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Tacitus- Dikaiosyne.jpg
504 viewsTacitus, 25 September 275 - 12 April 276 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

AK K Λ TAKITOC CEB

AK: AVTOKRATOR is the equivalent of the Latin Imperator, 'emperor'.
K Λ is an abbreviation for K AV IOC, 'Claudius' transliterated into Greek.
TOK: TAKITOC= Tacitus
CEB: SEBASTOS (greek indication for augustus).

With the pellet between TOC . CEB

Reverse:
ETOVC A (year 1)

Dikaiosyne standing left holding scales in right hand and cornucopia in left. Diakaiosyne is the Greek equivalent of Aequitas ('Equity, Fair Dealing' to quote Sear).

Domination: Billon TETRAdrachm (4 drachms): size 21 mm

Mint: Alexandria, provincial.

Comment:
These Egyptian issues are not in RIC, but the old standard catalogue for these is Milne, where yours is no. 4492, with the pellet between TOC . CEB. They are also listed in the new Sear vol.III (though in not as much detail), where the nearest is 11831, which doesn't have the pellets in the obverse legend (Milne 4489). Other references : Curtis 1832, BMC 2403v ; Geissen 3115.
1 commentsJohn Schou
coin167.jpg
28 viewsAlexandrea, Egypt;147–148 Obv. laureate-headed bust
of Antoninus Pius wearing cuirass & paludamentum, r.
Obverse inscription ΑΥΤ Κ Τ ΑΙΛ ΑΔΡ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟΣ
ΣΕΒ ΕΥΣ Rev. Isis Pharia standing, r., holding sail &
sistrum Rev.inscription L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
AE34 mm Ave. weight 24.31 g Coin #167
cars100
coin619.jpg
20 viewsPtolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy VI, Æ29, Cyprus Mint.
Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right.
/ RTOLEMAIOY BASILEWS Two eagles standing
left on thunderbolt, cornucopia before. S7900; SNG
Cop. 341. VF, brown patina. Coin #619
cars100
coin618.jpg
27 views Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy VI, Æ29, Cyprus Mint.
Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right.
/ RTOLEMAIOY BASILEWS Two eagles standing
left on thunderbolt, cornucopia before. S7900; SNG
Cop. 341. VF Coin #618
cars100
coin617.jpg
21 viewsPtolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy VI, Æ29, Cyprus Mint.
Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right.
/ RTOLEMAIOY BASILEWS Two eagles standing
left on thunderbolt, cornucopia before. S7900; SNG
Cop. 341. VF, brown patina. Coin #617

cars100
Ägypten_Egypt_20_Piaster_1980_AH_1400_Falke_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
11 views
Ägypten

5 Piaster

AD 1972 / AH 1392

Vs.: Oben arabische Schrift im Bogen, im Feld Nominal, rechts und links Jahreszahlen, unten Verzierungen

Rs.: Islamischer Falke

Zitat: KM# A428

Erhaltung: Kleiner Fleck, ansonsten Stempelglanz

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

25 mm, 4,49 g _199
Antonivs Protti
Ägypten_Egypt_5_Piaster_1967_AH_1387_Adler_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
13 views
Ägypten

5 Piaster

AD 1967 / AH 1387

Vs.: Oben arabische Schrift im Bogen, im Feld Nominal, unten Verzierung, links und rechts Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Adler

Zitat: KM# 412

Erhaltung: Vorzüglich - fast Stempelglanz

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

25 mm, 4,42 g _296
Antonivs Protti
Alexandria_Egypt_tetradrachm.jpg
42 viewsEGYPT, ALEXANDRIA, Gallienus (A.D. 253-268), Potin Tetradrachm, 10.77g., 23mm, Dated year 14 (A.D. 266/7), AVT K P LIK GALLIHNOC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right, rev., eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, L ID (date) before, palm behind, (Köln 2932; Dattari 5283; Milne 4145),


Provenance:

Ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Deaccessioned #88.230).

Purchased from Alfred Oscar van Lennep (1851-1913), Anglo-Dutch Numismatic and Antiquities Dealer (Smyrna, (Izmir) Turkey), January 5th, 1888.
paul1888
Hadrian_Denarius_Egypt_New.jpg
36 viewsHadrian (A.D. 117 - 138), Silver Denarius. Mint of Rome, struck A.D. 134 - 138. HADRIANVS - AVG COS III P P, bare head of Hadrian facing right, rev. AEGYPTOS, Aegyptos reclining left, holding a sistrum, her left arm resting on a basket, an Ibis at her feet, 3.48g, 6h (C. 99; RIC 297)2 commentspaul1888
Hadrian_and_Sabina_Alex_Tet_-_Köln_1093_lg~0.jpg
15.25 Hadrian and Sabina63 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian. AD 117-138. BI Tetradrachm (25mm, 12.94 g, 12h). Dated RY 18 (AD 133/4). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right / Draped bust of Sabina right, wearing stephane; L–IH (date) across field. Köln 1093; Dattari (Savio) 1255; K&G 32.572. VF, find patina, slight die shift on obverse.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 34 (6 May 1995), lot 331.

Ex CNG eAuction 318
6 commentsSosius
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army408 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
Aquilia_Severa_Alex_Tet_-_Köln_2369_lg~0.jpg
29.6 Aquilia Severa - Wife of Elagabalus28 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Aquilia Severa. Augusta, AD 220-221 & 221-222. Potin Tetradrachm (23mm, 11.63 g, 11h). Dated RY 4 of Elagabalus (AD 220/1). Draped bust right / Homonoia standing left, right hand raised, holding double cornucopia with left; L Δ (date) to left. Köln 2369; Dattari (Savio) 4178; K&G 58.3. Near VF, dark brown patina, light porosity.

Ex CNG eAuction 318
Sosius
Gordian_I_Tetradrachm_Alexandria_Dattari_4659~0.jpg
32 Gordian I Africanus52 viewsGORDIAN I
BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt (22mm, 12.90 g, 12h). Dated RY 1 (AD 238)

AK M AN ΓOPΔIANOC CЄM AΦP, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Nike seated left; LA (date) to left.

Köln 2602; Dattari 4659; K&G 68.10. Good VF, untouched brown patina with scattered red and green.
Ex Editions V. Gadoury, Auction 2012, 1 December 2012, Monaco, Lot 335.
Ex CNG 93, May 2013
4 commentsSosius
rjb_2016_09_01.jpg
4110 viewsClaudius 41-54 AD
Tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Year 6
Rev: Messalina, 3rd wife of Claudius, holding two small children (Claudia Octavia and Britannicus) in outstretched hand
RPC I 5164
mauseus
428_P_Hadrian_Emmett850.jpg
4996A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Harpocrates standing24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4996A; Emmett 850.2; Dattari 1375

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/4996A/

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head right; drapery on left shoulder

Rev. LB (date)
Harpocrates standing facing, raising hand to mouth and holding cornucopia, leaning on column.

13.60 gr
23 mm.
12 h.
okidoki
rjb_2017_07_04.jpg
6934 viewsOtho 69 AD
AR tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Obv "AYTOK MAPK OΘΩNOΣ KAIΣ ΣEB, LA"
Laureate bust right
Rev "EΛEYΘEPIA"
Eleutheria standing left holding wreath and transverse sceptre, leaning on a column
RPC I 5359, Milne 365
3 commentsmauseus
38220.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm.31 views
Egypt, Alexandria. Domitian. A.D. 81-96. AE drachm (34.7 mm, 23.61 g, 11 h). Alexandria mint, Struck A.D. 95/6. [AVT KAIC ΘЄ] OVIOC ΔOMIT [CЄB ΓЄPM], laureate head of Domitian right / Frontal elevation of triumphal arch; L - IE ( yr. 15 = A.D. 95/6 ). Emmett 257.15. Near VF / VF, very dark green smooth patina. Scarce (Emmett "frequency" 2).
From the D. Thomas Collection; Wz Group CEM; Ex Walter Niggeler Collection; Ex Bank Leu/Munzen und Medallien.
3 commentsAncient Aussie
maximianusegypt~1.jpg
Maximianus, Roman Provincial Egypt 14 viewsMaximianus Billion tetradrachm 285-310 CE.
Obverse: MAXIMIANOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed head right.
Reverse: Nike flying left, wreath in right hand, palm over shoulder jn left.
S/L (YEAR 6) left, star right. Alexandria mint.
20.6 mm., 7.5 g., Alexandria 2577
NORMAN K
philipI1s.jpg
Philip II, Alexandria, Billion Tetredrachm20 viewsRoman Empire, Philip II, 247-249
Billion.-Tetradrachm year 5 = 247, Egypt, city of Alexandria.
Obverse: AKM IOV FILIPPOC EVC, bust right
Reverse:. Homonoia with double cornucopia, LE in left field=year 5.
24mm, 13.2 g., Datt. 5057, BMC 16.267.2059
sold 1-2018

Billion is an alloy of precious metal, mostly silver, with a mixture or base metal such as copper. Many Roman coins from the 2nd and 3rd century are made of billion because of debasements of the denarius and the tetradrachm.
NORMAN K
cdb1.jpg
Probus, Egypt, Alexandria BI tetradrachm83 viewsEgypt, Alexandria. Probus. A.D. 276-282. BI tetradrachm (20.8 mm, 8.07 g)
Dated RY 3 = A.D. 277/8.
Obverse: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CEB, laureate and draped bust right
Reverse: L-Γ,( year 3) eagle standing facing, head right, with wreath in its beak. Milne 4566; Curtis 1867; Emmett 3985.
1 commentsNORMAN K
Antinoopolis_-.jpg
42 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (23mm, 5.21 g, 1 h)
[Dated RY 2 of an uncertain era?]
Draped bust of Antinoös right, wearing hem-hem crown; crescent before, [Θω behind]
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath; L [B flanking?]
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 11655; Köln 3560 var. (size)
Ardatirion
00068x00.jpg
34 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (20mm, 4.04 g, 6 h)
Dated year 5 of an uncertain era
Draped bust of Antinous right, crescent before
Serapis standing left, holding long scepter; L Є flanking
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
00031x00~0.jpg
11 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.70 g, 2h)
Draped bust of Antinous right, crescent before
Serapis standing facing, head left, holding scepter and raising right hand
Milne –; Dattari (Savio) 6535 and 11780; Köln 3559
Ardatirion
00065x00.jpeg
31 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (21mm, 5.05 g, 3 h)
Dated year 8 of an uncertain era
Draped bust of Antinous right, wearing hem-hem crown; L [H] flanking
Draped bust of Serapis-Helios right, wearing calathus; L H flanking
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6445; Köln 3579
Ardatirion
00071x00.jpg
22 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (25mm, 6.33 g, 12 h)
Dated year […] of an uncertain era
Draped bust of Antinous right, crescent before
Serapis standing left, holding long scepter; L [?] flanking
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
00005x00~7.jpg
26 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera – Dichalkon
Draped bust of Antinous right, wearing hem-hem crown(?);[Δ]/I downward to left, X/A downward to right
Tyche standing right, holding rudder and cornucopia; [Λ/K] downwards to left, [O/N] downwards to right

This piece is extremely important for the study of lead tokens in Roman Egypt. The legend reads DIXALKON, normally a bronze denomination. Leads bearing denominational names are known from only a few specimens (see Köln 3502, for one such piece from Memphis), including one of this type in Dattari (Savio).
Ardatirion
00069x00.jpg
37 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis
PB Tessera (21mm, 4.14 g, 4 h)
Dated year 2 of an uncertain era
Confronted busts of Antinous, draped and wearing hem-hem crown, and Isis, draped and wearing headdress; [L] B flanking
Nilus reclining left on hippopatumus, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Milne, Memphis p. 115; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3569-70; Rostovtsev & Prou 665-6; Roma 6 (29 September 2013), lot 923-4
Ardatirion
Aphroditopolis.jpg
34 viewsEGYPT, Aphroditopolis
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.78 g)
Eros standing left, stooping over bird to left
Head of hippocamp right (or swan right?)
Milne 5325-9; Dattari (Savio) 11856-7; Köln -; Rostowzew & Prou 714 (dolphin)

The reverse type here more closely resembles a swan than it does a hippocamp. While the swan is a symbol of Aphrodite, Dattari (Savio) 11857 clearly shows the head a hippocamp. It is possible that these are two distinct types.
Ardatirion
Aphroditopolis_5320.jpg
23 viewsEGYPT, Aphroditopolis
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.02 g, 4 h)
Old man standing right, leaning on staff (Anchises?)
Aphrodite seated facing on rock, head right, raising arms to cover breast
Milne 5320-4; Dattari (Savio) 11851-2; Köln -

Assuming that the types of Aphroditopolis uniformly bear relation to the goddess, the elderly male figure on the obverse presents an enigma. Perhaps the man is Anchises, the father of Aeneas. While he was certainly younger during his dalliances with Aphrodite, the artist could presumably have been influenced by the Virgilian image of an elderly man.
Ardatirion
Arsinoe_tessera.JPG
78 viewsEGYPT, Arsinoe (Krokodilopolis).
PB Tessera (25mm, 5.65 g, 12 h)
Head of pharoah right, wearing nemes crown and postiche; papyrus branch before
ΠΟΛЄωC ΑΡCЄΝΟЄΙΤωΝ (retrograde)
Sobek (crocodile) right on a pedestal, solar disk above; all within laurel wreath tied at the bottom
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6423; Köln 3495

Ex Elsen 58 (12 June 1999), lot 1634
1 commentsArdatirion
arsinoe.jpg
45 viewsEGYPT, Arsinoe (Krokodilopolis).
PB Tessera (24mm, 4.89 g)
Head of Pharoah right; papyrus branch before
ΑΡCΙΝΟЄΙΤωΝ Φ ΠΟΛЄωC (retrograde)
Sobek (crocodile) right on a pedestal, solar disk above; all within laurel wreath tied at the bottom
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6423; Köln 3495

From a German collection, with a mid-1970's Galiere Antiker Kunst ticket.
Ardatirion
pharoah.jpg
39 viewsEGYPT, Arsinoe (Krokodilopolis)
PB Tessera. (25mm, 7.23 g)
Head of Pharoah right
Serapis seated left on throne, holding scepter
Milne 5442 (Fayûm class); Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3614

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 238, lot 295

Milne gives this type to an uncertain city in the Fayûm. Considering the thematic and stylistic similarities with the named piece of Arsinoe, an attribution to this city is probable.
Ardatirion
Herakleopolis_5336.jpg
28 viewsEGYPT, Herakleopolis
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.25 g)
Herakles-Heryshaf standing left, resting inverted spear on ground; in right hand, Nike flying right, holding wreath
Nike flying left, holding palm frond and wreath
Milne 5335-6; Dattari (Savio) 6540; Köln 3605-6
Ardatirion
s-l1600.jpg
18 viewsEGYPT, Hermopolis Parva
PB Tessera (16mm, 1.87 g, 12h)
Head of Zeus-Ammon right
Baboon (Thoth) seated right
Milne 5347-52; Dattari (Savio) 11833; Köln –
Ardatirion
Koptos_5354.jpg
25 viewsEGYPT, Koptos
PB Tessera (13mm, 1.88 g)
Head of Harpokrates facing slightly right, wearing skhent crown and raising index finger to lip; behind, cornucopia
Stag standing right
Milne 5354-8; Dattari (Savio) 11870, 11872; Köln -
Ardatirion
Koptos.jpg
21 viewsEGYPT, Herakleopolis?
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.26 g, 12h)
Bust of Herakles right, club over shoulder; H behind, P before
Artemis standing facing, head right, drawing arrow from quiver and holding bow; hound at side
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3497

Ardatirion
Memphis_5279.jpg
44 viewsEGYPT, Memphis
PB Tessera (24mm, 5.76 g, 11 h)
Nilus reclining left on hippopotamus, holding cornucopia and reeds, being crowned by Euthenia advancing right
Isis-Hekate triformis standing facing, holding uraeus and resting arm on Apis bull standing left with solar disk between horns; to left, small figure standing right; MEMΦIC to right
Milne 5279; Dattari (Savio) 6419; Köln 3501
Ardatirion
2740288.jpg
50 viewsEGYPT, Athribis
PB Tessera (24mm, 5.17 g, 12h).
Tyche reclining left on couch (hiera klinê, or lectisternium), holding rudder in outstretched right hand and resting head on raised left set on pillow; A[Θ]PI[B]IC/ [ΠOΛ]OI above
Nike standing right, holding palm frond and presenting wreath to Serapis standing left, holding long scepter in left hand and raising right
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 274, lot 288 (there as Memphis).
Ardatirion
00006x00~5.jpg
12 viewsEGYPT, Memphis
PB Tessera
Uncertain figure standing facing, holding bust of Harpokrates wearing skent crown; MEMΦIC to right
Serapis enthroned left, holding scepter, with Cerberus at feet; to left, Demeter(?) standing right, holding scepter; to right, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3563
Ardatirion
oxy2.jpg
50 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (21mm, 10.52 g, 2h)
Draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm and aegis
Athena flying left on globe, holding wreath and palm frond over shoulder
Milne 5291; Dattari (Savio) 11817 (same dies); Köln 3509-17 var. (no letters, no globe)
Ardatirion
Oxyrhynchus_5292.jpg
30 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (21mm, 3.89 g, 12 h)
Draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm and aegis; spear before
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath
Milne 5292-4; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3528 (same dies)
Ardatirion
Y04377.jpg
21 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.63 g, 2h)
Draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm and aegis; spear before
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath; OΞ to left
Milne 5297; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3523-5
Ardatirion
oxy1.jpg
41 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (23mm, 8.65 g)
Athena-Theoris advancing right, fighting serpent
Nike flying left, holding palm branch and wreath; ΟΞ to left
Milne 5310; Dattari (Savio) 6539, 11617; Köln 3540 (same dies)
1 commentsArdatirion
Oxyrhynchus_5312.jpg
22 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (25mm, 9.10 g, 2h)
Athena standing left, holding Nike and long scepter, all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath; OΞ to left
Milne 5312-4; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3534 (same dies)
Ardatirion
Oxyrhynchus_5316.jpg
19 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (22mm, 12.13 g)
Draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helm and aegis
Oak wreath enclosing uncertain letters (OΞ monogram?)
Milne 5317-9; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3557-8
Ardatirion
Oxyrhynchus_5303.jpg
31 viewsEGYPT, Oxyrhynchus
PB Tessera (26mm, 6.53 g, 1 h)
Athena-theoris advancing right, fighting serpent
Zeus Nicephorus seated left
Milne 5303-6 (same reverse die as illustration); Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3554 (same dies)
Ardatirion
Ptolemais_5374.jpg
31 viewsEGYPT, Ptolemais Hermiou
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.23 g, 9 h)
Head of horse right
Forepart of bull right
Milne 5374-6; Dattari (Savio) 11876-8; Köln -
Ardatirion
00008x00~5.jpg
7 viewsEGYPT, Sais(?)
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.52 g)
Head of Zeus-Ammon right
Helmeted head of Athena right, holding spear
Milne 5386-9; Dattari (Savio) –; Köln –
Ardatirion
middle_egypt.jpg
22 viewsEGYPT, “Middle Egyptian” type
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.49 g, 9 h)
Euthenia standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; altar to left
Nike advancing left, holding palm frond and wreath
Milne 5422-5; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 5393-9
Ardatirion
glass_tessera.jpg
57 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
Glass Tessera (17mm; 2.33 g)
Draped bust of Nike left
Head of Herakles right
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6555; Köln -
1 commentsArdatirion
00012x00~2.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Agathodaimon serpent erect right, [wearing skhent crown?]
Blank
Milne –; cf. Dattari (Savio) 11919 = Naville 31, lot 276; Köln –
Ardatirion
ago.jpg
26 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (24 mm, 13.90 g)
Athena standing left, holding Nike and grounded shield
AΓO
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3560

Ex Classical Numismatics Group Electronic Auction 238, lot 294
Ardatirion
00007x00~3.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Solar barge (Ship of Ra) left, with four oarsmen
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
Egypt_-.jpg
25 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (22 mm, 4.39 g)
Dated year 5 of an uncertain era.
Veiled and draped bust of Demeter right; L Є flanking
Nilus reclining left holding reeds and cornucopia; crocodile below
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6475; Köln 3610
Ardatirion
00008x00~3.jpg
13 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Confronted busts, the right bearded; star above
Serapis standing left, holding transverse scepter and raising hand
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
00067x00.jpg
21 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.49 g, 8 h)
Dikaiosyne standing left, holding scales and cornucopoia
Nilus reclining left on crocodile, holding cornucopia [and reeds]
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 1669-70; Köln -; Torino 9137-8
Ardatirion
00066x00.jpg
25 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (20mm, 2.69 g, 1 h)
Dikaiosyne standing left, holding scales and cornucopoia
Nilus reclining left on crocodile, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 1669-70; Köln -; Torino 9137-8
Ardatirion
00010x00~0.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Two figures standing facing
Warrior advancing right?
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
anton.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Seal (?) (21mm, 4.19g)
Dated year 3 of an uncertain era.
ANTWNINOV[KAITOVNY]
Hermes standing facing, nude, head left, disk or globe in right, caduceus in left; ibis at his feet; LΙΓ in left field
Traces of attached metal
Milne , “Egyptian Leaden Tokens” in NC 1930, p. 310 note 3; Milne -; Dattari (Savio) 6413; Köln -

With an old Galiere Antiker Kunst ticket.

