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Search results - "Emesa"
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Septimius Severus Denarius, RIC 411a, Emesa23 views
Septimius Severus Denarius. Emesa mint, 194-195 CE.
Obverse: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right.
Reverse: MONET AVG, moneta standing left holding scales & cornucopiae.
18.5 mm., 3.2 g., RIC 411a, RSC 330. BMC 380
NORMAN K
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23.5 Septimius Severus - overstrike of Pescennius Niger Denarius51 viewsSilver denarius, RIC IV 377 or similar, F, overstruck, 2.118g, 19.3mm, 180o, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II (or similar), laureate head right; reverse FORTVN REDVC (or similar), Fortuna standing left, cornucopia in left, rudder (?) in right

Purchased from FORVM
RI0129
3 commentsSosius
septimius_bon_den_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS26 views193-211 AD
struck 193 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm, 3.38 g
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
R: BONI EVENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left, holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Emesa Mint, RIC 369 rare
laney
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0064 - Denarius Septimius Severus 193 AC66 viewsObv/IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, laureate headof Septimius r.
Rev/LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing front draped, head to r., holding abacus and cornucopiae.

Ag, 19.6mm, 2.82g
Mint: Emesa (?)
RIC -- - BMCRE -- (p.89)
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 95, lot 161
1 commentsdafnis
0088.jpg
0088 - Denarius Septimius Severus 194 AC15 viewsObv/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius r.
Rev/ INVICTO IMP, trophy and arms.

Ag, 17.3 mm, 3.25 g
Mint: Emesa (?)
RIC IV.1/389 – BMCRE V/365
ex-Harlan J. Berk, art. # cc56587
dafnis
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0091 - Denarius Septimius Severus 194 AC11 viewsObv/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ BONI EVENTUC (sic), Bonus Eventus togate, standing, head l., holding fruit plate and two inverted corn ears.

Ag, 17.8 mm, 2.82 g
Mint: Emesa (?)
RIC IV.I/-- – BMCRE V/343 var (cf. p.91)
ex-inAsta, auction 38, lot 734
dafnis
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0102 - Denarius Septimius Severus 194 AC11 viewsObv/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ VICT AVG, Victory walking l., holding wreath in r.h., palm in l.

Ag, 17.8 mm, 2.38 g
Mint: Emesa.
RIC IV.I/424 [S] – BMCRE V/395
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay june 2011, art. #23057715105
dafnis
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0113 - Denarius Septimius Severus 194 AC12 viewsObv/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ PIETAT AVG, S.S. veiled and draped, standing l., making sacrifice with patera over tripod and holding scroll.

Ag, 17.1 mm, 2.65 g
Mint: Emesa (?)
BMCRE V/387 – RIC IV.1/413 [C]
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, eBay may 2011 - art. #160589565018
dafnis
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0119 - Denarius Septimius Severus 194-5 AC12 viewsObv/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ MONET AVG, Moneta draped, standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia.

Ag, 18.3 mm, 2.81 g
Mint: Emesa (?).
BMCRE V/384 – RIC IV.1/411a [C]
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay june 2011 - art. #300568006682
dafnis
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0162 - Denarius Septimius Severus 194 AC62 viewsObv/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ MARTI VICT, Marte helmeted, naked except cloak, holding spear and trophy.

Ag, 18.5 mm, 1.85 g
Mint: Emesa.
BMCRE V/377 – RIC IV.1/405 [S]
ex-Gitbud & Naumann, eBay feb 2012 - art. #160723022411
dafnis
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_BONA-SPES_RIC-IV-I-364_C-58_Emesa-194AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5mm_3,77g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 364, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, BONA SPES, Spes standing left, 92 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 364, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, BONA SPES, Spes standing left,
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- BONA-SPES, Spes standing left, holding flower and raising skirt.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,77g, axis: 6h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194-95 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-364, p-140, C-58, S-,
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_FELI-CIT-TEM-POR_RIC-373var_Emesa-194-5-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_xxmm_2,83g-s~0.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 373var, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FELICIT TEMPOR, Stalk of grain, Scarce93 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 373var, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FELICIT TEMPOR, Stalk of grain, Scarce
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FELI-CIT-TEM-POR, Stalk of grain between crossed cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,83g, axis: 0h,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194-95 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-373var, p-141, C-142b,
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERTAVG-COS-II_FORTVN-R-EDVC_RIC-IV-I-383-p-_RSC-175a_Emesa-194-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18,5mm_2,84g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #1146 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FORTVN-R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, holding long palm and cornucopia.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,37g, axis: 6h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-383, p-, RSC-175a, S-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_FORTVN-R-EDVC_RIC-IV-I-383-p-_RSC-175a_Emesa-194-AD_Scarce_Q-002_0h_17,5mm_3,14g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #268 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 383, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FORTVN REDVC, Scarce, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FORTVN-R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left, holding long palm and cornucopia.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,14g, axis: 0h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-383, p-, RSC-175a, S-,
Q-002
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_MART-V-I-CTOR_RIC-xxx_C-xx_Q-001_17mm_3,37g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 406a, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MART VICTOR, Mars advancing right, 103 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 406a, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MART VICTOR, Mars advancing right,
avers:- IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- MART-V-I-CTOR, Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,37g, axis: 0h(12h),
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194-95 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-406a, p-145, C-324, S,
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_MONE-T-AVG_RIC-IV-I-411a_C-346_Emesa-194AD_Q-001_axis-0h_16,5-17mm_3,34g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 411, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MONET AVG, Scarce, Moneta left, #1219 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 411, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MONET AVG, Scarce, Moneta left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- MONE-T-AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17mm, weight: 3,37g, axis: 0h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-411, p-146, C-346, S-,
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_MONE-T-AVG_RIC-IV-I-411a_C-346_Emesa-194AD_Q-002_axis-0h_16,5-17mm_3,34g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 411, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MONET AVG, Scarce, Moneta left, #2264 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 411, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MONET AVG, Scarce, Moneta left, #2
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- MONE-T-AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17mm, weight: 3,34g, axis: 0h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-411, p-146, C-346, S-,
Q-002
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SE-V-PERT-AVG-COS-II_M-ONET-AVG_RIC-IV-I-411a-p_C-346-Emesa-194AD_Q-003_axis-11h_17,5mm_3,30g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 411, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MONET AVG, Scarce, Moneta left, #3278 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 411, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, MONET AVG, Scarce, Moneta left, #3
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- MONE-T-AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scale and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,30g, axis: 11h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-411, p-146, C-346, S-,
Q-003
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_SAECVL-FELICIT-dot_RIC-IV-I-417_C-628a_Emesa-194-5-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_16,5mm_2,47g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 417, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, SAECVL FELICIT • ,136 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 417, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, SAECVL FELICIT • ,
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- SAECVL-FELICIT •, Crescent, seven stars above.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 2,47g, axis: 6h,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194-95 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-417, p-147, C-628a, S,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_VICT-AVG_RIC-IV-I-424-p148_Emesa-194-5-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_16-17mm_2,54g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 424, Emesa, AR-Denarius, VICT AVG, Victory advancing left, Scarce!173 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 424, Emesa, AR-Denarius, VICT AVG, Victory advancing left, Scarce!
avers:- IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, laureate head right
revers:- VICT-AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter:16-17mm, weight:2,54g, axis: 6h,
mint: Emesa, date: 194-5 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-424, p-148, C-, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Billon-Den_IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG--COS-II_VICTOR-AVG_RIC-IV-I-425-p-_C-_Emesa--AD_Q-001_axis-0h_16-16,5mm_2,42g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 425, Emesa, AR-Denarius, VICTOR AVG, Victory advancing left,205 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 425, Emesa, AR-Denarius, VICTOR AVG, Victory advancing left,
avers:- IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- VICTOR-AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16-16,5mm, weight: 2,42g, axis: 0h,
mint: Emesa , date: A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-425, p-, C-,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-CO-II_VICTOR-SEVER-AVG_RIC-IV-I-428var-p148_Emesa-194-5-AD_Rare_Q-001_axis-0h_16-17mm_3,25g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 428var, Emesa, AR-Denarius, VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory advancing left, Rare !!!200 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 428var, Emesa, AR-Denarius, VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory advancing left, Rare !!!
avers:- IMP-CAE-L-SEP-SE-V-PERT-AVG-CO-II (legend var!!, Not in RIC or mule!!), laureate head right
revers:- VICTOR-SEVER-AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter:16-17mm, weight:3,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Emesa, date: 194-5 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-428var (legend var ..CO-II..,Instead ..COS-II..), p-148, C-, Rare !!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS_VIRTVTI(E)-AVG_RIC-IV-I-364_C-58_Emesa-194AD_Q-001_axis-2h_17-17,5mm_2,21g-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 431A, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, VIRTVTIE-AVG, Emperor standing left, Scarce!91 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 431A, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, VIRTVTIE-AVG, Emperor standing left, Scarce!
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- VIRTVTI(or E)-AVG, Virtus standing right, holding spear in right hand, parazonium in left.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 2,21g, axis: 2h ,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194-195 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I- 431, p-149, BMC 403, RSC 771, Scarce !,
Q-001
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RIC_IV-I_633_Julia-Domna,_AR-Den,_IVLIA_DO_MNA_AVG,_VENER_VICTOR,_Emesa(Homs),_RSC-189,_BMCRE-423,_194-195_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17,0-17,5mm,_3,15g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 633, Emesa(Homs), AR-Denarius, VENER VICTOR, Venus standing right, Scarce! #166 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 633, Emesa(Homs), AR-Denarius, VENER VICTOR, Venus standing right, Scarce! #1
avers: IVLIA DO MNA AVG, Bust draped right.
reverse: VENER VICTOR, Venus standing right, her back turned to the viewer, draped from the waist down and leaning on a short column with her left elbow; holding a palm branch with her left arm and an apple in her extended right hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:17,0-17,5mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 6h,
mint: Emesa(Homs), date: 194-195 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I 633, RSC 189, BMCRE 423, Scarce!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI_064fx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Barbarous denarius (fouree core)32 viewsObv:- IMP CAE L SEP SEVRTIVS COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:- VICT AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Copying a coin minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Ref:– copying RIC IV 424
maridvnvm
RI_064ka_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Barbarous/Imitative Denarius17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE_V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BO...-ETOIVC, Fides standing left, basket of fruit in right hand, corn ears in left
Copies a coin minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– cf RIC IV 369

Ex Zach Beastley (Beast) collection
maridvnvm
RI_064gl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Barbarous/Imitative Denarius25 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– T R P III IMP V COS II, Two captives seated at base of trophy
Copies a coin minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– cf RIC IV 435
maridvnvm
RI_064ff_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Barbarous/Imitative Denarius35 views Obv:– IMP CAE L SEPT ERT AVT COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVL SER ?? AVG, Jupiter?, seated left
Copies an emesa mint issue
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064hg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Barbarous/Imitative Denarius (Fouree)21 viewsBarbarous Fouree Denarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P III COS III?? P P, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Copies an Emesa issue coin
maridvnvm
RI_064rk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - Barbarous imitation39 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG CO, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG TR P [COS II P P], Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Barbaric Imitation. Copying the style of Emesa
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064qn_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O1 - RIC -47 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ts_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O1 - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064jw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O2 - RIC -33 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas), standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064mf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

Very unusual obverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064ng_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC -43 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV - PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides (Bonus Eventus - RIC) standing left, basket of fruit in right, two heads of grain in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 – A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC - (369 var.). RSC 68 var.

A nice example from this unusual obverse legend variant.

Ex- Forum Ancient Coins
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064nt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC -35 viewsObv:–IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTO-R AV-G, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

Unusual shortened legend.
maridvnvm
RI_064qs_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC -33 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064sw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC - 20 viewsDenarius
Obv:–IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI VICT, Jupiter, seated left, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– RIC -. RSC -. BMCRE -
maridvnvm
RI_064uc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O3 - RIC -7 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV - PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 – A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -

A nice example from this unusual obverse legend variant

1.80g, 16.87mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064hr_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O4 - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AV COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI VICTORI, Jupiter, seated left, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -

3.05g, 17.93mm, 0o

Unusual obverse legend variety with shortened forms from the normal legend. Scarce reverse type.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064oj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O4 - RIC -28 viewsObv:–IMP CA L SE SEV PER AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– MART-I V-ICTORI, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 – A.D. 195
Reference:– cf. BMCRE 378 note. RIC 406b. RSC 324e. (all citing Cohen 324 - Kholl)

Another example of this odd set of obverse legends.
maridvnvm
RI_064tg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O4 - RIC -25 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AV COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-D-DVC, Fortuna, seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -

2.81g, 18.68mm, 0o
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ps_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O5 - RIC -35 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -
maridvnvm
RI_064qb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O5 - RIC -31 viewsObv:– IM-P CA L SEP SE-V PER AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– VIC-TO-R AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– RIC 425 var (obverse legend).
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O6 - RIC 38837 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SE_V PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna(?) standing left holding cornucopia and sceptre
Copies a coin minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 364A (Oldroyd Bequest 1946 ex L.A.L.). RIC IV 388. RSC 159.
maridvnvm
RI_064rj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O6 - RIC 388 var18 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT RE_DVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long sceptre & cornucopia.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference(s) – Cohen 159. RIC 388 var.
maridvnvm
RI_064sm_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O7 - RIC -39 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PEVR (sic) AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064tv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O7 - RIC -21 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PEVR (sic) AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI ENTVS (sic), Fides standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064kh_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O8 - RIC -38 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP S-EV PER AVG COS - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBE-R AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC-
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -50 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.

2.40g, 18.83mm, 0o

A very unusual obverse legend variant.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long scepter & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.

3.17g, 18.54mm, 0o

This is an unusual legend with several spelling errors. It is an obverse die match to a coin in the Doug Smith collection (different reverse type). A reverse die match exists in the British Museum (different obverse die).
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -85 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC - RSC -.

Another reverse type for this unusual obverse die bringing my total to three different reverses.
maridvnvm
RI_064st_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Denarius - O9 - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MART-I V-ICTORI, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– cf. BMCRE 378 note. cf RIC 406b. RSC 324e. (all citing Cohen 324 - Kholl)

3.16 gms. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC - 14 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long scepter & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -33 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC -, RSC -
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -58 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - I, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -

2.70g, 17.92mm, 0o 

The following comes from Curtis Clay “That die is under COS I in my cast collection.  I read the wedge on bust as a I, but no second stroke under the bust.
There are some early COS I coins were the reading may be intentional, but yours is one of a smaller later group where COS I is apparently just an error, because by that time COS II was the standard and only correct title.
I have casts of two other coins from the same dies as yours, Oxford and Bickford-Smith coll., and two from the same obv. die with crossed cornucopias rev. type.”
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -26 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -

2.95g, 17.25mm, 0o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -43 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

2.84g, 19.74mm, 0o

Obverse and reverse die match to an example in the Roger Bickford-Smith collection.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVS (sic), Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left .
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.

2.88g, 18.84mm, 0o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -31 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SE . V PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right (Longhead portrait)
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:- RIC -

3.36g, 19.07mm, 0o

Black toning.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

2.68g, 18.49mm, 180o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -15 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) seated left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC - would be in the region of RIC 383 but this reverse type with Hilaritas seated not known
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.18g.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -39 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC - (RIC 411b is AVG II C with MONETA AVG, RIC 412 is MONETAE AVG but with Obv Leg. CO II), BMCRE - (BMCRE 380 note var., which is RIC 411b above). RSC -

3.31g, 19.11mm, 0o

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left.
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.

3.01g, 19.06mm, 0o

This coin is an obverse and reverse die match to a coin on the Barry Murphy Severan site
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CE L SEP SEV PERT AVG CO, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVC, Fides (sometimes referred to as Bonus Eventus) standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears.
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193 or Early A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.

2.47g, 18.29mm, 0o

This obverse legend variety makes it into RIC and BMCRE as a noted legend mixed in with the COS I series of A.D. 193 in association with a MANET AVG and a MONETAE AVG both cited from RD, where one example of each is listed. The reverse legend BONI EVENTVC is noted in RD as a var. of Cohen 68, which is listed with the COS II obverse legend with a single example listed and is listed in RIC from the RD hoards as a known variant of RIC 369.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory walking right, holding trophy in both hands
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -

2.80g, 18.22mm, 180o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MON-E-T AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -26 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev: – MONETAE AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen -. BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

1.76g, 18.05mm, 0o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -15 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– VICTO (sic) AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC - (cf. 425). RSC -
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -34 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– LEG X-IIII GE-M M V / TR P COS, Legionary eagle between two standards
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -
Ex H J Berk.

3.03g, 18.80mm, 0o

Very rare obverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -7 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– BONETAE AVG (sic), Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Reference(s) – RIC - (unlisted cf. 359A, which is scarce citing RD). RSC -. BMCRE - .

A reverse die match to my example with the AVG II C obverse legend
maridvnvm
RI_064fk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (-) (this reverse legend not listed for COS I)

2.22g, 18.88mm, 0o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -26 views064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 386 var
Obv:–IMP CAE L SEP SE . V PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right (Longhead portrait)
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:- RIC - (cf. RIC 386 which has a different reverse legend for this type FORTVN REDVC)
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LEG X-IIII GE-M M V / TR P COS, Legionary eagle between two standards, Capricorns shown on standard.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC -
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RI_064fc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MINER VICT .., Minerva standing left, holding spear in right hand, left hand on hip
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-5
References:– RIC - (this reverse depiction of Minerva is not listed for Emesa). RSC 327e

Reverse die match to CNG 61 Lot 1915.
maridvnvm
RI 064fs img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory standing on globe left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -

Ex Forvm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064hk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC 55d (citing Tinchant cat.)
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.61g

Unusual obverse legend break P-ERT.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ib_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II COS, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONAE SPEI II COS, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

2.53g, 20.31mm, 0o

A very rare obverse legend variety, combined with a rare reverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064il_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– IMP CE L SEP SEV PEPT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG II COS, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.

3.18g, 18.87mm, 0o

Rare shortened, errored obverse legend combined with a rare reverse type.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -44 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064im_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONEI (sic) AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -

Note MONEI instead of MONET
Martin Griffiths
RI_064rm_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - 40 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICITAS TIMPO (sic), two grain ears between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:- Cohen -. BMCRE -, RIC IV -, RSC -

Not previously known with two grain ears.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064iw_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-NA REDVCI, Hilaritas, standing front, head left, holding long palm and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Ref:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064iv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPEI .., Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Ref:– BMCRE -. Cf 341 Note for CO II example with same reverse legend. RIC -. RSC 55d (citing Tinchant cat.)
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.23g
maridvnvm
RI_064jp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC -, RSC -
maridvnvm
RI_064jh_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -33 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVAE(sic) REDVCI, Moneta/Aequitas standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

2.99g, 17.53mm, 180o

Additional comments from Curtis Clay - "This combination of the FORTVNAE REDVCI legend with a type of Aequitas is reported on a denarius of Pescennius Niger by Cohen 25 (in a private collection), but does not seem to have been attested before for either Septimius Severus or Julia Domna, at least I can't find any such coin in BMC or RSC."
maridvnvm
RI_064jo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.58g

A mix up with the reverse legend and reverse type. The reverse legend should match with the Fides type instead of Spes. Bartosz Awianowicz has the opposite error with a BONA SPES reverse legend and a Fides reverse type.
maridvnvm
RI_064kq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -19 viewsObv:- IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:- MART VICTOR, Mars, in military attire, standing left, holding Victory and spear
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195.
References :- BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

This reverse type not listed for Septimius Severus.
maridvnvm
RI_064eo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -42 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left .
Minted in Emesa, Early A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.

