Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "DIVI"
TIBERIUS-4.jpg
37 viewsTIBERIUS - As - 35/36 AD - Mint of Rome
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII
Laureate head left
Rev.: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII S C
Winged caduceus
g. 10,7 mm. 25,8
Cohen 22, RIC 59, Sear RCV 1771
Maxentius
TIBERIUS-5.jpg
34 viewsTIBERIUS - Provincial AE30 - 18/37 - Utica (Zeugitana)
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII
Bare head left
Rev.: C VIBIO MARSO PR COS C CASSIVS FELIX A II VIR
Livia seated left, holding patera and sceptre. D D P P across field (Decreto Decurionvm Permissu Proconsulis)
g. 13,9 mm. 29,5
Sear GIC 302
Maxentius
GERMANIC-1.jpg
35 viewsGERMANICVS - As minted under Caligula - 40/41 AD
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
Rev.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P around large SC.
Gs. 11 mm. 29,1
Cohen 4 RIC 50

Maxentius
coin412.jpg
41 viewsAnonymous Class C Follis, attributed to Michael IV.
Obverse: +EMMANOVHA. Christ Antiphonetes,
nimbate, standing facing / IC-XC-NI-KA divided by
jewelled cross. Coin #412

cars100
Claudius_Divis.JPG
5 viewsAntonivs Protti
13019_81_1.jpg
18 viewsTripura, Amara Manikya, Tanka, 10.61g, Sk 1499, citing Queen Amaravati, similar to previous lot, but standard type 'k', small pellet in front of lion, and Śake divided by lion's front foot (RB. 161; KM. 90)SpongeBob
IMG_2767.JPG
34 viewsAE Onkia, 2.11 g, Sicily, Panormos, ca. 415-380 B.C. Obv: Forepart of Man-headed bull facing left, possibly ear of corn above or simply an encrustation divided from the man-faced bull by the tooler, in which case SYS should be above. Rev: Horse trotting right, ear of corn above. Calciati I, 272, no. 11. Hoover HGC 2, 1062 (this coin); Giuseppe Bucetti "Monete, Storia e topografia della Sicilia Greca," p. 344 (this coin); MSP I, 48b (this coin illustrated).

Definite tooling around the major devices, on the legs and back. Face apparently untouched though field in front has been smoothed.

Ex. Dr. Busso-Peus, Auction 386, No. 108 (unsold). Tooled.
2 commentsMolinari
Herrli-01_31.jpg
11 viewsSIKH EMPIRE: AE ¼ anna (7.35g), Amritsar, VS(18)96, KM-5var, Herrli-01.31, small cross in obverse field, pa anna nanakshahi on reverse, lovely strike, gorgeous EF, R, ex Paul Stevens Collection. Herrli divided these into a paisa (=¼ anna) and half paisa (11-12g, and 5.5g, respectively), but all coins are inscribed "pa anna" for ¼ anna, and all weigh in the range of 7.0g to 8.5g; thus there is only one denomination for this type.
Quant.Geek
Pseudo_Rhodian_Drachm.jpg
35 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Perseus. 179-168 B.C. AR drachm (15 mm, 2.60 g, 12 h). ca. 171/0 B.C. Aristokrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose with bud to left; in left field, club; above, magistrate's name: [ΑΡΙ]ΣΤΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. R. J. H. Ashton, ""Clubs, Thunderbolts, Torches, Stars and Caducei: more Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms from Mainland Greece and the Islands,"" NC 162 (2002), 17 (A6/P5; this coin). Toned. Very fine.
Ex Naville V (18 June 1923), 2669. British Museum Duplicate, Ex: British Museum