Milne does not regard this piece as a token. The attached metal on the reverse is characteristic of certain types of lead seals.
Ardatirion
Egypt_5409.jpg
36 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (21mm, 3.70 g, 11 h)
Dated year 5 of an uncertain era
Hermes standing left, holding bag and long caduceus; to left, ramleaping left, star above
Vexillum; L [Є] flanking
Milne 5409 corr. (ram not described); Dattari (Savio) 6453 corr. (vexillum on reverse); Köln -
Ardatirion
00032x00~1.jpg
17 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.34 gm 2 h) Dated year 4 of an uncertain era
Bust of Horus right, wearing stylized pschent crown, being crowned by Victory flying left; LΔ (date) to lower right
Nilus recling left on crocodile, holding reeds and cornucopia, being crowned by Victory flying right
Milne 5415 corr. (date); Dattari (Savio) 11642; Köln –; CNG E-353, lot 370 (same dies)
Ardatirion
00011x00~1.jpg
15 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Dated year 3 of an uncertain era
Nilus reclining left, holding reeds and cornucopia
Euthenia reclining left, holding cornucopia and grain ears; [L] Γ flanking
Ardatirion
00023x00.jpg
22 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.15 g, 1h)
Dated year 2 of an uncertain era
Nilus recling left, holding cornucopia and mummiform figure of Osiris
Euthenia reclining left, holding cornucopia and grain ears; LB above
Milne 5391 var. (date); Dattari (Savio) 11623 var. (placement of date); Köln -
Ardatirion
54463q00.jpg
18 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.07 g, 1h)
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia [and mummiform figure of Osiris?]
Euthenia reclining left, holding cornucopia and grain ears
Cf. Milne 5397-401; Dattari (Savio) 6470 corr. (obverse type); Köln -
Ardatirion
egypt.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.50 g, 4 h)
Wreathed and draped bust of Dionysos right, thrysus over shoulder
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia and reeds, being crowned by Euthenia advancing right
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
00009x00~1.jpg
14 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera
Two confronted peacocks standing on urn
Nilus reclining left, holding cornucopia and reeds
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -
Ardatirion
00070x00.jpg
27 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.83 , 1 h)
Tyche reclining left on couch (hiera klinê, or lectisternium), holding rudder in outstretched right hand and resting head on raised left set on pillow; all within distyle temple with pellet in pediment
Hercules standing left, holding club and small figure of Telesphorus
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -; Roma E-Live 3 (25 October 2018), lot 484 (same dies)
Ardatirion
2870389.jpg
31 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (15mm, 2.89 g, 1h)
Draped male bust left, holding spear over shoulder
Bust of Nilus left; palm frond before, cornucopia over shoulder
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln -

Ex Greenpoint Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 287), lot 389
Ardatirion
2086459.jpg
10 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.91 g, 5h)
Dated year 2 of an uncertain era
Uncertain figure standing facing, behing crowned by Victory standing left
Uncertain figure standing left, holding uncertain object in raised hand; to left, ram(?) standing right; retrograde [L] B across fields
Milne –; Dattari (Savio) –; Köln –

Ex London Ancient Coins 36 (15 July 2014), lot 147
Ardatirion
Severus_Alexander_tetradrachm,_ex_Boyd.jpg
Alexandria BI tetradrachm of Severus Alexander, 224-225 AD105 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235
BI Tetradrachm
Dated RY 5 (AD 225/6)
Laureate, draped bust r.
A KAI MAP AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔO CEV
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Diakosyne standing facing, head left, holding cornucopia and scales; LЄ to left
K&G 62.58; Köln 2428-9; Dattari 4293

Ex W.C. Boyd Collection (Baldwin's 42, 26 September 2005), lot 207 (part of); purchased from Spink, January 1895
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa28 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really buffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
nero_popp_alexandria~0.jpg
(0062) POPPAEA31 views(wife of Nero)
Struck 64/65 AD Egypt-Alexandria
AR Tetradrachm 24 mm, 11.30 g
O: NERW KLAU KAIS SEB [GER AU] Radiate head right
R: POPPAIA SEBASTH Draped bust of Poppaea right
L IA in lower right field (Year 11)
Egypt, Alexandria
Emmett 128; Milne 223; Curtis 143; BMC 124; Glasgow 168
laney
hadrianserpent.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN47 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 138 AD
BILLON TETRADRACHM 12.78 g
O: HEAD OF HADRIAN, RIGHT
R: AGATHODAEMON SERPENT ERECT, RIGHT, WEARING SKHENT AND SUPPORTING A WINGED CADUCEUS IN ITS FOLD
MILNE 946 (year 4)
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN EGYPT
(ex Aegean Numismatics)
laney
hadrian_eagle_tet_res.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN34 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 119 - 120 AD
Billon Tetracrachm 23.5 mm, 12.59 g
O: Laureate head right, Greek legend around
R: L/D (year), either side of eagle standing right
Alexandria, Egypt mint
1 commentslaney
hadrian_isis_egypt.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN40 views117-138 AD
(struck 133-134 AD)
Æ Drachm 34 mm 21.58 gm
O: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: Isis Pharia standing right, wearing chiton, peplos and headdress of horns, disk and plumes, billowing sail in both hands and under left foot, sistrum in right; I / L - H across lower fields (year 18)
Alexandria, Roman Egypt
SNG Cop. 384; BMC Alexandria p. 89, 754 var; Köln.1118
laney
hadrian_panther_alexandria.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN17 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 126/7
AE obol 18.5 mm; 4.33 g
O: Laureate bust of Hadrian right
R: Panther standing right, head inverted to left; date above.
Egypt, Alexandria; cf. Geissen 974. Kampmann-Ganschow 134, 32.443
laney
hadrian_agath.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN38 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 138 AD
BILLON TETRADRACHM 12.78 g
O: HEAD OF HADRIAN, RIGHT
R: AGATHADAEMON SERPENT ERECT, RIGHT, WEARING SKHENT AND SUPPORTING A WINGED CADUCEUS IN ITS FOLD
MILNE 946 (year 4)
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN EGYPT
(ex Aegean Numismatics)
laney
hadrian_eagle_alex_diobol.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN14 views117 - 138 AD
Dated Year 19 = 134/5 AD
Æ diobol 24.5 mm, 8.35 g
O: AVT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, laureate and draped bust right
R: Eagle standing right on thunderbolt, head left.
Egypt, Alexandria; Milne -, Emmett 1122 (scarce)
d.s.
laney
hadrian_alexandria_agath_b.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN--Alexandria21 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 120-121 AD
Billon Tetradrachm 23.5 mm, 14.3 g
O: AVT KAI TPAI CEB Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder, crescent before
R: Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils; LE (date) in exe.
Egypt, Alexandria; Ref: Emmett 803.5 koln 804/805 var. Dattari 1547 Milne 982 RPC 3, 5270
laney
agathodae_hadrian_alexandria.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN--Alexandria23 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 120-121 AD
Billon Tetradrachm 23.5 mm, 14.3 g
O: AVT KAI TPAI CEB Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder, crescent before
R: Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils; LE (date) in exe.
Egypt, Alexandria; Ref: Emmett 803.5 koln 804/805 var. Dattari 1547 Milne 982 RPC 3, 5270
laney
anton_pius~2.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS--ALEXANDRIA58 views138 - 161 AD
Struck 144 - 145 AD
AE 31.5 mm 20.02 g
Antoninus Pius/Sphinx
Obv. Laur head of Antoninus Pius R
Rev. Sphinx crowned with horns, disk and plumes, seated R, paw on wheel
Alexandria, Egypt
laney
a_pius_alexandria_res.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS--ALEXANDRIA80 views138 - 161 AD
BI TETRADRACHM 24 mm 13.38 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Serapis standing l., head r., Cerberus at his feet
Alexandria, Roman Provincial Egypt
Emmett 1428, Rare (R3/5); bust var. of Dattari 2364, BM 982, Cologne 1794.

1 commentslaney
faustina_jr_kybele_alexand_b.jpg
(0145) FAUSTINA II43 viewsAE drachm 32 x 30.5 mm; 18.52 g
Dated year 20 = AD 156-157.
O: [FAVCTINA CEBACTH], draped bust right
R: L-K, Kybele seated left between two seated lions, holding patera and resting arm on drum.
Egypt, Alexandria; Milne 2330; Emmett 1992.
(from Dave Surber collection)
d.s.

laney
SEV_ALEX_SERAP.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER (as Caesar)38 views222 - 235 AD
struck ca. 222 AD
BI TETRADRACHM 22 mm 11.82 g
Dated RY 5 of Elagabalus (AD 221/2)
O: Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from front
R: Sarapis standing facing, head right, with hand on hip, holding sceptre; L-E (date) across fields.
EGYPT, ALEXANDRIA
Köln 2398; Dattari 4247; Milne 2859; Emmett 3082
laney
claud_ii_alexandria_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS59 views268 - 270 AD
Struck Sept. 268 - Aug. 269 AD (year 1)
Billon Tetradrachm 22 mm 8.62 g
O: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: Eagle standing R, looking back, holding wreath in beak, date AL (year 1) right;
Geissen 3015, Curtis 1670, BMC 2331
Alexandria, Roman Provincial Egypt
laney
aurelian_nike_alexandria.jpg
(0270) AURELIAN15 views270-275 AD
struck 274/275
Billon Tetradrachm, 20 mm; 8.53 g O: A KΛΔΟ M AVPHΛΙΑΝΟC CEB, laurate and bearded bust right of Aurelian.
O: A KΛΔΟ M AVPHΛΙΑΝΟC CEB, laurate and bearded bust of Aurelian right.
R: ETOYC S ( = year 6 AD 274/75), Nike advancing right holding wreath in front, palm branch behind left shoulder.
Egypt, Alexandria; Ref: Emmett 3947 ( Rarity 4 )
laney
tacitus_alexandria_res.jpg
(0275) TACITUS--ALEXANDRIA29 views275 - 276 AD
Potin Tetradrachm 21 mm 7.03 g
Obverse: A K KL TAKITOC CEB, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Reverse: ETOYC-A (year 1)across fields, eagle standing left, head right, with wreath in its beak.
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN EGYPT
Milne 4502 / Dattari 551
laney
probus_alexandria_tyche_res.jpg
(0276) PROBUS 22 views276 - 282 AD
(struck 278/279--year 3)
Billon Tetradrachm 19.5 mm max., 7.32 g
O: AKM AVP ΠPOBOC CEB,laurate, bearded bust right of Probus.
R: Tyche standing left holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left, upper left field regnal year LΓ ( year 3)
Egypt, Alexandria
Ref:SNG Cop 924-925, Emmett 3994
laney
CARINUS_ALEXANDRIA.jpg
(0283) CARINUS35 views283 - 285 AD
(Struck Year 3=284 AD)
AE Tetradrachm 18 mm 5.42 g
O: A K MA KA_PINOC CEB Laureate, cuirassed bust right
R: ETOVC Homonoia standing facing, head left, right hand raised, double cornucopiae in left
Gamma &G; in right field
Alexandria, Egypt
Emmett 4009; Milne 4737; Curtis 1522; BMC 2455
laney
carinus_alexandria_res_a.jpg
(0283) CARINUS--ALEXANDRIA34 views283 - 285 AD
BI POTIN TETRADRACHM 19 mm 6.70 g
O: A K M A KAPINOC CEB laureate and cuirassed bust right
R: L-B around Elpis standing left holding flower and hem of skirt
Alexandria, Roman Provincial Egypt
Emmett 4007
laney
numerian_alexandria_res.jpg
(0283) NUMERIAN, AS CAESAR66 views283-284 AD
Billon Potin Tetradrachm 19.5 mm 7.78g
O: A K M A NOVMEPIANOC K C Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Numerian right
R: Dikaiosyne standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae; L-A (Year 1) in upper left field.
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN EGYPT
Reference: Dattari 5600, Emmett 4015
laney
dioclet_elpis_alexandria.jpg
(0284) DIOCLETIAN28 views284 - 305 AD
Struck 292/293 (Year 9)
AE Tetradrachm 20 mm; 8.18 g
O: DIOKLHTIANOC CEB Laureate, cuirassed bust right
R: ENATOY Elpis advancing left, flower upward in right hand, hitching skirt with left,
L in right field; D in exergue
Egypt-Alexandria, Officina 4; Emmett 4046, Curtis 1990; Milne 5086; BMC 2503; Dattari 5675
laney
diocl_alexandrian_billlon_tet.jpg
(0284) DIOCLETIAN9 views284-305 AD.
Dated Year 3 (286/7 AD)
BI Tetradrachm 17.5 X 19.2 mm; 6.79 g
O: Laureate cuirassed bust right
R: Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae; LΓ (date) to right.
EGYPT, Alexandria.
laney
diocletian_alexandria_res.jpg
(0284) DIOCLETIAN--ALEXANDRIA38 views284 - 305 AD
Struck 286/287 (Year 3)
AE TETRADRACHM 19.5x20.5 mm 8.10 g
O: AKG OVA DIOKLHTIANOC CEB Laureate, cuirassed bust right
R: eagle standing left, head turned right, wreath in beak, ETOYC and star left, "G" (year 3) right;
Alexandria, Roman Provincial Egypt
Emmett 4037; Curtis 1969; BMC 2532
laney
max_egypt_res.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS29 views286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.
Struck 287/8 AD
Billon potin tetradrachm 18 mm 7.51 g
O: K M A OYA MAXIMIANOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: Homonoia standing left, raising right, double cornucopia in left, L -G (year 3) across fields
Egypt, Alexandria mint
BMC 2561, Curtis 2091 , Milne 4855
laney
maximianus_alexandria_b_res.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS--ALEXANDRIA31 views286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D
Struck 294/295 (Year 10)
AE TETRADRACHM 20.5 mm 6.44 g
O: MAXIMI_ANOC CEB Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind
R: Nike flying right, wreath upward in right hand, palm in left over shoulder L / I across fields
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN PROVINCIAL EGYPT
Emmett 4147; Milne 5181 var; Curtis 2105 var; BMC 2585 var

laney
maximinus_alexandria_a_res.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS--ALEXANDRIA25 views286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.,
Billon tetradrachm 19.5 mm 7.55 g
O: "MAXIMIANO"C C"EB", laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: ENATOY L (year 9), Homonoia standing left, raising right, double cornucopia in left, star in right field
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN PROVINCIAL EGYPT
Milne 5126; Dattari 5936; BMC Alexandria p. 330, 2567

laney
nero_alex_r_2res.jpg
(06) NERO27 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
laney
nero_popp_alexandria.jpg
(06) NERO34 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 64/65 AD Egypt-Alexandria
AR Tetradrachm 24 mm, 11.30 g
O: NERW KLAU KAIS SEB [GER AU] Radiate head right
R: POPPAIA SEBASTH Draped bust of Poppaea right
L IA in lower right field (Year 11)
Egypt, Alexandria
Emmett 128; Milne 223; Curtis 143; BMC 124; Glasgow 168
laney
nero_alexandria_b.jpg
(06) NERO16 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
laney
galba_alexandria_tet_b.jpg
(07) GALBA29 views 68 - 69 AD
Billon Tetradrachm, 25mm, 12.52 grams
O: Laureate head of Galba right, LA below chin.
R: EI PH NH, Veiled and draped bust of Eirene right, kerykeion over shoulder.
Egypt, Alexandria MintEmmett171 // RPC5328 // Dattari302 // Koln219 // K&G17.3
2 commentslaney
001_vespasian_tet_14_8grams_feb-01-feb-02-2012_o-r.JPG
0 - a - Vespasian Silver Tetradrachm - 14.8 Grams - Antioch, Syria.74 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Antioch, Syria.
Silver Tetradrachm of Emperor Vespasian ( 69 - 79 AD )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of the Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle, holding a laureate wreath in his beak, standing on club of Hercules facing left, palm branch to left in field.

Size: 28 - 29 mm
Weight: 14.8 Grams.
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6 commentsrexesq
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey73 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

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001a. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony48 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalcis ad Libanum. Mark Antony, with Cleopatra VII. 36-31 BC. Æ 19mm (5.45 g, 12h). Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra (32/1 BC). Draped bust of Cleopatra right, wearing stephane / Bare head of Mark Antony right; dates in legend. RPC I 4771; Rouvier 440 (Berytus); SNG München 1006; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia). Near Fine, green patina.

Chalcis was given by Antony to Cleopatra in 36 BC. At the culmination of his spectacular triumph at Alexandria two years later, further eastern territories - some belonging to Rome - were bestowed on the children of the newly hailed “Queen of Kings” (referred to as the “Donations of Alexandria”). Shortly after, Antony formally divorced Octavia, the sister of Octavian. These actions fueled Octavian’s propagandistic efforts to win the support of Rome’s political elite and ultimately led to the Senate’s declaration of war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

Ex-CNG
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1_Nero.jpg
002.Nero 54-68 AD31 viewsBillion Tetradrachm
Roman Egypt
Mint: Alexandria,Egypt; Date: 66/67 AD
Obv: ΝΕΡΩ ΚΛΑΥ Κ(ΑΙΣ ΣΕΒ ΓΕΡ Ας)-Radiate bust of Nero facing left,wearing aegis on shoulder,
LΙΓ in lower left field.(Year 13=66-67 AD).
Rev: ΘΕΟΣ(ΣΕΒΑΣΘΟΣ)-Radiate head of Divus Augustus facing right.
Size: 24mm,12.7gms
Ref: Milne-251; BMCGr-112; Emmett-113
Ex.Keith Emmett Collection; Ex.Wayne Phillips, Jan 1993; Ex.Beast Coins
5 commentsBrian L
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005c. Germanicus48 viewsGermanicus

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16.

Germanicus died in Alexandria, Egypt. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius.

AS, struck under Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC. Cohen 1.

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006a. Claudia13 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
2 commentsecoli
coins211.JPG
006a. Nero / Poppaea31 viewsAlexandria, Egypt: Nero / Poppaea

Poppaea was married first to Rufrius Crispinus, then to the future (brief) emperor Otho. When Poppaea became mistress of the emperor Nero, Otho's friend, Nero appointed Otho to an important post as governor of Lusitai. Nero married Poppaea, and Poppaea was given the title Augusta. Poppaea and Nero had a daughter, Claudia, who did not live long. Poppaea urged Nero to kill his mother, Agrippina the Younger, and to divorce and later murder his first wife, Octavia. She is also reported to have persuaded Nero to kill the philosopher Seneca, who had supported Nero's previous mistress, Acte Claudia. Nero supposedly kicked her when she was pregnant in 65 C.E. and she died.

Billon tetradrachm, AD 54-68 (year 10 = AD 64) . 11.79gm, 24mm. Radiate head of Nero right / Bust of Poppaea right. Emmett 128 (10); Milne 218. F+ with some corrosion on reverse. Purchased from C. & L. Deland in 1973.
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A_Pius_diobol_Dattari.jpg
009 Egypt, Alexandria Antoninus Pius Diobol Ex Dattari plate coin16 viewsEgypt, Alexandria. Dattari. Antoninus Pius, 138-161 Diobol circa 151-152 (year 15), Æ 22.5mm., 7.45g.
Obv: Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder.
Rev. Agathodaemon erect, crowned with skhent; in field, L-E.
RPC Online 15718.
Dattari-Savio Pl. 162, 3066 (this coin).
Good Fine.
From the Dattari collection.
Ex: Naville Numismatics Auction 34, Lot 281 September 17, 2017
orfew
Dattari_Gallienus_NN_lot_438.jpg
010 Egypt. Alexandria. Gallienus Tetradrachm30 viewsEgypt, Alexandria. Dattari. Gallienus, 253-268 Tetradrachm circa 267-268 (year 15), billon 23mm., 9.51g.
Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Rev. Eagle standing l., holding wreath in beak; behind, palm.
Geissen 2944. Dattari-Savio Pl. 273, 10547.
Ex:the Dattari collection.
1 commentsorfew
012_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne_0077,_Alexandria,_ME__A_I-NA_KAI___EBA_,_Messalina_standing_facing_Q-001_axis-0h_25mm_11,50ga-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-075, D-123, Egypt, Alexandria, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing,80 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-075, D-123, Egypt, Alexandria, MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing,
avers:- TI KΛAΥΔI KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓERMANI AΥTOK, laureate head of Claudius right, LΓ before
revers:- MEΣΣAΛI-NA KAIΣ ΣEBAΣ, Messalina standing facing, head left, leaning on draped column, holding figures of two children in extended right hand and cradling two grain ears in left arm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 11,50g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Year (LΓ) 3 = 42-43 A.D., ref: Geissen-075, Dattari-123, Kapmann-Ganschow-12.22-p-5½, RPC-5131, Milne 77,
Q-001
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014_Nero_(54-68_AD)Billon-Tetradrachm,_G-160-61,_D-251-52,_Alexandria,_NEP_-K_AY-KAI_-_EB-_EP_AYTOKPA-L-I_Serapis_Q-001_axis-11h_23,5-25mm_11,53g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-160-161, D-251-252, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Draped bust of Serapis right,67 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-160-161, D-251-252, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Draped bust of Serapis right,
avers:- NERΩ-KΛAΥ-KAIΣ-ΣEB-ΓER, Radiate head of Nero right
revers:- AY-TOKPA, Draped bust of Serapis right, wearing calathus, date (LI) to right.
exe: -/LI//--, diameter: 23,5-25mm, weight: 11,53g, axis: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Dated year (LI) 10 = 63-64 A.D., ref: Geissen-160-161, Dattari-251-252, Kapmann-Ganschow-14.77-p-59, RPC-5274,
Q-001
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014_Nero_(54-68_AD)Billon-Tetradrachm,_G-167,_D-271,_Alexandria,_NEP_-K_AY-KAI_-_EB-_EP_AYTOKPA-L-IA_Simpulum-right_Q-001_axis-1h_24mm_13,86g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-167, D-271, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Eagle standing left,91 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-167, D-271, Egypt, Alexandria, AY-TOKPA, Eagle standing left,
avers:- NERΩ-KΛAΥ-KAIΣ-ΣEB-ΓER-AY, Radiate head of Nero right
revers:- AY-TOKPA, Eagle standing left, palm over far wing, date (L-IA) to left.
exe: L-IA/Simpulum//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 13,86g, axis: 1h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Dated year (L IA) 11 = 64-65 A.D., ref: Geissen-167, Dattari-271, Kapmann-Ganschow-14.83-p-59, RPC-5284,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne_0223,_Alexandria,__O__AIA__EBA_TH,_draped_bust_of_Poppaea_right,_Q-001_axis-0h_23,5mm_12,89ga-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-168-169, D-197-198, Egypt, Alexandria, ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust of Poppaea right,102 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-168-169, D-197-198, Egypt, Alexandria, ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust of Poppaea right,
avers:- NERΩ ΛKAΥ KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER AV, radiate head of Nero right
revers:- ΠOΠΠAIA ΣEBAΣTH, draped bust of Poppaea right, LIA to right.
exe: -/LIA//--, diameter: 23,5mm, weight: 12,89g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Dated year (LIA) 11 = 64-65 A.D., ref: Geissen-168-169, Dattari-197-198, Kapmann-Ganschow-14.85-p-59, RPC-5280-5282, Milne 223, Koln 168, BMCGr 124,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
DSC05289_DSC05294.JPG
02 - Antoninus Pius - Tetradrachm - Dikaiosyne 18 viewsEmperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) - silver/billon Tetradrachm.
Alexandria, Egypt.

obv: Laureate bust right.

rev: Dikaiosyne seated left holding scales of justice and cornucopiae.

Weight: 13.4 grams.
1 commentsrexesq
DSC05289_DSC05294-1.jpg
02 - Antoninus Pius - Tetradrachm - Dikaiosyne - rev 10 viewsEmperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) - silver/billon Tetradrachm.
Alexandria, Egypt.

obv: Laureate bust right.

rev: Dikaiosyne seated left holding scales of justice and cornucopiae.

Weight: 13.4 grams.
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02 - Antoninus Pius - Tetradrachm - Dikaiosyne - w/ US quarter10 viewsEmperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) - silver/billon Tetradrachm.
Alexandria, Egypt.

obv: Laureate bust right.

rev: Dikaiosyne seated left holding scales of justice and cornucopiae.

Weight: 13.4 grams.
*shown with US quarter for size.
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Copy_of_hadrian_3x_tet_den_den_obv_03.JPG
02 - Hadrian Denarii and Tetradrachm35 viewsTop: Hadrian Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt. Eirene reverse.
Bottom Right: Hadrian Denarius, Roma. Rome Mint.
Bottom Left: Hadrian Denarius, Fortuna. Rome Mint.
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Copy_of_hadrian_3x_tet_den_den_obv_01.JPG
02 - Hadrian Denarii and Tetradrachm38 viewsTop: Hadrian Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt. Eirene

To Right: Hadrian AR Denarius, Roma. Rome Mint.