2.98g, 17.65mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI_064kx_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– IVCT (sic) AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.

Weight 3.06g. 17.31mm.
maridvnvm
RI_064ky_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -25 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II CO, laureate head right
Rev:– MONETA-E AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

3.28g, 18.99mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI_064lc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left .
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.
maridvnvm
RI_064ij_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG II COS, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

3.67g, 17.37mm, 180o

4 specimens known, Budapest, Barry Murphy (2 spec.) and this example, all from the same die pair. The same reverse die muled with an obverse legend ending II C, BM ex Bickford-Smith
maridvnvm
RI_064jt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVC, Fides standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

3.80g, 17.68mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI_064jq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -38 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, laureate head right
Rev:– MINER VICT, Minerva seated left, holding victory in right hand, spear in left, shield beneath
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

3.35g, 18.91mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064ly_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS II COS, Fides standing left holding plate of fruit and two wheat ears
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

From the rare sub-series with II COS on the reverse.
maridvnvm
RI_064mg_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MINE-R VICT, Minerva standing left, holding spear in right hand, left hand on hip
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064mr_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNE (sic) RDVCI (sic), Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

This reverse type not listed in any major references for this issue.
maridvnvm
RI_064nn_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -33 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG II COS, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064fp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP TROPAEA II, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.

1.99g, 17.87mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI_064gs_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONETAE AVG (sic), Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

3.16g, 18.53mm, 0o

Die match to an example in the Barry Murphy collection.
maridvnvm
RI_064fz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -36 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -

3.37g, 17.47mm, 0o

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064eq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -.

3.05g, 18.20mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064jx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVA (sic) REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064kg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -14 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA .. SPEI, Fides (Bonus Eventus in RIC) standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -

A mix up with the reverse legend and reverse type.
maridvnvm
RI_064on_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev:- LEG VIII AVO (sic) ? CR P COS, Legionary eagle between two standards
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen -. BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

This is the only known obverse die with this legend variant.
Possibly the third specimen known. The other examples are Oxford ex Walker, JNG 1978/1979, pl. 9, 4 which are both from the same die pair.
maridvnvm
RI_064pc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -17 viewsObv:- IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:- VENER AVG, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Eastern COS II mint (RIC - Emesa). A.D. 193 - 195
References:- BMCRE -. RSC - RIC -.

This reverse type should come with VICTOR AVG or VICT AVG. VENER VICT and variations (VICTR, VICTOR etc.) turn up on Venus types of Domna, which we so rarely seen muled with obverses of Septimius Severus but I have never seen this odd mixing.
maridvnvm
RI_064pb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC - (RIC 411b is AVG II C with MONETA AVG, RIC 412 is MONETAE AVG but with Obv Leg. CO II), BMCRE - (BMCRE 380 note var., which is RIC 411b above). RSC -

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064pd_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -22 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides (Bonus Eventus) standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064ry_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -26 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP TROPAEA, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

One other example known in Paris
maridvnvm
RI_064pr_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -35 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVC, Fides standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064pp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTN (sic) R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– RIC -. RSC -. BMCRE -.
maridvnvm
RI_064kg_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Fides standing right holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -

A mix up with the reverse legend and reverse type. The reverse legend should match with the Spes type instead of Fides.
maridvnvm
RI_064pv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -12 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV - PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN REDVC, Aequitas/Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -
maridvnvm
RI_064py_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– MART VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC - (cf. RIC 404, which is IMP CA SEP SEV PER AVG COS II). RSC - .
maridvnvm
RI_064pz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE 345 notes. RIC -.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064sf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -9 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SPE(sic) SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– M-ONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
References:- RIC -. RSC -. BMCRE -.
maridvnvm
RI_064se_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -13 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II CO, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
References:- RIC -. RSC -. BMCRE -.

The first example of this reverse type to turn up with this obverse variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064qg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - 20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Fides standing right holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -

A mix up with the reverse legend and reverse type. The reverse legend should match with the Spes type instead of Fides.
maridvnvm
RI_064ql_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -30 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC - (RIC 411b is AVG II C with MONETA AVG, RIC 412 is MONETAE AVG but with Obv Leg. CO II), BMCRE - (BMCRE 380 note var., which is RIC 411b above). RSC -

Very rare obverse legend variety
maridvnvm
RI_064qm_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CE L . SEP SE-V PERT AVG . CO, laureate head right
Rev:– FOTVNA-E (sic) R-EDVCI, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -

Possibly only fifth example known. Other examples - BM ex Bickford-Smith and Curtis Clay coll., Vienna, formerly Barry Murphy coll., Triton VI lot (M. Melcher coll.), Doug Smith, all same die pair
maridvnvm
RI_064rl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Denarius - RIC -27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICTOR, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference(s) – BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC - . (unlisted reverse legend variation)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064qo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II COS, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI II COS, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

A very rare obverse legend variety, combined with a rare reverse legend variety.
maridvnvm
RI_064qp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -15 viewsObv:– IMP CE L . SEP SE-V PERT AVG . CO, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruit and corn ears
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -
One other example known - ANS
maridvnvm
RI_064qt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMC -.

A different reverse die to my previous example.
maridvnvm
RI_064rn_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONEI (sic) AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -

Note MONEI instead of MONET
maridvnvm
RI_064so_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE 345 notes. RIC -.

I now have two examples. Two different obverse dies and two different reverse dies.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064sp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -36 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides (Bonus Eventus) standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064th_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG II C, laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference:– RIC -, BMCRE -. RSC -

Very rare obverse legend variety
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064tl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -22 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.58g

A mix up with the reverse legend and reverse type. The reverse legend should match with the Fides type instead of Spes. Bartosz Awianowicz has the opposite error with a BONA SPES reverse legend and a Fides reverse type.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064to_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -37 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP TROPA.., Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 – 195
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064fj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -9 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PEPT(sic) AVG COS - (!!), Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.00g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but other examples of this die show two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvm
RI_064tz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -6 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PEPT(sic) AVG COS - !!, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.60g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but this example showw two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvm
RI 064ha img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (Obverse brockage_26 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– Brockage image of obverse
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:- Cohen -. BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064ne_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (unlisted mule with a Julia Domna reverse)29 viewsObv:- IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:- VEN-ER VICT, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand; sceptre in left
Emesa mint. Struck 194-195 AD.
References:- RIC IV -; BMCRE -; RSC -.

This would appear to be a mule of a Septimius Severus obverse with a reverse of Julia Domna.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064td_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (unlisted mule with a Julia Domna reverse)11 viewsObv:- IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:- VEN-ER VICT, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand; sceptre in left
Emesa mint. Struck 194-195 AD.
References:- RIC IV -; BMCRE -; RSC -.

This would appear to be a mule of a Septimius Severus obverse with a reverse of Julia Domna.
maridvnvm
RI_064sv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - error21 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I - I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICITAS TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae / VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 347 note/ BMCRE 399. RIC 347A/RIC 428. RSC 141b/RSC 749

The reverse of this coin has been struck with two diffrerent reverse dies during the strking process. The coin was originally struck, not removed and then struck again with a different reverse die.
maridvnvm
RI_064ok_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -. cf RIC 411a19 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– MONTE (sic) AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 – A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -. This error not noted. cf. BMC 380ff. RIC 411a. RSC 330 .

This error not noted in any of the major references.
maridvnvm
RI_064op_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 33713 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– RIC 377. RSC 174a
maridvnvm
RI_064fw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 35217 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides (Bonus Eventus - RIC) standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Ref:– RIC 352 (Scarce). RSC 66

3.03g, 17.99mm, 0o
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064gy_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 35625 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP TROPAEA, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC 356, RSC 233, BMCRE W335.

2.10g, 18.92mm, 0o

Die match to plate coin in BMCRE.
maridvnvm
RI 064hu img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362 29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC 362 (Rare), RSC 738, BMCRE 388.

[SOLD]
maridvnvm
RI_064gi_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36220 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC 362 (Rare), RSC 738, BMCRE 388.

2.62g, 17.45mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI_064ee_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362 var.18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVS (sic), Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left .
Minted in Emesa, Late A.D. 193
References:– RIC 362 var, RSC 738 var, BMCRE 388 var. All list VICTOR IVST AVG.

3.26g, 18.83mm, 0o

This coin is an obverse and reverse die match to a coin on the Doug Smith Severan site.
maridvnvm
RI_064ja_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362a28 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG II COS, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE W338 note. RIC 362a (Rated R2). RSC 740a

2.96g, 18.79mm, 180o

Only one other example known – “reported by Bickford-Smith from Dura Europus 942”
All references cite the same coin from the 3rd Dura Hoard, Num. Notes and Monographs, 55, Pg 46. No. 216
maridvnvm
RI_064tf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 362a24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR IVST AVG II COS, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193
Ref:– BMCRE W338 note. RIC 362a (Rated R2). RSC 740a

3.03g, 18.28mm, 180o

Only two other examples known – “reported by Bickford-Smith from Dura Europus 942”
All references cite the same coin from the 3rd Dura Hoard, Num. Notes and Monographs, 55, Pg 46. No. 216
Another example from the same die pair in my own collection.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064v_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36430 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SP[ES], Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 364, RCV88 1748, RCV02 6266, RSC 58
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.61g

We can see in this example where the celator became short of space and had to squeeze in the "II" at the end of the obverse legend
maridvnvm
RI_064ao_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36413 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 364, RCV88 1748, RCV02 6266, RSC 58
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 2.54g
maridvnvm
RI_064kv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36424 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES, Spes advancing left, holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 340. RIC 364. RSC 55b.

Weight 3.14g. 18.28mm.
maridvnvm
RI_064pt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36424 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE.V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONA SPES ., Spes advancing left, holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 340. RIC 364 (S). RSC 55b
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ez_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36641 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev: – [BONA]E SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen 60. BMC W341. RIC 366 (Rated Scarce)

3.06g, 17.96mm, 180o

A nice portrait from the scarce "AVG II CO" obverse variety, but a shame about the off-centre reverse strike.
maridvnvm
RI_064oz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36626 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev: – BONAE SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen 60. BMC W341. RIC 366 (Rated Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_064gc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 366b26 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev: – BONAE SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 366b (Rated Scarce)
0 degrees. 3.46 gms.

E of BONAE missing the middle bar. Two pellets apparent at end of reverse legend.
maridvnvm
RI_064bc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36912 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev: – BONI E-V-ENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 343, RIC 369, RCV02 6267, RSC 68
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.48g
maridvnvm
RI_064fg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36920 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right
Rev: – BONI E-VENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 343, RIC 369, RCV02 6267, RSC 68
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.35g
maridvnvm
RI_064ld_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36917 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI E-V-ENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 343. RIC IV 369. RSC 68
maridvnvm
RI_064ll_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36913 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 343. RIC 369. RSC 68
maridvnvm
RI_064lp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36918 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 343. RIC IV 369. RSC 68.
maridvnvm
RI_064qu_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36919 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EV-ENTVS, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 343. RIC IV 369. RSC 68
maridvnvm
RI_064rw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36913 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– BONI EVENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 343. RIC IV 369. RSC 68
maridvnvm
RI_064hz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 369 Note15 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev: – BON-I EVENTV, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 343 Note, RIC 369 Note, RSC 68b all citing RD Hoard Page 94 where 4 examples are cited
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 2.80g
maridvnvm
RI_064dw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37021 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE W345, RIC IV 370, RSC 69
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.13g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37024 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 345. RIC IV 370. RSC 69a.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37017 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– CERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 345. RIC IV 370. RSC 69a.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37212 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICIT TEMPO, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in eastern COS II mint (Emesa ?). A.D. 194-195
Reference:- Cohen 142. BMCRE 347 note. RIC IV 372 (Rated S). RSC 142.

On the face of it this coin is simply RIC IV 372 though RIC notes that Cohen likely has SEPT in error. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 142 for this variant (TEMPO instead of the usual TEMPOR). Cohen 142 reads FELICIT TEMPOR or TEMPO. It would appear that RIC and BMCRE could not find other examples of the TEMPO type other than Cohen when mentioning this variation.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37316 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICIT TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:- Cohen 142. BMCRE 347, RIC IV 373 (S), RSC 142b
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.18g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 373 Note19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICIT TEMPOM (sic), grain ear between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:- RIC IV 373 note
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.09g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 376B18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L CEP(sic) SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – BMCRE - (Noted as variant of 352 in footnotes). RIC 376B (Rated Scarce). All citing RD paragraph 55, page 44, no. 205
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37729 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 (Scarce), RSC 174a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.43g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37718 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 (Scarce), RSC 174a
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.47g.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37722 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVC, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 (Scarce), RSC 174a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.17g.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 3779 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– RIC 377. RSC 174a
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 377 var17 views064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 377 var
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVS, Fortuna with modius on head, standing left holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 377 var (unlisted with this reverse legend error)
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.32g.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37910 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT-V-N REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 379 (Scarce), RSC 173a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.71g.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37924 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N R-EDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 379 (Scarce), RSC 173a
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 2.89g.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38118 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE W354 note. RIC 381 (Scarce), RSC 185a

2.98g, 18.70mm, 0o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38311 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC 383 (Scarce), RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.45g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38327 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTV-N REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 383, RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.46g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 3839 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 383, RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.22g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38323 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC 383 (Scarce), RSC 175a
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 1.97g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38311 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– RIC 383 (Scarce). RSC 175a.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 383 var20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNE REDVCI, Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, 194 A.D.
References:– RIC 383 var (unlisted long legend variant)
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.05g.

The early bust style, similar to that used in the COS I series combined with the long reverse legend places this coin early in the COS II series.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38517 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 385 (Scarce)
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.37g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38515 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 363 (Same die pair?). RIC 385 (listed variant) (S).
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 385 (listed variant)15 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– RIC 385 (listed variant) (Scarce)
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 385 Note20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 385 Note (Scarce)
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 2.80g
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38623 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 386 (Common), RSC 177
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.23g
maridvnvm
RI_064cq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38621 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– F-ORTVN R-EDVC, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 386 (Common), RSC 177
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 2.72g
maridvnvm
RI 064em img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 389114 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 – 195
References:– VM 51, RIC 389 (Scarce), RSC 232
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064nf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38924 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 – 195
References:– RIC 389 (Scarce), RSC 232
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 38946 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 – 195
References:– RIC 389 (Scarce), RSC 232
maridvnvm
RI_064em_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 389 43 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 – 195
References:– RIC 389 (Scarce), RSC 232
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064fv img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 389 var53 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMC (sic), Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 – 195
References:– RIC -, RSC -, BMCRE -
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064sc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 389 var15 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SP(sic) SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICTO IMP, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 – A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC 389 var (S). RSC 232.var
maridvnvm
RI 064dg img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 389 var.26 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– INVICT IMP, Trophy with captured arms below
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 – 195
References:– RIC 389 var (inlisted in RIC with this reverse legend, no examples in RD hoard)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064jj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 39824 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:- BMCRE W373-374. RIC 398. RSC 279a
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 39816 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 373/374. RIC 398 (S) citing Lawrence. RSC 279a.
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 39918 viewsObv– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBE-RA AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE 375, RIC 399, RCV02 6305, RSC 283

3.06g, 17.68mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI 064dz img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40020 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE 373 note. RIC IV RIC 400, RSC 283a
maridvnvm
RI_064kk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40017 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE 373 note. RIC IV RIC 400, RSC 283a
maridvnvm
RI 064fd img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40118 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas, seated left, holding account-board and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 401 (Scarce), RSC 287
maridvnvm
RI 064bf img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40325 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERA-L AVG, Liberalitas, seated left, holding account-board and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 403 (Scarce), RSC 287a
maridvnvm
RI_064jm_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40523 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - (II), Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– BMCRE W377 (The coin cited for all the references is the same coin, which appears to be a normal COS II obverse that has been tooled to create a NIGER obverse legend, IMP CAE S C PESC NIGER IVST AVG COS II. No other examples of this reverse legend cited for COS II so still quite scarce). RIC 405. RSC 318c .

2.64g, 18.89mm, 180o
maridvnvm
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064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40520 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - (II), Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– BMCRE W377 (The coin cited for all the references is the same coin, which appears to be a normal COS II obverse that has been tooled to create a NIGER obverse legend, IMP CAE S C PESC NIGER IVST AVG COS II. No other examples of this reverse legend cited for COS II so still quite scarce). RIC 405. RSC 318c .
maridvnvm
RI_064jf_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 405a var.17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICTO, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE W 378 note var. RIC 405a var. RSC 318e var.

All these references cite a single coin from the Reka Devnia hoard page 98, which in itself refers to Cohen 324 var. Cohen 324 is MART VICT and has CA and PER as obverse legend variations and so it is implied that this coin also has the same obverse legend variations. Perhaps this interpretation is incorrect and it is simply the regular COS II legend as on my coin, which is think is quite likely.
maridvnvm
RI_064jv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 405b19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - (II), Laureate head right
Rev:– MAREI (sic) VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– BMCRE p. 95 note (Citing RD p. 98). RIC 405b.