The Pseudo-Rhodian drachms were struck, probably by the Macedonians under Perseus but possibly by the Romans, to pay for Mercenaries from Crete and Rhodes who would have been familiar with Rhodian coinage. The coins in the name of the magistrate Aristokrates with the club symbol in the field is the largest known individual issue of pseudo-Rhodian drachms from the Third Macedonian War, and used at least twenty-nine obverse dies.
paul1888
Untitled55.jpg
15 viewsObv: Brockage
Rev: Full-length figure of emperor standing, wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type and sagion; right hand holds labarum-headed? scepter.; left hand holds sheathed sword, point downward; illegible legend to left.
Dim: 17mm, 1.1g
Quant.Geek
Trajan.jpg
66 viewsTrajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate and draped bust right / COS VI P P SPQR, Trajan's column surmounted by statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles. RIC 307; BMCRE 522; RSC 115. 3.53g, 20mm, 6h.
Of all of the truly monumental buildings and commemorative structures which the emperor Trajan built, only one, the Columna Traiani, has survived in a reasonable state of completeness. Indeed, it appears almost identical in person as it does on coins, except that the statue of Trajan that originally surmounted it was replaced in 1588 with a statue of St. Paul. When completed, the column occupied a prominent place between two libraries, the Basilica Ulpia and the Temple of Trajan and Plotina. The column was massive: it was over 12 feet in diameter at its base, and rose to a height of nearly 130 feet. Its core was comprised of 34 blocks of Carrara white marble that were made hollow so as to accommodate a circular staircase of 185 steps. The most remarkable feature of the column, however, was its ornamentation, for the friezes on its exterior are some of the most inspiring works of art ever produced. Monumental in scope and execution, they record Trajan’s two Dacian campaigns, from 101-3 and 104-6. All told, there are more than 2,500 individually sculpted figures distributed among more than 150 scenes. The emperor himself is represented no less than fifty times – not a surprise considering his penchant for commemorative architecture and his pride in having added Dacia to the provinces of the empire. “ Source: NAC”

Ex Michael Kelly Collection of Roman Silver Coins
4 commentspaul1888
Screen_Shot_2017-05-09_at_12_17_39_PM.png
2 Augustus37 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C.-A.D. 14 AR denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, 2 B.C.-A.D. 12. From the Joseph Donzanti Collection.
Augustus. 27 B.C.-A.D. 14 AR denarius (18.40 mm, 3.91 g, 11 h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, 2 B.C.-A.D. 12. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT C L CAESARES, Caius and lucius caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on left a simpulum right and on right a lituus left. RIC 207; RSC 43; Lyon 82. aEF, area of minor flat strike.

From the Joseph Donzanti Collection. Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/17
2 commentsSosius
Augustus_Agrippa_Nemausus_2~0.jpg
2 Augustus and Agrippa37 viewsAUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA
AE As of Gaul, Nemausus, struck. ca. 10 BC - 10 AD

IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, in oak wreath / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm behind, wreath to left.

Sear 1730, Cohen 10, RPC 523/4
RI0006
Sosius
Augustus_Agrippa_2~0.jpg
2 Augustus and Agrippa AE As of Nemausus40 viewsAUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA
AE As of Gaul, Nemausus, struck. ca. 10 BC - 10 AD

IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, in oak wreath / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm behind, wreath to left.

Sear 1730, Cohen 10, RPC 523/4. gF
RI0005
Sosius
47614q00.jpg
3 Tiberius, Utica, Zeugitana, Ex John Quincy Adams Collection30 viewsBronze dupondius, RPC I 739, F, holed, 13.158g, 29.8mm, 90o, Zeugitana, Utica mint, 298 - 30 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG IMP VIII, bare head left; reverse C VIBIO MARSO PRCOS III C SALLVSTIVS IVSTVS II, Livia seated right, scepter in left, patera in extended right, M - M / I - V across fields; with John Quincy Adams Collection tag from the Stack's Sale; scarce
RI0001
Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale , 5-6 March 1971, lot 763.

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
Tiberius_Pontif_Maxim.jpg
3 Tiberius Denarius29 viewsTIBERIUS
AR Denarius (3.5 g)
Lugdunum mint, struck 18-35 AD

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS - Laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM; Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate chair legs

RIC 30; BMCRE 48; RSC 16a.
Cleaning scratches. Discussed and authenticated on FORVM ancient coins board
RI0051
Sosius
Drusus_As.jpg
3.5 Drusus21 viewsDRUSUS CAESAR
Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD.

DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.

Cohen 2, RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99 VG/aF
RI0034
Sosius
Caligula_As_3.jpg
4 Caligula As33 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA)
Æ As (29mm, 11.75 g, 5h) Rome mint. Struck AD 40-41.

C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left / VESTA, S-C across field, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter.

RIC I 54, Cohen 29. VF, green patina, some roughness.

Ex CNG
RI0015
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_53_46_AM.png
4 Caligula18 viewsGaius Caligula. A.D. 37-41. AE quadrans. Rome mint, struck A.D. 41. Rare. Unlisted in RIC 2nd Edition. From the RJM Collection.
Gaius Caligula. A.D. 37-41. AE quadrans (17.79 mm, 3.20 g, 7 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 41. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG , legend around large S - C; Pileus or "Liberty Cap" between / PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT, legend around large RCC. RIC I unlisted; RIC I (1st edition) 41; BMCRE 79-80; BN 126-7. VF, rough, brown surfaces. Rare. Unlisted in RIC 2nd Edition.

From the RJM Collection.

Rare last year of issue, when Gaius was consol for the fourth time

Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/2017
Sosius
clsud478.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.25 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army425 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
rjb_2017_07_11.jpg
377 viewsCaius "Caligula" 37-41 AD
AE as
Obv "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP"
Bare head left
Rev "VESTA SC"
Vesta seated left on ornamental throne holding patera and transverse sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 54
mauseus
bizan321.jpg
Alexius III AE Trachy S-201211 views
Alexius III AE Trachy S-2012 DOC 3

Beardless, nimbate bust of Christ, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll in l. hand. Pellet s in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV Full length figure of Emperor on l. and of St. Constantine nimbate, holding between then Globus crucgier. Emperor and Saint wear stemma,divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; both hold labarum headed scepter
Britanikus
Antiochus_IX.jpg
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C.24 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C. Ae 18. Weight 5.2g. Obv: Diademed head rt. Rev: Pallas Athena rt. holding shield and spear ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. BMC 93.23
Antiochus IX Eusebes, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname. He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria. He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes in 96 BC.
ddwau
As_de_Nimes.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC. 49 viewsIMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above. Cohen 7, RPC 523, RIC 155, sear5 1729.Antonivs Protti
dcl.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, 268-270 CE.20 viewsBronze Antoninianus, Minister 478
Obverse: DIVO CLAUVDIO, radiate head right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO, garlanded altar with flames above, no decoration on front. 16.7 mm., 1.8 g.
Note: Although a variation of this coin is in the RIC and Cohen, these sources generally refer to the type with a front divided into four sections (RIC 261). This type of garlanded altar, lit altar was not described and published until the discovery of the Minister Hoard, discovered after RIC was written.
NORMAN K
32264q00~0.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise48 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS23 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuña), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseños del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseño del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseño general debe representar tanto el diseño del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseño eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseño del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("À props du monnayage archaïque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseño del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuñación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_910_Tumanbay_II.jpg
Mamluks (Bahri). `Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din Ali) (778-783 A.H. = 1377-1381 A.D.)14 viewsBalog 509 Plate XX 509a-b; SNAT Hamah 632-634; Album 963

AE fals, Hamah mint, undated; 1.63 g., 18.50 mm. max.

Obv.: Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots. الملك المنصور (al-Malik al-Manusr) / tentatively ضرب طرابلس (duriba Tripoli per Balog but Hamah mint per SNAT)

Rev. Six-petaled flower, resembling a lotus, petals forming a counter-clockwise whorl.

Ali was the son of Sha'ban II and the great-grandson of Muhammad I. He was installed as sultan at age nine upon the death of his father in a revolt. He died four years later.

