Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "DOC"
index.jpg
30 viewsCaesarea in Cappadocia, Caracalla, drachm, rev. Mount Argaeus, ET ID = Year 14 = 206 AD, Sydenham 474+Alexios
coin410.jpg
31 viewsAnastasius, Constantinople mint, SB 29 DOC 26
Bust pearl diad.,draped and cuirassed. Rev. large
Epsilon with 2 dots, Gamma in field left. Coin #410
cars100
coin413.jpg
38 viewsAnastasius I Antioch mint SB 53 Doc 49
Bust r. pearl diad.,draped and cuirassed, DN ANAS
TASIVS PP AVG/ Large Epsilon with N over delta
Over A. Coin #413
cars100
01115q00.jpg
18 viewsJustin I, 518-527. Pentanummium (Bronze, 11 mm, 1.86 g, 7 h), uncertain mint. [...] Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justin I to left. Rev. The Tyche of Antioch seated left; to left, Є. Cf. DOC 57 var., MIB 678 var. and SB 111 var. (all with bust to right). A curious coin with the portrait facing left instead of right, possibly a contemporary imitation. Very fine. Quant.Geek
01141q00.jpg
13 viewsJustinian I, 527-565. 1/2 Siliqua (Silver, 14 mm, 1.31 g, 9 h), Carthage, 534/7-552. D N IVSTINIANVS P P AG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I to right. Rev. Large monogram; cross above, S below; all within wreath. DOC -. MIB 53. SB 254 ('siliqua'). Darkly toned. Struck on the usual somewhat irregular flan, otherwise, good very fine. Quant.Geek
Byzantine_follis.JPG
224 views
An Anonymous Follis Class A 2 coin, type 21
Obverse: Christ facing, holding book of gospels IC to left XC to rightEmmanovha IC XC (God with us)
Reverse: +IhSYS XRISTYS bASILEY bASILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Sear attributes it to the joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII 1020-1028 AD
Grierson in DOC says Romanus III and into Michael IV's
1 commentsJon the Lecturer
Sear-336.jpg
21 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ Decanummium (16mm, 2.75 g). Uncertain mint. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield / Large six-pointed star within wreath. DOC 368; MIBE 239 (Ravenna); SB 336. VF, dark green patina. An attractive example of this rare issue. Quant.Geek
Sear-840.jpg
28 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine. 610-641. Æ Follis (29mm, 8.63 g, 6h). Cyzicus mint, 1st officina. Dated RY 3 (AD 612/3). Crowned and draped figures of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger; cross above / Large M; cross above, A/N/N/O III (date) across fields; A//KYZ. DOC 175a; MIB 185; SB 840Quant.Geek
Sear-653.jpg
19 viewsPhocas. 602-610. Æ Follis – 40 Nummi (32mm, 12.92 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 5 (606/7). Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross / Large XXXX; ANNO above, Ч to right; TЄS. DOC 47; MIBE 91; SB 653. Good VF, dark brown-black patina, hint of earthen deposits, cleaning marks. Overstruck on a Nicomedia follis of Maurice Tiberius (SB 512). Quant.Geek
Sear-328.jpg
10 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ Decanummium (17mm, 3.46 g, 6h). Uncertain mint, possibly Perugia. Dated RY 26 (552/3). Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Large I; cross above, date across field; P. DOC 357; MIBE 101a; SB 328. VF, dark green patina, minor roughness. Rare.


Quant.Geek
Sear-2429.jpg
11 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus, with Michael IX. 1282-1328. Æ Assarion (19mm, 1.70 g, 6h). Class III. Constantinople mint. Struck 1295-1320. Winged seraph / Half-length facing figures of Andronicus and Michael, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 638-46; SB 2429. VF, green and brown patina.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2365.jpg
8 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus. 1282-1328. Æ Trachy (23.5mm, 1.09 g, 6h). Class VIII. Thessalonica mint. Six-petaled flower / Half-length facing figures of Michael, holding [cruciform scepter], and St. Demetrius, holding spear, holding between them a staff surmounted by cross within ring. DOC 736-9; SB 2365. VF, dark green and brown patina.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2374.jpg
13 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus. 1282-1328. Æ Trachy (23.5mm, 1.61 g, 6h). Class IV. Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of St. Demetrius, holding spear and shield / Half-length winged facing figure of Andronicus, holding sword and akakia, above crenelated wall with archways. DOC 730-1; SB 2374. VF, dark green patina, minor areas of weak strike, struck on irregular flan.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2217.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (20mm, 1.67 g, 6h). Type R, Variety A. Thessalonica mint. Outstretched wing to left / Facing half-length bust John, holding banner decorated with two cross-in-rings. DOC 31; SB 2217. VF, dark green and brown patina, hint of roughness, small flan split.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
4050632.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (14mm, 0.38 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / Facing busts John and St. Demetrius, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC –; SB –; NAC 56, lot 830 (hammer 800 CHF). VF, dark green patina, obverse struck with worn die, ragged flan. Extremely rare.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-243(1).jpg
12 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ pentanummium (18.01 mm, 2.49 g, 1 h). D N IVSTINI-ANVS AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I right / large Є with crossbar in center, to right, lunate V. SB 243; DOC 270. Quant.Geek
Sear-847.jpg
11 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine. A.D. 610-641. AE follis (25.80 mm, 6.21 g, 7 h). Seleucia Isauriae mint, 1st officina. Dated RY 7 (616/7). Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Large K; cross above, A below; A/N/N/O ςI (date) across field. SB 847; DOC 182a; MIB 195. VF.



The Seleucia Isauriae mint was in use between 615 and 618 to support Heraclius’ campaigns against the Sasanians
Quant.Geek
Sear-1966.jpg
28 viewsManuel I Comnenus. 1143-1180. BI Aspron Trachy (30mm, 2.62 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck 1167-1183(?). Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing; star to either side / Manuel standing facing, wearing loros, being crowned by the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing left. DOC 13d; SB 1966Quant.Geek
Sear-366.jpg
6 viewsJustin II, with Sophia. 565-578. Æ Half Follis (20mm, 6.62 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 8 (572/3). Nimbate figures of Justin and Sophia seated facing on double throne, holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter, respectively / Large K; cross above, date across field; TЄS. DOC 73; MIBE 70a; SB 366. Quant.Geek
sbvc1612,19_15mm2_76g.jpg
Nicephorus I w/Stauracius AE follis17 viewsObverse: Bust of Nicephorus facing, with short beard, wearing crown and
loros, and holding cross potent; to l., N; to r., I/K/H.
Reverse: Facing bust of Stauracius, beardless, wearing crown and chlamys,
and holding globe cross; to l., C; to r., T/A/V
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 803-811 CE
20mm/15mm; 2.76g
SBVC 1612;DOC 11
wileyc
sbvc1612_20_15mm_2_53g.jpg
Nicephorus I w/Stauracius AE follis9 viewsObverse: Bust of Nicephorus facing, with short beard, wearing crown and
loros, and holding cross potent; to l., N; to r., I/K/H.
Reverse: Facing bust of Stauracius, beardless, wearing crown and chlamys,
and holding globe cross; to l., C; to r., T/A/V
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 803-811 CE
19mm/15mm; 2.53g
SBVC 1612;DOC 11
wileyc
Gordian_III_Syd_616.jpg
1 Gordian III11 viewsGordian III
AE22 of Caesarea, Cappadocia
Dated Year 7 = Jan - Feb 244 AD

O: AV KAI M ANT GORDIANOC, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right

R: MHTP KAI BNE, six ears of corn bound together, in lower field ET-Z

BMC 346-349, SGI 3778, Syd 616
Sosius
Hadrian_RIC_848.jpg
15 Hadrian As, travel series, Cappadocia44 viewsHADRIAN
AE As
HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP, draped bust right / CAPPADOCIA S-C, Cappadocia, towered, in tunic & cloak with tassles, standing left holding a miniature of Mount Argaeus & standard.
RIC 848; gVF, pitting
This coin seems to have suffered from bronze disease in the past, and appears to have lost its patina as a result of the BD treatment.
RI0096
1 commentsSosius
Marcus_Aurelius_AE_of_Caesarea.jpg
5 Marcus Aurelius Provincial7 viewsMARCUS AURELIUS
AE of Caesarea, Cappadocia

O: Bust right

R: Mt Argeus with conical peak
RI0101
Sosius
Maurice_Tiberius_SB_587.jpg
8. Maurice Tiberius26 viewsMAURICE TIBERIUS
Half Follis, Rome Mint, 582-602 AD

DN MAVRICI TIb PP AV, Bust facing holding cross on globe / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 587, DOC 283
Sosius
rjb_2009_12_03.jpg
9820 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD
AR didrachm
Caesarea in Cappadocia
Laureate draped bust right
Statue on top of Mount Argaeus
Sydenham 157
mauseus
bizan321.jpg
Alexius III AE Trachy S-201210 views
Alexius III AE Trachy S-2012 DOC 3

Beardless, nimbate bust of Christ, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll in l. hand. Pellet s in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV Full length figure of Emperor on l. and of St. Constantine nimbate, holding between then Globus crucgier. Emperor and Saint wear stemma,divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; both hold labarum headed scepter
Britanikus
Asia_Minor.jpg
Asia Minor27 viewsAncient Greek coinage of Asia Minor: Black Sea Area (Bosporos, Kolchis, Pontos, Paphlagonia, & Bithynia), Western Asia Minor (Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia, Lydia, & Caria), & Central & Southern Asia Minor (Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycanonia, Cilicia, Galata, Cappadocia).1 commentsChristian T
Sear-1889a.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64)30 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
SpongeBob
Gordian_III_Cappadocia.jpg
Cappadocia, Caesarea. Six corn ears25 viewsGordian III, 238-244 A.D. Cappadocia, Caesarea. 7,1g, 23mm. Obv: AV KAI M ANT GORDIANOC; Draped and laureate Gordian III right; Rev: [MHTP] KAI NE (in field) [E]T - Z ("Münze von Kaisareia, Metropolis und Inhaberin einer Neokorie"); Six corn ears, Year Z (= 7, Year 244 A.D.) Cf. Sydenham 616; SNG Österreich, Slg. Leypold II 2812 and 2814. Podiceps
comm2.jpg
Commodus, Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum 177-192 CE.18 viewsObverse: M ANTWNEIN - OC KOMODOC, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: NEIKOPOLEI - TWN / PROC I, river god, bearded, leaning left, left hand with patera(?) on his knees, resting with left arm on urn from which water flows.
22 mm, 7.9 g
Reference a) AMNG 1/1, 1238 (1 ex., wien)
b) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) 8.10.32.8
NORMAN K
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS20 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuña), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseños del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseño del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseño general debe representar tanto el diseño del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseño eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseño del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("À props du monnayage archaïque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseño del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuñación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
20110425-205933-1sb2046.jpg
Latin trachy type C small module Sear 2046193 viewssmall module as SB 2023

Obverse:MP_OV barred in upper fields. Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne with back;holds beardless nimbate head of Christ on breast.
Reverse. Emperor seated on throne without back, collar-peice and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter, and in l., anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper rt. field.
Mint:?Constantinople
Date 1204-
SB 2046, DOC LIII,32
15mm
wileyc
P-shaped_fibula_Type_Trident_(drietand)_ref__D__Bondoc_3e-4e_eeuw_na_Chr__4.JPG
P-shaped_fibula_Type_Trident_(drietand)_ref__D__Bondoc_3e-4e_eeuw_na_Chr__411 viewsokidoki
BOTH_ANT_7.jpg
SOLD Antiochus V11 Sidetes Tetradrachm 138-129 BC SOLD7 viewsSOLD Obs - Diademed head of Antiochus V11 in fillet border
16.32g 29mm SC 2061.4e
Antioch on the Orontes mint
Rev- Athena holding Nike presenting wreath left , right, hand on shield proping up spear
Ins- ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΙΓΕΡΟΥ surrounded by wreath
Control marks Monogram composing ΔΙ below A before Athena left Right above shield, A above M
An early Cappadocian copy emission 4 obs A14 (Krenkal & Lorber 2009) SOLD
cicerokid
00003x00~2.jpg
57 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (27mm, 6.59 g, 11 h)
Dies by Joseph B. Gardiner. Belleville (New Jersey) or Scoville mint. Struck 1840.
HENRY CLAY AND THE AMERICAN SYSTEM
Draped bust of Henry Clay right; IBG below
UNITED/ [WE]/ STAND within wreath
Rulau HT 79; Low 192

Rulau gives a struck date of 1840 for this issue, and assigns it to the Belleville mint. However, documentary evidence shows that Gardiner was by this time working at the Scoville mint in Waterbury, CT. Either the coin was struck prior to spring 1839, or it is an issue of the Scoville mint.
Ardatirion
DSC_0193.jpg
80 viewsINDONESIA, Sultanate of Palembang. Circa AD 1790's-1821
Tin Cash (20mm, 0.61 g)
Palembang mint
Shi Dan Li Bao in Hànzì
Blank
T.D. Yih, "Tiny Pitis Inscribed 'Shi-Dan' (Sultan) from Palembang," in ONS Newsletter 204 (Summer 2010), type I-1

Found in Palembang

Hang Li Po first appears in the Malay Annals as a Chinese princess sent to be the fifth bride of sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. However, there is no reference to this event in official Ming documents. Li Po may merely be a beautiful concubine given to the Sultan. Alternatively, she may be the daughter of an otherwise unknown Chinese ruler in the area, to whom this coin may perhaps be attributed.
1 commentsArdatirion
00091x00.jpg
93 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837.
CU Penny Token (34.5 mm, 14.27 g, 6 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835.
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-4A2; Breton 870

Canadian catalogs traditionally give this issue to an illicit mint in Montreal. Wayne Jacobs1 argues that these were struck in Belleville. While his methodology is somewhat questionable - most of his theory is based off a unreliable editorial in an 1893 edition of the Newark Sunday Call - his reasoning regarding this series is sound. He is able to clearly demonstrate that the halfpenny and penny tokens in question are a product of a single, cohesive establishment which could not have been located in Lower Canada. Finally, Jacobs' claim can be supported by documentary evidence from the Belleville mint's primary competitor, the Scoville Company of Waterbury, Connecticut. A letter from J.M.L. to W.H. Scoville, dated April 4 1839, states that, "a competitor was stamping Canada Nova Scotia and Southern coins at 35 cents a pound."

1. Jacobs, Wayne. 1996. “The Shadowy Issues of the Belleville Mint.” Canadian Numismatic Journal 41 1: 13–26.
1 commentsArdatirion
byzantine_tessera.jpg
32 viewsBYZANTINE. Simaias and Xenon. Circa 6th century AD
PB Tessera (20mm, 7.24 g, 12 h)
Block monogram: CIMAIAC
Block monogram: XENΩNOC
BLS -; DOCBS -

Found in Israel
Ardatirion
mt__argaeus_res.jpg
(0161) LUCIUS VERUS or MARCUS AURELIUS--MT. ARGAEUS46 views161--
AE 20 mm, 6.85 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Mount Argaeus, ETB in exergue
Cappadocia Caeserea
laney
arGAEUs_res.jpg
(0161) LUCIUS VERUS--MT. ARGAEUS27 views163-169 AD
AE 19 mm, 5.38 g
Obverse: Laureate head right
Reverse: Mount Argaeus, ETG in exergue (Year 3)
Cappadocia Caesarea
laney
l_verus_mt_argai.jpg
(0161) LUCIUS VERUS--MT. ARGAEUS17 views161-169
AE 20.5 mm, 7.09 g
O: ΑΥΤΟΚP ΟΥΗΡΟС СƐ[Β] laureate bust of Lucius Verus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, right
R: [ΚΑΙСΑΡƐωΝ Τ] ΠΡ ΑΡΓΑΙω ƐΤΟΒ Mount Argaios with tall conical top
Cappadocia, Caesaria; cf RPC 4 6870 (temp); SNG I 2240
laney
commodus_philippop.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS41 views177 - 192 AD
AE 19 mm 4.00 g
O: AY M AY[P KOMMO]DOC laureate, draped bust right
R: FILIPPOPOLEITWN, Tripod altar with coiling serpent around it, head emerging at the top
Ref: Moushmov Philippopolis 5224

laney
commodus_pautalia~0.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS12 views177 - 192 AD
AE 19 mm, 4.00 g
O: (AYT KAI) MAP AYP KOMODOC, laureate, draped bust right
R: ..OYLPIAC P-AYTALIAC, Bonus-Eventus naked standing, holding patera and
branch or thrysos
Thrace, Pautalia
laney
commodus_nike_nikop.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--NIKIPOLIS AD ISTRUM29 views177-192 AD
AE 17 X 21 mm, 2.53 g
O: AVT [KAI MAR AVRH] KOMODOC, laureate head right
R: [NEIKOPOLEITWN] PROC ICC TRON Tyce standing left with kalathos, rudder, and cornucopia
Nikopolis ad Istrum, AMNG I/1, 1239
(interesting error on rev., with extra C)
Pick knows 3 ex., Berlin, Paris, Sophia. Usually these coins are from a rude style.