3.05g, 17.93mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI 064cl img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40621 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MART VICTOR, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC 406
maridvnvm
RI_064sl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 406(a)12 viewsDenarius
Obv:– I-M-P CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MART VICTOR, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-194
Reference(s) – RIC 406(a) (S). RSC -
maridvnvm
RI 064cl img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 406a25 viewsObv:– I-M-P CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MART VICTOR, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-194
Reference:– RIC 406a (Scarce)

Unusual with the split start to the obverse legend.
maridvnvm
RI_064qa_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 409B17 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– MI-NE-R VICT, Minerva standing left, holding Victory in right hand, spear in left, shield at feet.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 379A. RIC 409A (S). RSC 327d.
maridvnvm
RI_064mp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a15 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMC 380ff. RIC 411a. RSC 330.
maridvnvm
RI_064mt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a18 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMC 380ff. RIC 411a. RSC 330.
maridvnvm
RI_064os_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a29 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMC 380ff. RIC 411a. RSC 330
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064ay img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a (example 1)31 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 380ff, VM 84, RIC 411a, RCV02 6314, RSC 330
maridvnvm
RI 064ci img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a (example 2) 21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 380ff, VM 84, RIC 411a, RCV02 6314, RSC 330

Worn obverse dies giving the impression of somewhat crude style, the original obverse die is actually very nice in style.
maridvnvm
RI 064ct img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 411a (example 3)29 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 380ff, VM 84, RIC 411a, RCV02 6314, RSC 330
maridvnvm
RI_064kj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 412 corr19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONETA .. AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 412 corr., RSC -

RIC 412 is noted as MONETA II AVG which is an odd legend. I have three examples of this reverse die (two of Severus and one of Domna) that show that this legend is in fact MONETA .. AVG where the two dots have been misread as II.
maridvnvm
RI_064ta_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 412 corr23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONETA .. AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 412 corr., RSC -

RIC 412 is noted as MONETA II AVG which is an odd legend. I have three examples of this reverse die (two of Severus and one of Domna) that show that this legend is in fact MONETA .. AVG where the two dots have been misread as II.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064cw img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 41313 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– P[IETAT] AVG, Severus, veiled, standing left, sacrificing over tripod
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– Cohen 376. RIC 413 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_064li_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 41311 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– PIETAT AVG, Severus, veiled, standing left, sacrificing over tripod
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– Cohen 376. RIC 413 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_064ji_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 414 note20 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– POMA (sic) [A-E-T]ERNA, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory in right hand, sceptre in left (shield behind)
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE pg. 97. * note. RIC 414 note. RSC 614 var
maridvnvm
RI_064tc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 414 note9 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– POMA (sic) [A-E-T]ERNA, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory in right hand, sceptre in left (shield behind)
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE pg. 97. * note. RIC 414 note. RSC 614 var
maridvnvm
RI 064dn img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 415 var28 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– SPQR OPTIMO PBINCIPI, Septimius on horseback left, holding spear in right hand
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– Cohen 376. RIC 415 var. This errored spelling is far more common than the correct PRINCIPI.
maridvnvm
RI 064dm img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 41724 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– SAECVL FELICIT, Crescent and seven stars
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 390, RIC IV 417, RSC 628a
maridvnvm
RI 064dv img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 417 var.18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right (Long head portrait)
Rev:– [S]AECVI CE [LIC]IT,Crescent and seven stars (Supposed to be SAECVL FELICIT)
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference(s) – RIC IV 417 var (Odd legend variation)
maridvnvm
RI 064dk img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42217 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VI-CT AVG, Victory walking right, holding trophy in both hands
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 393, RIC 422, RSC 674
maridvnvm
RI 064hv img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 423 32 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VI-C-T-OR AVG, Victory walking right, holding trophy in both hands
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 423
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064hw img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42315 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VI-C-T-OR AVG, Victory walking right, holding trophy in both hands
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 423
maridvnvm
RI 064bb img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42434 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 395, VM 150/1, RIC 424, RSC 675a
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064lu_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42419 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 395, RIC 424, RSC 675a

Slightly unusual style on the bust (a new die for me). Some minor lamination issues on the reverse.
maridvnvm
RI_064rv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42415 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– BMCRE 395, VM 150/1, RIC 424, RSC 675a
maridvnvm
RI_064cp_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42516 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTO-R AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 425, RSC 697
180 degrees. 3.21 gms
maridvnvm
RI 064hb img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 425 16 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VIC-TO-R AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 425, RSC 697
maridvnvm
RI_064mu_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42514 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTO-R AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 425, RSC 697
maridvnvm
RI_064pn_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42516 viewsObv:– I-MP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VIC-T AV-G, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 395. RIC IV 424. RSC 675a
maridvnvm
RI_064qk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42518 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTO-R AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 425, RSC 697

Tight flan. I and T of VICTOR clogged but visible under loupe.
maridvnvm
RI 064fn img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42658 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICT AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in both hands
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 426 (Rated Rare), RSC 675d. BMCRE 401.

Ex Roger Bickford-Smith Collection, CNG 47, lot 1708. Ex Barry Murphy Collection
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064du_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42828 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR SEV-E-R AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. Early A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE 399. RIC IV 428 (S). RSC 749
maridvnvm
RI_064ed_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42818 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR SEVE-R AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. Early A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE 399. RIC IV 428 (S). RSC 749
maridvnvm
RI_064ph_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42832 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTOR S-EV-ER AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. Early A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE 399. RIC IV 428 (S). RSC 749

Obverse die match to my Moneta seated MONET AVG coins.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064rt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42821 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right (Long head portrait)
Rev:– VICTOR SEVE-R AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. Early A.D. 194
Reference(s) – Cohen 749. BMCRE 399. RIC IV 428 (S). RSC 749

Harshly cleaned but bought because I have a few obverse die matches. This reverse legend is thought to be relatively early in the series and thus helps place this obverse die in the chronology.
maridvnvm
RI_064lz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 430 corr.23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTORIA, Victory standing left engraving AV/G on shield to left with right hand, which is resting on a column, holding palm in left hand. Centre dot.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 402, thought to be SE V, CO and AV/VG but from same die pair as this coin. RIC 430 (Rated R citing BM). RSC 703a.

All the coins cite the BM example which is unclear. This example, whilst suffering from the harsh cleaning method (zapped?) is sufficiently clear to make out the correct COS II obverse legend and the AV/G on the shield.

A rare reverse type.
maridvnvm
Sep_Sev_RIC_431.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 43134 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VIRTV-T-E AVG, Virtus standing right, holding spear in right hand, parazonium in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D 194 - 195
References:– BMC 403, RIC 431 (Scarce), RSC 771
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064jn_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 431a18 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– VIRTVTE AVG, Virtus standing left, holding Victory in right hand, inverted spear in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE W404 (plate 17.12, same reverse die and quite possibly the same obverse die). RIC 431a (Rated Rare, citing RD, p 106). RSC 771a.
RD contained 1 specimen.

BMCRE notes that the obverse legend break is unknown due to missing middle of legend and the RD coin is noted as having the right hand of the obverse legend missing.
maridvnvm
RI_064sb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 432 var12 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SPE (sic) SEV - PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P III IMP V COS II, captive seated right with peaked cap, hands bound behind, quiver and shields behind, curved sword in ex
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:– RIC 432 var (obv legend). RSC 660 var (same)
maridvnvm
RI 064cy img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 43317 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P III IMP V COS II, Captive, wearing peaked cap, seated on ground, hands tied behind back, in front bow, quiver, shields??
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference(s) – Cohen 659. RIC 433 (Scarce).
maridvnvm
RI 064ch img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 43540 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– . T . R . P . III IMP . – . V COS . II, Two captives seated at base of trophy
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 195
References:– BMC 410, RIC 435, RSC 658
maridvnvm
RI_064ot_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 43514 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– • T • R • P • III IMP • – • V COS • II (first I in form of Gamma), Two captives seated at base of trophy
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:– BMC 410. RIC 435. RSC 658.
maridvnvm
RI_064dx_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)25 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC 318b. BMC 617.

2.64g, 18.89mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI_064ex_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (-) (this reverse type not listed for COS I)

2.88g, 19.17mm, 0o

Ex. J. Malter collection
maridvnvm
RI_064eb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERT AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (-) (this reverse type not listed for COS I)

2.83g, 19.51mm, 0o

Whilst the legend reads COS I the bust style is not that commonly seen with the COS I types. This is possibly a later COS II where the second I was missed.
maridvnvm
RI_064ea_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)36 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MINER VICT, Minerva standing left, holding spear in right hand, left hand on hip
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC Page 139 (-) (this reverse depiction of Minerva is not listed for Emesa)

1.96g, 18.91mm, 180o

The reverse type also seen in CNG 61 Lot 1915 but with COS II.
maridvnvm
RI 064fj img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-) 35 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pax?) seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC -
Die axis 180 degrees. Weight 3.00g

Whilst the legend seems to end COS the intention would have been for COS II. This is an earlier bust type typically seen with COS I and with the long legend on the reverse is certainly tied to the earlier types but other examples of this die show two small strokes beneath the bust which could be taken to the II.
maridvnvm
RI_064jk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)30 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– SAECVLI FELICITA, Crescent and seven stars
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– RIC -. RSC -. BMCRE -.

2.72g, 17.96mm, 0o

Classic COS I style and an interesting longer reverse legend than seen on later Crescent and stars types
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064lv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FEILECITAS (sic) TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_064mi_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)66 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (-) (this reverse type not listed for COS I)
maridvnvm
RI_064ef_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (5)37 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORTVNAE REDVCI, Fortuna (Pietas) standing left holding patera and cornucopia, sacrificing over altar
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (5) (Scarce)

2.99g, 18.69mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064cv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (6)27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI PRAE ORBIS, Jupiter, seated left, holding Victory and sceptre, at feet eagle
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (6) (Rare), Cohen 240 (6 Francs)

2.87g, 17.33mm, 0o

Shares the same reverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Collection but his example has the more common COS II obverse die. One of the scarcer reverse types.
maridvnvm
RI 064bs img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (7b) 33 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE. - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET.A.E AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– BMC Page 90 (j), RIC Page 139 (7b) (Scarce), RSC 347c

Shares the same obverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Denarius with a different reverse die

[SOLD]
maridvnvm
RI_064gd_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (7b)24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE. - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET.A.E AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– BMC Page 90 (j), RIC Page 139 (7b) (Scarce), RSC 347c

2.53g, 17.61mm, 0o

Shares the same obverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Denarius with a different reverse die
maridvnvm
RI_065bz_img.jpg
065 - Julia Doman Denarius - cf RIC 61932 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FELECI[TAS] TEMPOR, Basket of grains and fruit.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference(s) – cf RIC IV 619; cf BMCRE 415;

The FELECI is clear but I am supposing the TAS based upon the spacing and what would appear to be the ghosting of the letter that have been lost through clogging.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_065ae_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FORT AVG, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -
Martin Griffiths
RI_065ak_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -31 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– MONETAE AVG II COS, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – RIC -; BMCRE -; RSC -.

One of the rare dated reverse series. The third known example, others in Paris and Vienna. Die match to the Paris example.
Martin Griffiths
RI_065q_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 61615 viewsObv:– IVLIA DO-MNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– BONI EV-ENTVS (S modified from C), Fides standing left, holding plate of fruit in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference(s) – RIC Emesa 616 (Rare); BMCRE 328B; RSC 10.

S modified from C not noted in references.
Martin Griffiths
RI_065bq_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 61620 viewsObv:– IVLIA DO-MNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– BONI EV-ENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left, holding plate of fruit in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-194
Reference:– RIC 616 (R) ; BMCRE 328B; RSC 10
maridvnvm
RI_065aa_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 616A16 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– CERER FRVG, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears in right hand, torch in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE pg. 102. RIC IV 616A, RSC 13a
Martin Griffiths
RI_065ab_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62135 viewsObv:– IVLIA DO-MNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– FELECITAS TEMPOR, Grain ear between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 195
Reference(s) – RIC IV 621 (Rare, Septimius confirmed, noted as doubtful by RIC but with FELICITAS)
Martin Griffiths
RI_065y_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62773 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERAL . AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE pg. 102, RIC 627, RSC 103
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI_065ca_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62713 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE pg. 102, RIC 627, RSC 103
maridvnvm
RI_065z_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 628 var.21 viewsObv:– IVLA (sic) DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– MONETA AVG, Moneta, seated left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– RIC 628 var (Not listed in RIC with this error in the obverse legend)
Martin Griffiths
RI_065ap_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 63228 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– VENERI VICTR, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, sceptre in left
Minted in Emesa.
Reference:– BMCRE 424. RIC IV 632 (Rated scarce). RSC 194.
maridvnvm
RI_065br_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 63237 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENERI VICTR, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, sceptre in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193-196
Reference:– BMCRE 424. RIC IV 632 (Rated scarce). RSC 194
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_065ar_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC unlisted17 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– FORTVN REDVCI, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 193-196
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_065av_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC unlisted18 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 195
Reference:– RIC IV -.
maridvnvm
Project134.jpg
180 Septimius Severus34 viewsSeptimius Severus
Denarius
MP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II. Laureate head to right. / INVICTO IMP. Trophy with arms below. RIC IV-1 389. Emesa mint, A.D. 194-195.

better photo

ex DS
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
jdomna_RIC632.jpg
193-196(?) AD - JULIA DOMNA AR denarius49 viewsobv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG (draped bust right, hair coiled and waved)
rev: VENERI VICTR (Venus half naked standing to r., holding an apple and a palm and leaning on a column)
ref: RIC IVi 632, C.194 (5frcs)
mint: Emesa and Laodicea (or probably Rome)
3.5gms, 18mm
Scarce

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. She was a great support for Severus in serving her family and the empire. A staunch opponent to Severus' praetorian prefect Plautianus, she attempted to turn his influence from the emperor. Her attempts to mitigate in the hatred between her two sons did not succeed. However, she seems to have prevented them from splitting the empire between them, fearing an all-out civil war. Perhaps this was one of the turning points of Roman history. If the empire had been divided at this time, future history may have become wholly different. Her greatest tragedy was probably the death of Geta in her arms from the murderers instigated by Caracalla. Nevertheless she continued serving the empire and Caracalla until, he too, was murdered. After bearing Caracalla's ashes to Rome, she starved herself to death.
2 commentsberserker
rjb_pesc_05_08.jpg
193a13 viewsPescennius Niger 193-4 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAES C PESC [......]"
Laur bust right
Rev "BONI EVEN[..]"
Bonus Eventus standing left
Emesa mint
RIC 5
mauseus
rjb_sev5_02_06.jpg
193b23 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "VICT AVG"
Victory holding trophy walking right
Emesa mint
RIC 422
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_04a.jpg
193b11 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "BONI EVENTVS"
Bonus Eventus standing left holding plate of fruit
Emesa mint
RIC 369
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_05a.jpg
193b12 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "MONETI AVG"
Moneta standing left holding scales and cornucopia
Emesa mint
RIC cf411
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_06a.jpg
193b15 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I"
Laureate bust right
Rev "VICT AVG"
Victory walking left holding wreath and branch
Emesa mint
RIC cf424
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_07a.jpg
193b9 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "LIRER AVG" (sic)
Liberalitas seated left
Emesa mint
RIC cf401
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_08a.jpg
193b12 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG"
Laureate bust right
Rev "VICTOR IVST AVS" (sic)
Victory walking left holding wreath and branch
Emesa mint
RIC cf362
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_09a.jpg
193b10 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "INVICTO IMP"
Trophy of arms
Emesa mint
RIC 389
mauseus
septsev den1.jpg
194 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius 21 viewsobv: IMP CAE.L.SEP.SEV.PERT.AVG.COS.II (laureate head right)
rev: FORT REDVC (Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia)
ref: RIC IVi 376b
mint: Emesa
2.28gms
Scarce
Fortune that brings back the Emperor in safety. Fortune was said to distribute wealth by her cornucopiae, and to weild by her rudder the government of human affairs.
berserker
septsev den2.jpg
194-195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius 22 viewsobv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I (laureate head right)
rev: FORTVN REDVC (Fortuna -as Hilaritas- standing left holding long palm & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC IVi 383, RSC175a
mint: Emesa
2.21gms
Scarce
Some obverse dies from 'Emesa' show the last letter 'I' placed beyond the point of the bust. One possibility is that these were the product of a mint traveling with the Emperor during the Eastern war against Niger. (According to Doug Smith).
berserker
septsev_RIC417.jpg
194-195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius22 viewsobv: IMP CAE.L.SEP.SEV.PERT.AVG.COS.II (laureate head right)
rev: SAECVL FELICIT (seven stars above crescent)
ref: RIC IVi 417 (S), C 628 (3frcs)
mint: Emesa
3.20gms, 17mm
Scarce

Seven stars are found more often than any other number. They might have had different meanings on different coins. It is sometimes said that they represent the five planets known in classical times plus the sun and the moon, but that idea is hard to sustain on coins which show the moon as well. Another theory is that they represent the Pleiades, a constellation sometimes known as the Seven Sisters.
berserker
ElagabDenEleg.jpg
1bz Elagabalus_217 views218-222

Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
Blindado
2014-080-2_DenSeptSevEmesaTPRIIIIMPVCOSIICaptive-Forum.jpg
2014.080.236 viewsEmesa, Syria; 2.84 g

Obverse: IMP CAE L SEP SEV • PER[T] • AVG COS II; Laureate, bust right.
Reveres: • T • R• P• III • IMP • V • COS • ΓI • [First I looks like a Gamma]; Captive, wearing peaked hat, seated right, slightly bent forward, right leg extended, left leg drawn back, arms bound behind, (or just right, with left arm resting on left knee and head on left hand); at feet, bow, quiver, round shield and left shield.
Ref: cf RIC 433 and 434; cf BMC 405-407
Different obverse die from RIC and BMC examples.
Per discussions with Maridvnvm I have added a T tentatively to the end of PERT.
1 commentsgordian_guy
RIC_0086.jpg
203. MACRINUS191 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218 AD.

Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

AR Denarius (18mm 3.55 gm). IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust with short beard right / SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, holding sceptre in left. RIC IV 86; Good VF; Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
coin231.JPG
204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
22053.jpg
22053 Septimius Severus15 viewsSeptimius Severus/Moneta
Obv:IMP CAES L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
Laureate head right
REV: MONETA AVG
Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae. RSC 346.
Minted in Emesa between 194 and 195 A.D.16.7mm 1.9g
References . RIC 412 Rated Scarce
RIC notes this coin as MONETA II AVG. RSC notes the existance of MONETA II
AVG as doubtful.

Blayne W
coin249.JPG
310. Quietus22 viewsTitus Fulvius Iunius Quietus (d. 261) was a Roman usurper.

Quietus was the son of Fulvius Macrianus and a noblewoman, probably named Iulia. He gained the imperial office with his brother Macrianus Minor after the death of emperor Valerian in 260. The support of his father and the influence of Ballista, praefect of the late emperor Valerian, proved instrumental in his promotion.

Quietus and Ballista stayed in the east, while his brother and father marched their army to Europe to seize control of the Roman empire. After the defeat of his brother and father in Thrace in 261, he fled to the city of Emesa, where he was killed by Odaenathus of Palmyra.

Quietus, 260-261 A.D. AR Antoninianus. Antioch. IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG. Radiate & draped bust r. / AEQVITAS AVGG. Aequitas std. l. holding scales & cornucopiae. RIC 2.
ecoli
Denario_Septimio_Severo_MONET_AVG_2.jpg
46-02 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)48 viewsAR Denario 17x19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS I" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MONE-T AVG•" – Moneta (La Moneda) sentada a izquierda, portando balanza en mano del brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuρada 193 D.C.
Ceca: Emesa (hoy Hims/Homs Siria)
Rareza: S/R
” Mr Curtis Clay said: A rare rev. type (Moneta seated) in a scarce series (COS I), so a nice specialist rarity, though that rarity has only a minor effect on its commercial value.


Referencias: RIC ___ - Sear RCTV ____ - BMCRE ____ - Cohen ___ - RSC Vol. III #334a Pag.33 - DVM ___ - Hill CSS___
mdelvalle
RSC_334a_Denario_Septimio_Severo.jpg
46-02 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)22 viewsAR Denario 17x19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS I" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MONE-T AVG•" – Moneta (La Moneda) sentada a izquierda, portando balanza en mano del brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuρada 193 D.C.
Ceca: Emesa (hoy Hims/Homs Siria)
Rareza: S/R
” Mr Curtis Clay said: A rare rev. type (Moneta seated) in a scarce series (COS I), so a nice specialist rarity, though that rarity has only a minor effect on its commercial value.