Attribution courtesy of Mervin.
Stkp
sb1964_clipped_18mm_165gjpg.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196416 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
18mm 1.65 gm
wileyc
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
Radiato_imitativo_britannico.jpg
Radiato imitativo britannico (270-273 AD)33 viewsAE, 2.45 gr, 18.56 mm, VF
Zecca non ufficiale britannica (o gallica), sul D/ verosimilmente Vittorino o Tetrico I
D/ legenda di fantasia, testa radiata a dx
R/ legenda di fantasia, divinità sacrifica su un altare appoggiata su uno scudo (o ruota). Compatibile con una FORTVNA REDUX con ruota e timone
Provenienza: ex Marc Breitsprecher collection, Grand Marais Minnesota Usa (da lui acquistata a Embankment station coin fair, London), via vAuctions 290 lot 462, 8 novembre 2012
paolo
00043x00.jpg
30 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.35 g, 12 h)
Helmeted gladiator standing right, holding clipeus and gladius; CVR to left
Helmeted gladiator standing right, holding clipeus and gladius; M to left
Rostovtsev 528, pl. IV, 38; München 97; BM 175, 1040-6, 1050; Milan 81-2

Rostovtsev interprets the legend as curator muneris, possibly an individual related to the managing of the games, though a curator muneris pecuniae, a magistrate in charge of civic revenues, is recorded in some areas.
Ardatirion
00002x00~6.jpg
21 viewsROME. P. Glitius Gallus
PB Tessera (20mm, 2.89 g, 12h)
P GLITI GALLI, bare head right
Rooster standing right, [holding rostral crown in beak and palm frond in claws]
Rostowzew 1238, pl. IV, 33; BM 932

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 55 (13 September 2000), lot 1201 (part of)

Though the exact identity of this individual is unknown, he is undoubtedly a member of the gens Glitia. It is tempting to associate him with the P. Glitius L.f. Gallus who was implicated in the Pisonian Conspiracy against the emperor Nero and ultimately exiled to the island of Andros, or his son, P. Glitius P.f. Gallus.
Ardatirion
tessera1.JPG
53 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 3.06 g, 12 h)
Isis standing left, holding sistrum and situla
IVE/NES
Rostovtsev -


The iuvenes were Roman educational organizations roughly analagous to modern American colleges. Mohler1 argues that, while their athletic program undoubtedly focused on parade and various other activities that relate to war, the group focused equally on education and athletics, rather than as a pseudo-military training program. Inscriptions survive in some theaters and arenas that note reserved seats for iuvenes, leading some to identify these pieces as entrance tickets. I feel they were more likely distributed at the various parades and processions for which the organizations were famous.

The iuvenes tokens are related to those of the sodales, composed of individuals not a part of the organization (younger or older men and women) who still actively supported it.

1. Mohler, S. L. (1937). The Iuvenes and Roman Education. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Society, 68, 442–479.
Ardatirion
00054x00.jpg
36 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.90 g, 6h)
Jupiter standing facing, holding thunderbolt and scepter; to left, eagle standing left
SOD
Rostovtsev -

The sodales were composed of individuals either too young or too old to be active members of the iuvenes.
Ardatirion
00055x00~0.jpg
47 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 50 Centimes (25.5mm, 4.26 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352

On 1 June 1835, local officials arrested engraver Joseph Gardner of Belleville on charges of counterfeiting. When searching his house, officials discovered dies for Spanish 8 reales in various states of completion, coining implements, a bag of gold dust, and several bags of "spurious Haytien coppers." Yet Gardner was not the only individual striking illicit Haitian coins. James Bishop of neighboring Bloomfield, New Jersey had been arrested several months before, and a third person was responsible for the issue brought to Haiti by Jeremiah Hamilton.