To Left: Hadrian AR Denarius, Fortuna. Rome Mint.
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020-Vespasian_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Alexandria,_AYTOK-KAIS-SEBA-OYESPASIANOY_LB_POMH-Roma-left_K-G-20_15_Q-001_0h_25mm_12,69g-s~0.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-278, D-365, Egypt, Alexandria, AR-Tetradrachm, PΩMH, Roma standing left,73 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-278, D-365, Egypt, Alexandria, AR-Tetradrachm, PΩMH, Roma standing left,
avers:- AYTOK-KAIΣ-ΣEBA-OYEΣΠAΣIANOY, laureate head of Vespasianus right, LB before.
revers:- PΩMH, Roma standing left, holding spear and shield.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 12,69g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Year (LB) 2 = 69-70 A.D., ref: Geissen-278, Dattari-365, Kapmann-Ganschow-20.15-p-68, RPC-2413, Milne- ,
Q-001
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020-Vespasian_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Alexandria,_AYTOK-KAIS_SEBA-OYESPASIANOY,_L-Gamma_Isis-head-right_K-G-20_29_Q-001_axis-0h_23-25mm_12,14g-s~0.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-287, D-379, Egypt, Alexandria, AR-Tetradrachm, LΓ, Isis bust right,77 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-287, D-379, Egypt, Alexandria, AR-Tetradrachm, LΓ, Isis bust right,
avers:- AYTOK-KAIΣ-ΣEBA-OYEΣΠAΣIANOY, laureate head of Vespasianus right.
revers:- LΓ, Isis bust right.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25mm, weight: 12,14g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Year (LΓ) 3 = 70-71 A.D., ref: Geissen-287, Dattari-379, Kapmann-Ganschow-20.29-p-69, RPC-2430, Milne- ,
Q-001
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020-Vespasian_AE-25,_Alexandria,_AYTOK-KAIS_SEBA-OYESPASIANOY,_LS-Y-6-73-74_Serapis-r__K-G-20_45,RPC-2441_Q-001_0h_23,8-25,3mm_8,15g-s~0.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-300, D-401, Egypt, Alexandria, AE-25, LS, Serapis bust right,141 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), G-300, D-401, Egypt, Alexandria, AE-25, LS, Serapis bust right,
avers:- AYTOK-KAIΣ-ΣEBA-OYEΣΠAΣIANOY, Laureate head of Vespasianus right.
revers:- LS, Serapis bust right.
exe: -/-//LS, diameter: 25mm, weight: 12,14g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: Year (LS) 6 = 73-74 A.D., ref: Geissen-300, Dattari-401, Kapmann-Ganschow-20.45-p-70, RPC-2441, Milne- ,
Q-001
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027_Traianus_(98-117_A_D_)_Billon-Tetradr,_D-703_Alexandria,_AYT-TPAIAN-CEB-_EPM-_AKIK_LIB_Snake-l__Q-001_axis-1h_25mm_12,69g-s~0.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-, D-703, Egypt, Alexandria, Agathodaemon serpent coiled with head left,85 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-, D-703, Egypt, Alexandria, Agathodaemon serpent coiled with head left,
avers:- AYT-TPAIAN-CEB-ΓEPM-ΔAKIK, Laureate head right.
revers:- No legend, Agathodaemon serpent coiled with head left, holding caduceus and grain ear within coils.
exe: -/-//L-I-B, diameter: 25mm, weight: 12,69g, axis: 1h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: Dated year (LΙΒ) 12 = 1018-109 A.D., ref: Dattari-703, Kapmann-Ganschow-27.146-p-90,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
027_Traianus_(98-117_A_D_)_Billon-Tetradrachm,_G-160-61_D-251-52_Milne-560_Alexandria,__L-E_Eagle-r__Q-001_0h_23mm_12,93g-s.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-160-161, D-251-252, Egypt, Alexandria, Eagle standing right,70 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-160-161, D-251-252, Egypt, Alexandria, Eagle standing right,
avers:- AYT-KAIΣ-NEP-TPAIAN-ΣEB-ΓEPM, Laureate head right.
revers:- No legend, Eagle standing right, wings closed, L-E across field.
exe: L/E//--, diameter: 23mm, weight: 12,93g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: Dated year (L-E) 5 = 101-102 A.D., ref: Geissen-450-451, Dattari-705, Kapmann-Ganschow-27.31-p-86, Milne-560,
Q-001
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trajan_radiate-bust_tet_13_05grams_bust-of-zeus_01.jpg
03 - Trajan Tetradrachm - Bust of Nilus - Radiate bust of Trajan46 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 AD)
Tetradrachm from the mint at Alexandria, Egypt.
Regnal Year: 20 = 116/117 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Radiate bust of Trajan facing right. Star to right, below chin.
rev: Bust of Nilus, wearing taenia, crowned with reeds and lotus, facing right, lotus bud and cornucopia by right shoulder. Date in fields.

Weight: 13.04 Grams
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2 commentsrexesq
Hadrian_AR-Den_HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-P-P_AEGYPTOS_RIC-II-_C-_-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0297, Rome, AR-Denarius, AEGYPTOS, Egypt reclining left,83 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0297, Rome, AR-Denarius, AEGYPTOS, Egypt reclining left,
avers:-HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-P-P, Laureate, draped bust right.
revers:-AEGYPTOS, Egypt reclining left, holding sistrum, stork before.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, date: 132 A.D., ref: RIC II 297, p-374, RSC 100b, BMC 805,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Hadrian_AE-As_HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-PP_AEGYPTOS_SC_RIC-II-839c_C-166_134-138AD_R-1_Q-001_0h_25,5-27mm_10,86g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0839c, Rome, AE-As, AEGYPTOS, SC, Egypt reclining left, Rare!,80 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0839c, Rome, AE-As, AEGYPTOS, SC, Egypt reclining left, Rare!,
avers:- HADRIANVS-AVG-COS-III-PP, Bare headed and draped bust right.
revers:- AEGYPTOS, Egypt reclining left and holding sistrum, left elbow resting on basket of grain, ibis on column at her feet, SC in exergo.
exerg: -/-//SC, diameter: 25,5-27mm, weight: 10,86g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 134 A.D., ref: RIC-II-839c p-441, C-112, BMC-1695,
Q-001
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032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne-1034_,_Alexandria,_L-IE-Year-15_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1034, D-1610, Egypt, Alexandria, L IE, Hadrian and Alexandria,61 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1034, D-1610, Egypt, Alexandria, L IE, Hadrian and Alexandria,
avers:- AΥT KAI TPAIA AΔPIA CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L IE, Hadrian standing togate left with sceptre, greeted by Alexandria in elephant-skin headdress.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 130-131 A.D., Year (IE)15., ref: Geissen-1034, Dattari-1610, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.509-p-138, BMC 869,
Q-001
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032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne-1433v_D-1851v_,_Alexandria,_L_IH_Year-18_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Osiris and Isis,62 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Osiris and Isis,
avers:- AΥT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L I H, Canopic jars of Osiris and Isis within shrine, uraeus crown in pediment.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 133-134 A.D., Year (IH)18., ref: Geissen-1107-1108, Dattari-1661-1662, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.590-p-144, BMC -,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne_,_Alexandria,_L_IH_Year-18_G-1109_D-1671_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1109-1110, D-1671-1672, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Demeter and Euthenia,61 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1109-1110, D-1671-1672, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Demeter and Euthenia,
avers:- AΥT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L I H, Demeter standing right, holding corn-ears and torch, facing Euthenia, standing left, holding corn-ears and sceptre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 133-134 A.D., Year (IH)18., ref: Emmett 941.18, Milne 1408, Geissen-1109-1110, Dattari-1671-1672, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.579-p-143, BMC -,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne_1454,_Alexandria,_L_EN-NEAK_,_Bust_of_Nilus_right,_Q-001_0h_22-24mm_11,96gx-s.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-1147-1148, D-1430-1431, Egypt, Alexandria, L EN-NEAKΔ, Bust of Nilus right,69 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-1147-1148, D-1430-1431, Egypt, Alexandria, L EN-NEAKΔ, Bust of Nilus right,
avers:- AΥT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, Laureate head left .
revers:- L EN-NEAKΔ, Bust of Nilus right, draped on left shoulder, cornucopiae behind right shoulder.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 11,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 134-135 A.D., Year (IΘ)19., ref: Geissen-1147-1148, Dattari-1430-1431, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.619-p-146, Milne 1454, Köln 1148, BMC 646, Curtis 456-458,
Q-001
quadrans
035p_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),Egypt,_Alexandria,_AR-Tetradr,_L-IS,_Y-16,_G-1680,_D-2297,_KG-35_548,_152-3_AD_,Q-001,_0h,_21,5-22mm,_14,02g-s.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-1680, D-2297, AR-Tetradrachm, L-IS/-//--, Nilus reclining left, #172 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-1680, D-2297, AR-Tetradrachm, L-IS/-//--, Nilus reclining left, #1
avers: ANTωNINO C CЄB ЄVCЄB, Laureate head right.
reverse: Nilus reclining left, holding reed and cornuopiae from which emerges small Genius; small Genius inscribes Nilometer before, crocodile below.
exergue: L-IS/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,0mm, weight: 14,02g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: L-IS, Year=16, 152-152 A.D., ref: Geissen-1680, Dattari-2297, Kapmann-Ganschow-35.548-p186,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
trajan_alexandria-egypt_tetradrachm_regnal-year-5_101-102AD_eagle_01.jpg
04 - Trajan Tetradrachm - 101/102 AD - Eagle38 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt.
Regnal Year: 5 = (101 / 102 AD)

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head right.

rev: Eagle standing facing right; 'L E' (date) in either field.
3 commentsrexesq
hadrian_tet_eagle_12_1gr_year-5_00.JPG
05 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Eagle - Regnal Year: 525 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt.
Regnal Year: 5

obv: Laureate bust of Hadrian facing right. Crescent Moon to right, below and in front of chin.
rev: Eagle standing facing right. Date in fields to either side.

Size: 26 x 23.5 mm
Weight: 12.1 Grams
4 commentsrexesq
DSC06723_DSC06731_hadrian_tet.JPG
05 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Eagle - Regnal Year: 5 20 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt.
Regnal Year: 5

obv: Laureate bust of Hadrian facing right. Crescent Moon to right, below and in front of chin.
rev: Eagle standing facing right. Date in fields to either side.

Size: 26 x 23.5 mm
Weight: 12.1 Grams
rexesq
1007381.JPG
050 Nero 56 viewsNero & Tiberius
Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria.
Year 13

Egypt, Alexandria. Nero. Year 13 (66/67 AD). Billon Tetradrachm (12.92 gm, 24mm). NERW KL[AV SEB GER AV], radiate bust left wearing aegis, LIG before / TIBERIO[S KAISAR], laureate head of Tiberius right. Köln 187ff.; Milne 256ff.; Curtis 175ff. RPC 5295, BMCGr 114, SGI 637, sear5


New photo
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
hadrian_3x_tet_den_den_obv_01.jpg
06 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - Hadrian Denarii35 viewsTop: Hadrian Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt. Eirene reverse. 12.65 grams.

Bottom Right: Hadrian AR Denarius, Roma reverse. Rome Mint. 3.22 grams.
Bottom Left: Hadrian AR Denarius, Fortuna reverse. Rome Mint.
(More photos and photos of reverses of both Denarii in my "Roman Imperial Denarii" Gallery)
1 commentsrexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_14.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/730 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_01_02.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/732 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_04_rev_02.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 30 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
3 commentsrexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_14_rev_05.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 22 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
3 commentsrexesq
11340.jpg
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - obv 0224 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_07.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - obv 0312 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_obv_09.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - obv 04 17 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
hadrian_AD126-7_tetradrachm_12_65gr_rev_05.JPG
07 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - rev15 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
AR/BI Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Regnal Year 11 = AD126/7.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, seen from behind.
rev: Eirene holding caduceus and grain ears.

Weight: 12.65 grams.
rexesq
074_Philippus_I__(244-249_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2696,_D-4933,_Alexandria,_Cuirassed_bust_r_,_Eagle,_L-A_(RY-1),_243-4_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_22,0-23,0mm,_12,84g-s.jpg
074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-2696, D-4933, BI-Tetradrachm, L/A//--, Eagle standing left, #162 views074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-2696, D-4933, BI-Tetradrachm, L/A//--, Eagle standing left, #1
avers: A K M IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EYCEB, Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing left, head turned right, holding wreath in beak. Date L-A across fields.
exergue: L/A//--, diameter: 22,0-23,0 mm, weight: 12,84 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: Dated Year (L-A=1), 243-244 A.D., ref: Geissen-2696, Dattari-4933, Kapmann-Ganschow-74.01-p294, Milne 3521, Emmett 3480.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
074_Philippus_I__(244-249_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2715,_D-4935,_Alexandria,_Cuirassed_bust_r_,_Eagle,_L-G_(RY-3),_245-6_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_22,0-23,0mm,_12,28ga-s~0.jpg
074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-2715, D-4935, BI-Tetradrachm, L/Γ//--, Eagle standing left, #168 views074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-2715, D-4935, BI-Tetradrachm, L/Γ//--, Eagle standing left, #1
avers: A K M IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EYCEB, Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing left, head turned right, holding wreath in beak. Date L-Γ across fields.
exergue: L/Γ//--, diameter: 22,0-23,0 mm, weight: 12,28 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: Dated Year (L-Γ=3), 245-246 A.D., ref: Geissen-2715, Dattari-4935, Kapmann-Ganschow-73.34-p296, Milne 3631, Emmett 3480.
Q-001
quadrans
DSC06878_DSC06880_hadrian_tet-alexandria.JPG
08 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Tyche13 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver/Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt.
Struck Regnal Year 11 = 126 / 127 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia ?

25 x 24mm
------------
Damaged flan.
---
-
rexesq
hadrian_alexandria-tet_00.JPG
08 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Tyche24 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver/Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt.
Struck Regnal Year 11 = 126 / 127 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.

25 x 24mm
------------
Damaged flan.
---
-
3 commentsrexesq
Hadrian_Tet_Sol_00.JPG
09 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Helios / Sol35 views
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Struck 129 - 131 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
rev: Radiate bust of Helios right, chlamys buckled over shoulder.
Regnal Year: Year 14 (129 - 131 AD) across fields.
1 commentsrexesq
Hadrian_Tet_Sol_02.jpg
09 - Hadrian Tetradrachm - Helios / Sol16 views
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Alexandria, Egypt. Struck 129 - 131 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed
rev: Radiate bust of Helios right, chlamys buckled over shoulder.
Regnal Year: Year 14 (129 - 131 AD) across fields.
rexesq
09-Alex-Alexandria.jpg
09. Alexandria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.111 viewsTetradrachm, ca 310 - 305 BC, Alexandria (Egypt) mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander with Horn of Ammon, wearing elephant skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Athena carrying shield and hurling spear. Also small eagle sitting on thunderbolt at right. Two monograms: one at left, one at right.
15.10 gm., 26 mm.
S. #7749; BMC 6.6, 46.

You may have noticed that I refer to the obverse portraits on the Alexander the Great coins as "Head of Alexander as Herakles." Much has been written about these portraits as to whether or not they really portray Alexander's likeness. There can be no doubt, however, that the portrait on this coin was intended to be that of Alexander. Ptolemy issued this coin in the name of Alexander while he was Satrap of Egypt. The elephant skin headdress was probably inspired by the lion's skin headdress on Alexander's own coins. It likely refers to Alexander's conquests in India where he defeated an Indian army with 200 elephants. Beneath the elephant skin headdress, right above his ear, Alexander wears the Horn of Zeus Ammon. The priests of Zeus Ammon recognized Alexander as divine when he visited Egypt in 331 BC.
4 commentsCallimachus
091_Salonina_(__-_268_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2969,_D-5331,_Alexandria,_L_IB_(RY_12),_267-68_AD_Q-001_0h_22,0-23,0mm_11,40g-s.jpg
091p Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2969, D-5331, Egypt, Alexandria, -/IB/L//--, Eirene standing left, #1166 views091p Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2969, D-5331, Egypt, Alexandria, -/IB/L//--, Eirene standing left, #1
avers:- KOPNHΛIA CAΛωNEINA CEB, Diademed and draped bust right.
revers:- Eirene standing left holding olive branch and sceptre, palm before, IB over L in right field..
exe: -/IB/L//--, diameter: 22,0-23,0 mm, weight:11,40 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: IB/L (dated year 12), 264-265 A.D., ref: Geissen-2969, Dattari-5331, Kapmann-Ganschow-91.33-p-322,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
091_Salonina_(__-_268_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-2986,_D-5334,_Alexandria,_L_IE_(RY_15),_267-68_AD_Q-001_0h_22,0-23,5mm_10,85g-s.jpg
091p Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2986, D-5334, Egypt, Alexandria, -/IЄ/L//--, Elpis walking left, #1153 views091p Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-2986, D-5334, Egypt, Alexandria, -/IЄ/L//--, Elpis walking left, #1
avers:- KOPNHΛIA CAΛωNEINA CEB, Diademed and draped bust right.
revers:- Elpis walking left, holding flower and raising hem of robe. Palm branch upright to left, IЄ over L in right field..
exe: -/IЄ/L//--, diameter: 22,0-23,5 mm, weight:10,85 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: I/ЄL (dated year 15), 267-268 A.D., ref: Geissen-2986, Dattari-5334, Kapmann-Ganschow-91.53-p-324,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
trajan mines coin RIC709-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 104-110 AD72 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC (laureate head right)
rev: METALLI VLPIANI (Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia)
ref: RIC II 709 (R2), Cohen 182 (30frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm
Very rare

Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the name of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Others theorize that these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function,much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. The exact denomination is unclear. Most appear to be quadrans in the 14-17mm range but some larger examples could be considered semisses.
berserker
MuradIII.jpg
0982-0983 AH - Murad III - Ottoman Mangir91 viewsSultan: Murad III (r. 1574-1595 AD)
Date: 1574-1576 AD (982 or 983 AH)
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Design

Reverse: Blank

Mint: Egypt
8.08g; 18.1mm; 4.77mm thick; ?°
Pep
1shekel_815g_25mm_10mm5mm(h23_24).jpg
1 Shekel Hematite weight11 views1 Shekel Hematite weight
Sphendonoid Hematite weight
25mm by 10mm by 5 mm
8.15g
Hendin; 23, 24.
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
IMG_9261.JPG
1. Seleukos I Nikator 15 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ Seleukeia II mint. Horned horse head right / Anchor; monogram to right. SC 145.

Seleukos fled from Antigonus the one-eyed in Babylonia on horseback. He credited this animal with saving his life. He then deified the animal on his coinage and in other cult shrines.