Referencias: RIC ___ - Sear RCTV ____ - BMCRE ____ - Cohen ___ - RSC Vol. III #334a Pag.33 - DVM ___ - Hill CSS___
mdelvalle
Comb22022017105911.jpg
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan Ζ Fals. 27 viewsObv. Caliph standing facing, with left hand on sheathed sword; legend with Caliph’s name.
Rev. Transformed cross; Hums-wāf flanking.
SICA 697-700; Album 3539. 3.65g, 20mm.
Attractive sand patina, Good Very Fine. Very Rare variety with Star in left field.
Canaan
1546c.jpg
aelia120-117 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: ...AELIA..., The stone of Emesa, surmounted by eagle, carried on quadriga facing.
23 mm, 11.04 gms

Sofaer 120
Charles M
1545c.jpg
aelia120-214 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: The stone of Emesa, surmounted by eagle, carried on quadriga facing.
24 mm, 8.96 gms

Sofaer 120
Charles M
382_Antoninus_Pius_Emesa.jpg
Antoninus Pius - Emesa8 viewsAE 22
140-141 AD
draped laureate bust right from behind
AVT KAI TI AIΛ ANTΩNEINOC CEB EV
eagle standing right on baetyl (the sacred stone) of Elagabal
EMI_CHNΩN
Γ
BMC 4; SNG Copenhagen 309
6,31g
Johny SYSEL
septsev.JPG
AR Denarius of Septimius Severus49 viewsO: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COSII, Laureate hd Rt.
R: FORT (UN REDUC); Fortune seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
RIC 379, Sear5 6277, Emesa Mint
daverino
Arab Byz 3.jpg
Arab-Byzantine fals - Emesa (Homs, Syria)70 viewsKAΛON / b-Homs (in Arabic) , bust of a Byzantine emperor holding globe with cross.
EMI CHC around large m ; tayyib (= "good", like καλον in Greek) in exergue.
Ginolerhino
arabobyzantiner--numismatikforum.jpg
BYZANTINE, Arabobyzantine, Fals14 viewsEmesaNumis-Student
BCL_0195.jpg
Caliphate of Mu'awiya 46 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE). Bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 2.8g, diameter 16mm.

Obverse: Bust facing, crown with cross, wearing cuirass and paludamentum, holding globus cruciger; to left vertically (in Greek) ΚΑΛΟΝ; to right vertically (in Arabic) bi-hims.

Reverse: Large cursive m; ~ * ~ above; to left EMI; to right CHC; in exergue (in Arabic) tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.50 and D.O. 65-78.
Abu Galyon
Arab-Byzantine_Homs_Bilingual_[2].jpg
Caliphate of Mu'awiya18 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE). Bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 3.87g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Bust facing, crown with cross, wearing cuirass and paludamentum, holding globus cruciger; to left vertically (in Greek) ΚΑΛΟΝ; to right vertically (in Arabic) bi-hims, ✱ below.

Reverse: Large cursive m; ʘ * ʘ above; to left EMI; to right CHC; in exergue (in Arabic) tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.50 and D.O. 69-71.
Abu Galyon
Arab_First_Bilingual_Emesa.jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya50 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE) First bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 3.8g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure, holding long cross and globus cruciger; in field to right (reading vertically from bottom to top): ΚΑΛΟΝ; in field to left (vertically, in Arabic): bism allah (“in the name of God”).

Reverse: Large M, with rho-cross flanked by stars above and Δ below; to left (vertically) EMH; to right (vertically) CIC; in exergue (in Arabic): tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.43 and D.O. 40.
Abu Galyon
Arab_First_Bilingual_Emesa_[2].jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya37 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE) First bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 3.53g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure, holding long cross and globus cruciger; in field to right, (reading vertically from bottom to top): KAΛON; in field to left (vertically, in Arabic): bism allah (“in the name of God”).

Reverse: Large M, with rho-cross flanked by stars above and Δ below; to left (vertically) EMH; to right (vertically) CIC; in exergue (in Arabic): tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.43 and D.O. 40.
Abu Galyon
Caracalla_Emesa_tetra.jpg
Caracalla - Emesa5 viewsAR tetradrachm
215-217 AD
laureate head right
AY·T K M·AN···TWNEINOC C_E_·B·
eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak, bust of Shamash between legs
ΔHMAPX EΞVΠATOC TO Δ
o
Prieur 1000
13,3g
ex Dionysos
Johny SYSEL
DiadF.jpg
Diadumenian133 viewsDiadumenian, as Caesar. 218 AD. AR Denarius 3.04 g. 2nd emission, July AD 217-March 218

O: M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing half-left, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards behind.
RIC IV 102 (Macrinus); BMCRE 87 (Macrinus); RSC 3.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus in 217. Diadumenian, in turn, received the titles of Caesar and Prince of the Youth. He was also given the name Antoninus after the assassinated emperor Caracalla.

These titles are seen on this example as ANT and PRINC IVVENTVTIS.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
DiadumenianStandards.jpg
DIADUMENIAN68 viewsDIADUMENIAN (Caesar, 217-218). Denarius. 2.53 g. 20mm, Rome mint.
O: M OPEL DIADVMENIAN CAES, Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left, holding baton; two signa to right.
-RIC 107.

1st emission of Macrinus, AD 217, only three examples in the Reka Devnia hoard.

Diadumenian's three main types as Caesar exactly correspond to Macrinus' three issues, which for their part can be approximately dated on the basis of the titles they bear and their volumes of issue as revealed by the Reka Devnia hoard. So Diadumenian's dates derive from those estimated for Macrinus.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus on April 8, 217. Dio Cassius tells us that Diadumenian was named Caesar and Prince of the Youth by the Senate in May 217 as soon as news of Macrinus' accession reached Rome. A little later, Dio continues, news arrived that Diadumenian had independently been proclaimed Caesar by the soldiers at Zeugma, as he was on his way from Antioch to join Macrinus in Mesopotamia, and that he had also assumed Caracalla's name Antoninus. Hence this first short issue of coins in Rome is with the titles Caesar and Prince of the Youth, but still without Antoninus.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
elagabal_188.jpg
Elagabal RIC IV, 188108 viewsElagabal AD 218-222
AR - Denarius, 3.26gm, 19mm
struck 218-219 AD at Antioch mint
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. FELICIT - AS / TEMP (in ex.)
Galley, mast and sail in the midth, with eight oarsmen, going r.(!). Seven oars
to see, and rudder at stern; waves below. On stern boatswain beside the ship's
cabin. Stern decorated with standard and acrostolium. On prow oblique mast.
RIC IV/2, 188; C. 27; BMC 277 var.
Scarce, EF, well struck on an ample flan, attractive portrait for this type.

The reverse type portrays the galley bearing Elagabalus and the sacred Stone of Emesa on the emperor's slow journey from Elagabalus' home in Emesa to Rome, undertaken 218-219 AD after the Syrian legions and Macrinus' deserting forces won the military victory that assured Elagabalus' place as Augustus.
On the ship the Holy Stone is not to see !(Curtis Clay)
4 commentsJochen
Elagabalus_Emesa_tetra.jpg
Elagabalus - Antioch or Emesa5 viewsAR tetradrachm
219 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
AVT K M A ANTWNEINOC CEB
eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak, star below
ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠATOC TO B
Δ_E
14,1g
Prieur 252
Johny SYSEL
897205.jpg
Elagabalus38 viewsElagabalus. AD 218-222. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.07 g, 7h). Uncertain Eastern mint. Struck AD 219-220. IMP ΛNTO NINVS ΛVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / SΛNCT DEO S OL I/ELΛGΛBΛL·, four horses advancing right, drawing chariot containing Stone of Emesa, surmounted by eagle and surrounded by four parasols. RIC IV 144 var. (not cuirassed); Thirion 362a; RSC 266 var. (same); Gemini VII, lot 805 (same dies). VF. Very rare type with the eastern mint’s second obverse legend; less than eight specimens known to Curtis Clay.

At the age of fourteen, Varius Avitus Bassianus (Elagabalus) inherited the office of high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus at Emesa in Syria. The cult of his sun god was represented by a sacred stone, and in AD 219 when he moved from Emesa to Rome, he took the stone, probably a meteorite, with him. This coin type commemorates this event. During his reign, Elagabalus devoted his efforts to the promotion of his cult god, building a lavish temple to house the stone.
2 commentsTLP
Elagabalus_(218-222)_denarius_(AR).png
Elagabalus (218-222) denarius (AR)14 viewsObv.: IMP ANTONINVS AVG (Laureate bust of emperor) Rev.: TEMPORVM FELICITAS (Felicitas std. holding caduceus and cornucopia) Diameter: 19,30 mm Weight: 2,12 g RIC 150

Elagabalus is a most fascinating figure. A scion of the Severan line, Elagabalus was the high priest of the cult of Ilāh hag-Gabal (Elagabalus, hence the emperor's nickname), patron deity of Emesa, who was worshipped in the form of a stone. This stone was brought to Rome with great festivities - even coinage was issued to celebrate the event- and was placed in its own temple called the Elagabalium. Elagabalus then proceeded to house the most important religious artifacts of the Romans in this temple, like the flame of Vesta and the Palladium, as if to subordinate them to his deity or in order to create a sort of syncretist religion. He also performed strange dancing rites around the stone in front of the Senate. Whatever the case, he was removed from power by his own grandmother in favour of Severus Alexander. Elagabalus' role as high priest is a recurrent theme on his coinage.
Nick.vdw
Elagabalus-RIC-195.jpg
Elagabalus / RIC 195.49 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: SANCT DEO SOLI ELAGABAL / Slow quadriga bearing the conical stone of Emesa, on which is an eagle, surrounded by four parasols.
2.41 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #195.
2 commentsCallimachus
ElagStarRightSm.jpg
Elagabalus aka Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus aka Varius Avitus Bassianus163 viewsElagabalus denarius
O: Laureate bust of Elagabalus, draped, horn. "IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG"
R: Elagabalus standing left holding patera over altar. Club in left hand, star in right field."SACRED DEI SOLIS ELAGAB" - RSC 252

ExKunker auction 136, lot 1118; Ex Auktion Auctiones A. G. 23, Basel 1993, Nr. 535.


This is the rare, initial, SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGABAL type, with the emperor sacrificing left not right, and with the star erroneously behind him rather than before him. The star apparently stood for his sun god, to whom the emperor was depicted sacrificing, and therefore it should have been placed before him, above his patera and the altar.

We know that the star behind the emperor was wrong, because on quite a few dies of all four emperor-sacrificing types the star was eradicated from behind the emperor and re-engraved in front of him. Note that on the obverse Elagabalus is still unbearded, confirming the early date (c. summer 221).

The normal type, emperor sacrificing right, star before him, was represented by 181 specimens in the Reka Devnia hoard, compared to 3 specimens for this early variety. (Thanks to CClay for these details.)

At the age of fourteen, Elagabalus became high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus at Emesa in Syria. The cult was represented by a sacred stone, and in AD 219 when he moved from Emesa to Rome, he took the stone, probably a meteorite, with him. During his reign, Elagabalus devoted his efforts to the promotion of his cult god, building a lavish temple to house the stone. The reverse type and legend promote his position as high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus.
5 commentsNemonater
Elagab.jpg
Elagabalus aka Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus aka Varius Avitus Bassianus208 viewsElagabalus 221-222 AD. (3.23 g 20 mm) Rome mint. O: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped (Hornless) bust right right. R: SACERD DEI SOLIS ELAGAB, Elagabalus sacrificing right over lighted altar, holding palm, star in right field. RIC 131; RSC246a.

At the age of fourteen, Elagabalus became high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus at Emesa in Syria. The cult was represented by a sacred stone, and in AD 219 when he moved from Emesa to Rome, he took the stone, probably a meteorite, with him. During his reign, Elagabalus devoted his efforts to the promotion of his cult god, building a lavish temple to house the stone. The reverse type and legend on the present coin promote his position as high priest of the sun-god Elagabalus.
4 commentsNemonater
Elagabalus-RIC-195~0.jpg
Elagabalus.130 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: SANCT DEO SOLI ELAGABAL / Slow quadriga bearing the conical stone of Emesa, on which is an eagle, surrounded by four parasols.
2.41 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #195.

Elagabalus was a high priest of the local ba'al of Emesa, Syria, at the time he was proclaimed emperor. This deity was named El-Gabal, and was worshiped in the form of a large, black, conical-shaped stone, which was probably a meteorite. When Elagabalus moved to Rome, he took this god with him. After a long overland journey from Emesa, Elagabalus and his entourage entered Rome in 219. The black stone was carried on a cart pulled by white horses. It was decorated with an eagle, and shaded by four parasols. Elagabalus, dressed in his priestly robes, walked backwards in front of this cart to show his reverence for his deity.

The entry of their new emperor into the city shocked the people of Rome. They soon realized that he fully intended to continue in his duties as High Priest to El-Gabal, and that his worship was to be imposed on the whole Empire. The the temple of Jupiter (Jove) in Rome was turned into the temple of El-Gabal. The religious excesses of the reign finally ended with the murder of Elagabalus. Under the new emperor, Severus Alexander, the temple was cleansed, rededicated to Jupiter, and El-Gabal sent back home to Emesa.

This coin commemorates the journey of El-Gabal to Rome and his entrance into the city. The legend on the reverse translates "Holy Sun-God Elagabal." Silver denarii with this reverse type all seem to be in the "Eastern" style so numismatists generally assign them to the mint at Antioch. It is possible, though, that they could have been minted by a mint that traveled with Elagabalus on his journey from Emesa to Rome, spending the winter of 218-219 in Nicomedia.
1 commentsCallimachus
Emθse Julia Domna.jpg
Emesa (Homs, Syria) - Julia Domna26 viewsIOV[ΛIA] ΔOMNA [AVΓ]. , bust of Julia Domna right
[EMICΩ]N KOΛΩNIAC / ZKΦ : year 527 sel. = 215-216 AD. , monumental cubic altar on three steps, with 2 storeys ornamented with 3 niches with statues, small lighted altar on top.
24 mm

This kind of monumental cubic altar is well-known in Roman Syria. There was one much like it in front of Jupiter's Temple in Heliopolis (Baalbek, Lebanon), not far from Emesa ; it has been excavated and partially restored by a Swiss mission. A structure f the same kind has been recently restored by Jacques Seigne in Gerasa (Jerash, Jordan) in front of Zeus Temple. We know no trace of any ancient sanctuary in today's Homs, but this altar, depicted on this coin, was probably in front of the Elagabal Temple. The High-Priest (future emperor Elagabalus) is said to have been "dancing around the altars" : this was in fact the circumambulatio, exactly like today's Muslims turn around the Cube (Kaaba) in Mekka.
Ginolerhino
1057.jpg
emesa001a3 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AV K MAV ANTΩNIN, radiate head right.
Rev: MHTP-OKOЄMIC[ΩN] around, HΛIA above →ΠVΘIA/ЄЄ, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
22 mm, 10.43 gms

BMC 21 variant (ЄЄ in exergue); Lindgren-Kovacs 2047 variant (Lindgren only has one "Є" in exergue); Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Electronic Auction 191, Lot 105 (this coin); Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Electronic Auction 195, Lot 179
Charles M
564c.jpg
emesa001b4 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: ..ANTONVS, radiate head right.
Rev: [MHTP-OKOΛЄMICΩN] around, HΛIA above →AIΘVΠ, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
19 mm, 7.32 gms

BMC 21 variant (different obverse and reverse legends); Lindgren-Kovacs 2047 variant (same)
Charles M
483c.jpg
emesa001c4 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: … M ...ANTW..., radiate head right.
Rev: [MHTP-OKOΛЄMICΩN around, HΛIA above] →ΠVΘIA, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
22 mm, 7.79 gms

BMC 21; Lindgren-Kovacs 2048
Charles M
1582.JPG
emesa001c_210 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: Radiate head right.
Rev: MHTP..., Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
21 mm, 4.00 gms

BMC 21; Lindgren-Kovacs 2048
Charles M
475.jpg
emesa001c_var6 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: ...ANTWN..., laureate head right.
Rev: MHTP-OKOΛЄMICΩN around, HΛIA above →ΠVΘIA, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
23 mm, 7.90 gms

BMC 21 variant (bust type); Lindgren-Kovacs 2048 variant (same)
Charles M
972c.jpg
emesa001d3 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: Radiate head right.
Rev: MHTP-[OKOΛЄMICΩN] around, HΛIA above →ΠVΘIA/Є, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
18 mm, 3.61 gms

BMC 21 variant (Є in exergue); Lindgren-Kovacs 2047; Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Electronic Auction 325, Lot 428
Charles M
997c.jpg
emesa001d_23 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: IM C M A ANTΩNINOC, Radiate head right.
Rev: MHTPOKOΛЄMICΩN around, HΛIA above →ΠVΘIA/Є, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
23 mm, 8.21 gms

BMC 21 variant (Є in exergue); Lindgren-Kovacs 2047; Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., Electronic Auction 325, Lot 428
Charles M
546c.jpg
emesa001e4 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: ...ANTΩNIN (all 3 N's are reversed), laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MHTP-OKOЄMI[CΩN] around, HΛIA above →ΠVΘIA/ЄЄ, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
21 mm, 5.11 gms

BMC 21 variant (bust type and ЄЄ in exergue); Lindgren-Kovacs 2047 variant (bust type and Lindgren only has one "Є" in exergue)
Charles M
914a.jpg
emesa001f3 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: Radiate head right.
Rev: MHTPO-KOЄMIC around, HΛЄIA/TVΘIA below, Agnostic urn with single palm frond emerging, between two Є's.
24 mm, 8.04 gms

BMC---; Lindgren---; acsearch.com---
Charles M
957c.jpg
emesa001g4 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVT MAV ANT..., laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MHTP-[OKOЄMI]CΩN around, ΠVΘIA above, HΛIA below, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
24 mm, 7.97 gms

BMC---; Lindgren---; Dr. Bass Peas Nachfolger EA #378, lot 1142
Charles M
1346.jpg
emesa001g_29 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: ...ANTΩNINOC (all 3 N's reversed), laureate head right.
Rev: [MHTPOKOЄMICΩN] around, ΠVΘIA above, HΛIA below, Agnostic urn between two palm branches.
22 mm, 7.20 gms

BMC---; Lindgren---; Dr. Bass Peas Nachfolger EA #378, lot 1142 variant (bust type)
Charles M
474c.jpg
emesa001h13 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: IM C MA ANTΩNЄINOC, radiate head right.
Rev: MHT-P-OKЄM... around, HΛ-IA above, ΠVΘIA below, Agnostic urn with one palm branch, between two Є's.
23 mm, 6.00 gms

BMC---; Lindgren---; acsearch.com---
Charles M
386c.jpg
emesa002a3 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVΓO K MA ANTΩNINOC (all 3 N's are reversed), laureate head right.
Rev: MHTPOKOЄM, eagle standing facing, wings spread, head and tail left, wreath in beak; Є between legs.
18 mm, 4.25 gms

BMC 18 variant (reversed N's)
Charles M
866.jpg
emesa002a_22 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVΓO K..., laureate head right.
Rev: [MHT]POKOЄM, eagle standing facing, wings spread, head and tail left, wreath in beak; Є between legs.
15 mm, 5.28 gms

BMC 18
Charles M
802.jpg
emesa002a_33 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVΓO K MA ANTΩNINOC (all 3 N's are reversed), laureate head right.
Rev: [MHTP]OKOЄM, eagle standing facing, wings spread, head and tail left, wreath in beak; Є between legs.
20 mm, 4.80 gms

BMC 18 variant (reversed N's)
Charles M
1437.jpg
emesa002a_46 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVΓO K MA ANTΩN..., laureate head right.
Rev: MHTPOKOЄM, eagle standing facing, wings spread, head and tail left, wreath in beak; Є between legs.
19 mm, 4.88 gms

BMC 18
Charles M
928.jpg
emesa002a_56 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: ...O K MA ANT..., laureate head right.
Rev: MHTPOKOЄM, eagle standing facing, wings spread, head and tail left, wreath in beak; Є between legs.
18 mm, 5.30 gms

BMC 18
Charles M
710c.jpg
emesa002b2 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVT M ANTΩNINOC, laureate head right.
Rev: MHTPOK-ЄMICΩN, eagle standing facing, wings spread, head and tail left, wreath in beak; Є in left field.
18 mm, 4.41 gms

BMC 19 variant (bust type)
Charles M
823.jpg
emesa002b_23 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVT K ANTΩ..., laureate head right.
Rev: MH-T-POK..., eagle standing facing, wings spread, head and tail left, wreath in beak; Є in left field.
17 mm, 5.48 gms

BMC 19 variant (bust type)
Charles M
1450c.jpg
emesa003a3 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: Sacred stone of Elagabal in hexastyle temple, in exergue,ΘΛ.
25 mm, 10.95 gms

BMC 17; Lindgren-Kovacs 2045
Charles M
590c.jpg
emesa003a_22 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: Sacred stone of Elagabal in hexastyle temple.
20 mm, 10.44 gms

BMC 17; Lindgren-Kovacs 2045
Charles M
1813.jpg
hiersnglevante15941 viewsElagabalus
Hierapolis-Castabala, Cilicia

Obv: AVT K M AVP [ANTΩNINOC]. laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ΚΑϹΤΑ-ΒΑΛƐⲰΝ. front view of quadriga, horses rearing on hind legs, carrying the black stone of Emesa topped by an eagle.
28 mm, 15.29 gms

SNG Levante 1594, SNG Pfalz 597, RPC VI online 7472
Charles M
SeptimiusSeverus-Denar-EMESA-2cornucopiae-RIC373.jpg
I-SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS -c-001-Denar-EMESA-RIC I/IV/37323 viewsAv) IMP CAES L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
Laureated bust right

Rv) FELICIT TEMPOR
Two crossed cornucopiae, in the middle corn-ears

Weight: 2,7g; Ψ:18mm; Reference: RIC IV/I/373;Mint: EMESA; struck.194-195 A.D.
sulcipius
SeptimiusSeverus-Denar-EMESA-INVICTOIMP-RIC389.jpg
I-SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS -c-002-Denar-EMESA-RIC I/IV/38918 viewsAv) IMP CAES L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
Laureated bust right

Rv) INVICTO IMP
Trophy with arms below.