Today, two distinct issues of counterfeits can be identified: a group of 25 and 50 Centimes, clearly related in fabric, and two different dates of 100 Centimes. The smaller denominations are most often found lacking a silver plating, while the plating year 26 100 Centimes is fine enough to deceive the likes of NGC and Heritage. Additionally, there are a handful year 27 100 centimes overstruck on US large cents. While I have not yet found a regular strike from these dies, they are the most likely candidate for Belleville's production.
Ardatirion
DSC_2708.jpg
35 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS, Civil War. Wooster, Ohio. James B. Childs
CU Token (19mm, 3.06 g, 6 h)
Thistle; UNITED WE STAND above, DIVIDED WE FALL below
JAMES B. CHILDS/ CLOTHING/ HATS, CAPS/ &/ TRUNKS/ WOOSTER OHIO
Rulau 975D-1a
Ardatirion
valentinien1-resitvtor-reip-cyzique.JPG
RIC.10a1(var) Valentinian I (AE4, Restitvtor Reip)17 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
Quarter maiorina (?) AE4 : Restitvtor Reip (364-365, Cyzicus mint)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 1.98 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ RESTITV-TOR REIP / SMK• in exergue; emperor standing facing left, holding l. standard and r. Victory on a globe

Divisonal emission ?
Droger
charles2-denier-melle3.JPG
D.621 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1a, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1a, 840-864)

Silver, 1.70 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ META / • / LLVM

Class 1 of Charles the Bald's coinage is made of totally different types of coins, which may reflect the state of the kingdom after 3 years of civil war and the division of the Empire.

Class 1a: mint in the field, with a linear legend
Class 1b: bust
Class 1c: city gate
Class 1d: KRLS monogram
Class 1e: temple

Coupland suggests that this particular scarce type (with META/LLVM on the reverse) had been minted from June 848, just after Charles the Bald finally defeated his nephew Pippin II for Aquitaine's control. The aim of minting a special type like this was to show a clear difference with the previsous coinage of Pippin II. A little later, Charles the Blad went on with the typical coinage of Melle (monogram ; circular mint name).
1 commentsDroger
charles2-denier-gdr-dijon.JPG
D.399 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 2, Dijon)21 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
GDR denier (Dijon, class 2, 864-875)

Silver, 0.91 g, 19.5 mm diameter, die axis 2h

O/ +C[RATIA] D-I REX; carolingian monogram
R/ +DIVIONI C[AST]RE; cross pattée

This is another less common example of Class 2 (GDR type).
Droger
louis3-denier-tours.JPG
D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)31 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
auguste-agrippa-as-nimes.JPG
RIC.158 Augustus (AE, Nimes dupondius)9 viewsAugusutus, emperor (-27/14)
AE: Nimes dupondius (-8/-3, Nimes mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 12.74 g, die axis: 1h

A/ IMP / DIVI F above and below heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right), back to back, that of Agrippa wearing rostral crown and that of Augustus is oak-wreathed
R/ COL / ENM to left and right of a chained crocodile and a palm tree
1 commentsDroger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa35 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
tiberius_denarius_res_trib.jpg
"Tribute Penny"--TIBERIUS95 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
normal_tiberius_denarius_res_trib~0.jpg
(00040a) LIVIA (with Tiberius)34 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
pertinax_denarius.jpg
(0193) PERTINAX22 views193 AD
AR Denarius
16.9 mm max.; 3.10 g
O: IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right;
R: OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops (plenty) seated left on throne with ornamented back, two stalks of grain in right hand, leaning back on left hand resting on the edge of the seat behind; rare
Rome mint; RIC IV 8a (R2); RSC III 33; BMCRE V p. 4, 19; Hunter III 6; SRCV II 6045
(ex Forum)
laney
col_nem_resxy.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS84 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 26 mm, 12.91 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
1 commentslaney
augustus_dena.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS74 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 2 BC - 4 AD
AR DENARIUS 3.81 g
O: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Laureate head of Augustus, right
R: C L CAESARES, AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT Togate figures of Gaius and Lucius standing facing, holding spear and shield between them. Lituus on left, facing right; and simpulum on right, facing left
Lugdunum, RIC (I) 210.
(this is the scarcer mirror-image version of this reverse type, and shows the lituus on the left; and Gaius, with his shield in front of Lucius’ shield and the ladle by his head on the right)