He eventually made it to Egypt where Ptolemy sheltered him for a while until he could regroup and begin to definitively establish what would become the Seleucid empire.
ecoli
IMG_0172.JPG
1.4 Egypt - Ptolemy II57 viewsPtolemy II - 248 BC
Egyptian bronze. 15 mm
obv. deified Alexander in Elephant headress
rev. eagle with spread wings, shield in front, H - lambda - year 38 PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS
Zam
IMG_0176.JPG
1.5 Egypt - Ptolemy II63 viewsPtolemy II - 248 BC
Egyptian Bronze, 15 mm
obv. deified Alexander in elephant headress
rev. eagle with spread wings, shild in front, H Lambda - year 38, PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS
Zam
1_10shekel__87g_25mm(h51).JPG
1/10 Shekel Hematite weight17 viewsSphendonoid Hematite weight
25mm
.87g
Hendin; 51.
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
IMG_9257.JPG
103c. Antinous 10 viewsEGYPT, Antinoöpolis. 2nd-3rd centuries AD. PB Tessera (22mm, 4.45 g, 2h). Dated year 2 of an uncertain era. Draped bust of Antinous right, wearing hem-hem crown; L B flanking / Victory advancing left, wings spread, holding palm frond and wreath. Milne –; Dattari (Savio) 11655; Köln –. Fine, dark gray surfaces.ecoli
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-,_D-5411,_Alexdr,Tyche_s_-l,LA_Q-001_0h_20-20,5mm_9,26g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-, D-5411, LA//--, Tyche seated left, #166 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-, D-5411, LA//--, Tyche seated left, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: LA above, Tyche reclining left on draped and garlanded couch, holding the rudder in right hand.
exergue: LA//--, diameter: 20-20,5mm, weight: 9,26g, axes: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 268-269 A.D., Year 1. LA., ref: Geissen-, Dattari-5411, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.14-p-328,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3015,_D-5414,_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_right,_LA_in_left(Y-1,268_AD)_Q-001_0h_21-22,5mm_8,54g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015, D-5414, -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1135 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015, D-5414, -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing right, head left with wreath in its beak, LA in the left field.
exergue: -/LA//--, diameter: 21,0-22,5mm, weight: 8,54g, axes: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 268-269 A.D., Year 1. LA., ref: Geissen- 3015, Dattari-5414, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.01-p-327,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3015v,_D-5414v,_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_right,_LA_in_left(Y-1,268_AD)_Q-001_11h_21,5mm_10,35g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015v., D-5414v., -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1162 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3015v., D-5414v., -/LA//--, Eagle standing right, #1, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. (Bust variation!)
reverse: Eagle standing right, head left with wreath in its beak, LA in the left field.
exergue: -/LA//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 10,35g, axes: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 268-269 A.D., Year 1. LA., ref: Geissen- 3015v., Dattari-5414v., Kapmann-Ganschow-104.01v.-p-327,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3027,_D-5415,_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_right,L-B_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3027, D-5415, L/B//--, Eagle standing right, #166 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3027, D-5415, L/B//--, Eagle standing right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing right, head left with wreath in its beak, L-B across the field,
exergue: L/B//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 11,21g, axes: 11 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. L-B., ref: Geissen- 3027, Dattari-5415, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.17-p-328,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3028,_D-5417,_KG-104_16_Alexandria,_Eagle_standing_left,_L-B_,_269-270_(Y-2)-Q-001_0h_21-21,5mm_9,02g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3028, D-5417, L/B//--, Eagle standing left, #1114 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3028, D-5417, L/B//--, Eagle standing left, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing left, head right with wreath in its beak, L-B across the field,
exergue: L/B//--, diameter: 21-21,5mm, weight: 9,02g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. L-B., ref: Geissen- 3028, Dattari-5418, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.16-p-328, Milne 4248, Curtis 1683, BMC-Alexandria 2333,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius-II__Gothicus_(268-270_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3037-3038,_D-5392-5393,_Alexandria,_Bust_of_Hermanubis_right,_LB_to_left_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3037-3038, D-5392-5393, LB/-//--, Bust of Hermanubis right, #165 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3037-3038, D-5392-5393, LB/-//--, Bust of Hermanubis right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Bust of Hermanubis right, wearing modius, lotus blossom to right, LB to left.
exergue: LB/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 9,5g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. LB., ref: Geissen- 3037-3038, Dattari-5392-5393, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.25-p-329,
Q-001
quadrans
104_Claudius_II__Gothicus,_Alexandria,_Potin,_Tetradrachm,_Nike,_Milne_4235_,_year-2,_269_AD__Q-001,_h,_20mm,_10,76g-s.jpg
104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3041, D-5402, -/LB//--, Nike advancing right, #189 views104p Claudius-II. Gothicus (268-270 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3041, D-5402, -/LB//--, Nike advancing right, #1
avers: AVT K KΛAVΔIOC CEB, Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm, year LB in right field.
exergue: -/LB//--, diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 10,76g, axes: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 269-270 A.D., Year 2. LB., ref: Milne 4235, Giessen-3041, Dattari-5402, Kapmann-Ganschow-104.29-p-329,
Q-001
quadrans
106_Aurelianus_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3073,_D-5470,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left,_Delta-L-star,_(RY-4),272-73AD_Q-001_0h_22,0mm_9,20g-s.jpg
106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3073, D-5470, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, ΔL/*//--, Eagle standing left, #1108 views106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3073, D-5470, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, ΔL/*//--, Eagle standing left, #1
avers: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CЄB, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing left, holding wreath in beak.
exergue: ΔL/*//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 9,20g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 272-273 A.D., Year 4., ref: Geissen-3073, Dattari-5470, Kapmann-Ganschow-106.23, p-331,
Q-001
quadrans
106_Aurelianus_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3076,_D-5492,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left-on_wreath,_star_L-Delta,_(RY-4),272-73AD_Q-001_0h_21,0mm_9,73g-s.jpg
106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3076, D-5492, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/*/LΔ//--, Eagle standing right on the wreath, #196 views106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3076, D-5492, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/*/LΔ//--, Eagle standing right on the wreath, #1
avers: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CЄB, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle standing right on the wreath, head turned left.
exergue: -/*/LΔ//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 9,73g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 272-273 A.D., Year 4., ref: Geissen-3076, Dattari-5492, Kapmann-Ganschow-106.28, p-332,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
106_Aurelianus_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3083-87,_D-5489-90,Alexandr,Eagle_l_,ETOYC-E,_Q-001_110h_20-21,5mm_9,65g-s.jpg
106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3083-87, D-5489-90, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/Є//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle left, #162 views106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3083-87, D-5489-90, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/Є//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle left, #1
avers: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CЄB, Laureate cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ЄTOYC, eagle standing left, head right, with wreath in its beak.
exergue: -/Є//--, diameter: 20-21,5mm, weight: 9,65g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 273-274 A.D., Year 5. Є, ref: Geissen-3083-87, Dattari-5489-90, Kapmann-Ganschow-106.40-p332,
Q-001
quadrans
106_Aurelianus_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3096,_D-5477,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left,_ETOYC-S,_(RY-6),274-75AD_Q-001_h_21,0mm_8,50ga-s.jpg
106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3096, D-5477, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/S//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle left, #199 views106p Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), G-3096, D-5477, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/S//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle left, #1
avers: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CЄB, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ЄTOYC, Eagle standing left, head right, with wreath in its beak.
exergue: -/S//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 8,5g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 274-275 A.D., Year 6. S, ref: Geissen-3096, Dattari-5477, Kapmann-Ganschow-106.54-p333,
Q-001
Ex Kreß 155 (1972), Lot 515.
quadrans
109_Aurelianus_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3056,_D-,_Alexdr_Vaballathus-l_,L-_#916;_Q-001_0h_21,5mm_10,28g-s.jpg
106p Aurelianus/Vaballathus (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3056, D-, -/LA//--, L/Δ//--, Vaballathus bust left, #1109 views106p Aurelianus/Vaballathus (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3056, D-, -/LA//--, L/Δ//--, Vaballathus bust left, #1
avers: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, LA in left down.
reverse: I A C OVABAΛΛAΘOC AΘHN V AVT C P, Laureate and diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Vaballathus right, L-Δ across the field.
exergue: -/LA//--, L/Δ//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 10,28g, axes:0 h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 270-271 A.D., LA/ LΔ Year 1 for Aurelianus, and Year 4 for Vaballathus, ref: Geissen-3056, Dattari-, Kapmann-Ganschow-106.67-p334,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
107_Severina_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3103,_D-5506,_Alexandria,_ETOVC_-_S_(RY_6),_K_G_107_1,_274-275AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19,5-21mm,_7,37g-s~0.jpg
107p Severina (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-3102, D-5504, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/S//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle standing right, #152 views107p Severina (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-3102, D-5504, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/S//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle standing right, #1
avers: OVΛΠ CЄVHPINA CЄB, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: ЄTOYC-S, Eagle standing right, palm across the shoulder, holding wreath in beak.
exergue: -/S//--, diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 8,46g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 274-275 A.D., Year 6. S, ref: Geissen-3102, Dattari-5504, Kapmann-Ganschow-107.2-p335,
Q-001
quadrans
107_Severina_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3103,_D-5506,_Alexandria,_ETOVC_-_S_(RY_6),_K_G_107_1,_274-275AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19,5-21mm,_7,37g-s~1.jpg
107p Severina (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-3103, D-5506, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/S//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle standing left, #144 views107p Severina (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, G-3103, D-5506, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/S//--, ЄTOYC, Eagle standing left, #1
avers: OVΛΠ CЄVHPINA CЄB, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: ЄTOYC-S, Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in its beak.
exergue: -/S//--, diameter: 19,0-21,0mm, weight: 6,94, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 274-275 A.D., Year 6. S, ref: Geissen-3103, Dattari-5506, Kapmann-Ganschow-107.1-p335,
Q-001
quadrans
107_Severina_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3108,_D-5502,_Alexandria,_ETOVC_-_Z_(RY_7),_275AD_Q-001_0h_20,0mm_8,46ga-s.jpg
107p Severina (270-275 A.D.), G-3108, D-5502, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/Z//--, ЄTOYC, Elpis standing facing, head left, #1111 views107p Severina (270-275 A.D.), G-3108, D-5502, Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, -/Z//--, ЄTOYC, Elpis standing facing, head left, #1
avers: OVΛΠ CЄVHPINA CЄB, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: ЄTOYC, Elpis standing facing, head left, holding a flower and raising the hem of the skirt.
exergue: -/Z//--, diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 8,46g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 275 A.D., Year 7. Z, ref: Geissen-3108, Dattari-5502, Kapmann-Ganschow-107.2-p335,
Q-001
Ex Hirsch 105 (1977), Lot 3509.
quadrans
109_Aurelianus_(270-275_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3056,_D-,_Alexdr_Vaballathus-l_,L-__Q-001_0h_21,5mm_10,28g-s.jpg
109p Vaballathus/Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3056, D-, -/LA//--, L/Δ//--, Vaballathus bust left, #168 views109p Vaballathus/Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3056, D-, -/LA//--, L/Δ//--, Vaballathus bust left, #1
avers: A K Λ ΔOM AVPHΛIANOC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, LA in left down.
reverse: I A C OVABAΛΛAΘOC AΘHN V AVT C P, Laureate and diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Vaballathus right, L-Δ across the field.
exergue: -/LA//--, L/Δ//--, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 10,28g, axes:0 h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 270-271 A.D., LA/ LΔ Year 1 for Aurelianus, and Year 4 for Vaballathus, ref: Geissen-3056, Dattari-, Kapmann-Ganschow-106.67-p334,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3126,_D-5552,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left,_L-B,_across_the_field,_KG_112_5,_year_2_276-7AD,_Q-001,_11h,_18,5-20,3mm,_6,91g-s~0.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3126, D-5552, L/B//--, Eagle left, head right, #1 53 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3126, D-5552, L/B//--, Eagle left, head right, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-B, across the field.
exergue: L/B//--, diameter: 18,5-20,3mm, weight: 6,91g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 276-277 A.D., L-B Year 2., ref: Geissen-3126, Dattari-5552, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.5,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_Emmet-3979,_G-3127,_D-5527,_Alexandria,_Dikaiosyne(Aequitas),_L-B_left_at_foot_(year_2)__Q-001_11h_19mm_8,47g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3127, D-5527, LB/-//--, Dikaiosyne/Aequitas standing left, #187 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3127, D-5527, LB/-//--, Dikaiosyne/Aequitas standing left, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Dikaiosyne/Aequitas standing left holding scales and cornucopiae, LB left at foot.
exergue: LB/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 8,51g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 276-277 A.D., LB Year 2., ref: Geissen-3127, Dattari-5527, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.7-p338,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3128,_D-5533,_K-G_112_8,_Alexandria,_Elpis,_L-B_left__(year_2),_276-77_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19,5mm,_7,11g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3128, D-5533, LB/-//--, Elpis advancing left, #168 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3128, D-5533, LB/-//--, Elpis advancing left, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Elpis advancing left, holding flower and lifting fold of dress, LB in the left field.
exergue: LB/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 7,11g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 276-277 A.D., LB Year 2., ref: Geissen-3128, Dattari-5533, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.8,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3134,_D-5545,_KG_112_15,_Alexandria,_Tyche_left,_L-Gamma,_Q-001,_0h,_18,5-19,0mm,_6,26g-s~0.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #165 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Tyche/Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae, L-Γ left at the top.
exergue: LΓ/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 8,51g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 277-278 A.D., LB Year 3., ref: Geissen-3134, Dattari-5545, Milne 4560, Curtis 1890, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.15-p338,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3134,_D-5545,_KG_112_15,_Alexandria,_Tyche_left,_L-Gamma,_Q-002,_0h,_18,0mm,_7,14g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #275 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3134, D-5545, LΓ/-//--, Tyche/Fortuna standing left, #2
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Tyche/Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae, LΓ left at the top.
exergue: LΓ/-//--, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 7,141g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 277-278 A.D., LB Year 3., ref: Geissen-3134, Dattari-5545, Milne 4560, Curtis 1890, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.15-p338,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3136-3137,_D-5561,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left,_L-Delta,_across_the_field,_Q-001_11h_19,0mm_8,03ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3136-3137, D-5561, L/Δ//--, Eagle left, head right, #1100 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3136-3137, D-5561, L/Δ//--, Eagle left, head right, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Δ, across the field.
exergue: L/Δ//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 8,03g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 278-279 A.D., L-Δ Year 4., ref: Emmet-, Milne-, Geissen-3136-3137, Dattari-5561, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.16-p338,
Q-001
Ex Kreß, Auction 171 (1978), Lot 1117.
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-,_D-,_Emett-3986_Alexandria,_Eirene-(Pax),_L-Delta_left_at_foot_(year4_)__Q-001_axis-0h_17-18,5mm_6,06g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3139, D-5530, LΔ/-//--, Eirene/Pax standing left, #170 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3139, D-5530, LΔ/-//--, Eirene/Pax standing left, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eirene/Pax standing left holding olive branch and sceptre, L-Δ left at foot.
exergue: LΔ/-//--, diameter: 17-18,5mm, weight: 6,06g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 278-279 A.D., LΔ Year 4., ref: Emmet-3986, Milne 4551, Geissen-3139, Dattari-5530, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.19-p-339,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_276-282_AD),_Bi-Tetrdr_,_Emmet-,G-3145,D-5553,_KG-112_22,_Alexandria,_Eagle_r_,L-E,_Y-5,279-80,Q-001_11h_18,5-20mm_7,21-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3145, D-5553, L/Є//--, Eagle left, head right, #1 92 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, Emmet-3984, L/Є//--, Eagle left, head right, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Є, across the field.
exergue: L/Є//--, diameter: 18,5-20,0mm, weight: 7,21g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 279-280 A.D., L-Є Year 5., ref: Emmet-3984, Milne-4610, Geissen-3145, Dattari-5553, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.22-p339,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3147,_D-5534,_KG-112_27,_Alexandria,_Homonoia_left,_LE,_Y-5,_Milne_4598,_279-80_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_18,0-19,8mm,_6,89g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3147, D-5534, LЄ/-//--, Homonoia standing left, #171 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3147, D-5534, LЄ/-//--, Homonoia standing left, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Homonoia standing left, right arm raised; cornucopiae in left hand, LЄ left at foot.
exergue: LЄ/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,8mm, weight: 6,89g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 279-280 A.D., LЄ Year 5., ref: Geissen-3147, Dattari-5534, Milne-4598, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.27,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3148,_D-5540,_K-G_112_28,_Alexandria,_Nike,_E-L_right__(year_5),_279-80_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_17,3-18,0mm,_7,15g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3148, D-5540, -/LЄ//--, Nike flying right, #156 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3148, D-5540, -/LЄ//--, Nike flying right, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Nike, in long chiton, flying right carrying palm and wreath, LЄ in the right field.
exergue: -/LЄ//--, size: 17,3-18,0mm, weight: 7,15g, axes: 0h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 279-280 A.D., LЄ Year 5., ref: Geissen-3148, Dattari-5540, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.28,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3149,_D-5557,_KG-112_31,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left,_L-S,_Y-6,_Milne_4632,_280-1AD,_Q-001,_0h,_17,0-18,5mm,_6,75g-s~0.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3149, D-5557, L/S//--, Eagle right, head right, #1 74 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3149, D-5557, L/S//--, Eagle right, head right, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle right, head right, his beak wreath, L-S, across the field.
exergue: L/S//--, diameter: 18-22mm, weight: 8,69g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 280-281 A.D., L-S Year 6., ref: Emmet-3982, Milne-4682, Geissen-3149, Dattari-5557, Curtis , Kapmann-Ganschow-112.31-p339,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
112_Probus_276-282_AD),_Bi-Tetrdr_,_Emmet-,G-3154,D-5558,_KG-112_37,_Alexandria,_Eagle_r_,L-Z,_Y-7,281-2,Q-001_0h_18-22mm_8,69g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3154, D-5558, L/Z//--, Eagle right, head right, #1 102 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3154, D-5558, L/Z//--, Eagle right, head right, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle right, head right, his beak wreath, L-Z, across the field.
exergue: L/Z//--, diameter: 18-22mm, weight: 8,69g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 281-282 A.D., L-Z Year 7., ref: Emmet-3154, Milne-4649, Geissen-3154, Dattari-5558, Curtis 1864, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.37-p340,
Q-001
quadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_Emmet-3984,_G-3155,_D-5555,_Alexandria,_Eagle_left,_L-Z,_across_the_field,_Q-001_0h_19mm_7,38g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3155, D-5555, L/Z//--, Eagle left, head right, #1108 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Egypt, Alexandria, Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3155, D-5555, L/Z//--, Eagle left, head right, #1
avers: A K M AVP ΠPOBOC CЄB, Laureated, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Eagle left, head right, his beak wreath, L-Z, across the field.
exergue: L/Z//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 7,38g, axes: 11h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 281-282 A.D., L-Z Year 7., ref: Geissen-3155, Dattari-5555, Kapmann-Ganschow-112.38-p340,
Q-001
quadrans
GI_125c_img.jpg
125 - Aurelian, Billon Tetradrachm - Milne 445613 viewsObv:– A K L DOM AVPHLIANOC CEB, Laureate cuirassed bust right
Rev– ETOYC - S, Eagle standing left, head right, with wreath in its beak
Minted in Egypt, Alexandria Year 6 of Aurelian, 275-276 AD.
Reference:– Milne 4456. Curtis 1773
maridvnvm
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)91 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.56 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.34 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
antpius as-concordia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD62 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (Concordia standing left, holding Victory and aquila)
ref: RIC III 678, C.140 (2frcs)
10.26gms, 26mm

This reverse symbolises the concord between the emperor and the army. The reign of Antoninus Pius was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, the Moors in Mauretania (AD150), the Jews in Iudaea (for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar, after the Bar Kokhba revolt), the Brigantes in Britannia (AD 140-145, the Antonine Wall being built ca. 40 miles further north), the different Germanic tribes at the Germania limes, the Alans in Dacia (AD158), and had to put down rebellions in the provinces of Achaia and Egypt (AD154).
berserker
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)41 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)38 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
564Hadrian_eastern_Strack.jpg
145 Hadrian, Denarius 134-138 AD, Egypt Eastern Mint 58 viewsReference.
Strack *61 var.; cf RIC II, 297

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev. AEGYPTOS
Egypt reclining left, sistrum in right hand, left arm resting on modius filled with grain ears, ibis at feet

2.73 gr
18 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius92 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
0023-070np_noir.jpg
1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius235 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11931940 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
commodus_RIC259a.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 or 192 AD33 viewsobv: L AEL AVREL COM-M AVG P FEL (laureate head right)
rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVG (Hercules standing right, his foot is placed on the prow of a vessel, resting club on treetrunk right and holding thunderbolt; clasping hands with Africa, who wears elephantskin on head, in her left hand holding sistrum, at her feet lion)
ref: RIC III 259a (R), RSC 643 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
2.86gms, 18mm
Rare

This coin legend and type is regarded to the African fleet of corn transports. The elephant's head, the sistrum, and the lion are attributes peculiar to Egypt and to Africa proper, which were the granaries of Rome. But Commodus having sent his ships for freights of corn is on this coin represented paying worship to Hercules, and he himself plants his foot on the prow of one of the vessels, as if showing care for his new colony.
1 commentsberserker
LouisXVIII1822VenusdeMilo.JPG
1822. Louis XVIII. Discovery and presentatoin of Venus de Milo.140 viewsObv. Head of Louis XVIII to right LVDOVICVS XVIII FRANC ET NAV REX
Rev. Venus de Milo standing in front of Egyptian antiquities COLLECTIS EX AEGYPTO GREACIAQ MONVMENTIS / SVMTV REGIO BONARVM ARTVIM VTILITATI MDCCCXXII
AE50.

This medal commemorates the discovery and presentation of the statue Venus de Milo.
LordBest
439Hadrian_RIC19.jpg
19 ANONYMOUS. Period of Domitian to Antoninus Pius, Quadrans Circa 81-161 AD Mars29 viewsReference.
RIC 19 (pag. 218); Cohen 26; Weigel 10

Obv.
Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars right

Rev. S-C
Cuirass.

2.41 gr
18 mm
12h

Note from CNG.
Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the names of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Some scholars believe these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function, much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. Whatever the circumstances, these pieces saw limited use, and, except for one rare type struck by Marcus Aurelius, were not issued at any other period.
2 commentsokidoki
PompeyDenNeptune.jpg
1ac1 Pompey the Great28 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus in 60 BC. Murdered in Egypt, 48 BC.

Denarius, minted by son Sextus Pompey

42-40 BC

Head of Pompey the Great right between jug and lituus
Neptune right foot on prow, flanked by the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, with their parents on their shoulders

Struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the Son of Neptune. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was, however, defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.). He was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C.

SRCV I 1392, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, Crawford 511/3a, BM Sicily 93

Plutarch said of Pompey: In Pompey, there were many [causes] that helped to make him the object of [the Roman people's] love; his temperance, his skill and exercise in war, his eloquence of speech, integrity of mind, and affability in conversation and address; insomuch that no man ever asked a favour with less offence, or conferred one with a better grace. When he gave, it was without assumption; when he received, it was with dignity and honour.
1 commentsBlindado
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia44 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
Blindado
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa36 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
Blindado
ClaudiusIIAntLiberalit.jpg
1di Claudius Gothicus25 views268-270

AE antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Liberlitas stg, LIBERALITAS AVG

RIC 57

Zosimus recorded: When the troops were calmed by their commanders, Claudius was chosen emperor, having previously been designed for that dignity by general consent. Aureolus, who had for a long time kept himself out of the hands of Gallienus, presently sent agents to Claudius, to effect a peace. Surrendering himself, he was killed by the guards of the emperor, who still remembered the hatred they bore against him for his treachery.

The Scythians were by this time so elated by their former success, that they appointed a place of meeting with the Heruli, Peucae, and Gothi, near the river Tyra, which empties itself into the Pontus; where having built six thousand vessels, and put on board them three hundred and twenty thousand men, they sailed across the Pontus, and made an attempt on Tomes, a fortified town, but were repulsed from it. From thence they proceed to Marcianopolis, a city of Mysia, but failing there likewise in their attack on it, they took the opportunity of a favourable wind and sailed forward. . . . they passed through the Hellespont, and arrived at Mount Athos. Having there refitted and careened their vessels, they laid siege to Cassandria and Thessalonica, which they were near taking by means of machines which they raised against the walls. But hearing that the emperor was advancing with an army, they went into the interior, plundering all the neighbourhood of Doberus and Pelagonia. There they sustained a loss of three thousand men, who were met with by the Dalmatian cavalry, and with the rest of their force engaged the army of the emperor. Great numbers were slain in this battle on both sides, but the Romans, by a pretended flight, drew the Barbarians into an ambuscade and killed more than fifty thousand of them.

Egypt being thus reduecd by the Palmyrenians, the Barbarians, who survived the battle of Naissus between Claudius and the Scythians, defending themselves with their carriages which went before them, marched towards Macedon, but were so distressed by the want of necessaries, that many of them and of their beasts perished with hunger. They were met likewise by the Roman cavalry, who having killed many of them, drove the rest towards Mount Haemus; where being surrounded by the Roman army, they lost a vast number of men. But a quarrel ensuing between the Roman horse and foot soldiers, the emperor wishing the foot to engage the Barbarians, the Romans, after a smart engagement, were defeated with considerable loss, but the cavalry, coming up immediately, redeemed in some degree the miscarriage of the infantry. After this battle, the Barbarians proceeded on their march, and were pursued by the Romans. The pirates who cruized about Crete and Rhodes retired without doing any thing worthy of mention; and being attacked by the plague on their way home, some of them died in Thrace and some in Macedon. All that survived were either admitted into the Roman legions, or had lands assigned for them to cultivate and so become husbandmen. Nor was the plague confined to the Barbarians alone, but began to infest the Romans, many of whom died, and amongst the rest Claudius, a person adorned with every virtue. His death was a severe loss to his subjeets, and was consequently much regretted by them.
Blindado
AurelianusAntPietas.jpg
1dk Aurelian27 views270-275

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex, PIETAS AVG

Zosimus recorded: Aurelianus, having regulated the empire, went from Rome to Aquileia, and from thence into Pannonia, which he was informed the Scythians were preparing to invade. For this reason he sent orders to the inhabitants of that country to carry into the towns all their corn and cattle, and every thing that could be of use to the enemy, in order to distress them with famine, with which they were already afflicted. The Barbarians having crossed the river into Pannonia had an engagement, the result of which was nearly equal. But the same night, the Barbarians recrossed the river, and as soon as day appeared, sent ambassadors to treat for peace. |25

The Emperor, hearing that the Alemanni and the neighbouring nations intended to over-run Italy, was with just reason more concerned for Rome and the adjacent places, than for the more remote. Having therefore ordered a sufficient force to remain for the defence of Pannonia, he marched towards Italy, and on his route, on the borders of that country, near the Ister, slew many thousands of the Barbarians in one battle. Several members of the senate being at this time accused of conspiring against the emperor were put to death ; and Rome, which before had no walls, was now surrounded with them. This work was begun in the reign of Aurelianus, and was finished by Probus. At the same time Epitimius, Urbanus, and Domitianus, were likewise suspected as innovators, and were immediately apprehended and punished. During these occurrences in Italy and Pannonia, the emperor prepared to march against the Palmyrenians, who had subdued all Egypt, and the east, as far as Ancyra in Galatia, and would have acquired Bithynia even as far as Chalcedon, if the inhabitants of that country had not learned that Aurelianus was made emperor, and so shook off the Palmyrenian yoke. As soon as the emperor was on his march thither, Ancyra submitted to the Romans, and afterwards Tuana, and all the cities between that and Antioch. There finding Zenobia with a large army ready to engage, as he himself also was, he met and engaged her as honour obliged him [an defeated the enemy. . . .

[Having crushed Palmyra and razed it] He then entered Rome in triumph, where he was most magnificiently received by the senate and people. At this period also be erected that sumptuous temple of the sun, which he ornamented with all the sacred spoils that he brought from Palmyra; placing in it the statues of the sun and Belus. After this he easily reduced Tatricus with his rebellious accomplices, whom he brought to signal punishment. He likewise called in all the counterfeit money, and issued new, to avoid confusion in trade. Besides which he bestowed on the people a gift of bread, as a mark of his favour; and having arranged all affairs set out on a journey from Rome. . . .

During his stay at Perinthus, now called Heraclea, a conspiracy was thus formed against him. There was in the court a man named Eros, whose office was to carry out the answers of the emperor. This man had been for some fault threatened by the emperor, and put in great fear. Dreading therefore lest the emperor should realize his menaces by actions, he went to some of the guard, whom he knew to be the boldest men in the court; be told them a plausible story, and shewed them a letter of his own writing, in the character of the emperor (which he had long before learned to counterfeit), and persuading them first that they themselves were to be put to death, [h]e endeavoured to prevail on them to murder the emperor. The deception answered. Observing Aurelianus to go out of the city with a small retinue, they ran out upon him and murdered him.

RIC 138
Blindado
FlorianusAntConcordMil.jpg
1dn Florianus26 views276

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP FLORIANVS AVG
Victory & Flor, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 116Q

Half-brother to Tacitus, he reigned only two months before his troops killed him rather than fight an army under Probus. Concordia Militvm did not really work out for him. Zosimus recorded, "An universal civil disturbance now arose, those of the east chusing Probus emperor, and those at Rome Florianus. The former of these governed all Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt; but the latter was in possession of all the countries from Cilicia to Italy; besides which the homage of all the nations beyond the Alps, the Gauls, Spaniards, Britons, and Africans was paid to him. When both therefore were ready for war, Florianus came to Tarsus, resolving to encamp there, leaving his victory over the Scythians at the Bosphorus unfinished, by which he gave them an opportunity of recovering themselves and returning home, though he had cut off their retreat. Probus protracted the time, because he came with less preparation for a battle. By these means it came to pass, that the weather, being exceedingly hot, a pestilential disorder broke out amongst the troops of Florianus, most of whom were Europeans, and consequently unaccustomed to such excessive heat, by which many were taken off. When Probus understood this, he thought it a proper time to attack the enemy. The soldiers of Florianus, attempting what exceeded their strength, fought some slight skirmishes before the city, but nothing being done worthy of notice, some of the troops of Probus deposed Florianus. Having performed this, he was kept in custody for some time, until his own soldiers said, that it was the will of Probus that he should share the empire. Florianus therefore assumed |32 the purple robe again, until the return of those who were sent to know the true resolution of Probus. On their arrival they caused Florianus to be killed by his own soldiers."
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DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus21 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great17 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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1eg Delmatius21 viewsCaesar 335-337

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, FL DELMATIVS NOB C two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them, O on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS. Mintmark: SMTSD.