Weight: 3,0g; Ψ:18mm; Reference: RIC IV/I/389; Mint: EMESA; struck.194-195 A.D.
sulcipius
SeptimiusSeverus-Denar-EMESA-LIBERAVG-398.jpg
I-SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS -c-003-EMESA-RIC I/IV/398 19 viewsAv) IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG
Laureated bust right

Rv) LIBER AVG
Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopiae

Weight: 3,0g; Ψ: 18mm; Reference: RIC IV/I/398; Mint: EMESA; struck.194-195 A.D.
sulcipius
SeptimiusSeverus-Denar-EMESA-Moneta-RIC411a.jpg
I-SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS -c-004-Denar-EMESA-RIC IV/I/411a36 viewsAv) IMP CAE L SEPT PERT AVG COS II
Laureated bust right

Rv) MONET AVG
Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae

Weight 4,1g; Ψ: 17g; Reference: RIC IV/I/411a; Mint: EMESA; struck.194-195 A.D.
sulcipius
SeptimiusSeverus-Denar-EMESA-MondSterne-RIC417.jpg
I-SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS -c-005-Denar-EMESA-RIC I/IV/41730 viewsAv) IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG
Laureated head right

Rv) SAECVL FELICIT
crescent and seven stars

Weight: 3,0g; Ψ:18mm; Reference: RIC IV/I/417; Mint: EMESA; struck.194-195 A.D.
sulcipius
Caracalla-Denar-EMESA-Kaiser-RIC344.jpg
II-CARACALLA -b- 001 Denar RIC IV/I/344 - EMESA Mint34 viewsAv) ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
Laureated, draped bust right

Rv) P MAX TRP IIII COS
Caracalla, veiled sacrificing over tripod

Weight: 3,3g; Ψ:20mm; Reference: RIC IV/I/344;Mint: EMESA; struck:.201
sulcipius
P1180744.jpg
IVLIA AVGVSTA - Denarius - VENERI VICTR14 viewsJulia Domna
Denarius
Rome 194 n.Chr.(?)
Av.: IVLIA AVGVSTA - Bust draped r.
Rev.: VENERI VICTR - Venus, naked to waist, standing r., holding apple and palm, resting l. elbow on column
1,83 Gramm, 6 h die axis
RIC - (579 - Aureus)

Poor but rare!

In my opinion Rome style and not "Emesa"!
Perhaps unofficial? (weight!)

Doug Smith: "After most of this page had been posted, a coin became available that casts a question on the separation and dating of the 'Emesa' mint issues. This coin could be barbaric or unofficial (and therefore of no significance) but the style of the obverse portrait and the reverse Venus seems very similar to the Emesa coins (particularly the late version Venus from the back shown above). The obverse legend is IVLIA AVGVSTA which should date to 196 AD or after the closing of the 'Emesa' mint under traditional scholarship. Perhaps the closing date of this mint should be pushed back allowing this coin to be the last product of this series. However the use of the earlier legend VENERI VICTR adds weight to the theory that the coin is not official. My Questions page includes a coin of Caracalla as Caesar paired with an earlier looking 'Emesa' reverse. Is there a connection? Students whose opinions I value fail to see this as Eastern and may be right but I am still tending to consider this an official 'Emesa' product of great interest. Certainly more study is needed before this series will be understood. "
nummis durensis
1445_Julia_Domna_Emesa.jpg
Julia Domna - Emesa4 viewsAR tetradrachm
215 AD
diademed and bust right
·IOYΛIA·_AYΓOYCTA
eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak, bust of Shamash between legs
·ΔHMAPX···EΞ OYCIAC
Γ
Prieur 1021
13,6g
ex Dionysos
Johny SYSEL
domna_bezel.jpg
Julia Domna - SAECVL FELICIT in ancient bezel46 viewsJulia Domna
Denarius
194 A.D.
Emesa(?)
Av.: IVLIA DO - MNA AVG / draped bust right
Rev.: SAECVL FELICIT / crescent moon and seven stars
3,58 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 629, Coh. 173

In poor condition, but a mysterious denarius timepiece in an ancient bezel.

3 commentsnummis durensis
P1090179.jpg
Julia Domna - VENEBI VICTR25 viewsJulia Domna
Denarius
194 A.D.
Emesa(?)
Av.: IVLIA DO - MNA AVG / draped bust right
Rev.: VENEB(sic!)I - VICTR / Venus, naked to waist, standing right, holding apple and palm, resting elbow on column
2,27 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 632 Var., Coh. 194 Var.
See SEV-460 (Bonae Spei) - Barry P. Murphy Collection - for same obverse die
1 commentsnummis durensis
lam_vener_victor_fac.jpg
Julia Domna - VENER VICTOR (I)30 viewsJulia Domna
Denarius
194 A.D.
Laodicea ad Mare(?) - old style
Av.: IVLIA DO - MNA AVG / draped bust right
Rev.: VENER - VICTOR / Venus, naked to waist, standing right, holding apple and palm, resting elbow on column
2,97 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 633, Coh. 189, SEV-472 Emesa (Barry P. Murphy)

Not in according with Barry P. Murphy I would take this issue to "Laodicea ad Mare"
1 commentsnummis durensis
vener_victor_II.jpg
Julia Domna - VENER VICTOR (II)17 viewsJulia Domna
Denarius
194 A.D.
Laodicea ad Mare(?) - old style
Av.: IVLIA DO - MNA AVG / draped bust right
Rev.: VENER - VICTOR / Venus, naked to waist, standing right, holding apple and palm, resting elbow on column
1,62 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 633, Coh. 189, SEV-472 Emesa (Barry P. Murphy)

Another example but in poor condition...
nummis durensis
emesa_vener_vict_fac.jpg
Julia Domna - Venus Victrix / VENER VICT13 viewsJulia Domna
Denarius
194 or 195 A.D.
Emesa or Laodicea ad Mare(?)
Av.: IVLIA DO - MNA AVG / draped bust right
Rev.: VENER - VICT / Venus, naked to waist, standing right, holding apple and palm, resting elbow on column
3, 08 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC -, Coh. -

Perhaps it could be an issue from 'Laodicea ad Mare'.
nummis durensis
emesa_veneri_victr_fac.jpg
Julia Domna - Venus Victrix / VENERI VICTR13 viewsJulia Domna
Denarius
194 A.D.
Emesa(?)
Av.: IVLIA DO - MNA AVG / draped bust right
Rev.: VENER - I - V - ICTR / Venus, naked to waist, standing right, holding apple and palm, resting elbow on column
2,75 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 632, Coh. 194
nummis durensis
julia_domna_1.jpg
Julia Domna AR Denarius 'Venus, apple and scepter'19 viewsJulia Domna, bare headed, draped bust right.
Legend; IVLIA DOMNA AVG
Reverse Legend; VENER VICT
Venus standing left holding apple and scepter.

Mint; Emesa, 193 -196 AD. 3.1 grams.

I cannot get the camera to convey just how exquisite this tiny coin is.
You will have to take my word on that and also that the reverse legend
is as I say it is here. The reverse legend does come out more 'in person'.
Banjaxed
2013-10-032.jpg
Julia Domna, Barbaric Emesa25 viewsAr Denarius; 2.11g; 16-17mm

IVLIA DO_MAAVG
draped bust right

BONI E-V-ENTVS
Bonus Eventus standing left, holding basket of fruits and grain ears

Barbaric imitating Emesa denarius
Robin Ayers
Jdbasket1.jpg
Julia Domna, Basket91 viewsIVLIA DO-MNA AVG
Draped bust right

FELICITAS TEMPOR
Vase shaped basket containing corn ears and poppies

Emesa/Syrian mint
Ar Denarius; 3.8g ; 18.16mm
RIC IV 620 Emesa Mint
1 commentsarizonarobin
jd126.jpg
Julia Domna, Bonus Eventus37 viewsSilver denarius, Emesa mint, 195 A.D.
3.228g, 18.5mm, die axis 0o

IVLIA DOMNA AVG
draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind

BONI EVENTVS (S modified from C),
Bonus Eventus standing left, plate of fruit raised in right, two stalks of grain downward at side in left;

RIC IV 616, RSC III 10, BMCRE V * p. 102, cites Cohen, SRCV II -, VF/F, ; rare
Prov. FORVM Ancient coins
3 commentsRobin Ayers
77ABFC9E-49E4-4159-9291-2DE94015F836.jpeg
Julia Domna, Ceres21 viewsAr Denarius; 3.35g; 17-18mm

IVLIA DO-MNA AVG
draped bust right

CERER FRVG
Ceres standing left, holding two corn ears and lighted torch

RIC 616A; RSC 13a
Emesa Mint
2 commentsRobin Ayers
9493_9494.jpg
Julia Domna, Denarius (Fouree), MONET AVG0 viewsAR Denarius
Julia Domna
B. ca. 170 - D. 217AD
Augusta: 193 - 217AD
Issued: ?
17.0mm 3.10gr 0h
Fouree; cast copy.
O: IVLIA DO-MNA AVG; Draped bust, right.
R: M (m is upside down)- ONE (e improperly formed)-T AVG; Moneta, standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopia in left.
Emesa Mint/Fouree cast copy.
vitaliy_0 Petar Stanchev 183863747865 (Money refunded.)
7/3/19 9/9/19
Nicholas Z
julia030804.jpg
Julia Domna, Emesa31 viewsJulia Domna
Ae 24.2mm; 9.30g; Emisa, Syria 193-217 AD

IOVLIA DOMNA AYG,
draped bust right

EMICWN KOLWNI,
Altar of Heliogabalos, front panel decorated with two rows of three niches, each containing statues;
date ZKF in exergue

Mionnet V, 599; BMC 9; Lindgren 2043

arizonarobin
JuliaDomna_Emesa_AltarOfElagabal_AE24.jpg
Julia Domna, Emesa, Great altar of Elagabal, AE2434 viewsAE24, 6.3
obv: IOVΛIA ΔOMNA AVΓ, draped bust right
rev: [ξMICΩ-N - KO] ΛΩN, great altar of Elagabal
areich
32678q00.jpg
Julia Domna, Fortuna80 viewsJulia Domna
Emesa
(prov. FORVM Ancient Coins)

Silver denarius, unpublished in major references, RSC III -, RIC IV -, BMCRE V -, SRCV II -, EF, Emesa mint, weight 3.004g, maximum diameter 18.4mm, die axis 0o, obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse FORT AVG, Fortuna seated left on throne without back, rudder in right, cornucopia in left; extremely rare

Wildwinds Example
2 commentsarizonarobin
march_21,_20121.jpg
Julia Domna, Fortuna39 viewsJulia Domna
Ar denarius; 19mm; 2.65g; Emesa/syrian mint

IVLIA DO-MNA AVG
draped bust right

FORT-VN-REDVC
Fortuna seated left, holding cornucopia and rudder

RIC 624
Wildwinds Example
1 commentsRobin Ayers
jd4544.jpg
Julia Domna, Liberalitas96 viewsJulia Domna
AR Denarius; Emesa Mint

IVLIA DOMNA AVG
draped bust right

LIBERAL (dot)AVG(dot)
Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter & cornucopia

RIC 627v, RSC 103v (for reverse legend)
arizonarobin
march_21,_2012.jpg
Julia Domna, Liberalitas45 viewsJulia Domna
Ar denarius; 18mm; 3.12g; Emesa/syrian mint

IVLIA DO-MNA AVG
draped bust right

LIBE-RA-L AVG
Liberalitas standing left holding cornucopia and abacus

RIC 627, RSC 103
2 commentsRobin Ayers
juliadomnaemesa.jpg
Julia Domna, Liberalitas20 viewsJulia Domna
Ar 18mm; 4.02g
Emesa Mint

IVLIA DO/MNA AVG
draped bust right

LIBER/A/L/ AVG
Liberalitas standing left holding cornucopia and abacus

RIC 627, RSC 103
2 commentsRobin Ayers
32680q00.jpg
Julia Domna, Moneta92 viewsJulia Domna
AR Denarius; 2.942g, 18.9mm; Emesa mint

IVLA DOMNA AVG (sic),
draped bust right

MONETA AVG,
Moneta seated left on throne without back, polos or kalathos on head, scales in right, cornucopia in left

unpublished in major references, RSC III -, RIC IV -, BMCRE V -, SRCV II -;extremely rare; (Prov. FORVM Ancient Coins)
Wildwinds example
4 commentsarizonarobin
2012jdemesa.jpg
Julia Domna, Spes42 viewsJulia Domna
AR Denarius; 3.46g; 18mm; Emesa mint; Struck 194-195 AD

IVLIA DO-MNA AVG
draped bust right

BONA SPES
Spes walking left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt

RIC IV 614 (Septimius); BMCRE 412; RSC 8.
1 commentsRobin Ayers
collage6-1.jpg
Julia Domna, Venus111 viewsJulia Domna
AR Denarius; Emesa/Syrian mint


IVLIA DO-MNAAVG
Draped bust right

VENER VICT
Venus standing right, leaning on column with legs crossed, holding apple and palm

RIC 632 var. (reverse legend)
arizonarobin
julia030805.jpg
Julia Domna, Venus97 viewsJulia Domna
Ar denarius 17-18mm; 3.26g; Emesa/Syrian mint

IVLIA DO-MNA AVG
draped bust right

VENER-VICT
Venus Standing left holding apple and sceptre

RIC 630
3 commentsarizonarobin
1-2014-11-15_coinsnov2014.jpg
Julia Domna, Venus36 viewsAr denarius; 1.98g; 17mm
Emesa Mint

IVLIA DO-MNA AVG
draped bust right

VENER-VICT
Venus standing left holding apple in right hand and scepter in left

RIC 630; RSC 188a
Robin Ayers
194.jpg
Julia Mamaea Denarius - Felicitas (RIC 335)35 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, 222-235 AD
3.43g

Obv: Diademed and draped bust of Julia Mamaea (R)
IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev: Felicitas standing front, head to left, legs crossed, holding caduceus in her right hand and leaning on column with her left elbow.
FELICITAS PVBLICA

RIC 335, BMC 483, Cohen 17

Leu Numismatik Web Auction 6, Lot 1062
ex. Maggiore Collection, formed in the late 1970s to early 2000s.

Julia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the second daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Syrian noble Gaius Julius Avitus Alexianus. She was a niece of empress Julia Domna and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana (mother of Elegabalus). She was born and raised in Emesa (modern Homs, Syria). She was the mother of Roman Emperor Alexander Severus and served as regent of Rome and de facto ruler during her son's reign.

In 232, mother and son were sent north to deal with a German attack. Alexander so alienated the Rhine legions by his lack of military prowess and his inflexibility towards pay that the troops proclaimed Maximinus Thrax as emperor in 235. Troops sent to kill Alexander found him clinging to his mother in a tent. Mother and son were butchered together, ending the Severan dynasty.
3 commentsOptimo Principi
CGallus.jpg
Nero / Caius Cestius Gallus58 viewsSELEUCIS and PIERIA, Antioch. Nero. AD 54-68. Ζ As (30.5mm, 15.36 g, 12h).
Caius Cestius Gallus, legatus Syriae. Dated year 115 of the Caesarean Era (AD 66/7).
O: Laureate head right; coiled serpent to right. IM • NER • CLAV • CAESAR
R: ЄΠI ΓAIOY KЄCTIO Y ΛNTIO ЄT • ЄIP in five lines within wreath (In the magistracy of Gaius Cestius, Antioch, year 115)
- McAlee 294 = Superior, (9 December 1989), lot 2827 (same dies); RPC I – Extremely rare, the second known.

Josephus lays much of the blame for the Jewish revolt at the feet of Florus, the Roman procurator of Judaea. Florus was notorious for his cruelty and greed. In 66 C.E. he demanded 17 talents from the temple treasury, using the pretense that it was needed by the Emperor. The Jews refused, ridiculing his request by taking up a mock collection for the “poor Florus.”

Florus responded by sending troops to loot and pillage the Upper-Marketplace in Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews were killed, including woman and children. Rather than bringing the city under control, Josephus reasons, “What more need be said? It was Florus who constrained us to take up war with the Romans, for we preferred to perish together rather than by degrees. The war in fact began in the second year of the procuratorship of Florus and in the twelfth of Nero's reign.”

The Sicarii, or “dagger-men,” took the fortress of Masada and killed the Roman garrison stationed there, establishing the first rebel stronghold. The fortress of Antonia was also captured and the Roman soldiers stationed there were slain. The remaining Roman holdouts surrendered under the agreement that their lives would be spared but they too were slaughtered. At the same time, the daily sacrifices for the Emperor were discontinued. A mixture of elation and fear gripped Jerusalem as they awaited the inevitable Roman response.

Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria in 66 C.E., was the response. On Nero’s order, he assembled a force at Antioch comprised of legio XII Fulminata, detachments from the three other legions based in Syria, six cohorts of auxiliary infantry and four alae of cavalry. He also had military support from the Jewish ruler Herod Agrippa II and two other client kings, Antiochus IV of Commagene and Sohaemus of Emesa.

Within three months Gallus, with his force of over 30,000 troops, began working their way down from Galilee to Jerusalem, attacking key cities such as Chabulon, Joppa and Antipatris. Although enduring successful raids from the rebels, the Romans finally enter and set fire to the suburbs of Jerusalem as the rebels retreated to the safety of the temple fortress.