laney
commodus_odessos.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--ODESSOS31 views177-192 AD
struck ca 182 - 184
Æ 25mm, 7.72 g
O: AVT K M AVP ANT KOMODOCLaureate head of Commodus, facing right (countermark near ear?)
R: ODHCC EITRN, Great God of Odessus standing left, holding cornucopiae and patera, a lit altar at his feet.
Thrace, Odessos; Moushmov 1592
d.s.
laney
COMMODUS_SNAKE_PHIL.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--PHILIPPOPOLIS36 views177 - 192 AD
AE 19 mm 4.42 g
O: AV KAI MAV KOMODOC, LAUR HEAD R
R:FILIPPOPOLEITWN, ENTWINED SNAKE
PHILIPPOLIS, THRACE
laney
sev_alex_caesarea_res.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER24 views222-235 AD
AE 21 mm
O: laureate bare bust right, from behind
R: 3 double stalks of wheat tied together
Caesarea, Cappadocia
laney
anastasius_3_7_26.jpg
(0491 ) ANASTASIUS63 views491 - 518 AD
STRUCK 498 - 518 (5th Officina)
AE FOLLIS 32 mm 15.64 g
O: D N ANASTA SIVS P P AVC, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: Large M (mark of value); star to left and right, cross above, below, CON IN EXE.
CONSTANTINOPLE
DOC 23i; MIBE 27; SB 19

laney
justinian_i.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I41 views527 - 565 AD
2nd OFFICINA, STRUCK 527 - 538 AD
AE FOLLIS 30 mm max. 17.89 g
O: D N IVSTINI ANVS P P AVC, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, with star on shoulder
R: Large M ; star to left, cross above and to right, B below; CON. IN EXE
CONSTANTINOPLE
DOC 28b; MIBE 84; SB 158
laney
maurice_tiberius_cyzicus.jpg
(0582) MAURICE TIBERIUS37 views582 - 602 AD
Struck year 7 (588/9)
AE FOLLIS 26 mm 10.19 g
O: Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus crucger, shield on arm
R: Large M, cross above; ANNO to left, GI to right; A/KYZ. DOC 123a; SB 518
CYZICUS
laney
byz_one_bkk.jpg
(0602) PHOCAS14 views602-610.
Struck 603-610, 5th officina
Æ Half Follis 25 mm, 5.63 g
O: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross
R: Large XX; star above; CONЄ
Constantinople mint DOC 37e; SB 644.
laney
phocas_half_follis_with_leontia.jpg
(0602) PHOCAS with Leontia12 views 602-610 AD.
Æ Half Follis 21.5 mm, 4.52 g
Dated RY 1 (602/3 AD).
O: ON FOCA NEPE AV, Phocas holding globus cruciger, and Leontia holding cross sceptre, standing facing; cross above
R: Large X•X; cross above; mint monogram below.
Antioch mint; cf DOC II 91; MIB II 85; SB 673
laney
CONSTANTINE_VII.jpg
(0945) CONSTANTINE VII AND ROMANUS II30 viewsApr 945 - Nov 959 AD
AE FOLLIS 26 mm 5.77 g
(double strike on rev.)
O: +COnST bASIL ROM
CONSTINE VII FACING, BEARDED, WEARING MODIFIED LOROS AND CROWN WITH CROSS, GLOBUS CRUCIGER IN L HAND, AKAKIA IN R HAND
R: + COnSt/EnThEO bA/SILEVS R/OmEOn
DOC 26; SEAR 1761
laney
connstantine_x_a.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X26 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 27 mm 4.17 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
laney
constantine_x.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X27 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 31 mm max. 6.92 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
(gouges on obverse are the result of overstriking on an earlier issue that appears to be a class D anonymous follis (Sear 1836).
laney
andronicus_ii.jpg
(1282) ANDRONICUS II & MICHAEL IX17 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX
1282 - 1328 AD
AE Assarion 21mm, 1.99 grams
O: Nimbate and facing bust of Archangel St. Michael holding scepter and globus cruciger.
R: Facing half length figure of Christ blessing the two emperors who kneel before him.
Constantinople mint; Sear2435 // DOC677-80
laney
commodus_homonia_A.jpg
(177) COMMODUS--ANCHIALOS21 views177 - 192 AD
AE 23.5 mm; 6.21 g
O: AV KAI L AI KOMODOC, laureate, draped bust right.
R: [AGXIA]LEWN, Homonoia standing left by burning altar, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Thrace, Anchialus
Moushmov 2801; Varbanov 106
d.s.
laney
006~0.JPG
(527-565) JUSTINIEN [Sear 175, Thessalonic]9 viewsDroit : DN IVSTINANVS PP AVG
Références : MIBE 169a; DOC 98a; Sear 175. (Ex. LAC)
Ségusiaves
102.JPG
(582-602) Maurice Tibere [Sear 583, Syracuse]10 viewsMaurice Tiberius (582-602). Æ 10 Nummi (15mm, 2.66g, 6h). Syracuse, 591-597. Helmeted and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger. R/ Large X; SE CI LI A around. MIBE 140; DOC 281; Sear 583 (Ex LAC)Ségusiaves
072~0.JPG
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 871]8 viewsAR Half Siliqua, 0.70 gm. Carthage mint. Struck 617-641 AD. Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Heraclius right / no legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Martina on right, wearing crown with long pendilia, and robes; cross between their heads, sometimes with four dots between their shoulders. DOC 233; MIB 149; SB 871.Ségusiaves
mi5K3Gagpx4S8iREL9tBCrX7oP6fc2.jpg
(717-741) LEO III [Sear 1530]12 viewsCrowned bust facing, wearing chlamys, holding cross on globe and akakia / DN O CONSTANTI... around crowned, facing bust of Constantine V, holding akakia and cross on globe, all above ornate horizontal bar; SC to left, L to right; large M below. SB 1530, DOC 54Ségusiaves
049.JPG
(829-842) THEOPHILE [Sear 1681]11 viewsTheophilus (829-842). Æ 10 Nummi (19mm, 3.63g, 6h). Syracuse, 830-842. Crowned facing bust, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger. R/ Large M; X/X/X and N/N/N on either side; cross above; Θ below. DOC 30.9; Sear 1681. (Ex LAC)Ségusiaves
57640q00.jpg
*SOLD*15 views Commodus AE 32

Attribution: Varbanov III 930, Philippopolis, Thrace
Date: AD 188
Obverse: AU KAI M AUR - KOMODOC, laureate head r.
Reverse: HGE KAI CEROUEIANOU FILIPPOPOLEITWN, eagle standing r., head turned back l., wreath in beak, coiled snake before.
Size: 32 mm
Weight: 17.31 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
ant-pius_didrachm_5_9gr_o-r.jpg
0 - Antoninus Pius Silver Didrachm of Caearea, Cappadocia - Pietas standing w/ Altar32 views~
~~
~~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Antoninus Pius ( 138 - 161 AD )
Silver Didrachm (two drachmai) of Caesarea, Cappadocia.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare headed bust of Antoninus Pius facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from Behind.
rev: Pietas, unveiled, standing left, raising right hand over lighted altar and holding open box in left hand.

Weight: 5.9 Grams.
~~~
*~!CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE - VERY LARGE PHOTO!~*
-----
-----
~ VERY RARE COIN ~
~~~
~~
~
1 commentsrexesq
Cesares.jpg
00 - LOS DOCE CESARES109 viewsFinalmente pude conseguir al menos una pieza de cada Cesar !!!!!4 commentsmdelvalle
Antíoco I, Soter.jpg
02-02 - Antioco I Soter (281 - 261 A.C.)42 viewsDespués de la muerte de Alejandro Magno, sus generales se repartieron el imperio, siendo protagonistas durante veinte años de grandes luchas y peleas por obtener el poder. Fueron los llamados diádocos, (διάδοχοι) o sucesores. La lucha entre ellos para obtener el poder y la hegemonía duró casi cincuenta años, hasta el 281 adC en que murió el último de los diádocos, Seleuco I Nikátor. Después de estos antiguos generales gobernaron los llamados epígonos (επίγονοι), que significa los nacidos después.
Antíoco I Sóter (que quiere decir 'salvador') (324 adC-261 adC) era hijo del fundador de la dinastía Seléucida, Seleuco I Nicátor y de Apame, princesa sogdiana y nieta de Espitamenes. Se casó con su madrastra, Estratónice. Era uno de estos epígonos a que se refiere la Historia. Se le conoce sobre todo por su triunfo frente a los gálatas en Asia Menor (pueblo galo procedente de Europa que se asentó aquí en el siglo III adC), cuya invasión supo detener a tiempo. Los gálatas venían de una expedición contra los griegos y habían sido vencidos por ellos. Pero al amparo de esta invasión frustrada se fueron formando pequeños Estados independientes que se irán consolidando durante los reinados de los reyes sucesores de Antíoco. Fue enemigo de otro de los epígonos, Ptolomeo II de Egipto y en las luchas que mantuvo contra él Antíoco perdió grandes extensiones de terreno además de que el rey egipcio consiguiera también la hegemonía sobre el mar Mediterráneo. Murió en combate durante la guerra que mantuvo contra Eumenes I, gobernador del reino de Pérgamo en Asia Menor. A Antíoco I le sucedió su hijo Antíoco II Teos (el dios).(Wikipedia)
AE 17 mm 5.8 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Zeus de pié de frente viendo a izquierda sosteniendo estrella ? en mano derecha extendida y cetro en izquierda.

Ceca: Antioquía en Orontes
Referencias:
mdelvalle
Cappadocia,_Caesarea-Eusebia,_020p_Vespasian,_RPC_II_1659,_AR-Hemidrachm,_Laur_b_r_,_Nike_r_,_69-79_AD,_Q-001,_0h,12,9-13,9mm,_1,54g-s.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1659, Cappadocia, Caesarea-Eusebia, AR-Hemidrachm, Nike advancing right, #173 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1659, Cappadocia, Caesarea-Eusebia, AR-Hemidrachm, Nike advancing right, #1
avers: AYTOKP KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBA Laureate head of Vespasian to right.
reverse: Nike advancing right, holding wreath in her right hand and palm frond over her left shoulder.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,9-13,9mm, weight: 1,54g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea-Eusebia, date: 69-79 A.D.,
ref: RPC II 1659, Sydenham 94, Metcalf 17, SGI 735,
Q-001
quadrans
CAPPADOCIA__Caesarea__Vespasian_with_Titus_(69-79)__Didrachm__RPC_II_1650,_Sydenham_102__Q-001,_0h,_19mm,_6,73g-s.jpg
020p Vespasian with Titus (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1650, Cappadocia, Caesarea, AR-Didrachm, Laureate head of Titus right,105 views020p Vespasian with Titus (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1650, Cappadocia, Caesarea, AR-Didrachm, Laureate head of Titus right,
avers: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC, Laureate head of Vespasian right.
reverse: AYTO KAI OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOY YIOC, Laureate head of Titus right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 6,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea, date: 69-79 A.D., ref: RPC II 1650, Sydenham 102.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
GI_030a_img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Didrachm, Cappadocia, Caesarea - Nike34 viewsObv:– AVTOKPA KAICAP OVECPACIANOC CEBACTOC, Laureate head right
Rev:– NIKH CEBACTH, Victory walking right, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Cappadocia, Caesarea. A.D. 77 - 78

Weight 7.23g. 20.30mm.
maridvnvm
GI_030b_img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Didrachm, Cappadocia, Caesarea - Sydenham, Caesarea 10234 viewsObv:– AVTOKPA KAICAP OVECPACIANOC CEBACTOC, Laureate head right
Rev:– AVTO KAI OVECPACIANOC CEBACTOV VIOC, Laureate head of Titus right
Minted in Cappadocia, Caesarea. A.D. 76 - 77
Reference:– Sydenham, Caesarea 102; Metcalf, Caesarea 4. RPC 1650.

Weight 7.05g. 19.38mm.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_),_AE-23_IY-K_A_AYP-KOMMODOC_MAPKIANOPOLEITON_Markianopolis_Q-001_2h_22,5mm_6,87ga-s~0.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Moushmov 366, AE-23, MAPKIANO ΠOΛEIΤΩΝ, Tyche standing left,66 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Moushmov 366, AE-23, MAPKIANO ΠOΛEIΤΩΝ, Tyche standing left,
avers:- AY-K•Λ•AYP-KOMOΔOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- MAPKIANO-ΠO-ΛEIΤΩΝ, Tyche Euposia standing left, holding a ship's rudder and a cornucopiae and infant in crook of left arm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 6,87g, axis:2h,
mint: Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, date: A.D., ref: Moushmov 366, Pick (AMNG) 541, Varbanov (engl) I.-709, Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. ???,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_)_AE-17_Nikopolis_AVT-L-KAI-KOMODOC_NEIKOPOLI-PROC-I_Nikopolis_HHJ-8_10_01_12_Q-001_1h_17,5mm_3,13ga-s~0.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.01.12, AE-17, NEIKOΠOΛI ΠPOC I, 72 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.01.12, AE-17, NEIKOΠOΛI ΠPOC I,
avers:- AVT-Λ-KAI-KOMOΔOC, Laureate head right.
revers:- NEIKOΠOΛI-ΠPOC-I, .
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,13g, axes: 1h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 193-211 A.D., ref: HHJ-08.10.01.12, p-, PB-, HM-,
Q-001
quadrans
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_)_AE-17_Nikopolis_M-AYP-KOMODOC-ANTONEINOC_NEIKOPOLEITON_Nikopolis_HHJ-8_10_13_2var_Q-001_7h_18-19mm_3,96g-s.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.13.2var, AE-18, NEIKOΠOΛEITΩN, Artemis standing right,177 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.13.2var, AE-18, NEIKOΠOΛEITΩN, Artemis standing right,
avers: M-AYP-KOMOΔOC-ANTΩNEINOC, Laureate cuirassed bust right.
revers: NEIKOΠO-ΛEITΩN, Artemis standing right, holding bow in left hand and drawing with right hand arrow from quiver over right
shoulder; at her feet stag standing right, looking up to her.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,96g, axes: 7h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 193-211 A.D.,
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2164??
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No.8.10.13.2 corr.
Writes M AVRH ANTWNEINOC KOMODOC in error
Q-001
quadrans
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_)_AE-17_Nikopolis_AYT-KAY-KOMODOC_NEIKOPOLIC-PROC-IC_Nikopolis_HHJ-8_10_38_--_Q-001_1h_16,6-17,7mm_3,22g-s~0.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.38.5 (2015), AE-18, NEIKOΠOΛIC ΠPOC IC, Tyche standing left, 107 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.38.5 (2015), AE-18, NEIKOΠOΛIC ΠPOC IC, Tyche standing left,
avers:- AVT-KAY-KOMOΔOC, Laureate head right.
revers:- NEIKOΠOΛIC-ΠPOC-IC, Tyche standing left, holding cornucopiae in left arm and in right hand rudder.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16,6-17,7mm, weight: 3,22g, axes: 1h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 177-192 A.D., ref: HHJ-08.10.38.5 (2015), p-, PB-, HM-,
Q-001
quadrans
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_)_AE-17_Nikopolis_AV-OM-AV-KOMODOC_NEIKOPOLI-PROC-EICT-O_Nikopolis_HHJ-8_10_38_--_Q-001_2h_17,5-18,5mm_2,49gx-s~0.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.38.??, AE-18, NEIKOΠOΛI ΠPOC EICT O, Tyche standing left,92 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HHJ-08.10.38.??, AE-18, NEIKOΠOΛI ΠPOC EICT O, Tyche standing left,
avers:- AV-OM-AV-KOMOΔOC, Laureate head right.
revers:- NEIKOΠOΛI-ΠPOC-EICT-O, Tyche standing left, holding cornucopiae in left arm and in right hand rudder.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,49g, axes: 2h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, date: 177-192 A.D., ref: HHJ-08.10.38.??, p-, PB-, HM-,
Q-001
"Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Commodus, AD 177-192
obv. AVTO M AV - KOMODOC
laureate head r.
rev. NEIKOPOLI - PROC EICTRO
Tyche in long garment and mantle, stg. l., holding in l. arm cornucopiae and in extended r.
hand rudder
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013)
rev. cf. No. 8.10.38.8 var. (has NIKOPOL PIOC ICCTRO)
obv. e.g. No.8.10.16.2

Its a new rev. variant with a rare obv. legend." by Jochen
quadrans
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_),_AE-30___KOMMODOC___CTPDIO(L_orA)__IOEPGAMHON,_Q-001_6h_30,0mm_11,24g-s~0.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Mysia, Pergamon, Weisser 1110, Diodorus, strategus, EΠI CTRΑ-ΔIOΔOPΩV_ΠEPΓAMH/ΝΩN, Asclepius seated left, 65 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Mysia, Pergamon, Weisser 1110, Diodorus, strategus, Asia: Conventus of Pergamum; Mysia, EΠI-CTRΑ-ΔIOΔOPΩV_ΠEPΓAMH/ΝΩN, Asclepius seated left, holding patera feeding serpent,
avers:- AV-KA-AVP-ΚΟMOΔOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- EΠI-CTRΑ-ΔIOΔOPΩV_ΠEPΓAMH/ΝΩN, Asclepius seated, left, feeding serpent from patera, holding staff.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 11,24g, axis: 6h,
mint: Pergamum; Asia: Conventus of Pergamum; Mysia, date: 182-184 A.D., ref: Weisser 1110,
Q-001
quadrans
Byz_Rome_Decanum.jpg
05. JUSTIN II AND SOPHIA28 viewsJUSTIN II AND SOPHIA
Half follis, Rome Mint , 565-578 AD

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, Justin on l. and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne / Large XX, cross above, ROM below.

