which rises from Piazza Colonna. It is twin to Trajan's column in height and design, although the artistic craftsmanship of the reliefs which envelop the shaft is much inferior. The subject is Marcus' campaigns against the Marcomanni and Sarmati in the years 172-75. The most interesting panel represents the famous rainstorm, when the army, overwhelmed by drought, was suddenly saved by the divine intervention of rain. Although begun in the latter part of the decade, the column was not completed until 193, when Septimius Severus had become emperor.

The famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which survived the centuries near San Giovanni in Laterano because the rider was identified as Constantine, no longer greets the visitor to the Capitoline, where Michelangelo had placed it in the sixteenth century. It was removed in the 1980s because pollution was destroying it. After careful treatment and restoration, it is now displayed within the museum, with a replica placed in the center of the piazza.

Although outside Rome, mention should be made of the monumental frieze commemorating Lucius Verus' victory over the Parthians in 165. It was an ornament of the city of Ephesus; the extensive sculptural remains are now in the Ephesus Museum in Vienna.

Family
As part of Hadrian's plans for his succession, when Ceionius Commodus was his choice, Marcus was betrothed to the latter's daughter. But when Ceionius died and Antoninus became Hadrian's successor, that arrangement was nullified and Marcus was chosen for the Emperor's daughter, the younger Faustina (PIR2 A716). She had been born in 129, was hence eight years younger than he. They were married in 145; the marriage endured for thirty years. She bore him thirteen children, of whom several died young; the most important were a daughter, Lucilla, and a son Commodus. Lucilla was deployed for political purposes, married first to Lucius Verus in 164, when she was seventeen, and then, after his death, to Claudius Pompeianus Quintianus of Antioch, a much older man who was an important associate of her father /ii]PIR2 C973). Commodus became joint-emperor with his father in 177 and three years later ruled alone.

Faustina's reputation suffered much abuse. She was accused of employing poison and of murdering people, as well as being free with her favors with gladiators, sailors, and also men of rank, particularly Avidius Cassius. Yet Marcus trusted her implicitly and defended her vigorously. She accompanied him on several campaigns and was honored with the title mater castrorum. She was with him in camp at Halala in southern Cappadocia in the winter of 175 when she died in an accident. Marcus dedicated a temple to her honor and had the name of the city changed to Faustinopolis.

Death and Succession
In early 180, while Marcus and Commodus were fighting in the north, Marcus became ill. Which disease carried him off we do not know, but for some days Marcus took no food or drink, being now eager to die. He died on March 17, in the city of Vindobona, although one source reports that it was in Sirmium. His ashes were brought to Rome and placed in Hadrian's mausoleum. Commodus succeeded to all power without opposition, and soon withdrew from the war, thereby stymieing his father's designs and ambitions. It was a change of rulers that proved disastrous for people and empire. Dio called the succession a change from a golden kingdom to one of iron and rust.

Reputation
Gibbon called Marcus "that philosophic monarch," a combination of adjective and noun which sets Marcus apart from all other Roman emperors. His renown has, in subsequent centuries, suffered little, although he was by no means a "perfect" person. He was perhaps too tolerant of other people's failings, he himself used opium. The abundance of children whom his wife bore him included, alas, a male who was to prove one of Rome's worst rulers. How much better it would have been if Marcus had had no son and had chosen a successor by adoption, so that the line of the five good emperors, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, could have been extended. It was not to be, and for that Marcus must accept some responsibility.

Yet he was a man of ability and a sense of duty who sacrificed his own delights and interests to the well-being of the state. He was capax imperii, he did his best, and history has been kind to him. As Hamlet said to Horatio, when awaiting the appearance of the ghost of his father,

"He was a man! Take him for all in all, I shall not look upon his like again." (I 2, 187-88)

His memory remains vivid and tactile because of the famous column, the equestrian statue, and his slender volume of thoughts, written in Greek, the Meditations, from which I choose two quotations with which to conclude:

"If mind is common to us, then also the reason, whereby we are reasoning beings, is common. If this be so, then also the reason which enjoins what is to be done or left undone is common. If this be so, law also is common; if this be so, we are citizens; if this be so, we are partakers in one constitution; if this be so, the Universe is a kind of Commonwealth." (4.4)

"At dawn of day, when you dislike being called, have this thought ready: 'I am called to man's labour; why then do I make a difficulty if I am going out to do what I was born to do and what I was brought into the world for?'" (5.1; both in Farquharson's translation)

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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