After setting fire to Bezetha, north of the temple, Gallus encamped in front of the royal palace, southwest of the temple. At that time, Josephus says he could have easily taken the city since pro-Roman Jews were ready to open the gates of the city for him. A six day delay, however, strengthened the insurgents. The zealots attacked and killed the pro-peace faction in the city, murdering their leaders, then assaulted the Romans from the wall. The advance units of the Romans employ the Testudo, overlapping their shields over themselves like the back of a tortoise, and began undermining the walls. After five days they are on the verge of success when, for an undetermined cause, Gallus called off the attack. In History of the Jews, Professor Heinrich Graetz suggests: “[Cestius Gallus] did not deem it advisable to continue the combat against heroic enthusiasts and embark on a lengthy campaign at that season, when the autumn rains would soon commence . . . and might prevent the army from receiving provisions. On that account probably he thought it more prudent to retrace his steps.” Whatever the reason, Gallus decided to abruptly leave Jerusalem.

Gallus, with evidently little battlefield experience, suffered one humiliating defeat after another during the retreat. By the battles end the losses amounted to 5,300 infantry, 480 cavalry, all the pack animals, artillery and the eagle standard of the legio XII Fulminata. With the rebels emboldened by their shocking victory, the stage is set for the Romans to return in greater force. This time, however, Nero would send general Vespasian.

Cestius Gallus died a broken man in 67 C.E. Tacitus described the outbreak of the revolt to Gallus death as follows: “the endurance of the Jews lasted till Gessius Florus was procurator. In his time the war broke out. Cestius Gallus, legate of Syria, who attempted to crush it, had to fight several battles, generally with ill-success. Cestius dying, either in the course of nature, or from vexation.” - The Histories V
4 commentsNemonater
emesa_macrinus_Prieur989~0.jpg
Phoenicia, Seleukis and Pieria, Emesa, Macrinus, Prieur 98922 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AR - tetradrachm, 25.5mm, 13.17mm, 0°
obv. AVT K M OP CE - MAKRINOC C - E - B
laureate bust r.
rev. DHMARX EZ VPATOC PP
Eagle with open wings, stg. frontal, head with wreath in beak turned l.; between his legs
bust of Shamash, draped and radiate, l.
beneath beak H (number of officina)
ref. Prieur 989; Bellinger 199
about VF

For more information take a look at "Mythological interesting coins"
2 commentsJochen
elagabal_sidon SNGcop255.jpg
Phoenicia, Sidon, Elagabal, SNG Cop. 255111 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 30, 20.23g
obv. IMP CAESAR - M AV ANTONINVS
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate r.
rev. AVR PIA - SID - COL MET
Two-wheeled cult cart of Astarte r., with roof on four columns, two palms emerging from
it; holy stone (baetyl) from Sidon within.
SNG Copenhagen 255
about EF, nice sand-patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

The holy stones (baetyls) were meteorites. Especially in Semitic religions they were worshipped as deities. The most famous was the stone of Emesa, worshipped as the sol god Elagabal, and the Kaaba in Mecca, a pre-islamic sanctuary.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
3 commentsJochen
SeptimiusPisidiaAntiochAE22.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 105 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mκn standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhτne, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Elegabalas.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Elagabalus ( Reign 8 June 218 – 11 March 222)43 viewsEmperor Elagabalus Silver Denarius.
Obverse: “IMP ANTO - NINVSAVG" Laureate, and draped bust right.
Reverse: “LAETIT - IA PVBL" Latetia standing left, holding wreath and rudder placed on globe.
aXF , 3.04 Gr. Max Dia 18.7.
Rome mint , RIC 95 (The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol.IV, Part II, #95)


Emperor Elagabalus (Reign 8 June 218 – 11 March 222 ) , Born in 203 or 204 A.D., Varius Avitus Bassianus was the grandson of Julia Maesa, the sister of Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus, and mother of Caracalla. Soon after the assassination of Caracalla in 217, Domna committed suicide, while Maesa planned to overthrow Caracalla’s successor, Macrinus. Her choice fell upon her eldest grandson, who was the hereditary high priest of the sun God El-Gabal at Emesa. On May 16, 218, the boy was proclaimed Emperor by the Eastern armies. He took the name of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the same as Caracalla, whose son he claimed to be. He would be known to history as Elagabalus, referencing his fanatical loyalty to the Eastern God. He would win a victory over Macrinus near Antioch on June 8, with Macrinus being killed soon after.

One of Elagabalus’ first acts was the deification of Caracalla and Julia Domna. Coins were issued in their names, as well as Julia Maesa, and her daughter, Elagabalus’ mother, Julia Soamias. The three would reach Rome in the fall of 219 A.D. They promptly installed several of their Syrian compatriots in influential positions in the government, a fact resented by the Senate.
Elagabalus’ reign was a complete fiasco. While the earlier Severan emperors had introduced Eastern elements into the roman state religion, Elagabalus attempted to insert the worship of El-Gabal as the center of the state religion. He went as far as to “marry” the roman Goddess Minerva to El-Gabal, an act mimicked on an earthly plain by Elegabalus’ marriage to the Vestal Virgin, Aquilia Severa, an act which shocked Rome to its core.

Further, Elagabalus made no secret of being a passive homosexual, and in fact indulged his taste to its fullest. Rome was not used to an Emperor with painted eyes and rouged cheeks. As a counterbalance, his advisors forced him into a series of marriages, including the above mentioned Vestal. Between his religious extremism, and his public personal life, Elagabalus had earned the contempt and hatred of both Senate and people.

In 221, in an attempt to bolster his reign, Maesa and her second daughter, Julia Mamaea, convinced Elagabalus to adopt Mammea’s son Alexianus, as his heir. Alexianus took on the name of Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander. Alexander’s popularity soon aroused Elagabalus’ suspicions. He planned to have Alexander killed, but Maesa and Mamaea, instead had Elagabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias murdered by the Guard. Alexander would succeed his cousin on the throne.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
CaracallaEmisaor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Caracalla AE25, Emesa44 viewsCa. 215-216 AD
AE 23.8x25.1mm
Obv. AYT KM AYR_ANTWNINOC CEB
Bust right, radiate
Rev. EMICWN KO_LWNEIAS
Tyche of Emesa enthroned, facing; Orontes (river god) swimming before,
Z/K-F at bottom (date--year 527, or 215-216 AD)
Emesa mint
1 commentsgparch
20160302ez57JehcMmhghW3j_74Ff5_large.jpeg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, MACRINUS, Seleucia & Pieria, Emesa, AR Tetradrachm22 viewsSYRIA, Seleucia & Pieria. Emesa. Macrinus. 217-218 AD.Officina H.
Obverse: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: Eagle standing left with open wings, holding wreath in beak; H under beak, radiate bust of Shamash between legs.
Prieur 993.
Extremely Fine.
Ruslan K
big4359.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Elagabalus limes denarius283 viewsElagabalus --AE Denarius. Limes/Barbaric imitation. [ANT]ONINVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / SANCT DEO SOLI, ELAGABAL in exergue, quadriga right bearing stone of Emesa upon which is an eagle; four parasols around. Cf. RIC IV 195; cf. BMCRE 284; cf. RSC 268 featherz
WYUYq.jpg
Roman Empire, Elagabalus, RIC IVb 14618 viewsA silver denarius of the notorious Elagabalus (218-222 AD). He was actually only called Elagabalus after his death; his real name as Emperor was, confusingly, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Pius Augustus. He served in his youth as the high priest of Elagabal, the sun-god of his home city of Emesa (modern Homs, Syria, currently a hotspot in the Syrian Civil War). He was allegedly an eccentric sicko, and after only four years of rule, he was assassinated at 18 years of age by the Praetorian Guards under orders from his own grandmother (I guess he should have visited her more often?) and replaced by his cousin, Alexander Severus. The front of the coin shows Elagabalus wearing a laurel crown with the inscription IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG = "Commander-In-Chief and Emperor Antoninus Pius". There is actually a horn projecting from his head below his laurel crown, too, as a symbol of his divinity -- it looks like part of the laurel crown on this specimen. The back shows Elagabalus again conducting a sacrifice over an altar, with the inscription SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG = "The Emperor, Highest Priest". Minted in Rome, 221-222 AD.pfrederiksen
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_FELI-CIT-TEM-POR_RIC-373var_Emesa-194-5-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_xxmm_2,83g-s.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AR Denarius, Emesa (Antioch), FELICIT TEMPOR,640 viewsSeptimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AR Denarius, Emesa (Antioch), FELICIT TEMPOR,
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FELI-CIT-TEM-POR, Stalk of grain between crossed cornucopia.
date: 194-95 A.D.,
mint: Emesa (Antioch),
diameter: 17mm,
weight: 2,83g,
axis: 0h,
ref: RIC-IV-373var, p-, C-142b,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Septimius Severus AR Denarius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Septimius Severus AR Denarius39 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.

Silver denarius, RIC 411a, BMC 380, RSC 330, F, 2.138g, 17.1mm, 0o, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 A.D.; obverse IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right; reverse MONET AVG, Moneta seated left holding scales and cornucopia

from FORVM
Gaius Marius
Septimius_Severus_3~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS Denarius, RIC 374a, Crossed Cornucopia; EMESA MINT191 viewsOBV: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
REV: FELICITAS TEMPO, grain ear between two crossed cornucopiae
2.3g, 17mm

Minted at Emesa, 194-5 AD
2 commentsLegatus
Septimius Severus RIC 389 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Septimius Severus, RIC 38946 viewsSeptimius Severus
AR Denarius
Emesa Mint. 194 A.D.
17.2mm. 2.47g.
Die Alignment: 0 degrees
Obv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II - Laureate and bearded bust right.
Rev: INVICTO IMP - Trophy with arms.
Ref: RIC 389. BMC 365. Sear 6288. Cohen 232. RSC 232. VM 51.
seraphic
s02p.jpg
Roman, Septimius Severus Emesa early214 viewsRIC 428. Denarius, mint of Emesa, early 194 AD.
Impressive & scarce early eastern style.
2 commentsneander
795.jpg
rsc26843 viewsElagabalus
AR Denarius

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL. AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:SANCT DEO SOLI, in exergue ELAGABAL, quadriga right bearing conical Stone of Emesa, ornamented with eagle and shaded by four parasols. .
18 mm, 2.60 gms

RSC 268, RIC 195
2 commentsCharles M
A404.jpg
s severus25 viewsIMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
TR P III IMP V COS II
mint : emesa
195 AD
frederic
A403.jpg
s severus22 viewsIMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
MONET AVG
mint : emesa
194 - 198 AD
frederic
iust.jpg
s severus28 viewsIMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG
VICTOR IVST AVG
mint : emesa
194 - 198 AD
frederic
Sιleucie de Piιrie Trajan.jpg
Seleucia Pieria (Samandagi, Turkey) - Trajan64 viewsIllegible legend ; laureate bust right.
CEΛEYKEωN [ΠEIEP]IAC / ZEYC KACIOC , sacred conical baetyl of Zeus Kasios under canopy supported by four columns, seen in perspective.
24 mm.

Seleucia Pieria was the port of Antioch. Her main sanctuary was Zeus Kasios (the god who is on Mount Kasios, near the city), worshiped as a conical sacred stone - exactly like Elagabal in Emesa.
1 commentsGinolerhino
sept111.jpg
Septimius Servus 193-211 denarius36 viewsOb. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II Laureate head right
Rev. LIRER AVG Libertas seated left holding cornucopia
Ref. RIC398
Mint Emesa

-:Bacchus:-

Note. The reverse should read LIBER AVG, but there is an error
1 commentsBacchus
septsevhorse.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS22 viewsAR denarius. Emesa 194 AD. 2,51 grs. 6h. Laureate head right. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II / Emperor on horseback left, holding spear. S P Q R OPTIMO PBINCIPI .
RIC 415 var. RSC 652b var.
benito
septsevhorse~0.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS23 viewsAR denarius. Emesa 194 AD. 2,51 grs. 6h. Laureate head right. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II / Emperor on horseback left, holding spear. S P Q R OPTIMO PBINCIPI .
RIC 415 var. RSC 652b var.


benito
emes.jpg
Septimius Severus (193 - 211 A.D.) 69 viewsAR Denarius
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right.
R.FELICIT TEMPOR, Stalk of grain between crossed cornucopia.
3.19g
17mm
Emesa (Antioch) mint, AD 194/195.
RIC 373, RSC 142b.
7 commentsMat
Capture3~0.PNG
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (193-211). Denarius. Emesa. Spes14 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II.
Laureate head right.
Rev: BONA SPES.
Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt.
RIC 444.Condition: fine. Weight: 3.22 g.
Diameter: 18 mm.
Canaan
Septimius_411a.jpg
Septimius Severus - AR denarius23 viewsEmesa
194-195 AD
laureate head right
IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
Moneta holding scales and cornucopiae
MON_ET AVG
RIC IV 411a, BMCRE V 380, RSC III 330
2,39g 17,5-16,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Septimius_SAECVL_FELICIT.jpg
Septimius Severus - AR denarius4 viewsEmesa
194-195 AD
laureate head right
IMP CAE L SEP SEV__PERT AVG COS II
seven stars above and within a crescent
SAECVL FELICIT
RIC IV 417, RSC III 628a, BMCRE V 390 - 391
ex Rauch
Johny SYSEL
SeptSev_RIC_-_Emesa.jpg
Septimius Severus - denarius - not in RIC 58 viewsSeptimius Severus. Silver denarius, Mint of Emesa (according to RIC) or Antiochia, 194-95 AD; 3.05g; obv. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right; rev. BONA SPES, Fides (?) standing left, holding basket of fruit and corn ears. Not in RIC; RSC III 59a.
5 commentsBartosz Awianowicz
SeptSev_RIC_364.jpg
Septimius Severus - denarius RIC 364 or similar23 viewsSeptimius Severus. Silver denarius, Mint of Emesa, 194-95 A.D.; 3.38g; obv. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II?, laureate head right; rev. BONA SPES, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt. RIC 364, RSC 58. Bartosz A
SeptSev_RIC_369.jpg
Septimius Severus - denarius RIC 36920 viewsSeptimius Severus. Silver denarius, Emesa mint, 194-195 A.D.; 2.28g; obv. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right; rev. BONI EVENTV[S], Bonus Eventus standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left. RIC 369, RSC 68.Bartosz A
P1180736.jpg
Septimius Severus - FORTVN AVG15 viewsSeptimius Severus
Denarius
194 - 195 AD
Emesa(?)
Av.: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II - Laureate head right
Rev.: FORTVN AVG - Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left
3,03 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC 376A
Rιka Devnia 1 Ex.
Barry P. Murphy SEV-262 (same reverse die)
nummis durensis
LEG_fac.jpg
Septimius Severus - Legionary Denarius overstruck on Pescennius Niger32 viewsSeptimius Severus
Denarius
194 A.D.
Emesa(?)
Av.: IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS - II / laureate head right
Rev.: LEG XIIII GE - M (M V), TR P COS in exergue / legionary eagle between two standards
2,57 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 397, Coh. 274

An interesting and rare overstrike on a denarius of Pescennius Niger.
You can see parts of the 'old' legend "CTOR" on the reverse.

Roger A. Bickford-Smith - The imperial mints in the east for Septimius Severus:
"[...] It appears that through the mint initially experimented with overstriking Pescennius Niger denarii, this was rapidly abandoned, presumably because oft the unacceptability of the possibility of a visible undertype. Known overstrikes are very rare, however, so there may have been a more practical reason such as weight or alloy control. [...]"
1 commentsnummis durensis
S10.JPG
Septimius Severus - Liberalitas (Emesa)85 viewsDenarius 194
O/ IMP CAE L SEP SEV - PERT AUG COS II Laureate head right
R/ LIB-ER - AUG Liberalitas seated left, holding abacus and cornucopiae
C 287 - RIC 401
Mint: Emesa
septimus
P1120922.jpg
Septimius Severus - Victory on globe21 viewsSeptimius Severus
Denarius
194 - 195 AD
Emesa(?)
Av.: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II - Laureate head right
Rev.: VICT A.VG - Victory standing left on a globe, holding wreath and palm
2,91 Gr., 6 h
RIC 424 (Var.) , Cohen 675a (Var.) , Barry P. Murphy Collection - , Doug Smith -
(rare Variety with globe)
nummis durensis
Septimius_Severus_18.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR Denarius20 viewsOBVERSE: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I-I laureate head right
REVERSE: SAECVL FELICIT dot, seven stars & crescent
Struck at Emesa, 194-195 AD
2.95g, 17.5mm
RIC 417
Legatus
Sept%2BSev%2BRIC%2B379.jpg
Septimius Severus AR Denarius Emesa Mint 194-195AD24 viewsSeptimius Severus AR Denarius Emesa Mint

Obv:IMP CAE L SEP PERT AVG COS II, Laur. bust right
Rev: FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and corcnucopia

RIC IV.1 379, 16mm, 3.84g

284ad
Comb25052018090353.jpg
Septimius Severus AR Denarius. Emesa, AD 194-195.22 viewsObv. [IMP] CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right.
Rev. FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
References: RIC 377.
2.76g, 17mm.
Ex. Lanz Numismatics.
1 commentsCanaan
s099p.jpg
Septimius Severus denarius87 viewsRIC 389 (3,5 gm, 20 mm).
Mint of Emesa, early 194 AD.

Probably an earliest specimen of this type for COSII:
magnificent "longhead" portrait, a few dots
consisting of title & legend texts.
Unusual reverse for this type - elongated along the vertical.

INVICTO IMP
2 commentsneander
s13_var2.jpg
Septimius Severus denarius 33 viewsRIC 379 (3,3 gm, 17 mm).
Mint of Emesa, 194 AD.

A sharp late Emesa specimen!

FORTVN REDVC
neander
s02_published.jpg
Septimius Severus denarius57 viewsRIC 428 (3,39 gm, 19 mm).
Mint of Emesa, early 194 AD.

One in earliest COSII Emesa types with a magnificent
"longhead" portrait and a dot after L
consisting of title text.
2 commentsneander
Septimius_Severus_horse_pacing.jpg
Septimius Severus denarius28 viewsSilvered denarius
RIC IV 415, Cohen 652
Emesa mint, 194-195 AD
18.8mm, 2.148g
1 commentsSamson L2
ricIV379ORweb.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius RIC 37914 viewsEmesa mint, Septimius Severus Denarius, 194-195 A.D. AR 18mm 3.15g, RIC 379, RSC 173a, BMC 355
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
R: FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder & cornucopia
casata137ec
ricIV433ORweb.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius RIC 43370 viewsEmesa mint, Septimius Severus Denarius, 195 A.D. AR 17mm 2.25g, RIC 433, RSC 659, BMC 406
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
R: TR P III IMP V COS II, Parthian captive seated right, hands bound, amidst arms
3 commentscasata137ec
ricIV435ORweb.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius RIC IV 43516 viewsEmesa mint, Septimius Severus Denarius, 195 A.D. AR 18mm 1.79g, RIC IV 435, RSC 658
O: IMP CAE L SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
R: TR P III IMP V COS II, two captives seated at base of trophy
casata137ec
Septimius_Severus_3.jpg
SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS Denarius, RIC 374a, Crossed Cornucopia13 viewsOBV: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
REV: FELICITAS TEMPO, grain ear between two crossed cornucopiae
2.3g, 17mm

Minted at Emesa, 194-5 AD
Legatus
sept_sev_den_nike.jpg
Septimius Severus Emisa19 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT VG COS II - Laureate head right
Rev: VICT AVG - Victory advancing left, holding palm and wreath.
Emesa mint: AD 194-195
1 commentsSkyler
SeverusImit.png
Septimius Severus Imitative13 viewsSilver Denarius - Imitative
Roman Imperial - The Principate

Septimius Severus

Uncertain mint, ~193 - 211 A.D
Imitative, blundered legends, aVF


Obverse: LH Right, "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PER ? AVG COS I?"
Reverse: "VORTVNAE REDVCI". Fortuna seated right.