3 commentslaney
col_nem_3.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS24 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 28 mm max, 11.87 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
col_nem_aug_agr_res.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS38 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 27 mm, 12.5 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
TIBERIUS_RED.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS36 viewsstruck 35-36 AD
AE As 26.46 mm 9.5 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, Laur head left
R: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII S C, Winged Caduceus
RIC 44, Sear 1771
laney
tiberius.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS25 views14 - 37 AD
(struck 22-23 AD)
AE 28 mm 8.85 g
O: __AES DIVI AVG F AVG__
Bare head left
R: __PONTIF MAXIM TRIB__, legend surrounding large SC
ROME RIC 44
laney
tiberius_denarius_res_c.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS63 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
1 commentslaney
tiberius_acci_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS21 views14 - 37 AD
AE 27 mm 7.04 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head left
R: Aquilae between 2 standards, ACCI below
ACCI, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_italica_res_1.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE DUPONDIUS 29 mm 13.22. g
O: [IMP TI CAE]SAR AVGVSTVS PON MA[X], Bust right
R: PERM DIVI AVG [MVNI]C [ITALIC] around altar inscrbed in 3 lines [P]ROVIDE[N]TIAE [A]VGVSTI
ITALICA, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_italica_2_res.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS22 views14 - 37 AD
AE DUPONDIUS 29 mm 12.13 g
O: [IM]P TI CAESAR AVGVST[VS PO[N MAX], Bust right
R: PERM DIVI AVG []NIC ITALIC around altar inscribed in 3 lines [P]ROVIDE/NTIAE /AVGVSTI
ITALICA, SPAIN
laney
tiberius_cornu_cad_res2.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS31 views14 - 37 AD
Struck 19 - 20 AD
AE 29.5 mm 14.66 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
R: PON MAXIM COS III IMP VII TR POT XXII, crossed cornuacopiae over a winged caduceus
RPC 3869, RIC 90
Syria, Commagene
laney
CALIG_QUAD_RES.jpg
(04) CALIGULA20 views37 - 41 AD

AE QUADRANS 18mm 2.21 g
(STRUCK 39 - 40 AD)

OBV: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG
AROUND PILEIUS BETWEEN S - C
REV: PON M TR P III PP COS [TER T]
AROUND LARGE RCC

RIC 45
laney
justinian_half_follis_8.jpg
(0527)JUSTINIAN I26 views527 - 565 AD
AE Half Follis 23.5 mm 7.16 g
O: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: Long cross dividing N/I to left OF LARGE K, B TO RIGHT
SEAR SB 202, Nicomedia
laney
constans_ii_res.jpg
(0641) CONSTANS II41 views641-668 AD
AE Half Follis 18 mm; 4.10 g
O: Beardedbbust facing; wearing consular robes and crown with trefoil ornament, holding mappa and globus cruciger
R: Large cross dividing C-T and X-X; above cross, star between two pellets
CARTHAGE mint
laney
DOMITIAN_MINERVA_AE_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN32 views81 - 96 AD
AE As 26 mm 9.62 g
O: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII Laureate head right
R: (anepigraphic)Minerva advancing right holding shield and brandishing spear S-C
Cohen 459
laney
domitian_denar_blk_copy.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN44 views81 - 96 AD
Struck as Caesar under Titus 80 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm 2.31 g
O: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII Laureate head right
R: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right with javelin and shield
Rome RCV 2674
laney
domitian_denar_minerva_caesar.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN as Caesar14 views81 - 96 AD
Struck as Caesar under Titus 80 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm 2.31 g
O: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII Laureate head right
R: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right with javelin and shield
Rome RCV 2674
laney
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.69 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Agrippa_2_RCV_1731.jpg
(Augustus &) Agrippa AE 'half dupondius,' A.D. 10-14 RIC 159-160, RCV 1731, Cohen 8, RPC 525 39 viewsIMP DIVI F P-P, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate / COL NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right. Gaul, Nemausus.
Maximum Diameter: 25.2 mm
Weight: 7.01 g