SB 404, DOC 206
Sosius
Cappadocia,_Caesarea,_050p_Julia-Domna,_Syd_447var_,_AR-Drachm,_IVLIA_AVGVSTA_AVG,_MHTPO_KAICAP_NE,_ET-IH,_207-AD,_Q-001,_0h,_15-19mm,_2,87g-s~0.jpg
050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Cappadocia, Caesarea, Syd-447var, AR-Drachm, MHTPO KAICAP NЄ, Mount Argaeus, #161 views050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Cappadocia, Caesarea, Syd-447var, AR-Drachm, MHTPO KAICAP NЄ, Mount Argaeus, #1
avers: IVΛIA AVΓVSTA AVΓ, Bust draped right.
reverse: MHTPO KAICAP NЄ, Mount Argaeus surmounted by a star, date below ЄT IH (year 18, 210 A.D.),
exergue: -/-//ЄT IH, diameter: 15,0-19,0mm, weight: 2,85g, axis:0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea, date: 210 A.D., ref: Syd-447var,
Q-001
quadrans
JustISB75.jpg
0518-0527 AD - Justin I - Sear 75 - Pentanummium28 viewsEmperor: Justin I (r. 518-527 AD)
Date: 518-527 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Pentanummium

Obverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: Large Chi-Rho
"E" in right field
"Δ" in left field

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
Sear 75; DOC 21d.2
1.72g; 13.8mm; 165°
Pep
LarryW1921.jpg
0620v Focas, 602-61042 viewsGold solidus, 22.29mm, 4.48g, brilliant, Mint State
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
d N FOCAS PERP AV, crowned, draped and cuirased bust facing, holding globus cruciger in raised right hand / VICTORIA AVGU E, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by chi-rho monogram in right hand and orb surmounted by cross (globus cruciger) in left; CONOB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Leu Auction 75, Zurich, 25-27 October 1999, lot 1629
cf. Sear 620; DOC 10e 1-5; MIB 9; Wroth (BMC) 10; Tolstoi 8; Ratto 1181 - all with obverse legend ending AVG
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1918.jpg
0635 Focas, 602-61038 viewsGold half tremissis (1/6 solidus), 14.34mm, 0.72g, aEF
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
dN FOCAS PER AV, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, beardless / VICTORI FOCAS AV, cross potent, CONOB beneath.
Extremely rare with three known specimens; the smallest gold denomination in the Byzantine series.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Frank Kovacs
Sear 635; cf. DOC 20; cf. MIB 29
Lawrence Woolslayer
GI_064m_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Ar Drachm - Syd. -61 viewsObv:– AY KAI L CEPT CEOVHPOC, Laureate head right
Rev:– MHTPO KAICAPIACW, Male figure (Argaios(?)), laureate, draped seated left on Mount Argaeus, holding branch
Minted in Caesarea, Cappadocia. Year 17, ETIZ in exe. A.D. 209

Apparently unlisted in Sydenham, cf. Syd. #403, which is a matching didrachm of this type.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
GI_065c_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna drachm - Syd 44118 viewsAR Drachm
Obv:– IOVLIA DOMNA CE, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– MHTPOPO KAICAPIAC, Tyche standing left holding rudder & cornucopiae
Minted in Cappadocia, Caesarea. ET E in exe. Year 5 = A.D. 196/197
Reference:– Syd 441.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Cappadocia,_Caesarea,_073p_Tranquilina,_Syd-618,_AE_21,_CAB_T_#929;ANKY_#923;_#923;INA_AY_#915;,_MHTR_KAI_B_NE_ET-Z,_SGI_3864,_244_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_21mm,_6,28g-s.jpg
073p Tranquilina (241-244 A.D., Augusta), Cappadocia, Caesarea, Syd. 618, AE-21, MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears, #153 views073p Tranquilina (241-244 A.D., Augusta), Cappadocia, Caesarea, Syd. 618, AE-21, MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears, #1
Wife of Emperor Gordian III.
avers: CAB TΡANKYΛΛINA AYΓ, Diademed and draped bust right.
reverse: MHTR KAI B NЄ, Six-grain ears bound together, ЄT-Z across the field.
exergue: ЄT/Z//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 6,28g, axis:0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea, date: Year=7, 244 A.D., ref: Syd-618,
Q-001
quadrans
2860420.jpg
08. Maurice Tiberius23 viewsAV Solidus (21mm, 4.41 g, 7h). Constantinople mint, 7th officina. Struck 583-602 AD.

O: Helmeted, draped, and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger

R: Angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; Z//CONOB. DOC 5g; MIBE 6; SB 478. VF, small dig on reverse.

Ex CNG

1 commentsSosius
1123Hadrian_RIC848.jpg
0848 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Cappadocia standing12 viewsReference.
RIC 848c; C. 205; BMC 1730; Strack 714.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bust of Hadrian, bare-headed, draped, right

Rev. CAPPADOCIA, S C across field
Cappadocia towered wearing tunic and cloak with tassels standing left holding a miniature of Mount Argaeus and a standard.

13.91 gr
28 mm
6h
okidoki
158Hadrian__RIC848c.jpg
0848 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Cappadocia standing27 viewsReference.
RIC 848c; C. 205; BMC 1730; Strack 714.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bust of Hadrian, bare-headed, draped, right

Rev. CAPPADOCIA, S C across field
Cappadocia towered wearing tunic and cloak with tassels standing left holding a miniature of Mount Argaeus and a standard.

11.24 gr
26 mm
12h

Note.
Ex Charles Darrah Collection of Flavian and Antonine Bronzes.
okidoki
LarryW1922.jpg
0956 Contans II, AD 641-66850 viewsGold solidus, 19.44mm, 4.49g, nearly EF
Struck c. 651-654 at Constantinople
d N CONSTAN[TINU]S PP AV, crowned bust facing, with long beard and mustache, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand / VICTORIA AVGU I, cross potent on three steps; CO[NOB] beneath.
Areas of flatness in the striking
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 956; DOC 19j; MIB 23; Wroth/BMC 36; Tolstoi 57; CBN 41
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1925.jpg
0964 Constans II, AD 641-66853 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.31g, EF
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU Δ, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius (on right), both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CONOB in exergue. Some surface deposits on obverse and a little flatness in the striking affecting both sides.
Certificate of Authenticy by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 964; DOC 30d; MIB 31; Wroth (BMC) 55; Tolstoi 293
Lawrence Woolslayer
avanti_together.jpg
1..Avantivarman 857-883 AD18 viewsAvantivarman 857-883 AD (1st ruler of Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18/19mm (4.70gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Aadi' at right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar, with Nagari legend 'Deva' at right
Paul R3
Focas_Solidus_sm.jpg
10. Phocas16 viewsPHOCAS
602-610 AD
AV Solidus (22mm, 4.49 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 1st officina. Struck 604-607.
Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger / Angel standing facing, holding staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; A//CONOB. DOC 5a; MIBE 7; SB 618. EF.
Ex-CNG 10/2013
Sosius
1059-1067 Constantin IX S 1853.jpg
1059-1067 Constantin IX - follis from Constantinople54 views+EMMANOVHΛ , Christ standing facing, in field IC / XC
+ KωN T ΔK EVΔK AVΓO , Eudocia and Constantine IX standing facing holding labarum (Constantine IX and Eudocia are depicted like the icon of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena holding the True Cross).

Sear 1853
Ginolerhino
coin404.JPG
105b. Lucius Verus17 viewsAequitas, also known as Aecetia, was the goddess of fair trade and honest merchants. Like Abundantia, she is depicted with a cornucopia, representing wealth from commerce. She is also shown holding a balance, representing equity and fairness. During the Roman Empire, Aequitas was sometimes worshipped as a quality or aspect of the emperor, under the name Aequitas Augusti.

Aequitas is the tattoo that one brother has on the film Boondock Saints. His brother has a tattoo of the word veritas. They represent, without surprise, justice/equality/balance/fairness and truth.

Aequitas is the source of the word equity, and also means "equality" or "justice".

Denarius. Rev. Aequitas stg. l. holding scales and cornucopiae. TR P VIII IMP V COS III. S-5363, RSC 32
ecoli
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_exe-R_RIC-V-II-204var(Not_in_thisBust)-p-39_Rome_2nd-emiss_277-AD_Q-x01_axis-5h_22-25mm_4,66g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,113 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, and globe in right hand. (H-var Not in RIC)
revers:- SO-LI-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//R, diameter: 22-25mm, weight: 4,66g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission of Rome, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 204var (Not in RIC), p-39,
Q-001
"What is particularly interesting in this coin is that it was unlisted till now with this exergue // R (cf. S. Estiot & Ph. Gysen, L'atelier de Rome au début du règne de Probus: corpus et documents inédits, Revue Numismatique 2006, tables p. 254-255)
[downloadable : http://www.academia.edu/1368399/Latelier_de_Rome_au_debut_du_regne_de_Probus_276-277_corpus_et_documents_inedits ]
In fact since our 2006 article has been published, I realized that there was such a coin in Vienna: so Joe's is the second known exemplary; furthermore, it has been struck with the same reverse die as the coin in Vienna. "by S.Estiot, Thank you S. Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_SALVS-PVBLIC_Gamma-XXI_Bust-F-square_RIC-569-p-76_Ticinum_282-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_21mm_4,15g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in, Ticinum, SALVS PVBLIC, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//ΓXXI, Salus standing right, Scarce!322 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in, Ticinum, SALVS PVBLIC, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//ΓXXI, Salus standing right, Scarce!
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis,"Square shield", seen from back.
revers:- SALVS-PVBLIC, Salus standing right, feeding serpent in arms.
exerg: -/-//ΓXXI, diameter: 21mm, weight: 4,15g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, date: , ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, p-, Heroic Bust Type (Unlisted with this bust type in RIC, Square shield),
Q-001
"Rarity of your coin: there are 10 examples of this type in my documentation (with a high rate of die linking).
I think your coin shares its obverse die with the Glasgow Hunter Coin Cabinet coin (A. S. Robertson n. 174)"
by S.Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
ManISB1980.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I - Sear 1980 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: Manuel I (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: to left, /Γ/E; to right, /ΓI/O/S (or similar)
Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear and shield.

Reverse: MANHΛ ΔECΠOT (or similar)
Bust facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Uncertain Greek mint
Sear 1980; DOC 23
2.32g, 16.1mm; 180°
Pep
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England22 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer: Andrev, cognate with the modern English name of Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland10 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
Heraclius_SB_876.jpg
12. Heraclius7 viewsHERACLIUS
Decanummium, Carthage , 610-641 AD

DN ERACLIO PP AVS, Bust facing, no beard / Large X, dot over N over dot to l., cross above, dot over M over dot to r., star below

SB 876, DOC 236
Sosius
Heraclius_SB_890.jpg
12. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine12 viewsHERACLIUS & HERACLIUS CONSTANTINE
Half follis, Rome, 610-641

DD NN ERACLIORVN Facing busts of Heraclius, no beard, on l., Heraclius Constantine, no beard, on r. / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 890, DOC 262 aF/F
Sosius
2860424.jpg
12. Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine18 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine

AV Solidus (19mm, 4.51 g, 7h). Constantinople mint, 5th officina. Struck 616-circa 625.

O: Crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine; cross above

R: Cross potent set on three steps; Є//CONOB.


DOC 13d; MIB 11; SB 738. VF.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
image~4.jpg
12. Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas41 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. 610-641.
AV Solidus (18mm, 4.34 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 6th officina.
Dated IY 11 (AD 637/8).
Crowned figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger / Cross potent set on three steps; monogram to left, IA monogram (date) to right; ς//CONOB.
DOC 39e; MIB 45; SB 764. EF, areas of weak strike.
Ex-CNG
1 commentsSosius
Heraclius_6_Nummi.jpg
12. Heraclius, AE 6 Nummi, Alexandria.7 viewsHeraclius, AE 6 Nummi, Alexandria.

O: dd M hERACLS around cross potent on one or two steps, sometimes with globes on ends of arms

R: Large S.

SB 862, DOC 198
Sosius
RI 132fs img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 856 (near) - Bust Type C (Serdica) (MS / KAΓ)55 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVTOR ORBIS, Emperor standing right, holding spear, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre
Mint – Serdica (MS in centre field, KAΓ in exe) Emission 5, Officina 3. A.D. 278
References:– RIC Unlisted (close to 856) Bust type C. Unlisted obverse legend for this reverse type. Unlisted issue, this issue is not listed in RIC but is documented in Pink. Officina not known for this issue - whilst Pink documented the existence of this issue mark this officina was not documented. It is now becoming clear that this issue was produced at all the officina.
maridvnvm
RI 132fu img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (Δ) (unlisted issue mark for mint)72 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding globe in left
Minted in Serdica (Δ in exe)
Reference:– RIC 864 var. Bust type H (This series of emission marks is not documented in RIC or Pink for this mint)
There is growing evidence that this coin is part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.
A nicely struck coin with lots of detail and plenty of silvering.
maridvnvm
RI 132fu img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (Δ) (unlisted issue mark for mint) (updated image)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding globe in left
Minted in Serdica (Δ in exe)
Reference:– RIC 864 var. Bust type H (This series of emission marks is not documented in RIC or Pink for this mint)
There is growing evidence that this coin is part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.
A nicely struck coin with lots of detail and plenty of silvering.

A new image of this pleasing coin.
maridvnvm
LarryW1833.jpg
140 Marcian, AD 450-45764 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, brilliant, gEF
Struck at Constantinople
D N MARCIA-NVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy / VICTORI-A AVCCC Z, Victory standing half left holding a long jeweled cross resting on ground, star in right field, CON OB in exergue
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
DOC 481; RIC 510; Sear 4322v
Lawrence Woolslayer
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland7 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
image~3.jpg
15. Constans II44 viewsConstans II. 641-668.
AV Solidus (10mm, 4.43 g, 6h).
Carthage mint. Dated IY 2 (AD 643/4).
Crowned and draped facing bust, holding globus cruciger / Cross potent set on three steps; ΔB (date)//CONOB.
DOC 107.2; MIB 566; SB 1029. Good VF, lightly toned.
From the Sasha Collection.
Ex-CNG
2 commentsSosius
Constans_II_Doc_26b.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV18 viewsBYZANTINE
Constans II, with Constantine IV
641-668. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.40 g, 6h). Const. mint, 3rd off. Struck 654-659.

O: Crowned facing busts of Constans, bearded, and Constantine, beardless; cross above

R: Cross potent on 3 steps; Γ//CONOBI. DOC 26b; MIB 28; SB 960. Near EF.
R: Cross potent on 3 steps; Γ//CONOBI.

DOC 26b; MIB 28; SB 960. Near EF.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
Constans_II_Solidus.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV8 viewsConstans II, with Constantine IV.
641-668.
AV Solidus (19mm, 4.32 g, 7h).
Constantinople mint, 10th officina. Struck 654-659.

O: ∂ N CONSτA τINЧS C CONSτA, crowned and draped busts facing; cross between

R: VICTORIA AVςЧ, cross potent set on three steps; I//CONOB. DOC 25j; MIB 26; SB 959.

Good VF, graffiti on the reverse.

Ex CNG
Sosius
Constans_II_Solidus_2.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV11 viewsConstans II, with Constantine IV.
641-668.
AV Solidus (19mm, 4.39 g, 7h).
Constantinople mint, 7th officina.
Struck 654-659.

O: ∂ N CONSτAτINЧS C CONSτ, crowned and draped busts facing; cross between

R: VICTORIA AVςЧ, cross potent set on three steps; Z (retrograde)//CONOB+.

DOC 27; MIB 27; SB 961. VF.

Ex CNG
Sosius
LarryW1802.jpg
150 Leo I the Great, AD 457-474105 viewsGold solidus, 21.7mm, 4.50g, Mint State
Struck c. AD 462 or 466 at Constantinople
D N LEO PE—RPET AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / VICTORI—A AVCCC Θ, Victory standing half left holding long jeweled cross; star to right, CON OB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC 605; DOC 528; MIRB 3b
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1941.jpg
160 Tiberius II Constantine, AD 578-58242 viewsGold solidus, 23mm, 4.36g, gVF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 579-582
D M Tib CONS-TANT PP AVI, bust facing, wears cuirass and crown with cross and pendilia, holds globus cruciger in right and shield decorated with horseman with left / VICTO(R)I-A AVCC Θ cross potent on four steps, CONOB in exegrue
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 4i; Sear 422; Berk 76
Lawrence Woolslayer
verus_dup_RIC1445.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE dupondius - struck 165-166 AD28 viewsobv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (radiate head right)
rev: TR POT VI IMP III COS II (parthian captive seated right at base of trophy, hands tied behind back, arms before), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1445 (M.Aurelius) (C), C202 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
12.08gms, 24mm
Scarce

History: Between 162 and 166 Verus was in the East, nominally commanding a campaign against the Parthian empire for the control over the Armenian kingdom. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus generals were entrusted with real command of the legions. Cassius led the overall campaign, destroyed the city of Seleucia on the Tigris and burned to the ground the palace at the capital Ctesiphon; Priscus led the invasion of Armenia that took the capital of Artashat (Artaxata); Martius Verus is limited only to the mention of his name by the ancients, but he was later the governor of Cappadocia. Lucius Verus received the title Parthicus Maximus in Aug. 165 AD.
berserker
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
LarryW8000.jpg
165 Tiberius II Constantine, AD 578-58245 viewsGold solidus, 21mm, 4.41g, VF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 579-582
D M Tib CONS-TANT PP AVI, bust facing, wears cuirass and crown with cross and pendilia, holds globus cruciger in right and shield decorated with horseman with left / VICTORI-A AVCC E cross potent on four steps, CONOB in exegrue
Ex: Beast Coins
DOC 4e; Sear 422; Berk 76
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8001.jpg
168 Constans II, AD 641-66834 viewsGold solidus, 18mm, 4.46g, aEF
Struck c. AD 659-662 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and beardless Constantine IV, each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORI-A A-VGU Δ+, long cross on globus between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue. Obverse double struck, reverse flan mark in center.
Ex: Glenn Woods
Sear 963; DOC 29g var; MIB 30
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1929.jpg
170 Constans II, AD 641-66857 viewsGold solidus, 20.2mm, 4.48g, EF
Struck AD 661-663 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU H, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Sear 964; DOC 30g; Wroth 58; Tolstoi 304; Ratto 1606
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW8002.jpg
172 Constans II, AD 641-66838 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.41g, EF
Struck c. AD 661-663 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and beardless Constantine IV, each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU A, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue.
Ex: Glenn Woods
Sear 964; DOC 30a; MIB 31
Lawrence Woolslayer
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.88 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
1797_Middlesex_buck_Halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, London, Middlesex.31 viewsObverse: FREEDOM WITH INNOCENCE. Proud stag with large antlers, walking to left.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1042 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Dies engraved by Thomas Willets and manufactured by William Lutwyche or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.
This token, one of the 18th century Political and Social Series of tokens, was likely struck for the use of the “Buck Society” in London.