Perhaps imitating Emesa-minted RIC 379 or RIC 386

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins Members Auctions - memmi

MyID: 046A

Image Credit: Memmi
TenthGen
Septimius_Severus_Liberalitas_Emesa.JPG
Septimius Severus Liberalitas Emesa31 viewsSeptimius Severus, AR Denarius, Emesa 194 - 195 AD
OBV: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
REV: LIBERA AVG, Liberalitas standing left holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
SEAR 5, 6305, RIC 399, RSC 283, BMCRE 375

Eastern Mint
Romanorvm
Minerva_I_fac.jpg
Septimius Severus Minerva w/o shield I35 viewsSeptimius Severus
Denarius
194 A.D.
Emesa(?)
Av.: IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I / laureate head right
Rev.: MINE - R VICT / Minerva standing left, holding spear in right hand, left hand on hip
2,84 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC - , Coh. -

Poor but rare...
2 commentsnummis durensis
Minerva_II_fac.jpg
Septimius Severus Minerva w/o shield II32 viewsSeptimius Severus
Denarius
194 A.D.
Emesa(?)
Av.: IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS II / laureate head right
Rev.: MINER - VICTR / Minerva standing left, holding spear in right hand, left hand on hip
2,38 Gr., 6 h die axis
RIC - , Coh. -
1 commentsnummis durensis
Septimius_Severus_Moneta.JPG
Septimius Severus Moneta17 viewsSeptimius Severus, Denarius, Emesa, 194 - 195 AD, RIC 411, RSC 330,
OBV: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
REV: MONET AVG, Moneta standing left holding scales & cornucopiae.
Romanorvm
sept_severus_(emesa)424.jpg
Septimius Severus RIC IV, (Emesa) 42421 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AR - denarius, 3.01g, 18.0mm, 0°
Emesa, AD 194
obv. IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
laureate head r.
rev. VICT - AVG
Victoria tip-toed advancing l., holding palm-branch in l. arm and in outstretched r. hand wreath
ref. RIC IV, Emesa 424; RSC 675a; BMCR V, 395, pl. 17, 4
VF, flan damage lower l.
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
Jochen
Septimius_Severus_Victory_RIC_425~0.JPG
Septimius Severus Victory RIC 42521 viewsSeptimius Severus, Denarius, Emesa, 194 - 195 AD, 16mm, 2.1g, RIC 4B p. 148 - 425, Van Meter 154/2, Cohen 697
OBV: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II - Laureate head right.
REV: VICTOR AVG - Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm.

Commemorates the victory over Pescennius Niger

SCARCE
Romanorvm
Septimius_Severus_RIC_417.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD37 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: SAECVL FELICIT, seven stars above and within a crescent with horns up.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 AD

3.5 grams, 18.7 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 417, RSC 628a, S6361

Ex: FORVM
1 commentsMatt Inglima
Septimius_Severus_RIC_411.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD16 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: MONET AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales and a cornucopia.

Silver Denarius, Emesa Mint, 194 AD

3.4 grams, 17 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 411, RSC 330, S6314, VM 84
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_432~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD15 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: TRP III IMP V COS II, Captive seated right, left hand supporting head, right hand tied behind his back; in front are shields and arms.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 195 AD

3.2 grams, 16.5 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 432, RSC 661, S6366 (var.), VM 146/2
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_377~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD14 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding a rudder and a cornucopia.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 AD

2.6 grams, 17.4 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 377, RSC 174a, VM 35 (var.)
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_383~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD22 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna or Hilaritas standing facing, head turned left, holding long palm in right hand and a cornucopia in her left.

Note: Refers to the departure of Severus to wage war again Pescennius Niger, 193 - 195 AD.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 AD

3.4 grams, 18 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 383, RSC 172b, S6278
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_428~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD10 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory advancing left holding a wreath in outstretched right hand and a palm branch in her left.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 AD

2.8 grams, 17.5 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 428, RSC 749, S6378, VM 168
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_369~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD21 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: BONI EVENTVS, Bonus Eventus standing left holding a dish of fruit in her right hand and corn ears in her left.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 AD

3.2 grams, 18 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 369, RSC 68, S6267
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_424~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD24 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: (V)ICT AVG, Victory advancing left holding a wreath in her right hand and a palm over her left shoulder.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 AD

2.6 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 424 (var.), RSC 675a (var.), VM 150/1 (var.)

"COS I" obverse legends are not listed in the above references.
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_413~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD38 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: PIETAT AVG, Severus, veiled, standing left, sacrificing out of a patera over a tripod altar.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 AD

2.78 grams, 17.8 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 413, RSC 376, S6324, VM 98

Ex: FORVM
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_389.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD36 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: INVICTO IMP, a trophy with captured arms stacked below.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 - 195 AD

3.2 grams, 17.59 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 389, RSC 232, S6288, VM 51
SPQR Coins
Septimius_Severus_RIC_423.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD25 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate bust of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: VICTOR AVG, Victory advancing right, holding a trophy in both hands.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 AD

3.2 grams, 17.4 mm, 180°

RIC IVi 423, RSC III 696, S -, VM 154/1
1 commentsMatt Inglima
Septimius_Severus_RIC_415.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD40 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Severus on horseback, pacing left, holding a spear.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 AD

3.4 grams, 16.65 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 415, RSC 652, S6365, VM 145
1 commentsMatt Inglima
Septimius_Severus_RIC_398.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD19 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing facing, head left, holding an abacus in right hand and a cornucopia in her left.

Note: Issued to mark the first donative of 193 AD that followed Septimius Severus’ accession.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 194 AD

2.9 grams, 17.6 mm, 45°

RIC IVi 398, RSC III 279a, S6305 (var.), VM 64/1
Matt Inglima
sseverus.jpg
Septimius Severus, 193-21119 viewsAR denarius; Emesa mint: 194-195
Obv.: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II; Laureate head right.
Rev.: FORTVN R-EDVC; Fortuna standing, head left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Reference: RIC IV(a), 377 (p. 142)
Notes: Envelope toning?
John Anthony
9380_9381.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, BONA SPES6 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194 - 195AD
18.0mm 3.20gr 1h
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PER[T AVG COS II]; Laureate head, right.
R: BONA SPES; Spes, advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt.
Emesa Mint
RIC IV-1 Emesa 364; BMC 340; Sear 6266; RSC 58.
Aorta: 340: B3, O20, R41, T198, M2.
Ex. Doug Smith Collection
JAZ Numismatics/John Zielinski Auction 149, Lot 4
6/22/19 7/8/19
Nicholas Z
5189_5190.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, BONI EVENTVS21 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194 - 195AD
18.5 x 17.0mm 3.00gr
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II; Laureate head, right.
R: BONI EVENTVS; Boni Events standing left holding a dish of fruit in right hand and grain ears in her left hand.
Emesa Mint
RIC 369; RSC 68; Sear 6267; BMC 343.
Aorta: 346: B3, O20, R47, T75, M2.
distinctivecoins 232427572799
8/17/17 8/21/17
1 commentsNicholas Z
8638_8639.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, FELICIT TEMPOR16 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194AD
16.0mm 3.26gr 0h
O: IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II; Laureate head, right.
R: FELI-CIT TE-M-POR; Two cornucopiae, crossed, corn ear standing between.
Emesa Mint
BMC 347; Cohen 192; RIC 373; Sear (2000) 6274.
Aorta: 357: B3, O20, R77, T36, M2.
VF
Savoca Auctions/Claudia Savoca 18th Blue, Lot 1531.
3/31/19 4/10/19
1 commentsNicholas Z
3983_(1)_3984_(1).jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, FORTVN REDVC28 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194AD
18.0 x 17.0mm 3.16gr
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II; Laureate head, right.
R: FORTVN REDVC; Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.
Emesa Mint
RIC 377; Sear 2, 6277v; RSC 174a.
Aorta: 371: B3, O20, R102, T67, M2.
Trisekeles Auctions; VAuctions Sale 323, Lot 545
3/17/17 4/1/17
2 commentsNicholas Z
4558_4559.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, INVICTO IMP13 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194 - 195AD
18.5 x 17.5mm
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II; Laureate head, right.
R: INVICTO IMP; Trophy with arms below.
Emesa Mint
RIC 389; RSC 232; BMC 365; Sear 6288.
Aorta: 383: B3, O20, R124, T206, M2.
cody111111 111115055154
7/15/13 4/4/17
Nicholas Z
5792_5793.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, MONET AVG15 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194 - 195AD
19.5 x 16.5mm 3.42gr
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PART AVG COS II; Laureate head, right.
R: MONET AVG; Moneta standing facing, head left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left.
Emesa Mint
RIC 411a; RSC 330; BMC 380; Sear 6314.
Aorta: 411: B3, O20, R206, T126, M2.
From the Paul Balla Collection; Scarce; Obverse flan flaw.
Heritage Auctions Auction 231741, Lot 62071.
10/13/17 12/24/17
1 commentsNicholas Z
9450_9451.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, PM TR P VIIII IMP VI COS II0 viewsAE Denarius-Fouree?
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: ?
17.5 x 16.5mm 2.43gr 7h
O: L SEPT SEV - PET (?) AVG IMP; Laureate bust, right.
R: PM TR P VIIII IMP VI COS II; Victory advancing right, holding opened wreath over shield on low cippus.
Emesa Mint/Imitation
aVF
Savoca London/Philipp Eckhert 4th Blue Auction, Lot 877
7/14/19 9/9/19
Nicholas Z
5788_5789.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, VICTOR AVG14 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 196 - 197AD
19.0 x 18.5mm 3.64gr
O: [L SEPT SE]V PERT AVG IMP VIII; Laureate head, right.
R: VICTO-R AVG; Victory advancing left, wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Laodicea ad Mare Mint
About VF
A note about attribution: Heritage described this lot as cf. RIC 425-unlisted variety. SEP-T AVG IMP III PP as the obverse legend as an issue of the Emesa Mint. After studying the coin in hand, I do not think that that is correct. It appears that the legend itself on the obverse seems to not have PP at the end and as far as I can tell that legend of SEP-T AVG IMP III PP does not exist. The lettering is crude (and the coin is also worn) and P's and R's (admittedly) on this coin barely differentiate themselves from I's. See the "R" on the reverse in VICTOR. But, given the lack of existence of SEP-T AVG IMP III, and based on what I can make out of the remainder of the legend's beginning, I think the most likely candidate for the obverse legend is L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, which places this issue at Laodicea ad Mare and is well known as RSC 485.
RIC 485; RSC 699; BMC W450.
Aorta: 659: B3, O57, R343, T216, M3.
Heritage Auctions Auction # 231750, Lot 62112.
12/14/17 12/24/17
Nicholas Z
6227_6228.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, VICTOR AVG12 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 194 - 195AD
18.5 x 17.0mm 2.50gr 6h
O: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II; Laureate head, right.
R: VICTO-R AVG; Victory walking left, holding opened wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Emesa Mint
RIC 425; RSC 697.
Aorta: 432: B3, O20, R343, T216, M2.
sjbcoins/Stoian Belkin 162918122389
3/11/18 3/19/18
Nicholas Z
1-2013-12-30_dec20131.jpg
Septimius Severus, Emesa47 viewsAr denarius; 3.52g; 23mm

IMP CAEL SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
Laureate head right

FELICIT TEMPOR
grain ears between crossed cornucopiae

RIC 373
This coin is in a bezel
2 commentsRobin Ayers
apr_22_2012.jpg
Septimius Severus, Victory54 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
Emesa Mint

IMP CAEL SEP SEV-PERT AVG COS II
Laureate head right

VI-CT-OR AVG
Victory advancing right with a trophy held in both hands

Ar Denarius; 2.65g; 17-18mm
RIC IV 423; BMCRE 393 note; RSC 696; SEV-311
3 commentsRobin Ayers
sever1-horz.jpg
Septimius Severus. Deanarius, Emesa mint, 194-195 AD.18 viewsIMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Severus facing right
MONET AVG, Moneta standing, holding scales and cornucopiae.

RIC 411a, Scarce.
1 commentsPedja R
A402.jpg
Septimus Severus16 viewsIMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
FORTVN REDVC
mint: Emesa
194-198 AD
frederic
A401.jpg
Septimus Severus25 viewsIMP CAE L SEP SEV PER AVG COS II
FORTVN REDVC
mint: Emesa
194-198 AD
frederic
285 Sev Alexander.jpg
Septimus Severus, RIC 383, Emesa41 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP PERT AVG COS II
Bust: Laureate head right
Rev: FORTVN REDVC
Fortuna (Hilaritas) standing left holding long palm and cornucopia.
Exe: None. Emesa Mint
Date: 194 AD
Denom: Denarius
3.36 g, 17.8 mm
Ref: RIC 383
Rated Scarce

Purchased from Forvm
Bluefish
Macrinus_04.jpg
Syria, Emesa, Macrinus, Eagle, Helios18 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
Emesa
Billon tetradrachm
Obv.: AVT K M OP CE MAKPINOC CE- B, laureate head right
Rev.: ΔHMAPX […], eagle facing, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, crescent horns up below head, radiate bust of Helios between legs (reverse die from Caracalla)
Billon, 12.68g, 25.3mm
Ref.: Prieur 1015
1 commentsshanxi
seleucia_pieria_trajan_BMC39.jpg
Syria, Seleucia and Pieria, Trajan, BMC 3937 viewsTrajan, AD 98-117
AE 23, 12.65g
struck AD 100/101 (year 4)
obv. AVTOKR KAI NER TRAIANOC ARICT CEB GERM DAK
Bust, laureate, r.
rev. CELEVKEWN - PEIERIAC
Tetrastyle shrine in perspective view of Zeus Kasios, canopy-like roof with
eagle at top; within cult-stone
in r. field Delta (year 4)
in ex. ZEVC / KACIOC (Z mirrored)
BMC 39; SNG Mόnchen cf. 990 ff. (has no Delta); Price-Trell 212, fig.455; SGIC 1081
about VF/F+, brown patina with earthen highlights

The main god of Seleucia was Zeus Kasios, worshipped as Holy Stone like the stone of Elagabalus in Emesa.
For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
Jochen
emisa.jpg
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Emesa. Antoninus Pius AE23.28 viewsObv: Laureate-headed bust of Antoninus Pius wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r.
Rev: ΕΜΙΣΗΝΩΝ Δ / Eagle standing on sacred stone of Emesa, r., head, l., wings half open, holding wreath in beak.
ancientone
EmesaPythianElagabalus.jpg
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Emesa. Elagabalus AE22. Pythian games issue.48 viewsObv: AVT K M A ANTWNINOC (or similar), radiate head right.
Rev: MHTPO K EMICWN PYQIA HLIA, prize urn on table between two palm branches.

The Pythian Games (Delphic Games) were one of the four Panhellenic Games of Ancient Greece, a forerunner of the modern Olympic Games, held every four years at the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. They were held in honour of Apollo two years after (and two years before) each Olympic Games, and between each Nemean and Isthmian Games. They were founded sometime in the 6th century BCE, and, unlike the Olympic Games, also featured competitions for art and dance. The art and dance competitions pre-dated the athletic portion of the games, and were said to have been started by Apollo after he killed Python and set up the oracle at Delphi. Otherwise, the athletic events were the same as the Olympic Games. A four-horse chariot race was held in a hippodrome in the plain, not far from the sea, in the place where the original stadium was sited. -Wikipedia
ancientone
emesa.jpg
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Emisa. AE17 Sacred Stone of Emisa26 viewsElagabalus AE17 of Emisa in Seleucis & Pieria. Laureate bust right / Eagle, wings spread, head left, standing on the Sacred Stone of Emisa.ancientone
emesa_ant_pius_SNGcop309var.jpg
Syria, Seleukia and Pieria, Emesa, Antoninus Pius, SNG Copenhagen 309 var.31 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE 23, 10.19g
struck 138/9 (year 1)
obv. [AVT KAI TI] AIL A[NTO - NEINOC CEB EV]
Head, laureate, r.
rev. EMI[C] - HNWN
Eagle with closed wings stg. r. on conical Holy Stone of Emesa, head l., holding wreath in beak; [stone decorated with crescent and two stars below.]
in r. field A (year 1)
SNG Copenhagen 309 var. (has Gamma in r. field); BMC 6-7 var. (different legend breaks)
blackgreen patina with lightgreen highlights, about VF

This is my 1st coin showing the Stone of Emesa. The stone was brought to Rome by Elagabalus and after his death moved back to Emesa. That it is now the stone in the Ka'aba of Mecca is only a rumour.
Jochen
emesa_macrinus_Prieur989.jpg
Syria, Seleukia and Pieria, Emesa, Macrinus, Prieur 98721 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE - Billon-tetradrachm, 25.5.mm, 13.17g
obv. AVT KM OP CE(?) - MAKRINOC C-E-B
laureate bust r.
rev. DHMARX EZ VPATOC PP
Eagle with opened wings, stg. frontal, head l., holding wreath in beak; between his legs
bust of Shamash, draped (and cuirassed), radiate, r.
below beak H (for officina)
Prieur 987; Bellinger 199
about VF

Shamash was the Babylonian sun-god. For more information please take a look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.