RIC 202D

Zosimus recorded: After Constantine had oppressed and tormented the people in these various modes, he died of a disease, and was succeeded by his three sons, who were not born of Fausta the daughter of Maximianus Herculius, but of another woman, whom he had put to death for adultery. They devoted themselves more to the pleasures of youth than to the service of the state. They began by dividing the nations between them. Constantine the eldest, and Constans the youngest, having for their share all beyond the Alps, together with Italy and Illyricum, the countries bordering on the Euxine sea and all that belonged to Carthage in Africa; Constantius obtained all Asia, the east, and Egypt. There were likewise others who shared in the government; Dalmatius, whom Constantine made Caesar, Constantius his brother, and Hanniballianus, who had all worn robes of purple embroidered with gold, and were promoted to the order of Nobilissimates by Constantine, from respect to their being of his own family. . . . The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers ; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate.

A great-nephew of Constantine the Great.
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ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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2_5shekel340g_12mm_9mm_(h38_39).jpg
2/5 Shekel Hematite weight13 views
Sphendonoid Hematite weight
12mm tall by 9mm base
3.4g
Hendin; 38, 39
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
RIC_0391[carac]a.jpg
201a. JULIA DOMNA139 viewsJULIA DOMNA, mother of Caracalla.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193, two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197. Afterwards, she was with Severus on a journey to Egypt and other parts of the empire. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued. Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon, and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

In 212, Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve. Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217; when she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food.

AR Denarius
(19mm, 2.86 gm). IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped
bust right / VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left,
holding simpulum and sceptre. RIC IV 391 (Caracalla); BMCRE 31 (same); RSC 226. EF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli73
145187.jpg
201c. Pescennius Niger125 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli
106223.jpg
204d. Aquilia Severa65 viewsAquilia Severa

As part of this marriage of gods, Elagabalus married one of the Vestal Virgins, Julia Aquilia Severa (AD 220). In earlier days sexual relations with a Vestal Virgins meant the immediate death penalty for both her and her lover, then this marriage of the emperor only further enraged public opinion. Although the marriage between Elagabalus and Aquilia Severa went ahead, the emperor's religious aspirations for El-Gabal had to be abandoned, for fear of the public's reaction. Instead the god El-Gabal, by now known to the Romans as Elagabalus - the same name used for their emperor, - was 'married' to the less controversial moon goddess Urania.

EGYPT, Alexandria. Potin Tetradrachm (25mm, 14.54 gm). Dated year 5 (221/222 AD). Draped bust right / Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak. Köln 2374; Dattari 4188; Milne 2868; Curtis 1016; Emmett 3010. VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. From the Tony Hardy Collection. Ex-CNG
ecoli
coin161.JPG
205. Severus Alexander; Alexandria, Egypt;13 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235. BI Tetradrachm. Dated RY 7 (AD 227/8). Laureate and cuirassed bust right / Helmeted head of Athena right; LZ (date) to right. Köln -; Dattari 9873; cf. Milne 3014; Emmett 3093.7.ecoli
coin176.JPG
205. Severus Alexander; Alexandria, Egypt;30 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235. BI Tetradrachm (23mm, 11.66 g, 12h). Dated RY 12 (AD 232/3). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Nike seated left on cuirass, holding palm and wreath; palm to left, LI B (date) across field. Cf. Köln 2480 ; Dattari 4326; cf. Milne 3110 ; Emmett 3120.12. VF. Well struck.ecoli
rjb_phil3_01_09.jpg
24417 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Eagle standing right with palm branch behind
Year 2
Milne 3566
mauseus
rjb_phil2_01_09.jpg
24417 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Eagle standing left, head turned right, with wreath in beak
Year 3
Milne 3633
mauseus
SevAlex-tet-yr-01.jpg
26. Severus Alexander, year 01.13 viewsTetradrachm, Year 1 (March - August 222 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC EV CEB / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L A / Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing, holding scales and cornucopiae.
10.92 gm., 24 mm.
Koln 2401; Dattari 4290.
Callimachus
rjb_val11_02_09.jpg
260b15 viewsSaloninus 260 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Eagle standing leftt, head turned right, with wreath in beak
Year 7
Milne 4047
mauseus
rjb_2019_02_21.jpg
26812 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LB"
Eagle standing right, head turned back, holding wreath in beak
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_2019_02_22.jpg
26813 viewsClaudius II 268-70 AD
AE tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LB"
Eagle standing right, head forwards, holding wreath in beak
2 commentsmauseus
SevAlex-tet-yr-02.jpg
27. Severus Alexander, year 02.9 viewsTetradrachm, Year 2 (222 / 223 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L B / Dikaiosyne (Aequitas) standing, holding scales and cornucopiae.
11.51 gm., 22 mm.
Koln 2408; Dattari 4291.
Callimachus
SevAlex-tet-yr-03.jpg
28. Severus Alexander, year 03.8 viewsTetradrachm, Year 3 (223 / 224 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L Γ / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, holding double cornucopiae.
12.67 gm., 22.5 mm.
Curtis 1072.
Callimachus
rjb_2009_12_13.jpg
28613 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Elpis walking left
mauseus
rjb_2009_12_12.jpg
28610 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Eirene standing left holding transverse sceptre
mauseus
rjb_2009_12_15.jpg
2869 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Tyche standing left
mauseus
rjb_2009_12_14.png
28613 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Eagle standing left, head right
mauseus
rjb_2009_12_16.jpg
28614 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Alexandria in Egypt
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Nike walking right
mauseus
SevAlex-tet-yr-04.jpg
29. Severus Alexander, year 04.9 viewsTetradrachm, Year 4 (224 / 225 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEVHP AΛEΞANΔPOC EV CEB / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L Δ / Eagle holding wreath in its beak.
12.58 gm., 23 mm.
Koln 2418; Dattari 4408.
Callimachus
81Hadrian_RIC297.jpg
297 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Egypt27 viewsReference.
RIC 297; Strack 294

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right; draped left shoulder.

Rev. AEGYPTOS
Egypt reclining left, sistrum in right hand, left arm resting on basket, ibis on low column at feet.

3.26 gr
18 mm
10h
okidoki
1069Hadrian_RIC297.jpg
297 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Egypt50 viewsReference.
RIC 297; Strack 294; C. 99

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right; draped left shoulder.

Rev. AEGYPTOS
Egypt reclining left, sistrum in right hand, left arm resting on basket, ibis on low column at feet.

3.46 gr
19 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Gorny & Mosch, auction 160 lot 2326
6 commentsokidoki
3_4shekal_588g_20mm_10mm6mm(h29).jpg
3/4 Shekel Hematite weight12 viewsSphendonoid Hematite weight
20mm by 10mm by 6mm at end
5.88g
Hendin; 29.
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
image~22.jpg
302c. Gordian I24 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Gordian I. AD 238. Potin Tetradrachm (23mm, 11.50 g, 12h). Dated RY 1 (AD 238). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak; L A (date) across field. Köln 2598; Dattari (Savio) 4665; K&G 68.1; Emmett 3342.1. Fine, dark brown patina, rough surfaces. Rare.

From a Hungarian Collection formed primarily in the 1930’s.
ecoli
coin169.JPG
303. Gordian III; Alexandria, Egypt17 viewsRÖMISCHES REICH, Gordian III., 238-244, Bil.-Tetradrachme, Jahr 2 =238/239, Ägypten, Stadt Alexandria. Belorb. Brb.r. Rs.Nilusbüste r. , Datt.4757, BMC 16.246, 1899 Var., Försch.-, selten, vz ecoli
coin259.JPG
318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
ecoli
SevAlex-tet-yr-11.jpg
36. Severus Alexander, year 11.11 viewsTetradrachm, Year 11 (231 / 232 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC EV / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L IA / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, holding double cornucopiae; palm branch at left.
11.68 gm., 23 mm.
Koln 2468.
Callimachus
SevAlex-tet-yr-14.jpg
39. Severus Alexander, year 14.20 viewsTetradrachm, Year 14 (234 / 235 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A KAI MAP AVP CEV AΛEΞANΔPOC EC / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: L IΔ / Zeus seated, holding sceptre and patera. Eagle at feet, palm branch behind.
13.42 gm., 22.5 mm.
Koln 2496.
1 commentsCallimachus
spinosaurus4inch.jpg
4" Spinosaurus Tooth103 viewsSpinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the lower Albian to Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 106 to 93.5 million years ago. This genus was first known from Egyptian remains discovered in the 1910s and described by German paleontologist Ernst Stromer. These original remains were destroyed in World War II, but additional skull material has come to light in recent years. It is unclear whether one or two species are represented in the described fossils. The best known species is S. aegyptiacus from Egypt, although a potential second species, S. maroccanus, has been recovered from Morocco. Spinosaurus is often postulated as a piscivore, and work using oxygen isotope ratios in tooth enamel suggests that it was semiaquatic, living both on land and in water like a modern crocodilian.ancientone
60661q00.jpg
4) Cleopatra Tetradrachm of Alexandria61 viewsThis coin was issued in the first year of Cleopatra's reign, which would place it around 50 B.C. while she was was still in a relationship with Julius Caesar. Twenty years later, she and Antony would commit suicide after their defeat at Actium, ending the reign of the Pharaohs of Egypt.

Silver tetradrachm, Svoronos 1817 (Ptolemaios XIII); SNG Cop 398; Cohen DCA 70; BMC Ptolemies p. 1817, 2 (Ptolemaios XIII); Noeske 363; Hosking 129; SNG Milan -, gVF, toned, Paphos mint, weight 9.476g, maximum diameter 25.6mm, die axis 0o, 51 - 50; obverse diademed bust right (feminized bust of Ptolemy I or Cleopatra?), wearing aegis; reverse PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings closed, palm behind over right wing, LB (year 2) over crown of Isis left, PA right

Purchased from FORVM
RM0010
1 commentsSosius
2550147.jpg
4) Juba II and Cleopatra Selene28 viewsKINGS of MAURETANIA
Juba II, with Cleopatra Selene. 25 BC-24 AD.
AR Denarius (18mm, 2.95g)
Caesarea mint. Struck circa 20 BC-AD 24.

Diademed head right / Star in crescent. MAA 97; SNG Copenhagen 567. VF, weak strike.

For almost fifty years Juba II maintained order in North Africa as one of Rome's most loyal client kings. In AD 11, he had been given Cleopatra Selene, daughter of Cleopatra VII of Egypt, as a wife by a grateful Augustus, and their son, Ptolemy, succeeded him in AD 24.

Ex CNG
RM0005
2 commentsSosius
V476-1.jpg
4.6 Hadrian AEGYPTOS denarius103 viewsHadrian denarius
132 CE, Rome mint
3.27 g, 18 mm, RIC 297

obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP
bare bust of Hadrian, facing right

rev. AEGYPTOS
Egypt reclining left on couch, holding sistrum (an Egyptian musical instrument - used in many Egyptian cults) in right hand, stork at feet

part of Hadrian's Travel Series
1 commentsEcgþeow
coin536.JPG
410. Licinius I42 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

ecoli
Gordian-tet-yr-6.jpg
45. Gordian III, year 6.14 viewsTetradrachm, Year 6 (242-243 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A K M ANT ΓOΡΔIANOC EΥ / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: L S / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, right hand extended and holding a double cornucopiae in left arm.
3.02 gm., 22 mm.
Callimachus
Philip-II-tet-yr-5.jpg
49. Philp II, year 5.10 viewsTetradrachm, Year 5 (247 / 248 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A K M IOΥ ΦIΛIΦΦOC E / Bust of Philip II.
Reverse: L E / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, hand extended, holding double cornucopiae.
13.97 gm.,
22.5 mm.

During the last few years of the reign of Philip I, both father and son shared the same titles. Coin portraits of father and son can often be distinguished from each other since Philip I is usually portrayed with a beard and Philip II is not. This coin was purchased as a tetradrachm of Philip I, but is being attributed here as a coin of Philip II since there is no trace of a beard on the portrait.
Callimachus
Marc_Antony_Cr496.jpg
496/1 Marc Antony45 viewsMarc Antony AR Denarius. 42 BC, Greek Mint. (3.62g, 17.8m, 2.3h). Obv: M ANTONI IMP, bare head right. Rev: III VIR R P C, facing head of Sol in a temple of two columns. RSC 12, Sear5 1467, Syd 1168, Cr496/1.

After Caesar’s death, Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate. Ultimately, Lepidus was pushed to the side and Antony was defeated by Octavian at the battle of Actium. Fleeing back to Egypt, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide in the face of their defeat by Octavian.
2 commentsLucas H
495_P_Hadrian_Emmett834_2_.jpg
4993 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Eagle standing16 viewsReference.
Emmett 834.2; RPC III, 4993; Köln 741; Ka/Ga 32.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L B
Eagle standing, right

13.15 gr
mm
h
okidoki
1263_P_Hadrian_RPC4999.jpg
4999 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Nike left13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4999; Emmett 872.2; Birmingham (Barber RE 0166); Köln –; Dattari (Savio) 1409 var

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r. drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Nike advancing, l., holding wreath and palm-branch

10.75 gr
25 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
873_P_Hadrian_Emmett889_02.jpg
5006 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Sarapis bust19 viewsReference.
Emmett 889.2; RPC III, 5006 Köln --; BMC 606

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑINOC (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right, drapery on left shoulder; to right

Rev. L B
Draped bust of Sarapis, wearing kalathos and laurel wreath, right.

12.90 gr
25 mm
h
okidoki
coin599.JPG
501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
ecoli
572_P_Hadrian_Emmett803_2~0.jpg
5011 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Agathodaemon22 viewsReference.
Emmett 803.2; RPC III, 5011; Dattari 1541 , BMC 665

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ΑΔΡΙΑ CEB
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. L B
Agathodaemon erect, r., crowned with Skhent, enfolding caduceus and stalk of corn.

13.38 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
164_P_Hadrian__Emmett_901_2.jpg
5012 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Tyche standing19 viewsReferentie.
Emmett 901.2; BMC 601 var.; Milne 817; RPC III, 5012

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L B
Tyche standing left, wearing modius, chiton and peplos, holding rudder and cornucopiae.

11.44 gr
25.00 mm
okidoki
486_P_Hadrian_Emmett960_2.jpg
5018A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 117-18 AD Hadrian in quadriga40 viewsReference.
Emmett 960.2; RPC III, 5018A Köln 757; Dattari (Savio) 1585 var. (obv. legend); K&G 32.50
BMC 864 specimen has ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΙΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС as obverse legend.

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑIΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate bust right No Beard, slight drapery

Rev. L B (date ry 2)
Emperor (Hadrian) standing in quadriga, right, laureate-headed, wearing toga, holding eagle-tipped sceptre and branch.

21.80 gr
34 mm
12 h

From the Syracuse Collection.

Note CNG.
Hadrian’s portraits on his early coins in Alexandria more closely resemble Trajan, as the engravers in the provinces waited for an official Imperial model or bust to be sent out. In this case, by Hadrian’s regnal year 2, the engravers might have had access to or knowledge of what Hadrian looked like, as the portrait on the present coin is beginning to morph into a more accurate representation of Hadrian’s Imperial image.
1 commentsokidoki
180_P_Hadrian_Emmett961_1.jpg
5019 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 117-18 AD quadriga of elephants23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5019; Emmett 961.2; Milne 846

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. LB year 2
Hadrian holding branch and eagle-tipped scepter, being drawn right by quadriga of elephants.

17.15 gr
34 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
546_P_Hadrian_Emmett1015_2.jpg
5023 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 117-18 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus35 viewsReference.
Emmett 1015.2; RPC III, 5023; Dattari 1798v, Milne 859; Köln 760 var.

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. LB (year 2)
Nilus reclining left on hippopotamus, holding reed in right and cornucopia in left hand.

23.96 gr
35 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1170_P_Hadrian_RPC5035_2.jpg
5035 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 117-18 AD Nike left11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5035.2; Dattari-Savio Pl. 86, 1770 (this coin); Emmett --

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΝΟ[С (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС]
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. L B
Nike advancing, l., holding wreath and palm-branch

14.46 gr
29.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1276_P_Hadrian_RPC5049_2.jpg
5049 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing4 viewsReference
RPC III, 5049.2; Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1346 (this coin); Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ (sic)
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.34 gr
22 mm
12h
okidoki
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
637_P_Hadriam_Emmett884.jpg
5060A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Athena30 viewsReference.
Emmett 884.02 (year not listed); cf RPC III, 5197 ( different bust and no star) RPC III, 5060A

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5060A/

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front, star in front

Rev. L B
Helmeted bust of Athena, right, wearing aegis

14.00 gr
25 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1084_P_Hadrian_RPC-.jpg
5063A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Eagle 9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5063A; Dattari 1554 var. (laureate head)

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front, star in front

Rev. L Β
Eagle standing, right

12.64 gr
22 mm
12h
okidoki
1052_P_Hadrian_RPC5071_7.jpg
5071 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Ammon8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5071.7 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 71, 7491 (this coin).Emmett 905.3

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r., star

Rev. L Β
Bust of Ammon, r., crowned with disc

12.32 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
720_P_Hadrian_Emmett834_02_star.JPG
5080 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Eagle standing right19 viewsReference.
Emmett 834.02; RPC III, 5080; Dattari. 1554; Köln 742

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r., star

Rev. L Β
Eagle standing, r., on thunderbolt


12.84 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1015_P_Hadrian_RPC5084.jpg
5084 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Hermes18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5084/2; Dattari-Savio Pl. 67, 1388 (this coin). Dattari 1388 and Pl. XVI (this rev. Illustrated); Emmett 860.5

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r., star

Rev. L Β
Bare head right, drapery on left shoulder, and over back of neck (no caduceus)

15.00 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection. Apparently unique and illustrated in Dattari.
3 commentsokidoki
487_P_Hadrian_Emmett889_2.JPG
5088 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Sarapis bust13 viewsReference.
Emmett 889.2; RPC III, 5088 Köln 1150; Dattari 1465 var.

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. AΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ (sic)
Laureate head of Hadrian, right, drapery on left shoulder; to right, star in front.

Rev. L B
Draped bust of Sarapis, wearing kalathos and laurel wreath, right.

13.32 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I51 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
494_P_Hadrian_Emmett817_3.jpg
5140 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Athena 19 viewsReference. R5
Emmett 884.3: RPC 5140, 5140; Köln 768. Ka/Ga 32.73;

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Γ
helmeted bust of Athena, right, wearing aegis

13.15 gr
25 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1275_P_Hadrian_RPC5142_9.jpg
5142 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Dikaiosyne standing6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5142.9; Dattari-Savio Suppl. 18, 11 (this coin); Emmett 833.3

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Γ
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

13.18 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
1016_P_Hadrian_RPC5155_8.jpg
5143 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Eagle standing right14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5143; Dattari-Savio Pl. 72, 1556 (this coin); Emmett 834.3

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L L (L Γ) engravours error
Eagle standing, r., on thunderbolt

23.82 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection
1 commentsokidoki
974_P_Hadrian_RPC5144.jpg
5144 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Helios12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5144 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 66, 1380 (this coin); Emmett 852.3

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Γ
Radiate and draped bust of Helios, right

12.57 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection
okidoki
895_P_Hadrian_Emmett866_03.jpg
5145 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Isis14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5145.5; Dattari-Savio Pl. 67, 1395 (this coin); Emmett 866.3

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Γ
Reverse design draped bust of Isis, crowned with taenia, disc and horns, r.

12.37 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
1 commentsokidoki
809_P_Hadrian_Emmett889_03.JPG
5148 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Sarapis bust16 viewsReference.
Emmett 889.03; RPC III, 5148; Dattari 1455, Milne 909

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right, drapery on left shoulder; to right, star in front.

Rev. L B
Draped bust of Sarapis, wearing kalathos and laurel wreath, right.

13.38 gr
24 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
533_P_Hadrian_Emmett903_3.JPG
5160 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118-19 AD Zeus16 viewsReference.
Emmett 903.3; cf Dattari 1500; RPC III, 5160; Milne 905

Issue L Γ = year 3

Obv .ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r., star

Rev. L Γ = year 3
Draped bust of Zeus, r., with taenia

12.73 gr
23 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
667_P_Hadrian_Emmett1192.jpg
5178 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Ibis standing8 viewsreference.
Emmett 1192.; Dattari 2035; K&G 32.99; RPC III, 5178.

Obv:
Laureate head right.
Rev: LIA?
Ibis standing right.

1.58 gr
14 mm
h
okidoki
1120_P_Hadrian_RPC5184.jpg
5184 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 119-20 AD quadriga of horses13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5184; Emmett 960.4;

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Δ
Emperor (Hadrian) standing in quadriga, r., laureate-headed, wearing toga, holding eagle-tipped sceptre and branch

22.16 gr
34 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
48_P_Hadrian__Dattari_1558.jpg
5200 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Eagle standing right15 viewsReferentie.
Emmett 834.4; Köln 778; Dattari 1558; RPC III, 5200

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB.
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. L Δ
Eagle standing right, on thunderbolt
14.39 gr
23 mm
h
okidoki
151_P_Hadrian__Emmett_866_r5.jpg
5206 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Isis18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5206; Emmett 866.4; Dattari 1396; Kampmann & Ganschow 32.116.;Köln--; Milne 937

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. AΥT KAI TΡAI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L-Δ
Draped bust of Isis right with Isiscrown, wearing her horned solar crown.

12.87 gr
23 mm
12 h.
okidoki
1237_P_Hadrian_RPC5206_3.jpg
5206 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Isis7 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5206.3; Emmett 866.4; Kampmann & Ganschow 32.116.;Köln--; Milne 937; Dattari-Savio Pl. 67, 1396 (this coin).

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. AΥT KAI TΡAI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L-Δ
Draped bust of Isis, crowned with taenia, disc and horns, right

13.89 gr
23 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
875_P_Hadrian_Emmett803_04.jpg
5209 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Agathodaemon21 viewsReference.
Dattari-Savio Pl. 72, 7506 (this coin); Emmett 803.04; Köln 780; RPC III, 5209

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ΑΔΡΙΑ CEB
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder; crescent before.

Rev. L Δ
Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils.

11.75 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection
1 commentsokidoki
1021_P_Hadrian_RPC5216.jpg
5216 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Dikaiosyne standing18 viewsReference.
Dattari (Savio) 1353-4; K&G 32.111; RPC III 5216; Emmett 833.4.

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent

Rev. L Δ
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

13.68 gr
24 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
162_P_Hadrian_Emmett_844.jpg
5219 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Hadrian Quadriga14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5219; Emmett 844.4 r3; Milne 966;

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate and draped bust right. before crescent

Rev. Date L Δ
Hadrian, laureate, togate and holding sceptre, driving quadriga right.; date above.

13.05 gr
22 mm
okidoki
894_P_Hadrian_Emmett850_04.jpg
5220 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119-20 AD Harpocrates 8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5220; Dattari-Savio Pl. 66, 1376 (this coin); Emmett 850.04

Issue L Δ = year 4

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent

Rev. L Δ
Harpocrates standing facing, head l., holding cornucopia

13.11 gr
26 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1113_P_Hadrian_RPC5254.jpg
5254 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Alexandria5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5254.2 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 63, 7370a (this coin); Emmett 805.5

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent

Rev.L Ε
Draped bust of Alexandria wearing cap in form of elephant’s head, right

13.07 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
920_P_Hadrian_Emmett905_5.jpg
5255 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Ammon11 viewsReference.
Emmett 905.5; RPC III, 5255.4 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 71, 7494 (this coin).

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent

Rev. L Ε
Bust of Ammon, r., crowned with disc

12.95 gr
24.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1054_P_Hadrian_RPC5256.jpg
5256 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Canopus van Osiris9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5256 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 61, 1320 (this coin).Emmett 827.5

Issue L E = year 5

Obverse inscription ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Obverse design laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent

Rev. L Ε
Canopus of Osiris right

14.28 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
819_P_Hadrian_Emmett850_5.jpg
5263 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Harpocrates15 viewsReference.
Emmett 850.5; RPC III, 5263; Dattari-Savio Pl. 66, 2421 (this coin).