The Buck Society was made up of eleven united lodges in London and three affiliates in Moorgate, Hatton Garden and Doctor’s Commons. It was one of the many debating societies that emerged in London during the eighteenth century, and were a prominent fixture of society until the end of that century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but, while there were comparable societies in other British cities, London was home to the largest number of them throughout the eighteenth century. The debating societies welcomed participants from both genders and all social backgrounds, making them one of the best examples of the enlarged public sphere of the Age of Enlightenment. However, the increasingly radical political environment, created in large part by the French Revolution in 1789, lead to the tightening of government restrictions and most of the debating societies went inactive when, following the local sedition trials of 1792 and 1793, William Pitt the Younger initiated the 1794 Treason Trials, and the 1795 Seditious Meetings Act.
*Alex
Sear_1296.jpg
18. Justinian II13 viewsJustinian II
First reign, 685-695 AD.
AE Follis. Syracuse mint.

O: no legend, crowned bust facing wearing chlamys, holding akakia in left hand and cross on globe in right hand; upright palm branch to left

R: Large M, TNA-like monogram above (Sear type 38); mintmark SCL.

SB 1296, DOC 55.

Not pretty, but rare.

Thanks to FORVM member Obryzum for helping to ID!
Sosius
LarryW1940.jpg
180 Constantine IV Pogonatus, AD 668-68533 viewsGold solidus, 18mm, 4.31g, aEF
Struck at Constantinople c. 674-681
DN C-A-NUS P, bust facing, head slightly to right, wears short beard, cuirass, and helmet with plume and diadem; holds spear over shoulder and shield decorated with horseman / VICT(O)A [AVGU], cross potent on base with three steps between Heraclius (left) and Tiberius; each figure wears chlamys and crown, and holds globus cruciger, CoNoB in exergue
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 8 var; Sear 1154v; Berk -
Lawrence Woolslayer
2-pb-dx.jpg
1916 ALEXIUS PB Tetarteron S-Unlisted DOC 32 Constantinople mint66 viewsOBV Half length figures of John II beardless on r., and Christ holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Christ wears tunic and kolobion.

REV Half length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 19.29mm

Weight 5.8gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera.
DOC lists 6 examples with sizes from 17mm to 20mm and weights 4.22gm to 4. 74gm
1 commentsSimon
s-pb-tc.jpg
1919 ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 18 mm

Weight 6.31 gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

My first example that I am able to get good photographs from, most are white lead very difficult to photograph, this example also has much more detail than normal.
Simon
s-pb-tf.jpg
1919a ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 57 views
OBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 16.57

Weight 2.8gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

Another beautiful example, much lighter.
1 commentsSimon
i3~0.jpg
1919b ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 36 viewsOBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 17.49mm

Weight 4.4gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

1 commentsSimon
2pb-c.jpg
1919b ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 42 CLBC 2.5.1 46 views
OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels( open) in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbate cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. Cr.

Size 17.19

Weight 3.7

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 12 examples with weights from 3.17gm to 7.07
Simon
s-1920.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 46 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 16.55mm

Weight 4.4gm

All around very nice coin, I would consider the rarity for this coin 3/5

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
c6.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 29 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 19.56mm

Weight 3.8gm

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
b1.jpg
1920a ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 63 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 18mm

Weight 3.8gm

This coin has an excellent portrait of Christ, I would grade the coin EF/F

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
o3~0.jpg
1920B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 104225 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.
Simon
4c~0.jpg
1920C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 22 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 17/16mm

Weight 3.9 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.

This particular coin grades as aF/aVF , this has the most interesting portrait of Alexius, seems to be much older in age than other examples.

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
f6~0.jpg
1921 ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 27 views
Bust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

All of the Constantinople coins are uncommon but this one appears very rarely, I would mark its rarity 4/5 This example has a very dark patina in hand, I lightened this pic for a better view of the details. This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain.
Simon
s-1921c.jpg
1921c ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 20 viewsBust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 15.63mm

Weight 4.0gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain. This is only the third example I have seen in twenty years, not in great condition but is a great rarity.
Simon
4i.jpg
1922 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 54 views
OBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 16.6mm

Weight 3.0 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
4m.jpg
1922A ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 40 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.9gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
s-1922c.jpg
1922B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 18 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 3.6 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This is a thick square coin, very unusual beveled edges.
Simon
4p.jpg
1922C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 19 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand. ( This is what it should be , coin is a brokerage of sorts.)

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 4.00gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This coin was attributed by rev alone, it is the only possible match for Alexius and it is clearly by inscription, his rule.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
l3~0.jpg
1922D ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 42 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18.35

Weight 3.3gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash, ,HOWEVER this coin is not the norm of black silver, very grainy and hard to photograph but white silver in color, much higher than what was normal.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
sear1923b.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.437 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17.48mm

Weight 4.8

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm.
Simon
c1.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 41 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 15.64mm

Weight 4.6

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm. My example is running heavy at 4.6gm
Simon
h6~0.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 23 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 3.96

Weight 17.mm

A really nice example

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)


DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm
Simon
5c.jpg
1929 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 19 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 4.2

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My example has more detail than normally seen, most of these coins have no faces recognizable on either side.
Simon
s-1929-3c.jpg
1929A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 15 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.5/21mm

Weight 3.3

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
3c~0.jpg
1929B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-2d.jpg
1929C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 13 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.2gm

This coin is interesting for its details, more than most but the jagged edge flan is very unusual.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
a9.jpg
1929D ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 39 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.91mm
Weight 1.9gm

This is an imitation of Sear 1929, better to say it was not produced to the same standards as coins from the other mints. Interesting enough , imitations only seem to occur under Alexius rule and the Manuel's rule, I have never seen an imitation of John II coinage, that leaves me to believe these were authorized in some way by Alexius. Perhaps to help the introduction of the new coinage.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
a6.jpg
1929E ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 25 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 3.5

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929c.jpg
1929F ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 15 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.80mm

Weight 3.2gm

The burnt orange to the patina of this common coin is what makes it special.
.
DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-5c.jpg
1929g ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 47 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.11mm

Weight 2.6gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My nicest example. Very Fine
Simon
s-1929-4c.jpg
1929h ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 36 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.97mm

Weight 2.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
h3.jpg
1929J ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 38 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

This is a strange example, Alexius side fits the norm a bit cruder but with good detail, the Christ side lacks the book and Christ's blessing. Imitations of this particular type of coin were created well into the 14th century. This coin was a very recent find in Paphos Cyprus.
Simon
s-1929-6c.jpg
1929k ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 56 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.99mm

Weight 4.8 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
s-1929-7c.jpg
1929L ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 62 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.00mm

Weight 2.66gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
b3.jpg
1930 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 49 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20.10

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

It is difficult to find a clean strike of this issue. This one is unusually clean. They way to differ this coin from Manuel's version is the position of Alexius arm on the labrum.
Simon
2m.jpg
1930 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 58 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22.75

Weight 3.6mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

This coin has been clearly overstruck over an earlier follis. DOC also notes 3 out the five examples are also overstruck. I believe this issue was created quickly when a shortage of the new coinage occurred. It is difficult to find a clean strike of this
1 commentsSimon
s-1930c.jpg
1930A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 35 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

This is considered to be very nice condition for this type of coin, normally they appear overstruck or just messy, this one I had almost confused with a Manuel S-1970 but the key of these coins is the position of Alexius right arm being raised, the Manuel has the emperors r. arm in a lower position.
Simon
a3~0.jpg
1930B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 20 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20/21mm

Weight 1.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This coin is a mangled mess overstruck and made quickly.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m
Simon
k5.jpg
1930c ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.58mm

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

It is difficult to find a clean strike of this issue.
Simon
s-1930-bc.jpg
1930C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 Imitation?25 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 2.2

I am uncertain where this coin fits in the picture. Its weight is within range but its size and die size is not. It could be an imitation.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m
Simon
l3.jpg
1931 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 58 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 3.3gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm
Simon
s3~0.jpg
1931 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 26 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger. Complete Inscription

Size 19mm

Weight 3.08

This is a Thessalonica minted coin.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

Simon
d3.jpg
1931A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 19 views
OBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23/20mm

Weight 5.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm This coin is its brother being purchased from the same dealer at the same auction.
Simon
s-1931-4c.jpg
1931B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 SBCV-1910???49 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 25/22mm

Weight 3.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This example is more than likely the coin listed as S-1910 , Sear 1931 struck over a Class I or Class K anonymous follis. Hendys ( S-1910) lists at 2.96gm around 23mm
Simon
c3~0.jpg
1931C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 23 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23/25mm

Weight 6.2

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This is the heaviest example noted, at 6.2 gm
Simon
4v.jpg
1931D ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 24 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 3.2 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This coin is a very pleasing example grading VF/F

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm
Simon
3f.jpg
1931E ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 27 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21/16 mm

Weight 2.6

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This is my smallest example, I love the green patina, it was one of my earliest acquisitions.
Simon
2z.jpg
1931F ALEXIUS AE Tetarteron S-1931 Var DOC 40 Var CLBC 2.4.7 31 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18mm

Weight 2.22gm

This is a barbarous imitation and an attempt to copy DOC 40

This coin is not listed in DOC or Sear but it is in CLBC They record sizes from 20-21mm and weights 3.0 to 3.5 gm , mine is a smaller. example
Simon
g4.jpg
1931G ALEXIUS AE Tetarteron S-1931 Var DOC 40 Var CLBC 2.4.7 26 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20/22mm

Weight 1.3gm

This is a barbarous imitation and an attempt to copy DOC 40

This coin is not listed in DOC or Sear but it is in CLBC They record sizes from 20-21mm and weights 3.0 to 3.5 gm , this example is very flat unlike my other, the seller sold it as a trachy but it is not concaved in any way. This is also a very low weight.
Simon
n3.jpg
1931H Alexius AE Tetarteron S-1931 Imitation 23 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.42mm

Weight 1.8gm

This is an imitation and an attempt to copy DOC 40, hoard evidence shows many of these variations were minted , some were created as late as the 13th century.
Simon
s-1931-3c.jpg
1931vaALEXIUS AE Imitation TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 22 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.33gm

Weight 1.7gm

This is another imitation coin, the weight is a tip off and the style is not right. Imitation coins of this style were very common and were misted into the 1200's long after Alexius death.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
s-1931c.jpg
1931x ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 42 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.72mm

Weight 3.2 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This coin is a very pleasing example grading, the patina makes the photo.
Simon
s1931-2c.jpg
1931y ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 44 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.72

Weight 2.8gm

Very nice example..

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
1932.jpg
1932 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 21 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.81mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides but the Globus Cruciger is missing due to an imperfect strike. I believe this one by style alone to be minted in Thessalonica.
Simon
s-1932c.jpg
1932A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 15 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 13mm

Weight 2.09gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides , it is a thicker but smaller in size version, I believe this example to be from the Thessalonica mint.
Simon
s-1932-3c.jpg
1932B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 25 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17/15mm

Weight 2.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. Some official, some not. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins.
Simon
s-1932-2c.jpg
1932C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 26 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 1.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

This example I have always admired, the portrait of Alexius is so simple it is beautiful. Reminds me of a Guy Fox mask.
Simon
s-1932-4c.jpg
1932D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 IMITATION 20 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight .6 gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace. Imitation perhaps produced in the 13th century.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Very thin flan light weight, patina makes it an interesting example.
Simon
s-1932-5c.jpg
1932E ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 19 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.5/14

Weight 1.6mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Again the cross on this coin was my main interest for the collection.
Simon
s-1932-6c.jpg
1932F ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 21 views
OBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16/14mm

Weight 1.1gm



DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

This example has the inscription on the cross reversed. Also the design of the cross is a bit more elaborate. I believe this to be a barbarous imitation. Current studies have this style from a Bulgarian mint.
Simon
j5.jpg
1933 ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.40

Weight 4.9

.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

This example appears much larger and heavier than anything else listed.
Simon
m3~0.jpg
1933 ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 34 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.94

Weight 3.6

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

This coin has a beautiful deep green Patina that hinders its photo. One of my nicest examples.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
1 commentsSimon
s-1933-1c.jpg
1933A ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17/18mm

Weight 2.7gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
s-1933-2d.jpg
1933B ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23/16mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
s9.jpg
1933D ALEXIUS 1/2 TETARTERON ? S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 13 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21/12mm

Weight 1.3gm

Interesting point, these coin sizes in my collection represent 1gm to 5 gm, this coin is the lightest and in the best condition. Even though it is on a small flan the coin I wouldhave to say this is the finest example known.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

I have several examples with weights from 1.3 gm to 5gm, Sommer in his catalog lists this coin as a half tetarteron? and SBCV lists it as a full tetarteron.
Simon
s-1933-4c.jpg
1933E ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 17 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23mm

Weight 5.44gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
s-1934c.jpg
1934 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 15 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15mm

Weight 1.8gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s-1934-1c.jpg
1934A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.67mm

Weight 2.9gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

I currently have several examples of this coin and this is my favorite, I love the style of coin, it reminds me of the detailed coinage of Isaac Commenus of Cyprus

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm .
Simon
s-1934-2c.jpg
1934B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 18 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16/15

Weight 1.7 gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s-1934xc.jpg
1934C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 45 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.34mm

Weight 3.00gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm

This example is a good very fine, my best example.
Simon
sear1934f.jpg
1934D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 42 views OBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15.76mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin has been in my collection the longest and is very different from the other examples , the flan is much thicker It differs from the examples that are showing in the market today, I believe it to be from another mint. The coin was acquired in a group lot I acquired a dozen years ago, I have no idea of the dealers origin.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s6.jpg
1934XXX ALEXIUS I AE Tetarteron S- Unlisted DOC 41 CLBC 2.4.11 12 views
OBV Monogram of Alexius.

REV Bust of Emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16/18mm

Weight 2.3gm

This is believed to be a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. This example has now been published in BULLETIN du cercle d'etudeas Numismatiques VOL 52 Jan 2015 by Cedric Wolkow, three examples are shown. This one appears to be in the best condition.

DOC lists the above coin as the only example Weight 3.74gm and size at 17mm. Mine is considerably lighter.
Simon
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193826 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
d3~0.jpg
1939 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 2 Constantinople Second Coinage SBCV-193924 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: r hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.
REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 32mm

Weight 4.38gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 3.73gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 30 mm to 34mm
Simon
b5~0.jpg
1940 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 3 Constantinople Third Coinage Variation B SBCV-194029 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Pellet in each limb of the cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 30.57mm

Weight 4.3gm

DOC lists 5 examples of type B with weights from 4.22gm to 4.43gm and sizes from 30 mm to 31mm
Simon
p6~0.jpg
1941 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8 Constantinople SBCV-194120 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, holds sword in l. hand.

Size 31.13 mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists several variations 4 examples total with weights from 3.56gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 32 to 34 mm.
Simon
q6~0.jpg
1942 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8c Variation II Constantinople SBCV-194218 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold patriarchal cross on a long shaft at the base of which three steps.

Size 30.47mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 9 examples total with weights from 3.11gm to 4.40gm and sizes from 30 to 33 mm.
Simon
1943~0.jpg
1943 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 9 Constantinople SBCV-194319 viewsOBV MP OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne without back; holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma,short military tunic, and sagion; holds in right hand labarum on long shaft, and in left gl.cr

Size 28.71mm

Weight 3.6gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.59gm to 3.92gm and sizes from 29 to 30 mm.
Simon
1944.jpg
1944 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 10 Constantinople SBCV-194424 viewsOBV IC XC in field
Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision,collar piece and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. gl.cr

Size 29.10

Weight 4.9gm

DOC lists 20 examples total with weights from 2.59gm to 5.00 gm and sizes from 28 to 30 mm. It has two variations A and B , both are equal in rarity , the difference is a stroke on shaft on type B.

This coin is very heavily silvered, it was part of a hoard that was once thought to be electrum, it is not, just very heavily silvered.
Simon
4c~1.jpg
1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 60 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm

I have this coin in the best of type gallery. Beautiful example.
Simon
2s.jpg
1945 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 22 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 20.14mm

Weight 4.5.gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
1945.jpg
1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 19 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm
Simon
s-1945-1c.jpg
1945A JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 20 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.87mm

Weight 4.3gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

Interesting example because of the ancient graffiti on Christ, also the OC of the obverse gives the impression Christ is seated, he is not
Simon
s-1945c.jpg
1945B JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 3.8gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

John IIs Metro tetartera are easy to come by, the do not have the same rarity as the other emperors metro issues. This one has been in my collection near the beginning , it grades as fine an evenly worn.
Simon
2p.jpg
1945C JOHN II METROPOLITIAN ( HALF?)TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 2.18 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1946c.jpg
1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 47 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.71mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm

Beautiful unique coin design that no other emperor duplicated.
Simon
b5.jpg
1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 27 views
OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 19mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm
Simon
h3~3.jpg
1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 16 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.71mm

Weight 4.2gm

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm
Simon
s-1946-2c.jpg
1946a JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.222 views1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2

OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size

Weight

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm

Very old example in my collection, would grade as only fine. These coins rarely come to market and when they do the design does not command a high price. Mary was the patron of Constantinople, she is seen in much of the coinage minted there.
Simon
s6~0.jpg
1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194716 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
y4~1.jpg
1951 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8e Thessalonica SBCV-195121 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold between them labarum on a long shaft at the base of which a small globe.

Size 30.48mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.98gm to 4.12gm and sizes from 31 to 33 mm.
Simon
g3.jpg
1952 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 11 Thessalonica SBCV-1952 23 viewsOBV MO OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion , seated upon throne without back; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast

REV Full-Length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 27.19mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 5 examples total with weights from 2.65gm to 4.46 gm and sizes from 27 to 28 mm.
Simon
y5~0.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 27 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 4.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
1 commentsSimon
x4.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation92 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size

Weight

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm
3 commentsSimon
1953.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON Thessalonica SBCV-1953 DOC IV 14 CLBC 3.4.3 14 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
Simon
i3.jpg
1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 51 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17mm

Weight 3.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This is a smaller flan example, still has the weight of a full Tetarteron but a smaller flan than most. The details on this coin give it a grade of VF , very pleasing example.
Simon
h4~0.jpg
1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation 22 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.17mm

Weight 3.6gm

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

Simon
f3.jpg
1953B JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 22 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21mm

Weight 6.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This one is in the collection because of its heavy weight. I would grade it at VG/aF However this is the heaviest I have seen listed anywhere.
Simon
g5.jpg
1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 17 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
1953V.jpg
1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 12 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
i6.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h5.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 16 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
sear1954.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 54 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.38mm

Weight 1.7mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h6.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 13 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.


Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
Sear1954A.jpg
1954B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.553 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.25mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today�s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
i5.jpg
1954CV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
s-1945-2c.jpg
1954DV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 16mm

Weight 1.9gm
This coin even though in poor condition is also an example of the Right arm raised .l. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
ComparisonJohnIIS1945.jpg
1954E JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 and S-1954V65 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Bothe examples are in excellent condition, the top is S-1954 Christ hand is on book. The bottom is the variation with Christ hands raised in benediction.

Size 19mm ( Bottom coin.)

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the l. hand is raised much higher than normal. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
s-1955-1c.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 41 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16.81mm

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
1955.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 18 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-3a.jpg
1955A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 56 views
OBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-4c.jpg
1955B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 14 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 17.22mm

Weight 2.17gm

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s1967B.jpg
1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 44 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 18/17mm

Weight 2.4gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

This is one of my two examples of this coin and would grade as only fine, few years back a small batch of these in beautiful condition were on ebay but I lacked the funding to add to my collection. To this day nice examples or any examples are rarely seen.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
o5~0.jpg
1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 19mm

Weight 3.54gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

My nicest example, Both Christ and Manuel are depicted as young men.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
s1967.jpg
1967A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 49 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 17.97 mm

Weight 3.2 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Lightly nicer than my other example , the reverse would grade as aVF, the obv has an old collectors mark or museum mark on it.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
c3~2.jpg
1968 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.2 47 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 16/20mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
4s.jpg
1968A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.2 41 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 20mm

Weight 5.1gm



My first Tetarteron. I love this copper look and thick fabric of this coin.
Simon
m3.jpg
1968B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.2 23 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 17/20mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

It is a shame for the cut at the head of Manuel, this coin would grade EF otherwise.
Simon
a3~1.jpg
1968CV MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968v DOC NL A CLBC 4.4.2A 28 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans ,wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 19.84mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues
Simon
c5.jpg
1968d MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.227 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 20.53mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

The coins only flaw, wear on the Virgins face. Other that near perfect centering and a wonderful reverse strike.
2 commentsSimon
f5.jpg
1968DV MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968v DOC NL A CLBC 4.4.2A 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans ,wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues
Simon
sear1968v3.jpg
1968DV MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968v DOC NL A CLBC 4.4.2A 53 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans ,wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 18/19.7mm

Weight 3.4gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues
Simon
e5.jpg
1968f MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1968 variation patriarchal cross20 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand patriarchal cross and in l. anexikakia

Size 20.53mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

Tis is the only type I have seen with this type cross.

Simon
v6.jpg
1969A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 27 views
OBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 19.6mm

Weight 3.0


DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
1 commentsSimon
h3~1.jpg
1969B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 46 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 18.19 mm

Weight 3.6gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
s1969b.jpg
1969B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 55 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 21.5mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm

This is my second example added to the collection, condition is a bit sad VG/ aF however it shows the other details my other example lacks. This is the hardest of the Manuel tetartera to acquire.
Simon
s-1969-2c.jpg
1969C MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 42 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 22/17mm

Weight 2.7gm


DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm

This coin really leads me to believe it was modified to add the X on shaft, you will notice an additional x was used on the Gl. CR , this was either double struck or the x was added to the shaft after the coin had been struck. The design is very similar to a John II coin the only main difference in design being the X on the shaft.
Simon
s-1969-1c.jpg
1969C MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 Imitation?59 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 19.84

Weight 1.8gm

Not certain but I now believe this to be an imitation, the biggest reason for this is the low weight and thin flan. Does not have the look of a Constantinople minted coin. This coin was found in Cyprus.
1 commentsSimon
b3~0.jpg
1970 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1970 DOC 17CLBC 4.4.4 24 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV. Bust of emperor bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum headed and scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/22mm

Weight 3.3gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 18 examples with weights ranging from 2.52 to 4.87 and sizes from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
s1970b.jpg
1970A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1970 DOC 17CLBC 4.4.450 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV. Bust of emperor bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum headed and scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22/24.76mm

Weight 4.1gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 18 examples with weights ranging from 2.52 to 4.87 and sizes from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
g5~0.jpg
1970B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1970 DOC 17CLBC 4.4.4 16 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV. Bust of emperor bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum headed and scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16/19mm

Weight 4.6gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)

DOC lists 18 examples with weights ranging from 2.52 to 4.87 and sizes from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
s-1970c.jpg
1970c MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1970 DOC 17CLBC 4.4.4 19 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV. Bust of emperor bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum headed and scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.07mm

Weight 3.5gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)

I know CLBC issues this as Rarity level 1, I very much disagree, they are not that easily found. Using his scale I would call it a 3.

This example is very worn and light weight. Still attractive to some :)

DOC lists 18 examples with weights ranging from 2.52 to 4.87 and sizes from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
v5.jpg
1975 MANUEL AE Tetarteron S-1975 DOC 18 CLBC 4.4.5. 34 viewsOBV Bust of St. George facing beardless wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion and holding spear in r. hand and in l. hand shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded , wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22.48mm

Weight. 4.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 23 examples with weights ranging from 2.78gm to 7.16gm with sizes from 19mm to 24mm.
Simon
Sear1975E.jpg
1975A MANUEL AE Tetarteron S-1975 DOC 18 CLBC 4.4.5. 52 viewsOBV Bust of St. George facing beardless wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion and holding spear in r. hand and in l. hand shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded , wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20.83

Weight. 6.00gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 23 examples with weights ranging from 2.78gm to 7.16gm with sizes from 19mm to 24mm.
Simon
2c.jpg
1975B MANUEL AE Tetarteron S-1975 DOC 18 CLBC 4.4.5.21 views
OBV Bust of St. George facing beardless wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion and holding spear in r. hand and in l. hand shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded , wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.93mm

Weight. 5.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 23 examples with weights ranging from 2.78gm to 7.16gm with sizes from 19mm to 24mm
Simon
h5~0.jpg
1975C MANUEL AE Tetarteron S-1975 DOC 18 CLBC 4.4.5.15 viewsOBV Bust of St. George facing beardless wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion and holding spear in r. hand and in l. hand shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded , wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23mm

Weight. 4.3gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 23 examples with weights ranging from 2.78gm to 7.16gm with sizes from 19mm to 24mm

This is a very nice example with large but broken flan.
Simon
sear1975f.jpg
1975F MANUEL AE Tetarteron S-1975 DOC 18 CLBC 4.4.5.52 viewsOBV Bust of St. George facing beardless wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion and holding spear in r. hand and in l. hand shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded , wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22.06mm

Weight. 4.7gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Very nice example of a common coin. aEF

DOC lists 23 examples with weights ranging from 2.78gm to 7.16gm with sizes from 19mm to 24mm.
Simon
w3.jpg
1976 MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 44 views
OBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23.17mm

Weight 5.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Very nice example on a large flan.
.
DOC lists 24 examples with weights from 18mm to 25mm and weights from 2.55 to 6.54 gm
Simon
e3.jpg
1976A MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 31 viewsOBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17/20mm

Weight 4.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Older coin in my collection, very nice relief on both sides.
.
DOC lists 24 examples with weights from 18mm to 25mm and weights from 2.55 to 6.54 gm.
Simon
s-1976c.jpg
1976b MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 13 viewsOBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22.93mm

Weight 3.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Good example
Simon
a8.jpg
1976B MANUEL AE TETARTERON S-1976 DOC 19 CLBC 4.4.6 17 views
OBV Radiate cross on three steps.

REV. Half-length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on laft shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 24mm

Weight 5.78gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace

Very nice example on a large flan.
.
DOC lists 24 examples with weights from 18mm to 25mm and weights from 2.55 to 6.54 gm
Simon
k6.jpg
1977 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.714 views
OBV Small neat letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.40mm

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

The rarer of the two monograms of Manuel, this coin is always heavier than the the other monogram coin. This example has a beautiful darkened highlights on a copper base.
Simon
s-1977-2c.jpg
1977A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.7 16 viewsOBV Small neat letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.34mm

Weight 2.7gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

The rarer of the two monograms of Manuel, this coin is always heavier than the the other monogram coin. This example is actually a black patina.
Simon
p5~0.jpg
1977a MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1977 DOC 20 CLBC 4.4.7 19 viewsOBV Small neat letters Monogram Sear 57

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated 5 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.88

Weight 2.89gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 12 examples with weights ranging from 2.04gm to 2.77 gm with sizes from 18mm to 21mm.

Ex forum coin!
Simon
c6~0.jpg
1978 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 30 views
OBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19mm
Weight 3.23gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.

This coin is a choice example Good Very Fine.
1 commentsSimon
c3.jpg
1978A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 32 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.92mm

Weight 2.3 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless.
Simon
s-1978c.jpg
1978c MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 25 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.63mm
Weight 3.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.
Simon
1p.jpg
1979 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 55 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14.5/17mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This coin is in beautiful condition, the centering is off but as you can see a lovely example. Not rare but in this condition they are.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.
Simon
s1979.jpg
1979A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 Imitation ?90 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 12.54mm

Weight 1.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.


1 commentsSimon
3k.jpg
1979B MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 Imitation? 28 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.4gm

This style is very unique, I do not believe it was minted at one of the main mints, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.
Simon
1979.jpg
1979s MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1979 DOC 22 CLBC 4.4.11 24 viewsOBV Large, often ill formed letters

REV Bust of emperor, beardless, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece ( Most frequently decorated with 6 jewels) and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.33mm

Weight 2.59 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This coin is good Very fine, lightly circulated. I believe this to be a perfect example.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights ranging from 1.10gm to 2.96 gm with sizes from 14mm to 18mm.
Simon
b3~2.jpg
1980 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 37 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.09 mm

Weight 2.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.
Simon
S1980A.jpg
1980A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 58 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.95mm

Weight 1.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.
Simon
Sear1980B.jpg
1980B MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 50 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.01mm

Weight 1.6 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.

This coin is very similar to Griersons Plate coin.
Simon
a5.jpg
1980d MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 15 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.30 mm

Weight 2.4gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This example is beautiful considering its size. I would grade aEF , rarity 1/5 Common coin , uncommon condition.

DOC lists 7 examples with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm.
Simon
c3~3.jpg
1980Y MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1980 DOC 23 CLBC 4.4.9 42 viewsOBV Bust of St. George, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon; holds in r. hand spear, and in l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 13.09 mm

Weight 1.7gm

This die size is only 12mm, out of the several examples I have with the smallest die they all come in under 2gm

DOC lists 7 examples of S-1980 with weights ranging from .91 gm to 2.26 gm with sizes from 14mm to 17mm
Simon
j6~0.jpg
1981 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 11 views

OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.8mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron.These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Ex Forum Coin.
Simon
s1981brockc.jpg
1981A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 BROCKAGE 40 viewsOBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.37 mm

Weight 1.9 gm



DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Nice Brock age example, nice fill shows it off. Rare to find a brockage this nice.
Simon
g7.jpg
1982 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1982 DOC 25 CLBC 4.4.10 12 views

OBV Radiate cross on three steps

REV Half length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 1.26 gm to 2.24 gm with sizes from 16mm to 19mm.

This example is excellent , one of the few tetartera that can be listed as EF The portrait of Manuel on this coin is exceptional, especially considering its size.
Simon
1f.jpg
1982A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1982 DOC 25 CLBC 4.4.10 33 viewsOBV Radiate cross on three steps

REV Half length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/17mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 1.26 gm to 2.24 gm with sizes from 16mm to 19mm.

I am uncertain if this is an official issue, Many of Alexius and Manuel's tetartera were imitated as late as the 1300's , my only reason to suspect this coin is style , the weight seems correct for the issue
Simon
r3.jpg
1986 ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 64 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 19.51mm

Weight 3.3 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

I have had this one from the early years of my collection, it far surpasses my other example
Simon
z5~0.jpg
1986 ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 4 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 20.84

Weight 4.55gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

I have had this one from the early years of my collection, it far surpasses my other example
Simon
s-1986b.jpg
1986A ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 56 views OBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 20/16mm

Weight 4.2gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

In todays marketplace this is a true rarity. This one is flawed by scrapes from time.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm


Simon
s-1986.jpg
1986C ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 34 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size

Weight

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

This is a new acquisition as par of an old collection, not great but some details not usually seen.
Simon
1c~3.jpg
1987 ANDRONICUS AE TETARTERON S-1987 DOC 6 CLBC 5.4.2 53 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 5.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

A really nice example much heaver than norm, beautiful portrait of Virgin.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 2.54 gm to 4.91 gm with sizes from 20mm to 23mm.
1 commentsSimon
f6.jpg
1987A ANDRONICUS AE TETARTERON S-1987 DOC 6 CLBC 5.4.2 27 views

OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger.

Size 21.96 mm

Weight 5.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 2.54 gm to 4.91 gm with sizes from 20mm to 23mm

One of my first tetartera, still a favorite.
1 commentsSimon
sear1989c.jpg
1989A ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.348 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 15.48

Weight 2.5m

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.

This is my third example of this Very rare coin, it has a chipped patina but detail is a bit better than my other examples.
Simon
b6.jpg
1989a ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.3 27 views
OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 22 mm

Weight 3.4 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size is off on this example but the die size is 12mm making it a half tetartera, it is aEF example, again large flan making it an excellent example.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.
1 commentsSimon
sear1989B.jpg
1989B ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.343 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 15.32

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.

This is my third example of this Very rare coin, well worn but all three examples have a die diameter of 12mm
Simon
1c.jpg
1993 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1993 DOC 6 CLBC 6.3.1 46 viewsOBV Bust of virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r hand scepter cruciger, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 19.73 mm

Weight 1.9 gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 1 example with a weight of 2.48 and sized at 19mm.

Battered example, Very rare . This coin was originally attributed as a Manuel coin, the version this one was based off of. However a few details that are clear prove it to be Isaac, the main one is the hand scepter cruciger vs a labrum and the type of cross style on the globus cruciger.
Simon
1c~2.jpg
1993a ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1993 DOC 6 CLBC 6.3.1 39 viewsOBV Bust of virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r hand scepter cruciger, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 19.66 mm

Weight 2.2 gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

This example has a clear inscription on the left of the reverse. The coin would only grade as aF/F but a nice addition and a second example to add to this collection.

DOC list 1 example with a weight of 2.48 and sized at 19mm.
Simon
j6.jpg
1994 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1994 DOC 7CLBC 6.3.6A 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; r. hand raised in benediction. Holds gospels in l.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. ?

Size 20mm

Weight 2.39gm


DOC list 2 examples with a weight of 2.67 gm and sized at 19mm and 21mm
Simon
y3~0.jpg
1994B ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1994 DOC 7 CLBC 6.3.6A42 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; r. hand raised in benediction. Holds gospels in l.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. ?

Size  19.34mm

Weight 2.7gm


DOC list 2 examples with a weight of 2.67 gm  and sized at 19mm and 21mm
Simon
s-1998e.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A29 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 22.52mm

Weight 2.7gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.
Simon
s-1998f.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 29 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.20mm

Weight 3.4gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
1o.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 47 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.5/20mm

Weight 4.2

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire. This issue is heavier than normal, Isaac is wearing a sash at waist.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm

Really a nice example, all detail is still there , some wear but beautiful example.
Simon
1i.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6B 50 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross. The coin differs with a Circular legend

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.35mm

Weight 2.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

This coin is listed in CLBC as rare, it differs from the normal coin is the circular legend. Other variations of this coin appear in Isaacs attire. This coin brags of a beautiful green yellow Patina and an unusually detailed reverse.
Simon
s-1998.jpg
1998A ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 62 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.26mm

Weight 3.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
m5.jpg
1999 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1999 DOC 10B CLBC 6.3.7 26 views

OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on RIGHT. crowned by virgin nimbate on l.. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in L hand scepter cruciger and in r. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.72mm

Weight 2.9gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 1 examples with a weight of 2.84 gm and sized at 19mm

This issue is considered to be very rare, 5/5 , Grierson considers it to be an error of S-1998 and I must agree, still a wonderful piece to add to my collection
1 commentsSimon
GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
TrebGallusAEVim.jpg
1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
ValerianAntVict.jpg
1cx Valerian38 views253-260

Antoninianus

Radiate draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA AVGG

RIC 125

Persians surrounded Valerian's army in the East in 260 and took the emperor prisoner. He died on an unknown date in captivity.

Zosimus noted: The nations subject to the Romans being unable to endure [Maximinus'] monstrous cruelty, and greatly distressed by the ravages he committed, the Africans proclaimed Gordianus and his son, of the same name, emperors, and sent ambassadors to Rome, one of whom was Valerianus, a man of consular rank, who afterwards himself became emperor. . . .

Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority. But Valerianus brought into Italy from beyond the Alps a vast army, with which he deemed himself secure of conquering Aemilianus. The soldiers of Aemilianus, who saw that his conduct was more like that of a private sentinel than of an emperor, now put him to death as a person unfit for so weighty a charge.

By these means Valerianus became emperor with universal consent, and employed himself in the regulation of affairs. But the excursions of the Scythians, and of the Marcomanni, who made an inroad into all the countries adjacent to the empire, reduced Thessalonica to extreme danger; and though they were with muct difficulty compelled to raise the siege by the brave defence of those within, yet all Greece was in alarm. The Athenians repaired their walls, which they had never thought worth their care since Sylla threw them down. The Peloponnesians likewise fortified the Isthmus, and all Greece put itself upon its guard for the general security.

Valerianus, perceiving the empire in danger on every side, associated his son Gallienus with himself in the government! and went himself into the east to oppose the Persians. He entrusted to his son the care of the forces in Europe, thus leaving him to resist the Barbarians who poured in upon him in every direction. . . .