Jochen
himsarabbyz.jpg
Umayyad AE Fals97 viewsUmayyad AE Fals
Ruler: Anonymous
Mint: Hims (Emesa)
Date: ca. 50AH to 70AH/670AD to 690AD
Weight: 3.9g
Size: 20.5 mm
Comments: These coins are always labelled Arab-Byzantine. But these coins are Umayyad coins. The same with Arab-Sassanian, Arab-Armanian etc. This coin is common, but it is probably one of the best kinds world wide. The usual ones are often chipped, broken, cut, bent or totally worn. This one has survived very well and can now be displayed here. I bought this coin for resale a while ago, now I cannot let go of it. Greek, Roman and Arabic incriptions are presented on the coin which show the mint if Hims.
1 commentsIstinpolin
Walker-64.jpg
Umayyad Caliphate, Arab-Byzantine: Anonymous (685-692 AD) Ζ Fals, Hims (Emesa) Mint (SICA 1, 548; Album-3524; Walker-64)35 viewsObv: Bust of Emperor (Constans II?), facing, wearing a diadem surmounted by cross, paludamentum, and cuirass; in his right hand he holds a globus with cross; at left, Greek ΚΑΛΟΝ (Good); at right, downward, Arabic بحمص (Emesa)
Rev: Large m; star between two wavy lines above; at left, EMI; at right, CHC; in exergue, Arabic طيب (Good)
SpongeBob
islamic 5.jpg
Umayyad Syria289 views 8th C., AE Fals, Hims/ Emesa elephant type. W795.
dpaul7
046D.jpg
Uranius Antoninus Tetradrachm129 viewsSYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Emesa. 253-254 A.D.
BI Tetradrachm (26mm, 11.38 g, 6h).
OBV: Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
REV: Eagle standing facing, head and tail right, with wings spread, holding wreath in beak; S C in exergue.
Baldus, Nachtrag Ξ/ξ = Prieur 1058 var. or corr.
The reverse legend on the current coin appears to end [...]YΠAT B, whereas Prieur notes the specimen published by Baldus ends [...]YΠATO B. It is not entirely clear from the photograph in Baldus.
Near VF, earthen deposits, peripheral roughness on reverse. Perhaps the second known.
4 commentsMark Z
Elagabal-Denar-ANTIOCHIA-SANCT_DEO-RIC195.jpg
VI - ELAGABALUS -a- Denar- RIC IV/II/19539 viewsAv) ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind

Rv) SANCT DEO SOLI
Exergue: ELAGABAL
Quadriga right bearing the conical Stone of Emesa, ornamented with eagle and shaded by four parasols

Weight: 3,13g; Ψ: 19mm; Reference: RIC IV/II/195;
ANTIOCHIA (?) mint; struck: 218 A.D. - 219 A.D.
Note: darkley toned coin
1 commentssulcipius
SeptSeverus.jpg
[1001a] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.63 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 32, RSC 301, VF, 2.966g, 16.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, laureate head right; reverse LIBERO PATRI, Liber (Bacchus) standing left, in right ocnochoe over panther, thysus in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhτne, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SeptSevArDen.jpg
[1001b] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.45 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Silver denarius, RIC 119A. aF. Rome. Obverse: L. SEP. SEVERVS PER. AVG. P. M. IMP. XI, His bearded and laureated head right. Reverse: SALVTI AVGG. Salus seated left feeding serpent arising from altar(?). Scarce. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves.[[3]] By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhτne, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
JuliaDomnaRICIV560.jpg
[1003c] Julia Domna, Augusta 194 - 8 April 217 A.D.25 viewsAR Denarius; RIC IV 560; 16.89 mm, 3.5 grams; AD 196-202; VF, Rome mint; Obverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right; Reverse: IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left holding patera and sceptre, peacock at feet. A nice denarius on a smallish flan. Ex Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An On-Line Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Severan Julias (A.D. 193-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Julia Domna was born about 170 A.D., in Emesa of Syria. She was the youngest daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Elagabal. As such, she was part of the local aristocracy from a plebian family. Having come to the attention of Severus because of her promising horoscope, he married her, probably in 187 A.D. She gave birth to their first child, Bassianus, the future emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus, known as Caracalla, on 4 April 188. About thirteen months later, she gave birth to a second son, Geta.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193 A.D., two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia Domna accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197 A.D. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position. Julia Domna was, perhaps, more influential in the political life of the empire than any of her imperial predecessors.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued.

Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon (among whom was Galen of Pergamum), and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

She once again accompanied her husband, with the two sons present as well, on campaign, against the Britons in 208 A.D. When Severus died at York in early 211 A.D., she returned to Rome with Caracalla and Geta, having gained the full title of mater castrorum et senatus et patriae, with the frequent addition of et Augustorum. She persuaded the two sons to share the rule, as the emperor had wished on his deathbed, but, since the brothers hated each other, this arrangement was doomed to failure. In 212 A.D., Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve.

Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217 A.D. When she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food. Her remains were ultimately placed in Hadrian's Mausoleum, at the insistence of Maesa, her sister. She was deified, and was known as Diva Iulia Domna or Diva Iulia Augusta. She was worshipped in various parts of the empire with local titles, such as Dea Caelestis in Carthage and Venus Caelestis in Puteoli.

By Herbert W. Benario, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

If you are interested in Julia Domna, visit Ernie Thompson’s site: The Life, Family and Coinage of Julia Domna (http://juliadomna.ancients.info/).
1 commentsCleisthenes
MacrinusDiadumenian_Hygeia_Marcianopolis.jpg
[1006a] Macrinus, 11 April 217 - 8 June 218 A.D.; Diadumenian, mid May - 8 June 218 A.D.26 viewsMacrinus and Diadumenian, AMNG 750, 217-218 AD, 12.4 g, 27.25 mm; Moesia Inferior Marcianopolis; aVF; Obverse: Busts of Macrinus and Diadumenian facing each other; Reverse: Rv.: Asklepios standing left, with snake coiled on staff, lovely jade green patina; Ex Colosseum; Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Macrinus (217-218 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University


Marcus Opellius Macrinus was the first emperor who was neither a senator nor of a senatorial family at the time of his accession. His 14-month reign was spent entirely in the East, where he proved unable to maintain the influence gained in the region by the campaigns of his predecessor, Caracalla, nor was Macrinus able to shake the suspicion that he was responsible for Caracalla's murder.

Macrinus was born in Caesarea in Mauretania around the year 165 AD. While it is highly conjectural that, as a young man, the future emperor was the dedicatee of Ampelius' encyclopedic Liber memoralis, Macrinus undoubtedly received a literary education that enabled him to rise high as a bureaucrat in the imperial service during the reign of the emperor Severus. Caracalla made Macrinus a praetorian prefect, an equestrian post that was second to the emperor in power. Macrinus shared the position with the experienced soldier Adventus, and the pair served Caracalla during the emperor's campaigns in the East.

By the end of the second campaigning season in the winter of 216-17, rumors were flying both in Rome and in the East that Macrinus was promoting himself as a possible future emperor. Caracalla must have been aware of the rumors concerning Macrinus, for the contemporary historian Cassius Dio notes the emperor was already reassigning members of Macrinus' staff. Such personnel moves may have accelerated Macrinus' plot.

Shortly before the campaigning season was to begin, Caracalla paid a visit to a temple near Carrhae. The emperor was accompanied by a hand-picked corps of bodyguards. The guards returned with Caracalla's murdered body, along with the body of one of the guards and a story that the dead guard killed the dead emperor. Not everyone was convinced, but Macrinus was able to translate his authority as praetorian prefect into that of emperor, being proclaimed by the troops on 11 April 217. Macrinus soon named his son, Diadumenianus, as Caesar and heir. The new emperor also got his former colleague, Adventus, out of the way by sending him back to Rome as urban prefect.

Macrinus straightaway sent conciliatory messages to the Parthian ruler Artabanus V, but Artabanus sensed weakness and raised an army to avenge his losses from the previous year's campaign. Macrinus hoped to avoid a battle with the Parthians, but fighting erupted between the armies while both sides were encamped around Nisibis. The Parthians gained victory and, during the following autumn and winter, peace negotiations were held. Macrinus ended up paying the Parthians large bribes and reparations. Settlements were also reached with the Armenians, and, in the lower Danube, with the Dacians, who had launched attacks on the Romans after learning of Caracalla's death.

By not returning to Rome in 217, Macrinus opened himself to criticism. Dissatisfaction was especially high in the city after a particularly violent, late-August thunderstorm started a fire that damaged much of the Colosseum and caused widespread flooding, especially in the Forum. Adventus proved himself incompetent as urban prefect and had to be replaced.

But grumblings in Rome were insignificant compared to the growing unease among the soldiers on campaign in the East. The defeat at Nisibis disheartened troops. Macrinus also introduced an unpopular, two-tier pay system in which new recruits received less money than veterans. The move was a way to save money after the pay raise granted by Caracalla, but it lowered morale as well.

Earlier, Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

Copyright (C) 1997, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors;http://www.roman-emperors.org/macrinus.htm. Used by permission.

Diadumenian
Much of what we know of Diadumenianus comes to us from the unreliable Scriptores Historiae Augustae. While it is true that Curtius does give the boy-Emperor some copy, suffice it to say that Diadumenian was the son of Macrinus and made Caesar at the age of nine in 217 A.D. and Augustus in 218. After his father's defeat he fled towards Parthia but was overtaken and executed.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=573&pos=0

A very minor player in the history of Rome, Diadumenian is most conspicuous because of his impressive issue of Greek Imperial (Roman Privincial) coinage, most notably in Moesia Inferior.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ElagabalusAe26.jpg
[1007c] Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D.35 viewsElagabalus AE 26; 26.62mm, 12.7g; Nicopolis ad Istrum, 218-222 A.D. Obverse: Radiate bust of Elagabalus right; Reverse: Aequitas left; VF/aVF; portrait of superb style . Ex Ancient Imports.

On his website, Doug Smith says, "Coin style, if judged as good or bad, must be judged only on how well it reflects the spirit of the times that produced it"
(http://dougsmith.ancients.info/style.html).

I have several coins struck during the reign of Elagabalus (not all are shown), and this bronze has two distinctions: it is the least expensive, and it is my favorite. In this portrait, I think that the die cutter captured in his compositon of Elagabalus's face a glimpse of self-awareness, a reflection of the insecurity of being a teenage emperor.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

ELAGABULUS (218-222 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the "last of the Antonines," is better known to history as Elagabalus, the name of the sun-god of the Syrian city of Emesa. Elagabalus, the emperor, was a high-priest of this deity, and his active promotion of the god was among several actions that made him an object of scorn and ridicule among the Roman aristocracy. As a youth, living in Emesa with his mother in the household of his grandmother, Julia Maesa, he began to perform in the hereditary family role of high-priest at the temple of the god Elagabalus. Leading Syrian families used their teenager's public displays as high-priest to channel soldiers' discontent with the emperor Macrinus into sedition. Elagabalus's promotion of the cult of the Emesene sun-god was certainly ridiculed by contemporary observers, but this cult was popular among soldiers and would remain so. Moreover, the cult continued to be promoted by later emperors of non-Syrian ethnicity, notably Constantine the Great, calling the god The Unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus).

Much has been made by many historians concerning Elagabalus’ behavior. His three marriages, two to the same Vestal virgin, produced no heir and received considerable contemporary derision. The paramours of his homosexual infatuations, the topics of notorious rumors, became skoffed-at administrative appointees whose favor insulted the aristocracy. His bizarre habit of carrying a large stone while walking backwards through the streets of the capital was considered possible insanity. If there is any understanding of “Elagabalus’ rock,” it rests with the knowledge that both Elagabalus, the sun-god of the Syrian city of Emesa and the source of the emperor’s adopted name, and the Carthgenian goddess Tanit possessed, as was common in Semitic religions, a large stone that was the focus of worship. Elagabalus (the emperor) brought these stones together in a ritualistic “marriage of the gods.” The Elagabalus (god of Emesa) stone was a focus of devotion for Elagabalus the Emperor.

The beginning of the 222 found the emperor ever more closed in. Elagabalus increasingly refused to have contact with his advisors. Government was approaching gridlock as officials were unable to figure out who had authority. A failed attempt by Elagabalus to persuade soldiers to kill his cousin, Marcus Julius Gessius Alexianus (the future emperor Severus Alexander), proved his undoing. Elagabalus and his mother were murdered the evening of 11 March 222. Their bodies were dumped into the Tiber and their memories condemned. Marcus Julius Gessius Alexianus was proclaimed emperor but did not take the name Antoninus, connected as it was with the failed reign of his predecessor.

Scholars have often viewed the failure of Elagabalus' reign as a clash of cultures between "Eastern" (Syrian) and "Western" (Roman), but this dichotomy is not very useful. The criticisms of the emperor's effeminacy and sexual behavior mirror those made of earlier emperors (such as Nero) and do not need to be explained through ethnic stereotypes. Elagabalus is best understood as a teenager who was raised near the luxury of the imperial court and who then suffered a drastic change of fortune brought about by the sudden deaths -- probably within one year -- of his father, his grandfather and his cousin, the emperor Caracalla. Thrust upon the throne, Elagabalus lacked the required discipline. For a while, Romans may well have been amused by his "Merrie Monarch" behavior, but he ended up offending those he needed to inspire. His reign tragically demonstrated the difficulties of having a teenage emperor.

Copyright (C) 1997, Michael L. Meckler.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ElagabalusPanoramaNewLens1.jpg
[1007d] Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. 21 viewsThis is the same coin as 1007c in this gallery. This is my photo using a Micro-Nikkor 55mm f/2.8 lens set on f/4 for 1 second. Neither the obverse nor the reverse images were "touched-up" after their shots. Click on photo to enlarge.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Elagabalus AE 26; 26.62mm, 12.7g; Nicopolis ad Istrum, 218-222 A.D. Obverse: Radiate bust of Elagabalus right; Reverse: Aequitas left; VF/aVF; portrait of superb style . Ex Ancient Imports.

On his website, Doug Smith says, "Coin style, if judged as good or bad, must be judged only on how well it reflects the spirit of the times that produced it"
(http://dougsmith.ancients.info/style.html).

I have several coins struck during the reign of Elagabalus (not all are shown), and this bronze has two distinctions: it is the least expensive, and it is my favorite. In this portrait, I think that the die cutter captured in his compositon of Elagabalus's face a glimpse of self-awareness, a reflection of the insecurity of being a teenage emperor.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

ELAGABULUS (218-222 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the "last of the Antonines," is better known to history as Elagabalus, the name of the sun-god of the Syrian city of Emesa. Elagabalus, the emperor, was a high-priest of this deity, and his active promotion of the god was among several actions that made him an object of scorn and ridicule among the Roman aristocracy. As a youth, living in Emesa with his mother in the household of his grandmother, Julia Maesa, he began to perform in the hereditary family role of high-priest at the temple of the god Elagabalus. Leading Syrian families used their teenager's public displays as high-priest to channel soldiers' discontent with the emperor Macrinus into sedition. Elagabalus's promotion of the cult of the Emesene sun-god was certainly ridiculed by contemporary observers, but this cult was popular among soldiers and would remain so. Moreover, the cult continued to be promoted by later emperors of non-Syrian ethnicity, notably Constantine the Great, calling the god The Unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus).

Much has been made by many historians concerning Elagabalus’ behavior. His three marriages, two to the same Vestal virgin, produced no heir and received considerable contemporary derision. The paramours of his homosexual infatuations, the topics of notorious rumors, became skoffed-at administrative appointees whose favor insulted the aristocracy. His bizarre habit of carrying a large stone while walking backwards through the streets of the capital was considered possible insanity. If there is any understanding of “Elagabalus’ rock,” it rests with the knowledge that both Elagabalus, the sun-god of the Syrian city of Emesa and the source of the emperor’s adopted name, and the Carthgenian goddess Tanit possessed, as was common in Semitic religions, a large stone that was the focus of worship. Elagabalus (the emperor) brought these stones together in a ritualistic “marriage of the gods.” The Elagabalus (god of Emesa) stone was a focus of devotion for Elagabalus the Emperor.

The beginning of the 222 found the emperor ever more closed in. Elagabalus increasingly refused to have contact with his advisors. Government was approaching gridlock as officials were unable to figure out who had authority. A failed attempt by Elagabalus to persuade soldiers to kill his cousin, Marcus Julius Gessius Alexianus (the future emperor Severus Alexander), proved his undoing. Elagabalus and his mother were murdered the evening of 11 March 222. Their bodies were dumped into the Tiber and their memories condemned. Marcus Julius Gessius Alexianus was proclaimed emperor but did not take the name Antoninus, connected as it was with the failed reign of his predecessor.

Scholars have often viewed the failure of Elagabalus' reign as a clash of cultures between "Eastern" (Syrian) and "Western" (Roman), but this dichotomy is not very useful. The criticisms of the emperor's effeminacy and sexual behavior mirror those made of earlier emperors (such as Nero) and do not need to be explained through ethnic stereotypes. Elagabalus is best understood as a teenager who was raised near the luxury of the imperial court and who then suffered a drastic change of fortune brought about by the sudden deaths -- probably within one year -- of his father, his grandfather and his cousin, the emperor Caracalla. Thrust upon the throne, Elagabalus lacked the required discipline. For a while, Romans may well have been amused by his "Merrie Monarch" behavior, but he ended up offending those he needed to inspire. His reign tragically demonstrated the difficulties of having a teenage emperor.

Copyright (C) 1997, Michael L. Meckler.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ElagabAntioch.jpg
[1007e] Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D. (Antioch)33 viewsElagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Antioch, Syria. Bronze AE 20, SGI 3098, BMC 449, F, Antioch, 5.11g, 19.7mm, 180o. Obverse: IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: large DE, star below, all in wreath. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

ELAGABALUS (218-222 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, the "last of the Antonines," is better known to history as Elagabalus, the name of the sun-god of the Syrian city of Emesa. Elagabalus, the emperor, was a high-priest of this deity, and his active promotion of the god was among several actions that made him an object of scorn and ridicule among the Roman aristocracy. As a youth, living in Emesa with his mother in the household of his grandmother, Julia Maesa, he began to perform in the hereditary family role of high-priest at the temple of the god Elagabalus. Leading Syrian families used their teenager's public displays as high-priest to channel soldiers' discontent with the emperor Macrinus into sedition. Elagabalus's promotion of the cult of the Emesene sun-god was certainly ridiculed by contemporary observers, but this cult was popular among soldiers and would remain so. Moreover, the cult continued to be promoted by later emperors of non-Syrian ethnicity, notably Constantine the Great, calling the god The Unconquered Sun (Sol Invictus).

Much has been made by many historians concerning Elagabalus’ behavior. His three marriages, two to the same Vestal virgin, produced no heir and received considerable contemporary derision. The paramours of his homosexual infatuations, the topics of notorious rumors, became skoffed-at administrative appointees whose favor insulted the aristocracy. His bizarre habit of carrying a large stone while walking backwards through the streets of the capital was considered possible insanity. If there is any understanding of “Elagabalus’ rock,” it rests with the knowledge that both Elagabalus, the sun-god of the Syrian city of Emesa and the source of the emperor’s adopted name, and the Carthgenian goddess Tanit possessed, as was common in Semitic religions, a large stone that was the focus of worship. Elagabalus (the emperor) brought these stones together in a ritualistic “marriage of the gods.” The Elagabalus (god of Emesa) stone was a focus of devotion for Elagabalus the Emperor.

The beginning of the 222 found the emperor ever more closed in. Elagabalus increasingly refused to have contact with his advisors. Government was approaching gridlock as officials were unable to figure out who had authority. A failed attempt by Elagabalus to persuade soldiers to kill his cousin, Marcus Julius Gessius Alexianus (the future emperor Severus Alexander), proved his undoing. Elagabalus and his mother were murdered the evening of 11 March 222. Their bodies were dumped into the Tiber and their memories condemned. Marcus Julius Gessius Alexianus was proclaimed emperor but did not take the name Antoninus, connected as it was with the failed reign of his predecessor.

Scholars have often viewed the failure of Elagabalus' reign as a clash of cultures between "Eastern" (Syrian) and "Western" (Roman), but this dichotomy is not very useful. The criticisms of the emperor's effeminacy and sexual behavior mirror those made of earlier emperors (such as Nero) and do not need to be explained through ethnic stereotypes. Elagabalus is best understood as a teenager who was raised near the luxury of the imperial court and who then suffered a drastic change of fortune brought about by the sudden deaths -- probably within one year -- of his father, his grandfather and his cousin, the emperor Caracalla. Thrust upon the throne, Elagabalus lacked the required discipline. For a while, Romans may well have been amused by his "Merrie Monarch" behavior, but he ended up offending those he needed to inspire. His reign tragically demonstrated the difficulties of having a teenage emperor.

Copyright (C) 1997, Michael L. Meckler.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
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