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent

Rev. L Ε
Harpocrates standing facing, head l., raising finger to lips, holding cornucopia

12.77 gr
22 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1017_P_Hadrian_RPC5264.jpg
5264 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Hippopotamus standing right20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5264; Dattari-Savio Pl. 73, 1577 (this coin); Emmett 863.5; Köln 813

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent

Rev. L Ε
hippopotamus standing, right

13.20 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
3 commentsokidoki
636_P_Hadrian_Emmett803_5.jpg
5270 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Agathodaemon26 viewsReference.
Emmett 803.5; Köln 805; Dattari 1547; Milne 982; RPC III, 5270

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ΑΔΡΙΑ CEB
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder; crescent before.

Rev. L E below
Agathodaemon serpent erect right, wearing skhent and entwining caduceus and grain ears in coils.

12.24 gr
24 mm
12h

notes.
Agathodaimon:
In ancient Greek religion, Agathos Daimon or Agathodaemon (Greek: ἀγαθὸς δαίμων, "noble spirit") was a daemon or presiding spirit of the vineyards and grainfields and a personal companion spirit,[2][3] similar to the Roman genius, ensuring good luck, health, and wisdom.

source:
Doug Smith's Ancient Coins at FORVM
Skhent:
The crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.
1 commentsokidoki
651_P_Hadrian_Emmett903_5.JPG
5273 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 120-21 AD Zeus Prow before23 viewsReference.
Emmett 903.5; Dattari 1504; RPC III, 5273

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r. crescent
Rev. L E = year 5
Draped bust of Zeus, right, with taenia prow before.

13.21 gr
25 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
896_P_Hadrian_Emmett1037_5.jpg
5292 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 120-21 AD Serapis15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5292.6; Dattari-Savio Suppl. 154 (this coin); Emmett 1037.5

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. L Ε
Temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing facing, head l., holding sceptre; to l., altar, Temple with sun disc between horns

15.91 gr
33 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1112_P_Hadrian_RPC5294.jpg
5294 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 120-21 AD Nike advancing13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5294.2; Dattari-Savio Pl. 86, 1775 (this coin); Emmett 1007.5

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Ε
Trophy with standing captive; to r., Nike advancing l. holding wreath and palm-branch; between, kneeling captive

17.96 gr
34 mm
12h
okidoki
1291_P_Hadrian_RPC5294_3.jpg
5294 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 120-21 AD Nike advancing24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5294.3; Dattari-Savio Pl. 86, 7726 (this coin) and Pl. XXXXVI (this rev. Illustrated).); Emmett 1007.5

Issue L E = year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Ε
Trophy with standing captive; to r., Nike advancing l. holding wreath and palm-branch; between, kneeling captive

17.51 gr
34 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
815_P_Hadrian_Emmett822_06.JPG
5308 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Athena standing13 viewsReference.
Emmett 822.06; RPC III, 5308; Köln 824; BMC--; Milne--; D--

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent

Rev. ΑΘΗΝΑ СƐΒΑСΤΗ, L Ϛ
Athena standing facing, head l., holding ears of corn and shield

13.28 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
322_P_Hadrian_Emmett820_6.JPG
5310 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Athena standing.18 viewsReference.
Emmett 820.6; Curtis 363; RPC III, 5310/6

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, Crescent in front.

Rev. L Ϛ
Athena standing facing head Left, with spear left hand and shield right hand resting on shield set on ground

12.83 gr
24 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
840_P_Hadrian_Emmett818_06.jpg
5311 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Athena standing20 viewsReference.
Emmett 818.11; Milne 1179; RPC III, 5311.4 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 64, 1290 (this coin).

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent.

Rev. L Ϛ
Athena standing left, holding Nike, shield to right

13..05 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection
2 commentsokidoki
1132_P_Hadrian_RPC5314.jpg
5314 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Demeter standing12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5314; Emmett 830.6 (unknown year); Dattari 1330; Milne --

issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent

Rev. L Ϛ
Demeter standing facing, head r., holding ears of corn and torch.

13.10 gr
25 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
791_P_Hadrian_Emmett833_6~0.JPG
5315 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Dikaiosyne standing11 viewsReference.
Emmett 833.06; RPC III, 5315; Dattari 1357; Goats 826; Kampmann / Ganschow 32,183.

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent.

Rev. L Ϛ
Dikaiosyne standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae.

12.90 gr
22 mm
12h

Note.
Fritz Rudolf Künker eLive Auction 41 lot 174
okidoki
976_P_Hadrian_RPC5319_6.jpg
5319 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Eirene standing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5319.6 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 66, 1362 (this coin); Emmett 838.6

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent

Rev. ƐΙΡΗΝΗ СƐΒΑСΤΗ, L Ϛ
Eirene standing facing, head l., holding ears of corn and caduceus

13.12 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
see how this early bust still looks very much like Trajan

From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
921_P_Hadrian_Emmett846_6.jpg
5324 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Eusebeia standing16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5324 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 66, 1372 (this coin); Emmett 846.6

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent

Rev. L Ϛ
Eusebeia standing facing, head r., placing incense on altar to l., and holding out box of incense

13.20 gr
24.5 mm
12h

Note.
Interpreted by Vogt I, pp. 98-99, as a reference to Plotina’s death.
From the Dattari collection. Apparently unique. Possibly reffered to Pltina's death.
okidoki
923_P_Hadrian_Emmett874_6.jpg
5332 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Nike standing15 viewsReference.
RPC 5332.3 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 67, 7445 (this coin); Emmett 874.6

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent

Rev. L Ϛ
Nike standing, r., inscribing shield; to r., rocks?

13.78 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1114_P_Hadrian_RPC5336.jpg
5336 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 121-22 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus7 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5336 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 68, 1443 (this coin); Emmett 878.6

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r crescent

Rev. L Ϛ
Nilus reclining on hippopotamus, l., holding reed and cornucopia

13.16 gr
24 mm
6h
okidoki
922_P_Hadrian_Emmett903_6.jpg
5343 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Zeus12 viewsReference.
Emmett 903.06; RPC III, 5343.14 (this coin); Dattari-Savio Pl. 70, 7486 (this coin).

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder (to r crescent) (sic)

Rev. L Ϛ
Bust of Zeus, with taenia, r.

12.95 gr
24.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1089_P_Hadrian_RPC5345.jpg
5345 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 120-21 AD Canopi facing8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5345 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 78, 7592 (this coin); Emmett 934.6

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Ϛ
Two canopi, on basis

22.73 gr
35 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection
okidoki
653_P_Hadrian_Emmett1015_6.jpg
5358 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 121-22 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus20 viewsReference.
Dattari 1801; Emmett 1015.6; RPC III, 5358

Issue L Ϛ = year 6

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Ϛ
Nilus reclining left on hippopotamus, holding reed in right and cornucopia in left hand.

23.30 gr
35 mm
h

From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection.
okidoki
1155_P_Hadrian_RPC5375.jpg
5375 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 122-23 AD Canopus van Osiris6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5375.3; Dattari-Savio Pl. 64, 1323 (this coin); Emmett 827.7

Issue L Z = year 7

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder; to r., crescent

Rev. L Ζ
Canopus, right

12.15 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
338_P_Hadrian_Emmett969.jpg
5388 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 122-23 AD Euthenia28 viewsReference. R5
Emmett 969.7; RPC III, 5388; Milne 1039; Kamp 32.228

Issue L Z = year 7

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
laureate bust right

Rev. L Z
Euthenia reclinging left, holding grain-ear and poppy, on andro-sphinx

16.30 gr
34 mm
12h
okidoki
545_P_Hadrian_Emmett1015_7.jpg
5392 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 122-23 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1015.7; RPC III, 5392; Milne 1038; Dattari 1802 var (date above); Kampmann-Ganschow 32.228; Geissen -, BMC Alexandria -, SNG Cop -, SNG Hunterian -

Issue L Z = year 7

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.

Rev. LZ
Nilus reclining left, hippopotamus under left arm, long reed in right, cornucopia in left.

22 gr
33.6 mm
12h

ex. FORVM
okidoki
392_P_Hadrian_Emmett905.jpg
5424 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Sarapis-Ammon25 viewsReference. Rare
Emmett 895.8; RPC III, 5424; Dattari-1481; Milne-1048; Köln-858; BMCSup-2792A; COP-302; Frankfurt-37

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. AUT KAI TRAI ADRIA CEB
Laureate head r. with aegis; in front, crescent

Rev. L-H
Draped bust of Sarapis-Ammon to right, wearing taenia and kalathos.

12.84 gr
23 mm
1 commentsokidoki
417_P_Hadrian_Emmett828.jpg
5434 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Canopic jar of Isis18 viewsReference.
Emmett 828.8; Dattari 1310; Köln 851; Milne 1051: RPC III, 5434

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAINA∆PIANOC CEB
Laureate head right, aegis at shoulder.

Rev. L-H date across field
Canopic jar of Isis wearing headdress

12.79 gr

Note.
Isis
Goddess of health, marriage, and wisdom
okidoki
305_P_Hadrian_Emmett.jpg
5437 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Eagle standing30 viewsReference.
Emmett 836.8 r2; Milne 1061; RPC III, 5437

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ CΕΒ
Laureate head right, with beautiful Aegis

Rev. L-H
Eagle standing right, head left, wings open.

12.98 gr
23 mm
12h.
1 commentsokidoki
810_P_Hadrian_Emmett866_06.JPG
5440 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Isis17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5440; Emmett 866.8; Dattari 1398 ; Köln 855

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. AΥT KAI TΡAI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate head of Hadrian right, wearing aegis

Rev. L-H
Draped bust of Isis right with Isiscrown, wearing her horned solar crown

12.11 gr
22 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
892_P_Hadrian_Emmett890_8.jpg
5442 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Sarapis bust on eagle19 viewsReference.
RPC III 5442.3 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 69, 1466 (this coin); Emmett 890.3

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with aegis

Rev. L Η
Draped bust of Sarapis, wearing kalathos, facing; below, eagle standing facing, head l., with outstretched wings.

11.93 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
1 commentsokidoki
924_P_Hadrian_Emmett965_8.jpg
5448 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Hadrian & Nike standing 30 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5448 (this coin); Dattari-Savio Pl. 75, 7546 (this coin); Emmett 965.8

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. L Η
Hadrian standing facing, head l., holding sceptre; to r., Nike advancing l., holding wreath and palm-branch; to l., altar (?)

20.87 gr
33.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection. Apparently unique
1 commentsokidoki
801_P_Hadrian_Emmett969_8.jpg
5450 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Euthenia22 viewsReference. R3
Emmett 969.08; Dattari-Savio Pl. 81, 7639 (this coin). RPC III, 5450/9

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Radiate head of Hadrian, r., waering aegis

Rev. L H
Euthenia reclinging left, holding grain-ear and poppy, on andro-sphinx.

25.17 gr
35 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection
NAC 42 (2013), p. 131 no. 24c
okidoki
1254_P_Hadrian_RPC5452_9.jpg
5452 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus10 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5452.9; Dattari-Savio Suppl. Pl. 11, 113; Emmett 1015.8

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Η
Nilus reclining on hippopotamus, l., holding reed and cornucopia, with lotus flowers below

17.24 gr
34 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
1255_P_Hadrian_RPC5458_10.jpg
5458 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Sphinx seated right5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5458.10; Dattari-Savio Pl. 98, 2000; Emmett 1054.8

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Η
Sphinx seated, r., paw on wheel

17.28 gr
34 mm
12h
okidoki
1200_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
5458A EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Sphinx right27 viewsReference.
cf RPC 5910.19; cf Dattari-Savio Pl. 99, 7913a (this coin) Date correction

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Η
Sphinx wearing Hemhem crown, horns and feathers with crocodile emerging from chest, walking, r., on serpent; above, griffin

20.05 gr
35 mm
12h

Note.
This Dattari plate coin needs a Correction on the Date

it is L H Issue year 8, this goes with the bust types used in his early reign

L IH is dated with another bust seen from rear also the is no room for L IH

This bust is not seen after year 8, also sphinx wears a Hemhem crown, normaly one sees a crown of disc
Also the serpent is a bit odd looking like it has two heads?
1 commentsokidoki
946_P_Hadrian_Emmett1061_8.jpg
5462 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 123-24 AD Triumphal arch 23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1061.8; RPC III, 5462; Cf. Dattari 1895-1898

Issue L H = year 8

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ - ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Η
Triumphal arch surmounted by Quadriga with statue of Emperor

17.51 gr
35 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
849_P_Hadrian_Emmett906_9.jpg
5477 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Ammon standing9 viewsReference very rare
RPC III, 5477; Emmett 906.9; Köln 873; DS 7497

Issue ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ, ΕΤ Θ or L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ
Ammon standing facing, head l., holding patera and sceptre; to l., ram

12.70 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
635_P_Hadrian_Emmett807_9.jpg
5478 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Apollo 20 viewsReference.
Emmett 807.9; RPC III, 5478; BMC 2797; Dattari 1282

Issue ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ, ΕΤ Θ or L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ (year 9)
Draped bust of Apollo, r., with branch

13.12 gr
24 mm
1h
okidoki
236_P_Hadrian__Emmett_884_9.jpg
5483 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD buste Athena22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5483; Emmett 884.9 (corr. Emmett not Roma but Athena).-; BMC-; Milne-; Försch.-

Issue ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ, ΕΤ Θ or L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back.

Rev. ET EN A[T] Year 9
Helmeted Athena with Aegis right.

8.14 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
183_P_Hadrian__Emmett824_9.jpg
5484 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Athena standing15 viewsReference.
Emmett 824.9; Milne 1084; RPC III, 5484

Issue L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back.

Rev. ET-ENAT
Athena standing facing head right, with spear left hand and shield right hand resting on shield set on ground

12.57 gr
25 mm
okidoki
783P_Hadrian_Emmett852_9.jpg
5500 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Helios17 viewsReference.
Köln –; Dattari (Savio) 1381; K&G 32.298; RPC III 5500; Emmett 852.9

Issue L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ
Radiate and draped bust right of Helios; wearing a paludamentum

13.38 gr
26 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
865_528_P_Hadrian_Emmett865_9.jpg
5504 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Homonioa standing12 viewsReference.
Emmett 865.9; RPC III, 5504; Geissen -; Dattari 1392;

Issue L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ=year 9
Homonoia wearing chiton and peplos standing facing, head l., holding ears of corn and double cornucopia

12.88 gr
25.5 mm
okidoki
181_P_Hadrian__Emmett872.jpg
5509 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Nike right17 viewsReference.
Emmett 872.9; Milne 1090; RPC III, 5509; Köln 884

Issue L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back.

Rev. ET ENAT
Nike advancing left, holding laurel wreath in right hand, palm front in left.

11.93 gr
24 mm`
12h
okidoki
1169_P_Hadrian_RPC5515_5.jpg
5515.5 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Sarapis standing33 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5515.5; Dattari-Savio Pl. 69, 7465 (this coin); Emmett 897.9

Issue ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ
Sarapis standing facing, head l., holding patera and cornucopia; to l., altar

11.39 gr
25 mm
12h
4 commentsokidoki
975_P_Hadrian_RPC5020.jpg
5520 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Zeus standing32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5520 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 71, 1513 (this coin); Emmett --

Issue L ΕΝ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ƐΤ ƐΝΑΤ
Zeus standing facing, head l., holding Nike and sceptre; to l., eagle

13.26 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection. Apparently unique.
4 commentsokidoki
1051_P_Hadrian_RPC5534.jpg
5534 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Eirene standing9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5534/6; Dattari-Savio Pl. 66, 7409 (this coin).Emmett 838.9

Issue ΕΤ Θ = year 9

Rev. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ΕΤ Θ
Eirene standing facing, head l., holding ears of corn and caduceus

12.46 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
973_P_Hadrian_RPC5533.jpg
5542 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Tyche standing14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5542.4; Dattari 1492; Emmett 901.09

Issue ΕΤ Θ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ΕΤ Θ
Tyche standing facing, head l., holding rudder and cornucopia

13.79 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
1238_P_Hadrian_RPC5544_3.jpg
5544 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 124-25 AD Zeus standing11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5544.3 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 70, 1511 (this coin); Emmett 904.9

Issue ΕΤ Θ = year 9

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. ΕΤ Θ
Zeus standing facing, head l., holding thunderbolt and sceptre

12.20 gr
24 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
527_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
5564A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 124-25 AD Marsyas standing right15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5564A;

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5564A/1/

Issue L EN; = year 9

Obv.
laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. L-EN
Marsyas (?), standing r. with wine bag on shoulder

0.86 gr
11 mm
h
okidoki
230_P_Hadrian__Emmett_805_10.jpg
5565 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Alexandria28 viewsReference.
Emmett 805.10; Milne 1158; RPC III, 5565

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ΑΔΡΙΑ CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind.

Rev. L.ΔE KATOV
Bust of Alexandria right with elephant headdress.

6.75 gr
24 mm
1 commentsokidoki
1005_P_Hadrian_RPC5568.jpg
5568 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Mars, wearing crested Corinthian helmet29 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5568; D1271 = Staffieri; Emmett 810.10

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ= year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Helmeted half-length nude bust left of Mars (Ares), seen from behind, wearing crested Corinthian helmet

12.87 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection. Ex Münz Zentrum 29 (27 April 1977), lot 126; Giovanni Dattari Collection, no. 1271.

In the aforementioned article by Giovanni, he compares the reverse of this coin to the statue found at Hadrian’s villa (Fig. 7 in his article).
See G.M. Staffieri, ‘Sulla testimonianza di un Ares policleteo nella monetazione imperiale alessandrina’, NAC 22 (1993), pp. 187-99, where the design is compared to the statue found at Hadrian’s villa.
4 commentsokidoki
184_P_Hadrian__Emmett833_10.jpg
5574 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Dikaiosyne18 viewsReference.
Emmett 833.10; Milne 1116; RPC III, 5574

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVTKAI ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. L-ΔE KATOV
Dikaiosyne standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae.

12.65
25 mm
12h
okidoki
169_P_Hadrian__Emmett__827_10.JPG
5578 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Canopus van Osiris30 viewsReference.
Emmett 827.10; Köln 903; Dattari 1325; Milne 1151; SNG Cop 318v; RPC III, 5578

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVT KAI TΡI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. LΔE-KATOV
Canopus of Osiris right.

12.08 gr
24.7 mm
okidoki
1253_P_Hadrian_RPC5578.jpg
5578 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Canopus van Osiris8 viewsReference.
Emmett 827.10; Köln 903; Dattari 1325; Milne 1151; SNG Cop 318v; RPC III, 5578

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVT KAI TΡI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔEKATOV
Canopus of Osiris right.

12.04 gr
27 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
145_P__Hadrian__Emmett_838_R1.jpg
5581 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Eirene20 viewsReference.
Emmett 838.10 ;Milne 1123; RPC III, 5581

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVT KAI TΡI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind.

Rev. LΔ-EKATOV RY 10
Eirene standing left, holding grain-ears and caduceus.

12.33 gr
26 mm
12 h
okidoki
1101_P_Hadrian_RPC5581.jpg
5581 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Eirene10 viewsReference.
Emmett 838.10 ;Milne 1123; RPC III, 5581

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVT KAI TΡI AΔΡIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind.

Rev. LΔ-EKATOV RY 10
Eirene standing left, holding grain-ears and caduceus.

11.47 gr
26 mm
1 commentsokidoki
126_P_Hadrian__Emmett_839.jpg
5583 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Elpis26 viewsReference.
Emmett 839.10; Milne 1132; Dattari 7418; RPC III, 5583

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. AVT KAI-TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L Δ_E_KATOV
Elpis standing left, flower upward in right hand, hitching skirt with left.

12.97 gr
26 mm
h

Note.
Ex .Beast coins
okidoki
36_P_Hadrian_Emmett_892.jpg
5593 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 127-28 AD Sarapis20 viewsEmmett 892.12 Köln 983 f Dattari: 1475 f; RPC III, 5593

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔωΔEKAT
Sarapis seated left, holding scepter in left hand, right hand extended over head of Kerberos seated before

13.12 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
529_P_Hadrian_Emmett891_10.jpg
5594 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Sarapis standing13 viewsReference.
Emmett 891.10; RPC 3, 5594; Köln 914 var. Dattari 1471 var.

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Sarapis standing l., wearing kalathos, chiton and himation; holding long sceptre and at his feet l., Cerberos.

12.85 gr
26.50 mm
12h
okidoki
113_P_Hadrian__Dattari_1552.jpg
5596 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 125-26 AD Agathodaemon49 viewsReference.
Emmett 804.10; Köln 894; Dattari 1552; RPC III, 5596

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙAN ΑΔΡ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔEKATOY
Agathodaemon erect right at left, wearing skhent and enfolding caduceus, facing Uraeus erect left at right, wearing disk and horns, enfolding sistrum, their tails knotted together and holding a club erect

13.35 gr
23 mm
1 commentsokidoki
950_P_Hadrian_Emmett1145_.jpg
5611 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 125-25 AD Uraeus left24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5611; Dattari-Savio Pl. 101, 7982 (this coin); Emmett 1145.10

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Serpent (Uraeus) erect, l., crowned with disc and horns

8.71 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
1 commentsokidoki
719_P_Hadrian_Emmett1152_11.jpg
5613 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 125-26 AD Dolphin28 viewsReference.
Emmett 1152.10 r3; Milne 1168; RPC III, 5613/12 (this coin); Köln 919; Dattari-Savio Pl. 100, 2025 (this coin).

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. L-ΔE
Dolphin coiled around anchor

5.09 gr
19 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari Collection.
1 commentsokidoki
712_P_Hadrian_Emmett1163_.jpg
5619 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 125-26 AD Hawk standing left21 viewsReference.
Emmett 1163.10; RPC III, 5619; Dattari 2045

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. L ΔΕ
Hawk standing, left with Skhent (The crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.)

5.28 gr
19.50 mm
12h
okidoki
734_P_Hadrian_Emmett1174_10.jpg
5623 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Caduceus17 viewsReference.
Emmett 1174.10: RPC III, 5623; Dattari 1899; Köln --

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv. no legend
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. L ΔΕ
Winged caduceus

1.51 gr
13.50 mm
12h
okidoki
1235_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
5628 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Jug20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5628; Emmett 1207.10; Dattari 1977;

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv.
Laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. L ΔΕ
Jug

2.55 gr
16 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
1173_P_Hadrian_RPC_--.jpg
5629A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 125-26 AD Nilus reclining11 viewsReference.
RPC III--; Emmett --

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L ΔΕ
Nilus reclining left, hippopotamus under left arm, long reed in right, cornucopia in left.

4.37 gr
20 mm
12h
okidoki
217_P_Hadrian__Emmett_1176_10_R2.jpg
5633 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Bundle of three grain-ears.23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1176.10; BMC 591; RPC III, 5633; Köln -; Dattari -; Milne -; Kampmann & Ganschow

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv. -
Laureate head of Hadrian right I before

Rev. across field, date L-ΔE
Bundle of three grain-ears.

1.49 gr
12 mm
12h
okidoki
143_P_Hadrian__Emmett_1177_R2.jpg
5634 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Cornucopia22 viewsReference.
Emmett 1177.10 R2; BMC 896; RPC III, 5634

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv:
Laureate head right.

Rev: L ΔE
Cornucopia.

1,02 gr
11 mm
okidoki
1292_P_Hadrian_RPC5634.jpg
5634 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Cornucopia8 viewsReference.
Emmett 1177.10; BMC 896; RPC III, 5634

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv:
Laureate head of Hadrian I in front

Rev: L ΔE
Cornucopia

1.00 gr
12 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
970_P_Hadrian_Emmett970_10.jpg
5635 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Caps of the Dioscouri25 viewsReference.
Emmett 1198.10; RPC III, 5635; Milne 1172; BMC 909

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv.
Laureate head of Hadrian I in front

Rev. L ΔΕ
Piloi stars above

1.04 gr
11 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
561_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1198.jpg
5635 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 125-26 AD Caps of the Dioscouri12 viewsReference.
Emmett 1198.10; RPC III, 5635; Milne 1172

Issue L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv.
Laureate head of Hadrian I in front

Rev. L ΔΕ
Piloi stars above (Caps of the Dioscouri)

1.42 gr
12 mm
okidoki
410_P_Hadrian_Emmett_818.jpg
5639 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 126-27 AD Athena standing21 viewsReference.
Emmett 818.11; Milne 1179: RPC III, 5639; Köln 938

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 11

Obv. AVTKAI-TPAIAΔPIACEB
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. LENΔEKATOV
Athena standing left, holding Nike, shield to right

13.07 gr
24 mm
11h
okidoki
309_P_Hadrian_Emmett830_11.jpg
5641 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 126-27 AD Demeter standing10 viewsReference.
Emmett 830.11; Köln 940; Dattari 1341; Milne 1175; RPC III,5641

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 11

Obv. AUT KAI TRAI AΔRIA CEB
laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind

Rev. LENΔ-EKA-TOV
Demeter standing right, holding long torch and grain ears with poppies.