Valerianus had by this time heard of the disturbances in Bithynia, but his district would not allow him to confide the defence of it to any of his generals. He therefore sent Felix to Byzantium, and went in person from Antioch into Cappadocia, and after he had done some injury to every city by which he passed, he returned homeward. But the plague then attacked his troops, and destroyed most of them, at the time when Sapor made an attempt upon the east, and reduced most of it into subjection. In the mean time, Valerianus became so effeminate and indolent, that he dispaired of ever recovering from the present ill state of affairs, and would have concluded the war by a present of money; had not Sapor sent back the ambasadors who were sent to him with that proposal, without their errand, desiring the emperor to come and speak with him in person concerning the affairs he wished to adjust; To which he most imprudently consented, and going without consideration to Sapor with a small retinue, to treat for a peace, was presently laid hold of by the enemy, and so ended his days in the capacity of a slave among the Persians, to the disgrace of the Roman name in all future times.
Blindado
TacitusAntMars.jpg
1dm Tacitus28 views275-276

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Mars stg, MARTI PACIF

RIC 145

A rare emperor nominated by the Senate after the death of the widely revered Aurelianus.

Zonaras recorded: Tacitus, an elderly man, succeeded him. For it is written that he was seventy-five years old when he was chosen for monarchy. The army recognized him, though he was absent, for he was then residing in Campania. When he received the decision there, he entered Rome in private dress and, with the consent of the Senate and the People, donned the imperial garb.

The Scythians, having crossed Lake Maeotis and the Phasis River, attacked Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia, and Cilicia. Tacitus, who had joined battle with them, and Florianus, who was prefect, slew many, and the remainder sought safety in flight. Tacitus appointed Maximinus, one of his kinsmen, as governor of Syria. But, when he behaved badly in his office, he was killed by his soldiers. Those who had killed him, frightened that the emperor would not leave them unpunished, set out after him too and killed him, not yet seven months after he had assumed sovereignty, but according to some not quite two years.

Zosimus, however, recorded, "Upon [Aurelianus'] death the empire fell into the hands of Tacitus, in whose time the Scythians crossed the Palus Maeotis, and made incursions through Pontus even into Cilicia, until he opposed them. Partly in person, and partly by Florianus, prefect of the court, whom he left in commission for that purpose, this emperor completely routed and destroyed them. He himself was going into Europe, but was thus circumvented and killed. He had committed the government of Syria to his cousin Maximinus, who treated the nobility of that country with such austerity, that he caused them both to hate and fear him. Their hatred became so excessive, that at length conspiring with the murderers of Aurelianus, they assaulted Maximinus, and having killed him, fell on and slew Tacitus also as he was upon his departure."
Blindado
ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great18 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
Blindado
ProcopiusAEChiRo.jpg
1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
Blindado
santogether.jpg
2..Sankaravarman 883-902 AD (Utpala dynasty)15 viewsSankaravarman 883-902 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.15gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
Sear-2005.jpg
2004 ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 38 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 20.36mm

Weight 3.2gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
sear2005d.jpg
2004A ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.140 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 18/20.5 mm

Weight 3.2gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
Sear2005b.jpg
2004B ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 40 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 16./19mm

Weight 2.7gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
sear2005c.jpg
2004C ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 42 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 20/17mm

Weight 3.6 gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
k3.jpg
2004D ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 55 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field


Size 20.mm

Weight 5.3 1gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm

Nicest example I have ever seen, just added to my collection, almost perfect except for wear on the Virgins face VF/EF
Simon
s-2004-2c.jpg
2004E ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 38 views
OBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field


Size

Weight

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm

I have managed to acquire several of these throughout the years. This example was part of an old collection I recently acquired.
Simon
b3~1.jpg
2005 ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V C DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.2 37 viewsOBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a trefoil- headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 22mm

Weight 4.8gm

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm
Simon
s-2005c.jpg
2005A ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V B DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.2 49 viewsOBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a spear, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 20/17mm

Weight 3.8gm

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm

Really a Beautiful coin, I am sure under that green patina full detail remains.
Simon
c3~1.jpg
2005B ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V A DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.2 63 views
OBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a jeweled sceptre, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 20mm

Weight 4.1gm

Interesting example of the three known devices that Michael holds in this version a jeweled scepter.

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm
Simon
S-2006c.jpg
2005C ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V A DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.260 viewsOBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a jeweled sceptre, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 19.91mm

Weight 3.2gm

Interesting example of the three known devices that Michael holds in this version a jeweled scepter.

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm
Simon
u3.jpg
2014 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2014 DOC 4 CLBC 8.4.1 27 views

OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, turned to r. Manus Dei in upper r. field

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand labarum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content unknown for this issue. The entire tetartera of Alexius III are much harder to find due to debasement of trachea virtually rendering the Tetarteron useless. The Metropolitan issues were believed to be produced only for two years 1195-1197.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 2.7gm

DOC lists 1 example with weight of 3.38gm and 19mm

Unlike the one listed in DOC this example has a full family name and was perhaps minted after 1197. The half Tetarteron from the Thessalonica mint has two variations and is listed in Sear as two separate coins, that variation is a short or full version of the family name
Simon
r5.jpg
2014A ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2014 DOC 4 CLBC 8.4.1 21 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, turned to r. Manus Dei in upper r. field

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand labarum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content unknown for this issue. The entire tetartera of Alexius III are much harder to find due to debasement of trachea virtually rendering the Tetarteron useless. The Metropolitan issues were believed to be produced only for two years 1195-1197.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 2.7gm

DOC lists 1 example with weight of 3.38gm and 19mm

This example matches the weights of my other example, the only difference between the two is this is slightly smaller but a slightly thicker flan.
Simon
n6~0.jpg
2015 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE TETARTERON S-2015 DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3 20 views
OBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins but all tetartera from Alexius III are difficult to obtain.

Size 19.52mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 1.91gm to 4.55gm and sizes from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
Alexiusiiib.jpg
2015A ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE TETARTERON S-2015 DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3 42 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins but all examples of Alexius tetartera are difficult to obtain.

Size 17/18.5mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 1.91gm to 4.55gm and sizes from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
alexuisiiic.jpg
2015B ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE TETARTERON S-2015 DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3 50 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins but all examples of Alexius tetartera are difficult to obtain.

Size 19mm

Weight 3.4gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 1.91gm to 4.55gm and sizes from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
s-2015c.jpg
2015c ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE TETARTERON S-2015 DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3 16 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

All examples of Alexius tetartera are difficult to obtain these days, however DOC has many examples in their collection. This one has a dark black patina obscuring a very interesting portrait of Saint George.

Size 17.84mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 1.91gm to 4.55gm and sizes from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
s-2015-a3~0.jpg
2015x ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE Half? TETARTERON S-2015/7v DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3v VARIATION UNLISTED44 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword AND shield behind left arm.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger with patriarchal cross.


Size 17.94mm

Weight 2.4gm

I purchased this as part of a collection from Europe. The coin was attributed by previous owner as S-2017 a much rarer coin to find. Upon reexamining the coin, it turned out it has a shield and hilt of sword that the left hand is holding. On the reverse the gl.cr. has a patriarchal cross, this is seen on his half Tetartera.

The weight is average for a half Tetarteron and a bit low for a full Tetarteron . the die size is around 15mm, small for a Tetarteron and large for a half.
AKA the Diane Variation
Simon
q6~1.jpg
2016 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2016 DOC 7 CLBC 8.4.4 22 views
OBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. hand. Scroll or hilt of sword

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger cr. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper right field.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron

Size 16mm

Weight 1.7gm

DOC lists 6 examples with weights from 1.2 to 1.9 gm and sizes 15x11 to 17mm
Simon
h3~0.jpg
2016 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2016 DOC 7 CLBC 8.4.4 41 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. hand. Scroll or hilt of sword

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger cr. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper right field.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron

Size 19x14mm

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists 6 examples with weights from 1.2 to 1.9 gm and sizes 15x11 to 17mm

Not a great example but the only one I have seen outside the books. Both of my Alexius III half tetartera are very odd shaped flans.
Simon
Alexunlistedsep.jpg
2016AV ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2016 DOC 7 CLBC 8.4.4 Unlisted Variation49 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on RIGHT shoulder and in l. hand. Scroll or hilt of sword ( This one with such an exceptional Obv makes it clear it is a hilt of sword, also no others mention spear resting on right shoulder.))

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger cr. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper right field.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron

Size 16/14mm

Weight 2.3gm

DOC lists 6 examples with weights from 1.2 to 1.9 gm and sizes 15x11 to 17mm

Half tetartera are rare for Alexius III, this example has and excellent obv and the reverse is attributable in hand but does not photograph well.

Both of my Alexius III half tetartera are very odd shaped flans.
Simon
c2.jpg
2017 ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-2017 DOC 8 CLBC 8.4.5.A 25 views
OBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on r. shoulder and in l. hand shield.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger with patriarchal cross.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron.

Size 14/17.5 mm

Weight 1.7gm

Very Rare Coin.

DOC lists 7 examples weights 1.18gm to 2.47gm and sizes from 13mm to 17mm ( DOC com bines S-2017 and S-2018 as one coin.)
Simon
BOTLAUREL_2019.JPG
201939 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
RIC_0086.jpg
203. MACRINUS192 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218 AD.

Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

AR Denarius (18mm 3.55 gm). IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust with short beard right / SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, holding sceptre in left. RIC IV 86; Good VF; Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
LarryW1931.jpg
210 Basil II Bulgaroktonos, AD 976-102567 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 25mm, 4.40g, aEF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 1005-1025
+ IhS CIS REX REGNANTIhM, bust of Christ facing, wears pallium, colobium, and nimbus cruciger with crescents; raised right hand, Gospels in left; triple border / + bASIL C CONSTANT b R, facing crowned busts of Basil wearing loros of square pattern (left) and Constantine wearing jeweled chlamys; holding between them with right hands a long plain cross; manus Dei above Basil's head; triple border
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
DOC 6a; Sear 1800; Wroth 12-13
Lawrence Woolslayer
a7.jpg
2115 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron SBCV- 2115 DOC 5741 views

OBV Head of Cherub with 4 wings, Pellets flanking on l. side

REV John III seated facing on throne with back, wearing stamma with pendilia, chlamys, holding labarum and gl cr.

Size 19.33mm

Weight 1.974 gm
2 commentsSimon
u5.jpg
2116 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron S- 2116 DOC 57 28 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic ,breastplate, and saigon; holds in r. hand spear, resting over shoulder and in l. shield.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma , divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type, and saigon; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. anexikakia.

Size 20.98

Weight 2.6gm

DOC lists 12 examples with weights from 1.61 gm to 3.00 and sizes 19mm to 21mm
Simon
1c~1.jpg
2117 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron S- 2117 DOC 59 50 views
OBV Cross within crescent-shapeped ornament decorated with pellets.

REV Half length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision , collar-piece and paneled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in l. a globus surmounted by patriarchal cross

Size 19mm/16mm

Weight 1.8 gm

DOC lists 5 examples with weights from 1.55 gm to 2.54 and sizes 15mm to 20mm All odd shaped in size.

Very Nice example with a nice lights sand filled patina, I would best describe this as a cross in a horseshoe.
Simon
s5.jpg
2118 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron S- 2118 DOC IV 60 15 viewsOBV Bust of Christ , beardless and nimbate. wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand .

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma , divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type, and saigon; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 1.97gm

DOC lists 4 examples with sizes 17-18mm and weights 1.66 to 2.37.
Simon
VIRGIN2Stars.jpg
2119 John III (Magn.) AE Tetarteron SBCV -2119 DOC 61 62 views
OBV. * in field. Three quarters length figure of Virgin nimbate and orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, turned slightly. R.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of simplified type; Holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter, and in l. globus surmounted by patriarchal cross, which he holds by the shaft.

Weight 2.4gm

Size 18.37mm

Doc lists 4 examples with weights from 1.63 to 3.73gm and sizes from 18 to 22mm
3 commentsSimon
v5~0.jpg
2145 Theodore II (Magn.) AE Tetarteron SBCV-2145 DOC IV 13 19 viewsOBV- Lys. Pellet in Upper and lower field, to either side.

REV- Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and Chalmys; holds in r hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. anexikakia.

Size 18.57

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists 2 examples sized 17mm and 21mm and only one weight .95gm
Simon
LarryW1937.jpg
215 Constantine VIII, AD 1025-102858 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 25mm, 4.37g, gVF
Struck at Constantinople
+IhS XIS REX REGNANThM, bust of Christ Pantocrator facing, wears tunic, himation, and nimbus cruciger with crescents; right hand raised, Gospels in left; triple border / + CWhSTAhTIh BASILEUS ROM, crowned bust facing with long beard; wears loros, holds labarum with pellet on shaft with right, akakia in left; triple border. Scarce.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
DOC 2; Sear 1815
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
3c.jpg
2154 Anonymous1 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2154 DOC IV 6 Type D50 viewsOBV Cross radiate, with lunate ornaments, decorated with pellets , at ends.

REV Half length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans wearing tunic.

Size 21mm

Weight 2.6gm

DOC lists 4 examples. weight vary 1.32gm to 2.52gm and 19 to 22mm
Simon
w5.jpg
2154a Anonymous (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2154 DOC IV 6 Type D 19 viewsOBV Cross radiate, with lunate ornaments, decorated with pellets , at ends.

REV Half length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans wearing tunic.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.61gm

DOC lists 4 examples. weight vary 1.32gm to 2.52gm and 19 to 22mm
Simon
5c~0.jpg
2155 Anonymous3 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2155 DOC IV 7 Type E47 viewsOBV ICXC Cross decorated with pellets.

REV Two B's back to Back . Pellets in the loops on r.

Size 18.47mm

Weight. 2.5gm

Doc lists 8 examples from weights 1.81 to 2.55gm , Sizes from 16mm to 21mm
Simon
p6~1.jpg
2155a Anonymous3 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2155 DOC IV 7 Type E 31 viewsOBV ICXC Cross decorated with pellets.

REV Two B's back to Back . Pellets in the loops on r.

Size 17mm

Weight. 2.78gm

Doc lists 8 examples from weights 1.81 to 2.55gm , Sizes from 16mm to 21mm
1 commentsSimon
2c~0.jpg
2156 Anonymous (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2156 DOC IV 857 views
OBV- Head of Flower

REV – Two B’s back to back decorated with pellets. Pellet in loops of letter to r.

Size 18.11

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists only one example, no weight 21mm
1 commentsSimon
i4~0.jpg
2157 Anonymous2 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2157 DOC IV 9 Type G 27 viewsOBV Radiate, floriated, cross

REV Three-Quarter-length figure of St. Theodore, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon Holds in r. hand sword resting over shoulder in l. shield

( This coin is lacking an inscription for St Theodore, should be appearing in two columnar groups.)

Size 20mm

weight 2.9gm

DOC lists 3 examples weighing between 2.07gm to 2.60gm and sizes 20 to 22m
Simon
z3.jpg
2170 Theodore Ducas AE Tetarteron SBCV-2170 DOC IV 11 Var. B CLBC 69 viewsOBV- Inscription in 5 lines

REV- Half length figure of emperor on l. and st Demetrius beardless and nimbate. Between them a patriarchal cross-crosslet, on a long shaft decorated with crescent and pellet, the base of the shaft ending in three steps.

Size 23.4mm

Weight 4.8gm

Doc lists 7 examples with weights from 2.63gm to 5.50gm and sized at 23mm with one variation at 17mm
Simon
LarryW1938.jpg
220 Romanus III Argyrus, AD 1028-103462 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 26mm, 4.37g, VF
Struck at Constantinople AD 1028-1029
+IhS REX REGNANTINM, Christ enthroned facing, wears nimbus cruciger and colobium, raises right hand and holds Gospels with left; double border / ΘCE bOHΘ RWMANW MΘ, the figures of Romanus (left) and the Virgin standing facing; bearded Romanus wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger; the nimbate Virgin wears pallium and maphorum, and with right hand crowns the emperor; double border
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 1d; Sear 1819; Berk 296
Lawrence Woolslayer
Sear_1569.jpg
26. Constantine V and Leo IV9 viewsConstantine V and Leo IV.
751-775 AD.
AE Follis. Syracuse mint.

O: K-LEWN to right and left of Constantine V, bearded on left, and Leo IV, beardless on right, standing facing (usually three-quarter length), each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia in arm across their chests; cross between their heads

R: LEON-DECP downwards to left and right, Leo III, bearded, half-length, standing facing, wearing crown and chlamys and holding cross potent.

SB 1569, DOC 19.

Thanks to FORVM member joma-tk for helping to ID.
Sosius
27-Antiochos-VII.jpg
28. Antiochos-VII.27 viewsTetradrachm, 138-129 BC.
Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochos VII.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ / Athena standing, holding Nike, spear, and shield. Monogram and A at left, O at right.
16.81 gm., 27 mm.

This coin was purchased in 1997 as a tetradrachm of Antiochus VII before the posthumous tetradrachms of Antiochus VII were identified. 

In 2002 a tetradrachm was discovered that bore a portrait of Antiochus VII but was in the name of Ariarathese VII of Cappadocia.  Research eventually die-linked tetradrachms of Antiochus VII to those of Ariarathese VII, and concluded that numerous tetradrachms in the name of Antiochus VII were actually issued by Ariarathese VII around 104-102 BC. This research was published as Cappadician Tetradrachms in the Name of Antiochus VII by Catharine Lorber and Arthur Houghton (NC 166, 2006).