9.12 gr
25 mm
okidoki
820_P_Hadrian_Emmett875_11.jpg
5653 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 126-27 AD bust Nilus34 viewsReference.
Emmett 875.11; RPC 5653. Dattari-Savio Pl. 68, 1429 (this coin).

L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.

Rev. L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Draped bust of Nilus, r., crowned with taenia and lotus-buds, cornucopia at shoulder.

13.32 gr
26 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
2 commentsokidoki
1258_P_Hadrian_RPC5661.jpg
5661 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 126-27 AD Euthenia reclining on sphinx4 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5661; Emmett 969.11; Köln 960; Dattari 1708

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Euthenia reclining on sphinx, l., holding ears of corn

25.29 gr
34 mm
12h
okidoki
595_P_Hadrian_RPC5662.jpg
5662 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 126-27 AD Sarapis26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5662; BMC 738; Emmett 1030.11; Köln 976; Dattari (Savio) 1832; K&G 32.416.

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Sarapis seated, left, holding scepter and placing hand over head of Cerberus standing before him at his feet

24.34 gr
35 mm
12h
okidoki
731_P_Hadrian_Emmett1084.jpg
5670 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Hemidrachm 132-33 AD Eusebeia standing23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1084.11; RPC III, 5670; Köln 958

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Eusebeia standing facing, head l., casting incense over altar and holding box.

13.26 gr
28 mm
12h
okidoki
328_P_Hadrian_Emmett_.jpg
5675 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 126-27 AD Bull Butting26 viewsReference.
Emmett 1116.11; Milne 1219; BMC BMC vol 16 pag.95 .815; Dattari 2046; RPC III, 5675

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. LEN∆EKA T OY
bull butting right

9.21 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
210_P_Hadrian__Emmett_1049_10_Obol.jpg
5681 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 126-27 AD Double cornucopiae21 viewsReference.
Emmett 1149.11; Kampmann-Ganschow 32.436; Dattari 1915; Milne 1236; RPC III, 5681

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ[Σ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ]ΝΟΣ
Laureate bust right

Rev. L IA
Double cornucopia

4.57 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
961_P_Hadrian_Emmett1149_11.jpg
5681 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 126-27 AD Double cornucopiae16 viewsReference.
Emmett 1149.11; Kampmann-Ganschow 32.436; Dattari 1915; Milne 1236; RPC III, 5681

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ[Σ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ]ΝΟΣ
Laureate bust right

Rev. L IA
Double cornucopia

5.38 gr
20 mm
12h

Peus E-420 lot 6610
Sammlung Dr. Neussel Nr. 646
1 commentsokidoki
200_P_Hadrian__Emmett_1152_10_Obol_Dolphin.jpg
5682 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 126-27 AD Dolphin20 viewsReference.
Emmett 1152.10 r3; Milne 1168; RPC III, 5682

Issue L ΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΔΕ = year 10

Obv. AVTKAI-TPAIAΔPIACEB
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. L-ΔE
Dolphin coiled around anchor

5.12 gr
18 mm
11h
okidoki
738_P_Hadrian_Emmett1150_11.jpg
5683 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Obol 126-27 AD Demeter standing 19 viewsReference.
Emmett 1150.11; RPC III, 5683; Köln; 956. Dattari 1664.

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L ΙΑ
Demeter standing facing, veiled head r., holding torch and ears of corn.

4.42 gr
18.50 mm
12h

Note.
From the E.E. Clain Stefanelli collection
okidoki
638_P_Hadrian_Emmett1163.jpg
5688 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 126-27 AD Hawk standing left30 viewsReference.
Emmett 1163.11; RPC III, 5688; Dattari 2043; Koln 963

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. L ΙΑ
Hawk standing, left with Skhent (The crown of Upper and Lower Egypt.)

5.45 gr
19.5 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
456_P_Hadrian_Emmett1166.jpg
5690 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian obol 126-27 AD Kalathos26 viewsReference.
Emmett 1166.11; Dattari 1922; Köln 969; Milne --; RPC III, 5690

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ADRIA CEB,
Laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. L-IA
Kalathos with poppies and corn-ears; torch on either side

5.06 gr
19 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
718_P_Hadrian_Emmett1167_11.jpg
5691 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 126-27 AD Panther16 viewsReference.
Emmett 1167.11; RPC III, 5691/32; Köln 974; Dattari 2040 and Pl. XXXII, 2040 (this coin rev.). Dattari-Savio Pl. 101, 2040 (this coin).

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L ΙΑ
Panther standing, r., head l.

5.18 gr
19 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari Collection.
okidoki
170_P_Hadrian__Emmett1169_11.jpg
5693 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian AE 126-27 AD Obol Stag22 viewsReference.
Emmett 1169.11; SEAR 3824; Milne 1235; Dattari 7942; K&G 32.439; RPC III, 5693

Issue L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ or L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. AVT KAI - TRAIAΔPIA CEB (Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus)
Laureate bust of Hadrian right.

Rev. L IA (= regnal year 11) in field.
Stag standing right.

4.9 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
310_P_Hadrian_Emmett1196_.jpg
5701 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 126-27 AD Pan left holding pedum/lagobalon16 viewsReference.
Emmett 1196.11; Milne 1238; Köln 972; RPC III, 5701

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. no legend.
Laureate head right.

Rev. LI-A (Year 11)
Pan, advancing left holding pedum/lagobalon

2.03 gr
14 mm

Note.
There are two sub-varieties: Pan with pedum (e.g. BMC 700-701, 2879) and Pan of Mendes with club and pedum (BMC 702, 2878).

Half man and half goat, a spritely horned Pan holds one of his usual attributes in his upraised right hand – a throwing stick or lagobolon used for hunting rabbits, one of the god’s favorite animals. In his left hand he carries a small bag, perhaps to secure the quarry. Pan is known for his prowess in hunting smaller rather than larger game, the pursuit of which was presided over by Artemis as ultimate goddess of the hunt.
okidoki
754_P_Hadrian_Emmett1196.JPG
5701 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 126-27 AD Pan of Mendes with club and pedum 12 viewsReference.
Emmett 1196.11; RPC III, 5701; (BMC 702, 2878 Club ); Köln 973

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. no legend.
Laureate head right.

Rev. LI-A (Year 11)
Pan of Mendes with club and pedum

2.1 gr
15 mm
12h

Note.
There are two sub-varieties: Pan with pedum (e.g. BMC 700-701, 2879) and Pan of Mendes with club and pedum (BMC 702, 2878).

Half man and half goat, a spritely horned Pan holds one of his usual attributes in his upraised right hand – a throwing stick or lagobolon used for hunting rabbits, one of the god’s favorite animals. In his left hand he carries a small bag, perhaps to secure the quarry. Pan is known for his prowess in hunting smaller rather than larger game, the pursuit of which was presided over by Artemis as ultimate goddess of the hunt.
okidoki
969_P_Hadrian_Emmett1176_11.jpg
5705 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 126-27 AD Bundle of three grain-ears.26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5705; Emmett 1176.11; D 1941

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv.
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. L ΙA
Bundle of three grain-ears

0.81 gr
10 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
1027_P_Hadrian_RPC5706.jpg
5706 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 127-28 AD Cornucopia9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5706; Emmett 1177.11; D1914;

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv.
Laureate head of Hadrian, right I before

Rev. L ΙΑ
Cornucopia

0.95 gr
11 mm
12h
okidoki
237_P_Hadrian__Emmett_1204_11.jpg
5710 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 126-27 AD Star 7 rays20 viewsReference
Emmett 1204.11 R3; Kampmann 32.455; Milne 1252; BMC Alexandria p. 105, 911-2; Dattari 1942; Geissen -; RPC III, 5710/13
http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5710/13/

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv.
laureate head right.

Rev. between rays L IA
7 ray star

1.311 gr
11.1 mm
h

Note.
Ex FORVM
okidoki
506_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1204.jpg
5710 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 126-27 AD Star 8 rays14 viewsReference
Emmett 1204.11 Kampmann 32.455; Milne 1252; BMC Alexandria p. 105, 911-2; Dattari 1942; Geissen -; RPC III, 5710

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11


Obv.
laureate head right.

Rev. between rays L IA
8 ray star

1.23 gr
12 mm
h
okidoki
345_P_Hadrian_Emmett882.jpg
5712 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 127-28 AD Ptah-Hephaistos standing23 viewsReference.
Emmett 882.12; Köln 981; Dattari (Savio) 1448; K&G 32.457; BMC pg.76 635-636, SNG Cop.- ; RPC III, 5712

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑVTKAI TPAIAΔPIACEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. LΔωΔΕ ΚΑΤΟV
Ptah-Hephaistos standing facing, head right, holding scepter and tongs.

11.29 gr
25mm
11h.

Scarce representation of this syncretic deity.
2 commentsokidoki
376_P_Hadrian_Emmett883.jpg
5713 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 127-28 AD Mummiform Osiris61 viewsReference.
Emmett 883.12; RPC III, 5713; Köln 982; Dattari (Savio) 1445; K&G 32.458.

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙAN ΑΔΡ CΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back.

Rev. LΔωΔΕ ΚΑΤΟV
Mummiform Osiris (Ptah-Sokar-Osiris) standing right, holding scepter tipped with jackal-head (Was-sceptre)

12.66 gr
24 mm
6h

Note.
Giovanni Dattari summarizes the unusual reverse type seen on this billon tetradrachm of Hadrian. The image of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris divinity belongs to Egyptian theology, and in particular to funeral worship. It brings together three famous members of the Pharaonic Pantheon through their respective symbols: the headdress and scepter for Ptah, the solar disk for Osiris, and the mummiform wrappings for Sokar – the “Lord of the Necropolis.” These three associated divinities call upon the concepts of “mourning” and “life”, evoking at the same time the pain associated with death and the hope of resurrection. The main sanctuaries of Ptah, Sokaris, and Osiris were at Memphis and Abydos.
2 commentsokidoki
773_P_Hadrian_Emmett892_12.jpg
5714 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 127-28 AD Sarapis15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5714/36; Emmett 892.12 Köln 983 f Dattari: 1475 f.; Dattari-Savio Pl. 69, 7470.

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. AUT KAIC TRAIAN ADRIANOC CEB
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔωΔEKAT (year 12)
Sarapis seated left, holding scepter in left hand, right hand extended over head of Kerberos seated before

13.09 gr
24.50 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1098_P_Hadrian_RPC5716.jpg
5716 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 127-28 AD Nilus reclining on crocodile19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5716; Köln 990; Emmett 1014.12

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front

Rev. L ΔWΔƐΚ(Α)
Nilus reclining, l., holding cornucopia and reed; below, crocodile; above ΙϚ

25.76 gr
36 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
180_P_Hadrian__Emmett1014.jpg
5717 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 127-28 AD Nilus reclining on crocodile Genius38 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5717; Emmett 1014.12; Köln 991; Dattari (Savio) 1806; K&G 32.461; BMC 784, p.92

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. AVTKAI - TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind.

Rev. Iς above, L ΔωΔЄK (date) in exergue
Nilus reclining left on crocodile, holding reed in left and cornucopia in right hand, from which emerges a Genius.

25.94 gr
35 mm
11 h
okidoki
473_P_Hadrian_Emmett1015.jpg
5717 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 127-28 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus 45 viewsReference.
Emmett 1015.12; RPC III, 5717 Dattari 7750. BMC 787, p.92; Milne 1267; Köln 992

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right, seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔWΔƐΚ(Α)
Nilus reclining left on hippopotamus, holding reed in left and cornucopia with small Genius in right hand; above ΙϚ

26.69 gr
35 mm
12h
Note Jay gt4
The Greek numeral sixteen (Iς) above Nilus refers to what was considered the ideal height of the annual Nile flood, sixteen cubits. Less could mean drought or famine. Even in modern times grand celebrations were held when the flood reached 16 cubits. In years when the flood failed to reach 16 cubits, the celebrations were canceled, and prayers and fasting were held instead. The peak flood occurred at the end of August, which explains why the Egyptian year began on 29 August.
1 commentsokidoki
585_P_Hadrian_Emmett1014_12.jpg
5717A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 127-28 AD Nilus reclining on crocodile 27 viewsReference.
Milne/Oxford 1269; Glasgow SNG 4027; and Paris 1243; RPC III, 5717A; Emmett 1014.12; Köln --; Dattari (Savio) --; BMC --

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5717A/

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. AVTKAI - TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind.

Rev. L ΔωΔЄK (date) in exergue
Nilus reclining left on crocodile, holding reed in right and cornucopia in left hand.

20.98 gr
34 mm
11h
okidoki
730_P_Hadrian_Emmet1086~0.jpg
5718 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 127-28 AD Euthenia reclining29 viewsReference.
Emmett 1086.12; RPC III, 5718; Köln 989; Dattari (Savio) 1709 & 7642; K&G 32.464;

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front

Rev. L ΔWΔƐΚ
Euthenia reclining on sphinx, l., holding ears of corn

12.36 gr
29 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
476_P_Hadrian_Emmett1086.jpg
5719 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 127-28 AD Euthenia reclining25 viewsReference.
Emmett 1086.12; RPC III, 5719; Köln 989; Dattari (Savio) 1709 & 7642; K&G 32.464;

Issue L ΔWΔƐΚΑΤΟΥ = year 12

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind

Rev. L ΔWΔƐΚ (year 12)
Euthenia reclining on sphinx, l., holding ears of corn

14.17 gr
30 mm
11 h

Note.
Dr. George Spradling Collection.
okidoki
215_P_Hadrian__Emmett_848_13.jpg
5728 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 128-29 AD Hands Clasped30 viewsReference.
Emmett 848.13; Dattari 1525; Milne 1274; RPC III, 5728

Issue L IΓ = year 13

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back, with Paludamentum.

Rev. PATHR PATRIDOC (nobele vader)
Hands clasped, L IΓ=Jear 13=(128/129).

13.08 gr
25 mm
6h

note.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bust of Septimius Severus wearing a paludamentum
In Republican and Imperial Rome, the paludamentum was a cloak or cape fastened at one shoulder, worn by military commanders (e.g. the legionary Legatus) and rather less often by their troops. As supreme commander of the whole Roman army, Roman emperors were often portrayed wearing it in their statues (e.g. the Prima Porta Augustus) and on their coinage. After the reign of Augustus, the paludamentum was restricted to the Emperor.[citation needed] Children would also wear it sometimes, when there was bad weather and they needed protection.
The paludamentum was generally crimson, scarlet, or purple in colour, or sometimes white. It was fastened at the shoulder with a clasp, called a fibula, whose form and size varied through time. Putting on the paludamentum was a ceremonial act on setting out for war.
2 commentsokidoki
839_P_Hadrian_Emmett1149_12.jpg
5733 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 128-29 AD Double cornucopiae12 viewsReference.
Emmett 1149.13; Dattari 1245. RPC III, 5733; Köln 1000

Issue L IΓ = year 13

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L IΓ
Double cornucopia

4.68 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
256_P_Hadrian__Emmett_852_14.jpg
5737 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 129-30 AD Helios39 viewsReference.
Emmett 852.14; Köln 1002; Dattari 1384; Milne 1280; Curtis 429; RPC III, 5737

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L-IΔ date across field.
Radiate and draped bust right of Helios; wearing a paludamentum

13.28 gr
25 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
614_P_Hadrian_Emmett_923_14.jpg
5738 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 129-30 AD Athena standing with Owl35 viewsReference.
Emmett 923.14; RPC III, 5738; Köln 1007

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5738/10/

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. LΙ Δ
Athena standing facing, head l., holding owl and shield

26.60 gr
35 mm
11h
1 commentsokidoki
321_P_Hadrian_Emmett_925.jpg
5739 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 129-30 AD Athena standing with Nike39 viewsReference.
Emmett 925.14; Milne 1286; Dattari 1632; RPC III, 5739

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAINA∆PIANOC CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L I Δ (Year 14)
Athena standing left, Nike in extended right, resting left on shield.

23.49 gr
35 mm
10h
1 commentsokidoki
743_P_Hadrian_Emmett925.jpg
5740 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 129-30 AD Athena standing with Nike22 viewsReference.
Emmett 925.14; Milne 1286; Dattari 1632; RPC III, 5740

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front

Rev. L ΙΔ
Athena standing facing, head l., holding Nike and shield

24.79 gr
35 mm
12h
okidoki
979_P_Hadrian_RPC5741_8~0.jpg
5741 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 129-30 AD Two Dioscuri standing18 viewsReference.
RPC 5741.8 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 80, 1685 (this coin); Emmett 949.14

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΔ
two Dioscuri (nude) standing facing, holding spears; above, stars; behind, horses; above, crescent

27.46 gr
35 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection. Illustrated in Dattari.
okidoki
IMG_0024.JPG
5743 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 129-30 AD Zeus reclining left on Eagle.35 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5743; Emmett 1069.14; BMC 673; Dattari (Savio) 1879.; Köln 1025

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L ΙΔ
Zeus reclining on eagle on thunderbolt, l., holding patera and sceptre

28.04 gr
35 mm
11h
1 commentsokidoki
802_P_Hadrian_Emmett1093.jpg
5748 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 129-30 AD Isis Pharia standing 23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1093.14; Dattari-Savio Pl. 85, 7711 (this coin). RPC III, 5748.23 (this coin cited).Corr. (holding Situla)

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΔ
Isis Pharia advancing, r., head r., holding sistrum and sail with situla

12.64 gr
29 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
1 commentsokidoki
905_P_Hadrian_Emmett1132_14.jpg
5751 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 129-30 AD Harpocrates standing left9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5751; Emmett cf1132.14; K&G 32.492; Dattari 1721

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΔ
Harpocrates standing facing, head l., raising finger to lips and holding cornucopia on column

7.68 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
841_P_Hadrian_Emmett1135_14.jpg
5754 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 129-30 AD Harpocrates standing20 viewsReference
RPC 5754/11 (this coin). Dattari- Savio Pl. 89, 7676 (this coin); Emmett 1135.14; Köln --

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΔ
Harpocrates standing facing, head l., raising finger to lips and holding hawk-tipped club; behind, ram

7.86 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection
1 commentsokidoki
451_P_Hadrian_Emmett1111.jpg
5755 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 129-30 AD Agathodaimon serpent44 viewsReference.
Emmett 1111.14; Dattari 1986; Milne 1289; RPC III, 5755; Köln 1004

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
aureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. "L-IΔ"
serpent (Agathodaemon) erect, r., crowned with pschent, enfolding caduceus and stalk of corn

9.23 gr
25 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
135_P_Hadrian__Emmett1144.jpg
5756 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol AE 129-30 AD Tyche standing21 viewsReference.
Emmett 1144.14; Köln 1021; Milne 1289; RPC III, 5756

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI A∆PIA CEB
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev. LIΔ
Tyche standing facing, head l., holding rudder and cornucopia

9.47 gr
23 mm
12h

Note from NGC.
The goddess Tyche, the protectress of cities and the goddess of good fortune and prosperity, known to the Romans as Fortuna. She often is portrayed on ancient coinage, including on this Egyptian drachm of Hadrian
okidoki
128_P_Hadrian__Emmett_1159_R4.jpg
5759 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 129-30 AD Griffin right.23 viewsReferentie. very rare; R4
Emmett 1159.14; Dattari 7957; BMC Alexandria p. 97, 829; Geissen -; Kampmann-Ganschow -; SNG Cop -; SNG Milan -; RPC III, 5759

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. AVT KAI - TRAI A∆PIA CEB
Laureate bust right, wearing aegis

Rev. L I-∆ (year 14)
Griffin seated right, left forepaw on wheel.

4.92 gr
20 mm
12h

Note.
Ex. FORVM
okidoki
543_P_Hadrian_Emmett1170.jpg
5762 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Obol 129-30 AD Uraeus19 viewsReference.
Emmett 1170.14; RPC III, 5762; Köln 1022

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. L ΙΔ
Serpent (Uraeus) erect, l., crowned with disc and horns

5.17 gr
20 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1156_P_Hadrian_RPC5763.jpg
5763 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 129-30 AD Caduceus5 viewsReference.
Emmett 1173.14 Milne 1496; RPC III 5763; Dattari (Savio) 7830-1 & 7834; K&G 32.503.

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv.
Laureate head right, drapery on shoulder

Rev. L IΔ
Winged Caduceus

1.78 gr
13 mm
12h
okidoki
374_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1189.jpg
5764 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 129-30 AD Headdress of Isis16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5764; Emmett 1189.14; Milne 1293; Köln 1019; Dattari 1918

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv.
Laureate head right.

Rev. L IΔ
Headdress of Isis.

1.66 gr
14 mm

Note.
Isis
Goddess of health, marriage, and wisdom
okidoki
949_P_Hadrian_Emmett1176_11.jpg
5766 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 129-30 AD Bundle of three grain-ears.8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5766; Emmett 1176.14;

Issue L IΔ = year 14

Obv.
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. L ΙΔ
Bundle of three grain-ears

1.36 gr
13 mm
12h
okidoki
24_P_Hadrian__Emmett_845_r1.jpg
5768 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 130-31 AD Hadrian-Alexandria31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5768; Emmett 845.15; Köln 1026; Dattari 1268.

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI ADPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Rev. L-IE
Hadrian standing to left holding scepter receiving corn ears from Alexandria

12.16 gr
25 mm
12 h

Note.
Struck to commemorate the emperor’s visit to Alexandria in AD 130. It was during this visit that Hadrian’s favorite, the Bithynian youth Antinous, drowned in the Nile.
Ex CNG Auction 322, 2014
2 commentsokidoki
346_P_Hadrian_Emmett888.jpg
5770 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 130-31 AD Sabina32 viewsReference.
Emmett 888.15 (R5); Köln 1030 var. (placement of date); Dattari (Savio) 1260; K&G 32.507; RPC III, 5770

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. CABEINA CEBACTH L I-E (date) across field.
Sabina seated left, holding two grain ears and scepter.

12.33 gr
23 mm
12h
Rare Depiction of Sabina Enthroned
2 commentsokidoki
1074_P_Hadrian_RPC5776.jpg
5776 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Didrachm 130-31 AD Sarapis17 viewsReference.
RPC III; 5776=Paris 1689; Emmett --; Dattari--;

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L ΙΕ
Draped bust of Sarapis, wearing kalathos and laurel wreath, right

4.95 gr
17 mm
12h

Note.
RPC III states
Unique. Note that the obv. bust is the same as that used on small AE denominations; however the coin cannot be a cast forgery in silver since the reverse design is not used on small denominations. In addition, the fabric of the coin is different from that normal for AE (e.g. the edge is not bevelled).
1 commentsokidoki
673_P_Hadrian_Emmett964_15.jpg
5777 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 130-31 AD Alexandria, standing head bowed 15 viewsReference.
Emmett 964.15; RPC III, 5777; Köln 1034

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΕ
Alexandria, head bowed, standing, r.; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing facing, head l., holding sceptre.

25.39 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
968_P_Hadrian_Emmett964_15.jpg
5778 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 130-31 AD Alexandria, standing head bowed30 viewsReference.
Emmett 964.15; RPC III, 5778; Köln 1035; Dattari (Savio) 7545; K&G 32.508

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laraureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front

Rev. L ΙΕ
Alexandria, head bowed, standing, r.; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing facing, head l., holding sceptre.