Recently Elke Krengle and Catharine Lorber published Early Cappadocian Tetradrachms in the Name of Antiochus VII.  This is a more in-depth look at these tetradrachms, and this coin is listed there:

See table 1 on p. 65, and plate 11:
Mint II, Emission 5: control mark O, #117-171. All the dies are not illustrated, so I do not know exactly which number between 117 and 171 is actually this coin.
Callimachus
1033_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

11.05 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1359_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952/12; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟY (sic)
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

10.96 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
1262_P_Hadrian_RPC2952.jpg
2952 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 117-18 AD Tyche seated on throne6 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2952; SNG Leypold 2821

Issue Year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ ΤΗС ΙΕΡΑС ΑСΥΛΟΥ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ
Tyche seated l., holding ears of corn and bunch of grapes in her r. hand; below, river-god l.; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Β

10.15 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
980_P_Hadrian_RPC2953.jpg
2953 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 120-21 AD Tyche seated24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2953;

Issue Year 5

Obv. AY ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΕΤ Ε ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ
Tyche seated l., holding a pomegranate in her r. hand, her l. resting on sceptre

7.84 gr
20 mm
12h
okidoki
728_P_Hadrian_RPC2954.jpg
2954 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 120-21 AD Athena standing34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2954; SNG von Aulock 6537

Issue Year 5

Obv. Є - TЄ.
Laureate head right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝЄωΝ.
Athena standing left, holding crowning Nike and resting hand upon shield; spear behind to right.

3.02 gr
15 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
890_P_Hadrian_RPC2954_7.jpg
2954 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 120-21 AD Athena standing38 viewsReference.
RPC III 2954.7; vA 6537

Issue Year 5

Obv. ΕΤ Ε
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕωΝ
Athena standing l., holding Nike in her r. hand, l. resting on shield and spear

4.23 gr
16 mm
12h

Note.
Gorny and Mosch 212, 2 March 2013, lot 2512
3 commentsokidoki
390_P_Hadrian.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.04 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
ex Lindgren 1735
1 commentsokidoki
21_P_Hadrian__SNG_von_Aulock_6538-9.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

10.2 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1035_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.jpg
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955/25; cf SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316. (crescent)

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAIA AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes and below crescent; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.15 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
937_P_Hadrian_RPC2955.JPG
2955 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian Æ 135-36 AD Tyche seated on throne15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2955; SNG von Aulock 6538-9; Lindgren I 1735; cf SNG Cop 316.

Issue Year 20

Obv. AVTO KAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC.
Laureate head right.

Rev. TVANЄΩN TΩN T T IЄP ACV AVT. ЄT K (date) across field
Tyche seated left on throne decorated with sphinx, holding grain ears and bunch of grapes; below, river god swimming left, head facing, holding club

11.26 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1218_P_Hadrian_RPC2956.JPG
2956 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Athena standing9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2956; BMC -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock

Issue Year 20

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ [ΠΡ Τ(Α) ΙΕΡ] ΑСΥ ΑΥΤΟ
Athena standing l., holding Nike in her r. hand, l. resting on shield and spear; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Κ

6.53 gr
20 mm
12h
okidoki
1219_P_Hadrian_RPC2957.JPG
2957 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian, 135-36 AD Club8 viewsReference
RPC III, 2957;

Issue Year 20

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС(ΤΟС ?)
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕΩΝ ΤΩ ΠΡ ΤΑ ΙΕΡ ΑСΥ ΑΥΤ
Club; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ Κ

4.29 gr
17 mm
12h
okidoki
652_P_Hadrian_RPC2958.JPG
2958 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 135-36 AD Perseus standing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2958;

Issue Year 20

Obv AYTO KAI TP ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕΩΝ ΤΩ ΠΡ Τ ΙΕΡ ΑС, ΕΤ - Κ (in field)
Perseus standing facing, holding head of Medusa and harpa.

3.30 gr
16 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1220_P_Hadrian_RPC2959.jpg
2959 CAPPADOCIA, Tyana. Hadrian 136-37 AD Athena standing8 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2959; Waddington 6807; BMC –; SNG Copenhagen –; SNG von Aulock –

Issue Year 21

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΤΥΑΝΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡ [Τ(Α) ΙΕΡ ΑСΥ ΑΥ(ΤΟ)]
Athena standing l., holding Nike in her r. hand, l. resting on shield and spear; in field, l. and r., ΕΤ ΚA

6.09 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
gtogether.jpg
3..Gopalavarman 902-904 AD (Utpala dynasty)14 viewsGopalavarman 902-904 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.8gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
190_P_Hadrain_Cappadoocia_BMC_143.jpg
3072 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian, Hemidrachm 119-20 AD Club28 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3072; Sydenham, Caesarea 257; SNG Copenhagen 223; BMC 143

Issue Year 4

Obv. AVTO KAIC TRAI ADRIANOC CEBACT
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. Є T-Δ
Vertical club

1.92 gr
14 mm
12 h
okidoki
1P_Hadrian__BMC_140f_.jpg
3074 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea. Hadrian Hemidrachm 119-20 AD Nike 37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3074; BMC 140f; Sydenham 255, Metcalf Conspectus 86a

Issue Year 4

Obv: ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙC ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC CΕΒΑCΤ.
Laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder.

Rev: ΕΤ Δ.
Nike advancing right with shouldered palm branch in left and wreath in raised right hand; legend to right.

1.2 gr
15 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1330_P_Hadrian_RPC3075.jpg
3075 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea. Hadrian Hemidrachm 119-20 AD Nike7 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3075; S 256, Metcalf Conspectus 86b

Issue Year 4

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙϹ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹΤ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right, seen from front

Rev. ΕΤ Δ
Nike advancing r., holding wreath in r. hand, palm in left

1.61 gr
15 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
408_P_Hadrian_.jpg
3076 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Hemirachm 120-21 AD Nike24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3076; Metcalf 86b; Sydenham 260; SNG von Aulock 6414

Issue Year 5

Obv. AVTO KAIC TRAI ADPIANOC CEBACT
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front.

Rev. ετε
Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm.

2.02 gr
13 mm
1h
okidoki
598_P_Hadrian_RPC3076.jpg
3076 cf CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian Hemidrachm 120-21 AD Nike star23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3076/24; BMC p. 62, 146var; SNG Cop. 224var; SNG von Aulock 6414var; Sydenham p. 76, 260var (without star)

Issue Year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from front

Rev. ΕΤ Ε (year 5)
Nike advancing right, star behind, holding wreath in r. hand, palm in left.

1.31 gr
14.2 mm
h
okidoki
1290_P_Hadrian_RPC3078.jpg
3078 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian, Hemidrachm 119-21 AD Nike standing7 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3078; S 254a, Metcalf Conspectus 89

Issue Undated

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙϹ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹΤ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev.
Nike standing r.ight foot on step, inscribing shield

1.34 gr
14 mm
12h
okidoki
1354_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
3083A CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian Drachm, Helios on Mt Argaeus10 viewsReference.
cf RPC III, 3083; cf S 262, cf Metcalf Conspectus 91a

Obv. AΥΤ ΚΑΙϹ ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒ
Laureate head left

Rev. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤ Γ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing l., holding globe in r., sceptre in l.

2.81 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
824_P_Hadrian_RPC3084.jpg
3084 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Drachm 128-138 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus69 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3084; Sydenham 262a; Metcalf Conspectus 91b

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤ Γ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing l., holding globe in r., sceptre in left.

3.20 gr
18 mm
6h

Note the Hare on base of Mt Argaeus
3 commentsokidoki
777_P_Hadrian_RPC_3087.jpg
3087 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian Didrachm 128-38 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3087; Metcalf 92a; Sydenham 263

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
laureate head of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing l., holding globe in r., sceptre in left.

5.85 gr
22 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
477_P_Hadrian_RPC3091.jpg
3091 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian Didrachm 128-38 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus35 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3091; Metcalf 93b; Sydenham 266a.
http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3091/

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
laureate head of Hadrian, right, with drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡ ( Issue. Hadrian Pater Patriae)
Mt Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing left, holding globe in right, sceptre in left.

Note.
Ex Classical Numismatic Group 49 (17 March 1999), lot 992.

6.42 gr
20 mm
6 h.
3 commentsokidoki
1102_P_Hadrian_RPC3094.jpg
3094 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian Didrachm 128-38 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3094; S 265, Metcalf Conspectus 94

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing l., holding globe in r., sceptre in l.; in the field, star, l. and crescent, r.

6.04 gr
21 mm
12h
okidoki
767_P_Hadrian_RPC3095.jpg
3095 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian Didrachm 128-38 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus22 viewsReference. very rare
RPC 3, 3095 (Henseler coll.); Metcalf-; Sydenham, Caesarea -

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing l., holding globe in r., sceptre in l.; in the field, star, l. and crescent, r.

6.54 gr
21 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
906_P_Hadrian_RPC3098.JPG
3098 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Didrachm 128-138 AD Mount Argaeus one star31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3098; S 268a, Metcalf Conspectus 95b

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡ
Mount Argaeus surmounted by star

6.11 gr
21 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
999_P_Hadrian_RPC_3099.jpg
3099 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Didrachm 128-138 AD Mount Argaeus three stars21 viewsReference.
RPC III 3099; S 270a, Metcalf Conspectus 96a

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡ
Mount Argaeus surmounted by star; to l. and r., stars

5.62 gr
20 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
371_P_Hadrian.jpg
3109 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea Hadrian Didrachm 128-38 AD Club 34 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3109; BMC p. 61, 135; Hunter II p. 587, 43; Metcalf p. 122, 99; SNG Copenhagen 231; SNG von Aulock 6421; Sydenham p. 78, 280

Obv. AΔPIANOC CEBACTOC
Laureate head right.

Rev. ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙΔΟС (Issue Hadrian Pater Patriae)
Club, handle at top

6.21 gr
21.5 mm
6 h.
1 commentsokidoki
1317_P_Hadrian_RPC3110.jpg
3116 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea Hadrian Didrachm 128-38 AD Club39 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3116; S 283; Metcalf Conspectus 103 corr.; Cop: 232

Issue Hadrian Pater Patriae

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹΤΟϹ
Laureate head of Hadrian, left

Rev. ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΥΠΑΤΟϹ ΤΟ Γ
Club, handle at top

5.97 gr
22 mm
12h
okidoki
948_P_Hadrian_RPC3117.jpg
3117 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian Didrachm 128-38 AD Tyche standing26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3117; S 252 and 252a, Metcalf Conspectus 105 corr.

Obv. СΕΒΑСΤΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, left.

Rev. ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΥΠΑΤΟС ΤΟ Γ
Tyche standing l., holding rudder and cornucopia

5.72 gr
21 mm
12h
okidoki
837_P_Hadrian_RPC3118.jpg
3118 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Didrachm 128-138 AD Crescent on Mt Argaeus55 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3118; Metcalf Conspectus 104; Sydenham 252b corr. (bust type).

Obv. ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΥΠΑΤΟС ΤΟ Γ (retrograde).
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.

Rev. ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ ΥΠΑΤΟС / Γ (retrograde).
Mt Argaeus surmounted by crescent

5.84 gr
21 mm
6h
6 commentsokidoki
394_P_Hadrian_BMC125.jpg
3122 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Drachm 128-138 AD Mount Argaeus 3 stars29 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3122; BMC 125; Sydenham 271; Metcalf Conspectus 108a

Obv. AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. YΠATOC Γ ΠATHP ΠATP
Mount Argaeus; above, three stars.

3.60 gr
18 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
874_P_Hadrian_RPC3122A.jpg
3122A CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Drachm 128-138 AD Mount Argaeus 3 stars23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3122A; BMC 125; Sydenham 271; Metcalf Conspectus 108a

Obv. AΔPIANOC CЄBACTOC
Laureate, bust right, drapery on left shoulder and across back of neck.

Rev. YΠATOC Γ ΠATHP ΠATP
Mount Argaeus; above, three stars.

2.81 gr
17 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1285_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
3146A CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 117-18 AD Club in wreath19 viewsReference.
RPC III --;

Issue Year 2

Obv.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ET B
Club in wreath

1.83 gr
13 mm
12h
okidoki
1308_P_Hadrian_RPC3146A.jpg
3146A CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 117-18 AD Club in wreath18 viewsReference.
RPC III 3146A

Issue Year 2

Obv.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ET B
Club in wreath

2.16 gr
13 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
655_P_Hadrian_RPC_3147A_Pudill_285.jpg
3147A CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 120-21 AD Club in wreath22 viewsReference.
RPC III 3147A; Pudill in GN 285, 2016 148

Issue Year 5

Obv.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ET E
Club in wreath

1.84 gr
12 mm
6h
okidoki
1329_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
3147B CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 120-21 AD corn ears5 viewsReference.
unpublished --

Issue Year 5

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹΤΟϹ
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from front), right

Rev. KAIC TωN ΠPOCTω APΓAIω ET E
Bunch of three ears of corn

3.59 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
1073_RPC3148.JPG
3148 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian 126-27 AD Mount Argaeus 24 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3148; S 239; Stumpf 588;

Issue Secundus Year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΕΠΙ СΕΚΟΥΝΔΟΥ ΕΤ ΙΑ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by wreath

3.03 gr
14 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1281_P_Hadrian_RPC3148.jpg
3148 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian 126-27 AD Mount Argaeus14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3148; S 239; Stumpf 588;

Issue Secundus Year 11

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΕΠΙ СΕΚΟΥΝΔΟΥ ΕΤ ΙΑ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by wreath

2.86 gr
15 mm
12h
okidoki
807_P_hadrian_RPC3149.jpg
3149 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 126-27 AD corn ears25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3149; SNG Leypold 2770

Issue Year 11 ( ΕΤ ΙΑ)

Obv. AYT TPAIC TPAI AΔPIANOC CEBAC
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. KAIC Tω[N ΠPOC T]ω APΓAIω ET IA (in field, l. and r.)
bunch of three ears of corn

5.11 gr
16 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
732_P_Hadrian_RPC3151.jpg
3151B CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian Triassarion Helios on Mt Argaeus23 viewsReference
RPC III, 3151B

Issue ΕΤ ΙΘ=Year 19

Obv. AYTo TPAI AΔPIANOC CEBACTOC
Laureate bust of Hadrian to right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. ΚΑΙ TωN ΠIΡ ΑΡΓΑΙω ΕΤ ΙΘ
Mt Argaeus surmounted by Helios standing l., holding globe in r. hand, sceptre in left

11.49 gr
24 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
1066_P_Hadrian_RPC3153~0.JPG
3153 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 134-34 AD Wreath13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3153; S 286 corr.; Marthaler 66 corr.

Issue Year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙϹ[ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ] СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r. with paludamentum

Rev. ΚΑΙС / ΤωΝ ΠΡ / ΑΡΓΑΙω / ΕΤ ΙΘ
All within wreath

9.52 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
907_P_Hadrian_RPC3156.jpg
3156 CAPPADOCIA, Caesaraea Hadrian 134-35 AD Mount Argaeus 2 stars17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3156

Issue. ΕΤ ΙΘ year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate head right

Rev. ΚΑΙ TωN ΠΡ ΑΡΓΑΙω ΕΤ ΙΘ
Mount Argaeus surmounted by star; to l. star

2.9 gr
15 mm
12h
okidoki
1166_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
3159 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 124 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus30 viewsReference.
Cohen -, cf. 457 (laureate and without aegis). Henseler -, cf. X29a var. (without aegis). RIC -. RPC III -, cf. 3158-9 (differing bust types). Sydenham -, cf. 290a (laureate and without aegis). An unpublished variety of a very rare type.

Issue Bronze with latin legends and Mount Argaeus as reverse design

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Radiate head of Hadrian to right, with aegis on his left shoulder.

Rev. COS III
Mount Argaeus surmounted by statue of Sol-Helios, radiate, holding globe in his right hand and long scepter with his left.

4.81 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
From the Collection of Sir A. J. Evans, Ars Classica XVII, 3 October 1934, 1400.

While usually being attributed to Caesarea, the style of the very rare small bronzes of Hadrian with Latin legends showing the Mount Argaios is clearly that of Rome. It is generally believed that the Rome mint shipped its dies to the East in such cases to have the coins struck on the spot, but the fact that RPC records an obverse die match between an Argaios-semis and a regular Rome mint piece in Vienna with a modius on the reverse (RPC III 3159.3 resp. BMC p. 442*) strongly indicates that all semisses were struck in Rome. The emergence of a local motive on a Roman Imperial coin is, in any case, very unusual and the coins may have been struck to commemorate Hadrian's visit to Cappadocia in 124 or 130/1.
1 commentsokidoki
1361_P_Hadrian_RPC3160.jpg
3159 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 124 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus4 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3159/6; S —; RIC II, 428; BMC III, 441

Issue Bronze with latin legends and Mount Argaeus as reverse design

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Radiate head of Hadrian, right

Reverse inscription COS III
Mt Argaeus surmounted by helios standing l., holding globe in r. hand, sceptre in left

4.26 gr
20.46 mm
6h
okidoki
coins131.JPG
316. Aurelian22 views316. Aurelian

In 275, Aurelian marched towards Asia Minor, preparing another campaign against the Sassanids: the close deaths of Kings Shapur I (272) and Hormizd I (273), and the rise to power of a weakened ruler (Bahram I), set the possibility to attack the Sassanid Empire.

On on his way, the emperor suppressed a revolt in Gaul — possibly against Faustinus, an officer or usurper of Tetricus — and defeated barbarian marauders at Vindelicia (Germany).

However, Aurelian never reached Persia, since he was killed on his way. As an administrator, Aurelian had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian (called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. Scared of what the emperor might do, he told high ranking officials that the emperor wanted their life, showing a forged document. The notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officiers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him in September of 275, in Caenophrurium, Thracia (modern Turkey).

Aurelian's enemies in the Senate briefly succeeded in passing damnatio memoriae on the emperor, but this was reversed before the end of the year and Aurelian, like his predecessor Claudius, was deified as Divus Aurelianus.

Ulpia Severina, wife of Aurelian and Augusta since 274, is said to have held the imperial role during the short interregnum before the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus to the purple.

Siscia mint. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left between two seated captives, holding up raised hand & whip, XXIT in ex. Cohen 158. RIC 255
ecoli
940_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
3168A CAPPADOCIA, Hierapolis (Comana). Hadrian Didrachm Tyche37 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3168A (Same obverse die)

Obv: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СЄΒΑСΤΟС.
Laureate head right.

Rev: ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ.
Tyche seated left on throne, holding rudder and cornucopia.

5.83 gr
21 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
666_P_Hadrian_RPC3169.jpg
3169 CAPPADOCIA, Hierapolis (Comana). Hadrian Drachm Tyche28 viewsReference. Very rare
RPC III, 3169; S 278a, Metcalf Conspectus 113a

Obv: ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СЄΒΑСΤΟС.
Laureate head right.

Rev: ΥΠΑΤΟС Γ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΠΑΤΡΙ.
Tyche seated left on throne, holding rudder and cornucopia.

3.09 gr
18 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
coin263.JPG
317. Tacitus 90 viewsMarcus Claudius Tacitus, (c.200 - 276) Roman Emperor from September 25, 275, to April 276, was a native of Interamna (Terni) in Umbria.

In the course of his long life he discharged the duties of various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.

Six months after the assassination of Aurelian, he was chosen by the senate to succeed him, and the choice was cordially ratified by the army. During his brief reign he set on foot some domestic reforms, and sought to revive the authority of the senate, but, after a victory over the Alans near the Palus Maeotis, he was assassinated at Tyana in Cappadocia.

Tacitus, besides being a man of immense wealth (which he bequeathed to the state) had considerable literary culture, and was proud to claim descent from the historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, whose works he caused to be transcribed at the public expense and placed in the public libraries.

However, modern research has cast considerable suspicion on this traditional image of Tacitus as a venerable old senator. Quite the contrary, evidence (from coins, for example) indicates that Tacitus was just another military emperor, whose only distiction from other short-lived emperors of the time was his attempt to cultivate the image of a learned man.

Tactitus Silvered AE Antoninianus. Gaul mint. IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS SAECILI (sic), Felicity standing left, sacrificing over altar, holding a long cauduceus Ric 21

Check
ecoli
RPC_6860_Cesaria_Marco_Aurelio.jpg
33-52 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)16 viewsCESARIA en Capadocia
(Hoy Kayseri en Turquía)

AE 22 mm 6.4 gr

Anv: ”[AYTOK AN]-TWNEINOC CEB” – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”KAICAPEWN TΠPAPΓAIW” – Monte Argeo (Argaeus), hoy es el volcán Erciyes.

Acuñada: 161-180 D.C.

Referencias: RPC IV #6860 - BMC XX #181 - BN Paris #452-3 - Sydenham #337 - S.M.Münich #49-52
mdelvalle
image~2.jpg
34. Theophilus 49 viewsTheophilus. 829-842.
AV Semissis (12mm, 1.91 g, 5h). Syracuse mint.
Struck 829-circa 830.
Crowned facing bust, wearing loros and holding globus cruciger / Crowned and draped facing bust holding globus cruciger.
DOC 19; Anastasi 544; SB 1676. Near EF.
From the Sasha Collection.
Ex-CNG
2 commentsSosius
satogether.jpg
4..Sugandharani 904-906 AD (Utpala dynasty)14 viewsSugandharani 904-906 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (4.956gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
2AnastasiusI491AD.jpg
491-518 AD, Anastasius I18 viewsAe; 2.03g; 13mm

DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG
pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Large Epsilon, pellets within, A in right field

SB29; Doc 26
Robin Ayers
1AnastasiusI491AD.jpg
491-518 AD, Anastasius I16 viewsAe; 22mm; 7.55g

DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG
pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Large M, star to left, cross above, star to right, A below.
CON in exergue

(countermarked in left field at top of star, circle with star?)

SB16; Doc 20a
Robin Ayers
3AnastasiusI491AD.jpg
491-518 AD, Anastasius I17 viewsAe; 12mm; 2.03g
DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG
pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Large Epsilon, B in right field

SB29; Doc 26
Robin Ayers
ptogether.jpg
5..Parthavarman 906-921 AD (Utpala dynasty)14 viewsParthavarman 906-921 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18/19mm (5.26gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Partha' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Varma' bottom right
Paul R3
coin555.JPG
501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a title of Christ[2].

The date for Christmas may also bear a relation to the sun worship. According to the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi, writing in the twelth century:

"It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." (cited in "Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries", Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p155])
Christianity designated Sunday as the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest, rather than Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.


CONSTANTINE I

RIC VII Siscia 32 R3

ecoli
coins432.JPG
501b. Crispus29 viewsIn 326, Crispus was suddenly executed according to the orders of his own father in Pola, Istria. Though the decision of Constantine was certainly cruel and unexpected, historians remain more interested in the motivation leading to it.

Zosimus in the 5th century and Joannes Zonaras in the 12th century both reported that Fausta, step-mother of Crispus, was extremely jealous of him. She was reportedly afraid that Constantine would put aside the sons she bore him. So, in order to get rid of Crispus, Fausta set him up. She reportedly told the young Caesar that she was in love with him and suggested an illegitimate love affair. Crispus denied the immoral wishes of Fausta and left the palace in a state of a shock. Then Fausta said to Constantine that Crispus had no respect for his father, since the Caesar was in love with his father's own wife. She reported to Constantine that she dismissed him after his attempt to rape her. Constantine believed her and, true to his strong personality and short temper, executed his beloved son. A few months later, Constantine reportedly found out the whole truth and then executed his wife Fausta at the end of 326.

This version of events has become the most widely accepted, since all other reports are even less satisfactory.

A treason against Constantine jointly plotted by Fausta and Crispus is rejected by most historians. They would have nothing to gain considering their positions as favourites of Constantine.

Another version suggests that Constantine killed Crispus because as an illegitimate son, he would cause a crisis in the order of succession to the throne. However, Constantine had kept him at his side for twenty years without any such decision. Constantine also had the authority to appoint his younger, legitimate sons as his heirs. Nevertheless, Crispus' status as a legitimate or illegitimate son remains uncertain.

Some reports claimed that Constantine was envious of the success of his son and afraid of him. This seems improbable, given that Constantine had twenty years of experience at Emperor while Crispus was still a young Caesar. Similarly, there seems to be no evidence that Crispus had any ambitions to harm or displace his father.

So while the story of Zosimus and Zonaras seems the most believable one, there are also problems relating to their version of events.

Constantine's reaction suggest that he suspected Crispus of a crime so terrible that death was not enough. Crispus also suffered damnatio memoriae, meaning his name was never mentioned again and was deleted from all official documents and monuments. Crispus, his wife Helena and their son were never to be mentioned again in historical records. The eventual fate of Helena and her son is a mystery.

Constantine may have been eventually convinced of Crispus' innocence. But he did not restore his son's innocence and name, as he probably would have on learning of his son's innocence. Perhaps Constantine's pride or shame at having executed his son prevented him from publicly admitting having made a mistake.

Beyond doubt there was a connections between the executions of Crispus and Fausta. Both happened too close in time to be coincidental. Such agreement among different sources connecting the two deaths is extremely rare in itself. A number of modern historians have suggested that Crispus and Fausta really did have an illegitimate affair. When Constantine found out, his reaction was executing both of them. What delayed the death of Fausta may have been a pregnancy. Since the years of birth for the two known daughters of Constantine and Fausta remain unknown, one of their births may have delayed their mother's execution.


Crispus, 316-326, Bronze Reduced Anepigraphic Follis, RIC-VII-53-R5, struck 324-325 at Antioch, 1.87 grams, 17.9 mm. Nice VF

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Crispus facing left
Rev: CRISPVS CAESAR SMANTZ - Legend and mint signature in three lines, star above, dot below

An excessively rare coin of Crispus. Nicely centered and struck with even wear to both surfaces. Important and MUCH nicer than the image projects.

Ex-Glenn Woods
ecoli
60140LG.jpg
501d. Hanniballianus92 viewsHanniballianus. A.D. 335-337.

Dalmatius's second son, Hannibalianus, was appointed Governor of Pontus, as well as Cappadocia and Lesser or Roman Armenia. Hannibalianus also received the title Rex Regum, which some scholars believe suggests that Constantine intended to install him as a client king over Persia once his contemplated campaign against Rome’s eastern enemy was brought to a successful conclusion. In a further gesture of reconciliation between the two branches of the imperial family, Hannibalianus was married to Constantia, one of Constantine's daughters.

Æ 15 mm (1.20 g). Constantinople, as Rex Regum, A.D. 336-337. FL HANNIBALLIANO REG[I], bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / [SE]CVRITAS PVBLIC[A], river-god Euphrates reclining right, beside urn and reed; [CONSS]. RIC 147; LRBC 1034. Near VF/VF, attractive dark green patina with earthen highlights.
1 commentsecoli
coin267.JPG
515b. Magnus Maximus35 viewsA Spaniard, Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 383, while serving with the army in Britain. Later legend made him King of the Britons; he handed the throne over to Caradocus when he went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions.

Following his destruction of Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, Gratian, who he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25, 383. Soon after, Maximus managed to force Valentinian II out of Rome after which he fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul. He became a popular emperor, although also a stern persecutor of heretics.

Theodosius I and Valentinian II campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July-August 388. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, near Emona, and retreated to Aquileia. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and killer of Gratian, was defeated near Siscia, his brother Marcellinus again at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia and although pleaded for mercy was executed. However, his wife and two daughters were spared. Maximus' son, Flavius Victor, was defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast in the fall of the same year.

What happened to his family is not related, although it is clear that they survived and that his descendants continued to occupy influential posts. We encounter a possible daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Another daughter was possibly married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Their grandson was Petronius Maximus, who was another ill-fated emperor, ruling in Rome for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21).

Magnus Maximus AE-4

Obv: MM right, DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with two turrets and star above. Coin is nice VF for this small issue.
ecoli
Follis Constantino X SB01853.jpg
52-02 - Constantino X (25/12/1059 - 21/05/1067 D.C.)24 viewsAE Follis 26 x 30 mm 4.3 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IC - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " ΕVΔO AVΓ - +RΘKWN TΔK " Emperador barbado a derecha y Emperatriz Eudocia a izquierda, de pié de frente vistiendo corona, Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y Pendilia (Tiras de perlas que colgaban a ambos lados de la corona). Entre ellos Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial, con Crismón (Simbolo Chi-Ro) en su bandera), Cruz en el mastil y apoyado sobre una tarima con tres escalones.

Acuñada 1059 - 1067 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1853 Pag. 363 - Bellinger D.O. Vol. III #8 - B.M.C.#18-31 - Ratto M.B.#2021/3 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-29
mdelvalle
CHAKRAVARMAN_TOGETHER.jpg
52...Chakravarman 923-933 and again 936-937 AD10 viewsChakravarman 923-933 and again 936-937 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.20gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Cha' right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar

Paul R3
KSHEMANEW.jpg
521...Kshemagupta 950-951 AD ? Alone16 viewsKshemagupta (Possibly minted in his first year of rule as his queens name is not mentioned)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm / 5.74gr
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'kshema' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Gupta' bottom right
Paul R3
2JustinianI527AD.jpg
527-565 AD, Justinian I24 viewsAE Pentanummium; 15mm; 2.26g

DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

epsilon with + at center, star to right

SB 244, DOC 271
Antioch Mint, April 551- March 556
1 commentsRobin Ayers
3JustinianI527AD.jpg
527-565 AD, Justinian I37 viewsAe Follis; 30mm; 16.15g

DN ISTINI-ANVS PP AVG
Helmeted, draped and cuirassed facing bust, holding globe with cross in right hand, cross in left

Large M, ANNO to the left, cross above, XXXI to right, B below
NIKO in exergue

SB201 (year 31), DOC 137b, MIB 113a
Nicomedia mint
1 commentsRobin Ayers
215_P_Hadrian__Emmett_848_13.jpg
5728 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 128-29 AD Hands Clasped30 viewsReference.
Emmett 848.13; Dattari 1525; Milne 1274; RPC III, 5728

Issue L IΓ = year 13

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back, with Paludamentum.

Rev. PATHR PATRIDOC (nobele vader)
Hands clasped, L IΓ=Jear 13=(128/129).

13.08 gr
25 mm
6h

note.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bust of Septimius Severus wearing a paludamentum
In Republican and Imperial Rome, the paludamentum was a cloak or cape fastened at one shoulder, worn by military commanders (e.g. the legionary Legatus) and rather less often by their troops. As supreme commander of the whole Roman army, Roman emperors were often portrayed wearing it in their statues (e.g. the Prima Porta Augustus) and on their coinage. After the reign of Augustus, the paludamentum was restricted to the Emperor.[citation needed] Children would also wear it sometimes, when there was bad weather and they needed protection.
The paludamentum was generally crimson, scarlet, or purple in colour, or sometimes white. It was fastened at the shoulder with a clasp, called a fibula, whose form and size varied through time. Putting on the paludamentum was a ceremonial act on setting out for war.
2 commentsokidoki
tog.jpg
6..Kshemagupta 950-957/8 AD (Utpala dynasty)16 viewsKshemagupta 950-957/8 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Di' to left 'kshema' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Gupta' bottom right
Paul R3
120.jpg
60. Alexius I Comnenus17 viewsAlexius I Comnenus
Pre-reform AR Miliaresion Constantinople mint. Struck 1081-1092.

The Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing facing, orans / Alexius standing facing, holding long cross and sheathed sword, pellet in field.

DOC 10; SB 1897; aF/F, very rare
Sosius
coin406.JPG
602. Theodosius II30 viewsFlavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East.

He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards Eastern Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving power behind the emperor and many of her views became official policy. These included her anti-Semitic view which resulted in the destruction of synagogues.

On the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he became Emperor. In June 421 Theodosius married the poet Aelia Eudocia. They had a daughter, Licinia Eudoxia, whose marriage with the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III marked the re-unification of the two halves of the Empire, even if for a short time. Theodosius created the University of Constantinople, and died in 450 as the result of a riding accident.

Bronze AE4, S 4297, VG, .96g, 12.3mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 408-450 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse no legend, cross in wreath, obscure mintmark in exergue; ex Forum
ecoli
01860q00.jpg
604. Leo I387 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
ecoli73
kbrandnew.jpg
61..Kshemagupta 950-957/8 AD (Utpala dynasty)30 viewsKshemagupta 950-957/8 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17.50mm
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Di' to left 'kshema' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Gupta' bottom right
1 commentsPaul R3
togab.jpg
7..Abhimanyu AD 957/8-971/2 (Utpala dynasty)15 viewsAbhimanyu AD 957/8-971/2 (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17mm (5.74gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.101 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
John_Comenus-Ducas_Sear_2208.jpg
75. John Comenus-Ducas, Kingdom of Thessalonica20 viewsKingdom of Thessalonica.
John Comenus-Ducas
AE 17mm small module trachy
1237-1244 AD.

O: IC-XC to left and right of Christ, bust facing

R: IW.., John, no beard, half length figure, standing, holding labarum-headed sceptre and akakia.

SB 2208; DOC 23.

ID'ed with help from FORVM member OrthdoxCoins. Thanks!
Sosius
ntogether.jpg
8..Nandigupta 972-973 AD16 viewsNandigupta 972-973 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17/18mm (5.40gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
EA830A0F-E959-4991-BBC6-1E18F365FE51.jpeg
886-912 AD, Leo VI6 viewsLeo VI,
AE Follis;9.61g; 26-27mm
Constantinople

LEON bASILEVS ROM,
crowned bust facing with short beard, wearing chlamys, holding akakia

LEON EN QEO BA SILEVS R OMEON
legend in four lines

SB 1729, DOC 8
Robin Ayers
John_VIII_Palaeologus_DOC_1647.jpg
89. John VIII Palaeologus. 21 viewsJohn VIII Palaeologus.

1425-1448.
AR Stavraton (25mm, 4.78 g, 6h).
Constantinople mint.

O: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; lis in right field

R: Crowned facing bust of John; pellets flanking.

DOC 1647-8; PCPC 348.9; LBC 1051-2; SB 2563. VF, area of weak strike, deposits.

Ex-CNG
1 commentsSosius
ttogether.jpg
9..Tribhuvanagupta 973-974/5 AD 13 viewsTribhuvanagupta 973-974/5 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.42gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Tri' to left 'bhuvana' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Gupta' bottom right
Paul R3
btogether.jpg
90..Bhimagupta 974/5-980 AD (Utpala dynasty)13 viewsBhimagupta 974/5-980 AD (Utpala dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
DTOGETHER.jpg
91..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)16 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.62gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
ddnew.jpg
911..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)15 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.90gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
STOGETHER.jpg
92..Samgrama (Sangrama) 1003-1028 AD (Start of 1st Lohara dynasty)14 viewsSamgrama (Sangrama) 1003-1028 AD (Start of 1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.45gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sa to left 'm(n)gramara' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'jadeva' bottom right
Paul R3
ANTOGETHER.jpg
93..Ananta deva 1028-1063 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)16 viewsAnanta deva 1028-1076 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.92gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
ktogether.jpg
94..Kalasa 1063-1089 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)14 viewsKalasa 1076-1089 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.52gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
new_harsha_coin.jpg
945..Harsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)13 viewsHarsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (6.14gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Ha' to left 'rsha' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Deva' bottom
right
Paul R3
htogether.jpg
95..Harsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)18 viewsHarsha 1089-1101 AD (1st Lohara dynasty)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (6.23gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Ha' to left 'rsha' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Deva' bottom
right
Paul R3
ucch.jpg
951..Uccala (Uchchala) (1101-11 A.D.) Start of the 2nd Lohara dynasty9 viewsUccala (Uchchala) (1101-11 A.D.)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17.5mm (5.76gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend '(U) chcha' to left 'la' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident.
Paul R3
s1together].jpg
96..Sussala 1st Reign 1113-1120 AD13 viewsSussala 1st Reign 1113-1120 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17.5mm (5.86gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
S2TOGETHER.jpg
97..Sussala 2nd Reign 1120-1127/816 viewsSussala 2nd Reign 1120-1127/8
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17/17.5mm (5.92gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
j1together.jpg
98..Jayasimha (common legend) 1128-1154/512 viewsJayasimha (common legend) 1128-1154/5
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 17/18mm (5.22gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated 'Ja ya' left 'sim'(ha) right
Reverse- King facin