26.84 gr
33 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Steve P
CNG 388, Lot: 339
3 commentsokidoki
1095_P_Hadrian_RPC5779.jpg
5779 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 130-31 AD Hadrian and Alexandra standing11 viewsReference.
Dattari-Savio Pl. 75, 1611 (this coin). RPC 5779.1 (this coin cited); Emmett 964.15;

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, l., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΕ
Alexandria, head bowed, standing, r.; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing facing, head l., holding sceptre

24gr
35 mm
12h
okidoki
404_P_Hadrian_Emmett966.jpg
5780 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 130-31 AD Hadrian and Alexandra standing19 viewsReference.
Emmett 966.15; Köln 1037; Dattari (Savio) 1595; K&G 32.510; RPC III, 5780

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI A∆PIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Rev. L IE (date) in exergue.
Hadrian, holding scepter, in quadriga right, being hailed by Alexandra standing before the horses.

22.96 gr
34 mm
11h
1 commentsokidoki
433_P_Hadrian_Emmett1082.jpg
5784 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 130-31 AD Hadrian standing16 viewsReference.
Emmett 1082.15; Köln 1033; Dattari (Savio) 1581; K&G 32.512; RPC III, 5784

Issue L IE = year 15

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI A∆PIA CEB
Laureate , draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from behind.

Rev. L I E (date) across upper field.
Hadrian, veiled and togate, standing left, holding patera over lighted altar in right hand, scepter in left.

15.72 gr
31 mm
12h
okidoki
500_P_Hadrian_Emmett892_16.jpg
5789 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 131-32 AD Sarapis54 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5789; cf Emmett 892.16; Köln 1044; Dattari (Savio) 1477; K&G 32.514

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from behind

Rev. L ΙϚ (year 16)
Sarapis seated left on ornate throne decorated with crowning Nikai, extending right hand over seated Cerberus, holding long scepter in left.

13.09 gr
24.50 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
34_P_Hadrian__Dattari_1477_f.jpg
5789 EGYPTE, Alexandria ,Hadrian Tetradrachme 131-32 AD Sarapis21 viewsReference.
Emmett 892.16 Köln 1042 ff., Dattari: 1477 f; RPC III, 5789

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate and draped bust at right. seen from behind.

Rev. L IS=Jaar 16=(131/132).
Sarapis seated left, holding scepter, Kerberos at feet.

13.19 gr
23 mm.
12h
okidoki
253_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1016_16.JPG
5791 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 131-132 AD Nilus seated crocodile36 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5791; Emmett 1016.16; Dattari 1795; Milne 1334

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. L[IS]
Nilus seated left on rock outcropping, holding reed right and cornucopiae in left, crocodile below to right.

22.8 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
472_P_Hadrian_Emmett1017.jpg
5792 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 131-32 AD Nilus Hippo31 viewsReference.
Emmett 1017.16; RPC III, 5792

Issue L Iς = year 16

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L IϚ
Nilus seated left on rocks leaning on hippopotamus, holding cornucopiae right and reed in left hand.

25.38 gr
35 mm
7h
1 commentsokidoki
870_P_Hadrian_Emmett1020_16.jpg
5793 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 131-32 AD Nilus seated, Euthenia standing facing34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5793; Dattari 1811; Emmett 1020.16

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. AΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙϚ
Nilus seated on crocodile on rocks, r., holding reed and cornucopia; to r., Euthenia standing facing, head l., holding sistrum and ears of corn

26.36 gr
35 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
250_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1063_16.JPG
5797 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 131-32 AD Tyche23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1063.16; Köln, Alexandria 1062; Dattari 1867; BMC.786; Milne 1327; RPC III, 5797

Issue L Iς = year 16

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. LIς LIS
Tyche reclining left on lectisternium leaning on her elbow and holding rudder.

20.10 gr
34 mm
12h
okidoki
714_P_Hadrian_Emmett1081_16.jpg
5797A EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Hemidrachm 131-32 AD Eirene standing15 viewsReference.
Emmett 1081.16; RPC III, 5797A Unknown date to RPC and Emmett; Geissen -. Dattari-Savio Pl. 80, 7625 (this coin); Mionnet-1129 corr.

Issue LΙϚ = year 16

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L ΙϚ
Eirene wearing chiton and peplo standing l., holding caduceus and corn-ears.

14.62 gr
29 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari Collection.
okidoki
881_P_Hadrian_Emmett1095_16.jpg
5801 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 131-32 AD Nike right13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5801.7 (this coin)=Dattari-Savio Pl. 86, 1774 (this coin); Köln 1051; Emmett 1095.16

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙϚ
Nike advancing, right, holding wreath and palm-branch

15.60 gr
29.50 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
434_P_Hadrian_Emmett1094.JPG
5802 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 131-32 AD Nike left23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1094.16; Dattari 1772; Milne 1341; RPC III, 5802

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ CΕΒ.
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. LIς
Nike flying/advancing left, holding laurel wreath in right hand, palm front in left.

12.53 gr
27 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
65_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1038.jpg
5813 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol 131-32 AD Isis as mother30 viewsReference.
Emmett 1138.16 Köln 1046; K&G 32.530; RPC III, 5813

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. L Iς (date) across field.
Isis enthroned right, nursing Harpocrates, holding a lotus bud

10.47 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
962_P_Hadrian_Emmett1144_16.jpg
5816 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Diobol AE 131-32 AD Tyche standing16 viewsReference.
Emmett 1144.16; D1852; RPC III, 5816; Köln 1061

Issue L IϚ = year 16

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙϚ
Tyche standing facing, head l., holding rudder and cornucopia

8.37 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
Peus E-420 lot 6617
Sammlung Dr. Neussel Nr. 646
1960 Boutin, Paris
1 commentsokidoki
247_P_Hadrian__Emmett_886_17.JPG
5821 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 132-33 AD bust Sabina14 viewsReference
Emmett 886.17; Köln 1065-6; Dattari (Savio) 7361; K&G 32.536; RPC III, 5821

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right, seen from behind.

Rev. СΑΒƐΙΝΑ СƐΒΑСΤΗ, L ΙΖ
Draped bust of Sabina right, wearing stephane.

10.35 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
178_P_Hadrian__Emmett876.jpg
5822 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 132-33 AD Nilus25 viewsReference.
Emmett 876.17; Köln 1063; Dattari (Savio) 1434 corr.; RPC III, 5822

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. LIZ (Year 17)
Nilus reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, on back of crocodile right

12.10 gr
24 mm
1h
1 commentsokidoki
293_P_Hadrian_RPC5823.jpg
5823 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 132-33 AD Mummiform Sokar40 viewsReference.
Emmett 883.17; RPC III, 5823; Dattari (Savio) 1446

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Mummiform Sokar (Ptah-Sokar-Osiris) standing right, holding sceptre tipped with falon (Horus?)

13.00 gr
27 mm
12h

Note.
Giovanni Dattari summarizes the unusual reverse type seen on this billon tetradrachm of Hadrian. The image of the Ptah-Sokar-Osiris divinity belongs to Egyptian theology, and in particular to funeral worship. It brings together three famous members of the Pharaonic Pantheon through their respective symbols: the headdress and scepter for Ptah, the solar disk for Osiris, and the mummiform wrappings for Sokar – the “Lord of the Necropolis.” These three associated divinities call upon the concepts of “mourning” and “life”, evoking at the same time the pain associated with death and the hope of resurrection. The main sanctuaries of Ptah, Sokaris, and Osiris were at Memphis and Abydos.
4 commentsokidoki
792_P_Hadrian_Emmett924.jpg
5825 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-32 AD Athena standing with grain ears31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5825; Köln 1068; Dattari (Savio) 1627-8; K&G 32.537; Emmett 924.17.

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. L IZ
Athena standing left, holding two grain ears and shield set on ground.

25.27 gr
33 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
700_P_Hadrian_Emmett950_17.jpg
5831 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Dioscuri standing facing16 viewsReference.
Emmett 950.17; RPC III, 5831; Dattari 1683; Milne 1363

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Dioscuri (clothed) standing facing above stars, each holding sceptre and parazonium.

25.09 gr
33 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Cahn auction 1936 and Frank Sternberg (Zürich). Basel 6 lot 502
Collection Dr. A. Voirol.
okidoki
401_P_Hadrian_Emmett950_17.jpg
5831 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Dioscuri standing facing between, crescent16 viewsReference.
Emmett 950.17; RPC III, 5831; Köln 1075; Dattari 1683; Milne 1363

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Dioscuri (clothed) standing facing above stars, each holding sceptre and parazonium, between, crescent

26.26 gr
35 mm
12h
okidoki
668_P_Hadrian_Emmett1000_17.jpg
5837 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Isis Pharia standing13 viewsReference. Var. on Date placement
Emmett 1000.17; RPC III, 5837; Milne 1372; Dattari 1757

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. LI Z
Isis Pharia advancing, r., holding sistrum and sail.

26.87 gr
34 mm
12h
`
Note.
Pars coins; Roma Numismatics Limited
E-SALE 19 449
okidoki
624_P_Hadrian_Emmett1002.jpg
5838 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Isis Pharia standing22 viewsReference.
Emmett 1002.17; RPC III,5838/32; Köln 1078 var. (placement of date); Dattari (Savio) 765-6 var. (same); K&G 32.547; Milne -; SNG Hunterian 1078 var. (same); BMC 756.

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/5838/32/

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAIAN • AΔPIANOC CЄB
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

Rev. L IZ (date= year 17) in exergue.
Isis Pharia standing right, holding sistrum and billowing sail, before Pharos of Alexandria.

21.08 gr
34 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
478_P_Hadrian_Emmett1042.jpg
5844 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Hadrian & Serapis18 viewsReference.
Emmett 1042.17; RPC III, 5844; Köln 1085-6; Dattari (Savio) 1944-5

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. [L] IZ (date) in exergue.
temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing, r. holding sceptre and raising arm; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing l., holding sceptre; between, altar inscribed ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΝ

27.60 gr
33 mm
11 h.

Note.
CNG E-auction 360
Ex Coin Galleries (12 April 2000), lot 497 (listed as Ex Dattari, but not one of the plated examples).
okidoki
1006_P_Hadrian_RPC5845.jpg
5845 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Hadrian & Serapis44 viewsReference.
RPC III 5845/2; Köln 1084; Dattari (Savio) 1946 (this coin); K&G 32.554; Emmett 1042.17; Staffieri, Alexandria In Nummis 69 (this coin)

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing, r. holding sceptre and presenting globe; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing l.,
holding sceptre; between, altar inscribed ΑΔΡ/ΙΑ/ΝΟΝ

23.82 gr
34 mm
12h

Note.
From the Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection, purchased from Renzo Canavesi, Sagno, 1996. Ex Renzo Canavesi Collection (Sagno); Dr. Piero Beretta Collection (Milan); Giovanni Dattari Collection, no. 1946.

A rare variety with Sarapis holding a globe instead of saluting the emperor. The authors of RPC cite two coins: this coin, and the one in the Köln collection. There is also an example in the Ashmolean Museum collection (Milne 1380).
8 commentsokidoki
955_P_Hadrian_Emmett1062.jpg
5848 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Tyche standing 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5848; Emmett 1062; Köln 1090

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Tyche standing facing, head l., holding rudder and cornucopia

26.98 gr
34 mm
12h

Ex col. Frans Pouwel, Netherlands, collected since the ‘80’s.
okidoki
1240_P_Hadrian_RPC5849_4.jpg
5849 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Hemidrachm 132-33 AD Zeus Ammon standing8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5849.4; Dattari-Savio Pl. 93, 7820 (this coin); Emmett 1110.17

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Ammon standing facing, head l., holding atef crown and sceptre; to l., ram

12.64 gr
29 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
713_P_Hadrian_Emmett1105_17.jpg
5854 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Hemidrachm 132-33 AD Sarapis standing12 viewsReference.
Emmett 1105.17; RPC III, 5854; Dattari-Savio Pl. 89, 1829 (this coin).

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L ΙΖ
Sarapis standing facing, head l., holding sceptre; to l., Cerberus.

10.55 gr
28 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari Collection.
okidoki
742_P_Hadrian_Emmett1114.jpg
5856 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian AE Diobol 132-33 AD Apis altar before.13 viewsReference.
Emmett 1114.17; RPC III, 5856; Dattari 2007; Geissen 1067 var.; Kampmann/Ganschow 32.560

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front

Rev. L ΙΖ
Apis bull standing, right, with crescent on flank,wearing sun disk; Egyptian altar before

10.80 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
287_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1114_18.jpg
5856 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian AE Diobol 133-34 AD Apis Bull altar before31 viewsReference.
Emmett 1114.18; Dattari 2009; RPC III, 5856

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB
Laureate and draped bust right, seen from front.

Rev. [L] IH Date 18
Apis bull standing right, (no crescent or sun disk), Egyptian altar before

8.32 gr
23 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
715_P_Hadrian_Emmett828_17.jpg
5858 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Diobol 132-33 AD Canopic jar of Isis13 viewsReference.
Emmett 1118.17; RPC III, 5858; Köln 1074

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front.

Rev. L ΙΖ
Canopic jar of Isis wearing headdress and on pillow

8.20 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
37_P_Hadrian__Dattari1479.jpg
5871 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 133-34 AD Sarapis16 viewsReferentie.
Emmett 892.18; Köln 1094 Dattari: 1479; RPC III 5871

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. LI-H (year 18)
Sarapis seated left, holding scepter in left hand, right hand extended over head of Kerberos seated before

13.33 gr
24 mm
6h
okidoki
1055_P_Hadrian_RPC5879.jpg
5879 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Athena standing 20 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5879 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 76, 1636 (this coin).Emmett 925.18

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΗ
Athena standing facing, head l., holding Nike and shield

26.79 gr
36 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
1 commentsokidoki
634_P_Hadrian_Emmett933_18.jpg
5881 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Canopi facing29 viewsReference.
Emmett 933.18; RPC III, 5881; Dattari 1662

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L I H across fields
Two Canopi jars

24.28 gr
32 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
554_P_Hadrian_Emmett941.jpg
5886 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Demeter standing vis-à-vis Euthenia21 viewsReference.
Emmett 941.18; RPC III, 5886; Köln 1109; Dattari (Savio) 1672; K&G 32.579 var. (placement of date)

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv.ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΗ
Demeter standing facing, head r., holding torch and ears of corn; to r., Euthenia standing facing, head l., holding ears of corn and sceptre.

22.34 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
947_P_Hadrian_Emmett960.jpg
5890 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Dioscuri standing facing31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5890; Emmett 950; Dattari (Savio) 1684.

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΗ
Dioscuri (clothed) standing facing, each holding parazonium and spear

23.54 gr
35 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
1250_P_Hadrian_RPC5893.jpg
5893 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Isis Pharia advancing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5893; Emmett 1000.18; Köln 1117

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΗ
Isis Pharia advancing, right, holding sistrum and sail

22.41 gr
32 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
502_P_Hadrian_Emmett1002_18.jpg
5895 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Isis Pharia standing38 viewsReference.
Emmett 1002.18; RPC III, 5895; Köln 1121-2; Dattari (Savio) 1768; K&G 32.588

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.

Rev. L IH
Isis Pharia, holding billowing sail, sailing right before the Pharos of Alexandria, which is surmounted by a statue and two Tritons.

22.63 gr
33 mm
1 commentsokidoki
861_P_Hadrian_Emmett1057_18.jpg
5910 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Egyptian sphinx right26 viewsReference
Emmett 1057.18; RPC III, 5910; Köln 1131

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΗ
Sphinx with crown of disc, horns and feathers, with crocodile emerging from chest, walking, r., on serpent; above, griffin

24.49 gr
33 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
374_P_Hadrian_Emmett1053.jpg
5915 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 133-34 AD Sphinx seated left22 viewsReference.
Emmett 1053.18; Köln 1134; Dattari 1996; Milne 1427; RPC III, 5915

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. AYT KAIC TPAIAN - ADPIANOC CEB
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind

Rev. LI-H
Sphinx seated left with Kalathos on head, right paw on wheel.

26.39 gr
34 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
625_P_Hadrian_Emmett1060.jpg
5920 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Triptolemos in chariot60 viewsReference.
Emmett 1060.18; RPC III, 5920; Köln 1143

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L ΙΗ
Triptolemos in chariot, right, pulled by two winged serpents.

25.62 gr
32 mm
6h
4 commentsokidoki
174_P_Hadrian_Emmett_1090_18.jpg
5923 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Hemidrachm 133-34 AD Isis18 viewsReferene.
Emmett 1090.18; Köln 1116; Dattari 1748; RPC III, 5923

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB
laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. L IH
Isis seated left, holding sistrum and scepter

14.50 gr
28 mm
12h
okidoki
880_P_Hadrian_Emmett1114_18.jpg
5927 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian AE Diobol 133-34 AD Apis Bull altar 16 viewsReference.
RPC 5927.46; Dattari-Savio Pl. 99, 7921 (this coin); Emmett 1114.18

Issue L IH = year 18

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L IH
Apis bull standing, r.; altar before. (bull wearing Yoke?)

8.46 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.
okidoki
1031_P_Hadrian_RPC5940.jpg
5940 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 134-35 AD Hermanubis standing23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5940; Köln 1146; D1387; Emmett 858

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ or L ΙΘ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, left

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Hermanubis standing facing, head r., holding caduceus and palm-branch; to l., jackal

13.51 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
(Münzhandlung) Kobe von Koppenfels. und aus Auktion AUCTIONES AG, Basel 26 (1996),401.
3 commentsokidoki
60_P_Hadrian__Dattari_(Savio)_7450-1.jpg
5941 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 134-35 AD bust Nilus22 viewsReference.
Emmett 875.19; Köln 1147; Dattari (Savio) 7450-1 ; RPC III, 5941

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate head left

Rev. L ΕΝΔΕΚΑΤΟΥ
Draped bust of Nilus, r., crowned with taenia and lotus-buds, cornucopia at shoulder.

11.8 gr
22 mm
h
okidoki
33_P_Hadrian__Dattari_1465_var.jpg
5943 EGYPT, Alexandria, Hadrian Tetradrachme 134-35 AD Sarapis25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5943; Emmett 889.19 Köln 1150; Dattari 1465 var.

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ or L ΙΘ = year 19

Obv. AVT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB
laureated head of Hadrian left

Rev. L ENNEAKΔ
Draped bust of Sarapis right wearing taenia and kalathos.

12.98 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
699_P_Hadrian_Emmett916_.jpg
5955 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Artemis advancing14 viewsReference.
Emmett 916.19; RPC III, 5955; Milne 1461; Köln 1163

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Artemis advancing, right holding stag and bow

26.39 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
952_P_Hadrian_Emmettcf917.jpg
5958 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Asclepius standing12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5958.4; Dattari-Savio Pl. 75, 1623 (this coin); Emmett 919.19

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, left

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Asclepius standing facing, head left, holding short serpent-staff.

22.75 gr
32.50 mm
12h
okidoki
1239_P_Hadrian_RPC5958.jpg
5958 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Asclepius standing5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5958; Dattari 1623; Emmett 919.19

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, left

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Asclepius standing facing, head left, holding short serpent-staff

25.19 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
774_P_Hadrian_Emmett918.jpg
5959 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Asclepius standing33 viewsReference.
Emmett 918.19; RPC III, 5959.4; Dattari-Savio Pl. 76, 1625 (this coin)

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. L ENNEAK Δ
Asclepius standing facing head right, holding long serpent-staff.

25.91 gr
35 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
1273_P_Hadrian_RPC5959_3.jpg
5959 EGYPT, Alexandria Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Asclepius standing with olive-branch23 viewsReference.
Emmett 918.19; RPC III, 5959.3; Dattari-Savio Pl. 76, 1624 (this coin). Dattari 1624 and Pl. X (this rev. illustrated).

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. L ENNEAK Δ
Asclepius standing facing head right, holding long serpent-staff, holding olive-branch

25.18 gr
33.5 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
704_P_Hadrian_Emmett956_19.JPG
5987 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 Elpis standing18 viewsReference.
Emmett 956.19; RPC III, 5987; Köln 1173

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Elpis walking, l., holding flower.

19.41 gr
33 mm
11h

Note.
ex. Hirsch 135 lot 679 1983
okidoki
308_P_Hadrian_Emmett979.jpg
6001 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Harpokrates22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6001; Emmett 979.19; Köln 1176; Milne 1472; Dattari 1730;

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. AΥT KAIC TΡAIAN AΔΡIANOC CEB,
laureate bust right, draper on left shoulder, seen from behind

Rev. L ENNEAK Δ
Harpokrates of Herakleopolis standing left, wearing hem-hem crown, chiton and peplos, right hand with finger to lips, club in left, candalbra altar left.

21.61 gr
35 mm
12h
okidoki
IMG_0023.JPG
6013A EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Nemesis advancing14 viewsReference. Unique
Unpubliced; RPC III, 6013A

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. AVT KAI C TPAIAN AΔPIAN[OC CԐB]
laureate head right, with slight drapery over left shoulder

Rev. [LԐNN]ԐAKΔ
Winged Nemesis advancing right, wheel behind below right foot, raising fold of drapery

25.80 gr
33 mm
11h
okidoki
978_P_Hadrian_RPC6020_1.jpg
6020 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Poseidon in hippocamp biga27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6020 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 89, 7759 (this coin); Emmett 1023 (triton biga)

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Poseidon in hippocamp biga, r.raising hand and holding trident

23.35 gr
32 mm
12h

Note.
Poseidon was the Olympian god of the ocean, earthquakes and horses. His father Kronos swallowed him whole when he was born, later Zeus with the help of Metis managed to set him free. During the Titanomachy, the Cyclopes forged a unique trident for Poseidon, and together with his brothers they defeated the Titans and threw them into the Tartaros. The god is well known for his famous attributes such as the Trident, sometimes he also used to carry around a rock with sea creatures on it, and he is pictured on pottery with a wreath of celery leaves. His sacred animals are the dolphin, the bull and the horses. However he is also associated with animals such as the hippocampus, in fact, his chariot was driven by seahorses.
okidoki
1201_P_Hadrian_RPC6028_7.jpg
6028 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Sarapis bust24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6028.7; Dattari-Savio Pl. 89, 12254 (this coin); Köln 1188; Emmett 1026.19

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear.

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Bust of Sarapis, wearing kalathos and laurel wreath, r.; below, eagle standing facing, head l., with outstretched wings

21.78 gr
35 mm
12h
3 commentsokidoki
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603. Marcian26 viewsMarcian was born in Thrace or Illyria. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. In 431, Marcian was taken prisoner by the Vandals in the fighting near Hippo Regius; brought before the Vandal king Geiseric, he was released on his oath never to take up arms against the Vandals.

Through the influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of Theodosius II he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns.

Upon becoming Emperor, Marcian repudiated the embarrassing payments of tribute to Attila the Hun, which the latter had been accustomed to receiving from Theodosius in order to refrain from attacks on the eastern empire. Aware that he could never capture the eastern capital of Constantinople, Attila turned to the west and waged his famous campaigns in Gaul 451 and Italy (452) while leaving Marcian's dominions alone.

He reformed the finances, checked extravagance, and repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.

Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. He did nothing to aid the west during Attila's campaigns, and, living up to his promise, ignored the depredations of Geiseric even when the Vandals sacked Rome in 455. It has recently been argued, however, that Marcian was more actively involved in aiding the western Empire than historians had previously believed and that Marcian's fingerprints can be discerned in the events leading up to, and including, Attila's death. (See Michael A. Babcock, "The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun," Berkley Books, 2005.)

Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between him and Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, Marcian claimed he saw Attila's bow broken before him, and a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead.

Marcian died in 457 of disease, possibly gangrene contracted during a long religious journey.

Despite his short reign and his writing off of the west Marcian is considered one of the best of the early "Byzantine" emperors. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes him and his wife Pulcheria as saints, with their feast day on February 17.

Marcian AE4.9mm (1.30 grams) D N MARCIANVS P F