Cut in half for fractional change.
1 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
Tiberius.jpg
*SOLD*27 viewsTiberius AE 29

Attribution: RPC 738, Zeugitana, Utica
Date: AD 28-29
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG IMP VIII, bare head l.
Reverse: C VIBIO MARSO PR COS II SEX TADIVS FAVSTVS IIV, veiled figure of Livia seated r. holding scepter & patera M-M and I-V across fields
Size: 29.3 mm
Weight: 12.38 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
0002.jpg
0002 - Denarius Augustus 2BC-14AC35 viewsObv/CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Augustus laureate head r.
Rev/AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES in exergue. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, on l. and r., standing front, each togate and resting hand on shield; behind each shield, a spear; above, on l., a simpulum r., and on r., lituus l.

Ag, 18.5mm, 3.81g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/207 [C] - RCV 1597 - BMCRE 519 - RSC 43 - Calicó 855
ex-van Alsenoy
dafnis
367Hadrian_RIC14.jpg
0002 Mule Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Concordia73 viewsReference.
RIC-; C. -;

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front

Rev. DIVI NER NEP PM TRP COS CONCORD in exergue.
Concordia seated left, patera in right hand, resting left elbow on statue of Spes, cornucopiae under chair

3.19 gr
20 mm
6h

Note.
Obv. like RIC 9c or BMC 17
Rev. like RIC 14 or BMC 33
4 commentsokidoki
179Hadrian__RIC2b.jpg
0003 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis88 viewsReference
Strack 1; RIC III 3; C. 1009; RIC II, 2b

Bust B1 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
Trajan standing, delivering globe to Hadrian standing, left facing him; both are laureate and togate and hold rolls in their left hands.

2.89 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
479_Hadrian_RIC2.jpg
0004 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis99 viewsReference.
Strack 1; RIC III 4; C. 1009b; RIC II, 2

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC.
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis, holding globe between them, and each holding a volumen.

3.12 gr
18 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
1378Hadrian_RIC0003.jpg
0005 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis12 viewsReference
Strack 1; RIC III 5; C. 1009; RIC II, 2

Bust B1 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P
Trajan standing, delivering globe to Hadrian standing, left facing him; both are laureate and togate.

2.97 gr
18 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
RI_001h_img.jpg
001 - Augustus and Agrippa Dupondius33 viewsObv:– Heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, P-P, [IMP] DIVI [F].
Rev:– [COL] NEM, Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
RI_001c_img.jpg
001 - Augustus Denarius - RIC 171a 66 viewsObv:– AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Bare head right
Rev:– IMP X either side of Apollo Citharoedus standing left with lyre, ACT in exe,
Minted in Lugdunum. 15 - 13 B.C.
Reference:– BMC 461. RIC I Augustus 171a. RSC 144.

Weight 3.76g. 18.32mm.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_001d_img.jpg
001 - Augustus Denarius - RIC 17448 viewsObv:– AVGVSTVS DIVI F. Augustus, bare head, right
Rev:– IMP. XI below capricorn right, holding globe
Minted in Lugdunum. 12 B.C.
Reference:– BMC 465. RIC I Augustus 174.

Weight 3.68g. 19.70mm.
maridvnvm
RI_001b_img.jpg
001 - Augustus denarius - RIC 20750 viewsObv:– CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Laureate head right
Rev:– C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on left a simpulum right and on r. a lituus left
Minted in Lugdunum. B.C. 2 to A.D. 4.
Ref:– BMC 533. RIC I Augustus 207

Ex-Forvm
2 commentsMartin Griffiths
liviadupondius.JPG
001. Livia as Salus Dupondius146 viewsLivia, wife of Augustus. AE Dupondius. Rome mint, 22-23AD.
Obv. Draped bust of Livia as Salus, hair in knot behind head SALVS AVGVSTA.
Rev. Large SC, legend around TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG TR POT XXIIII.
BMC 82, RCV 1740. RCV F: £175. VF £450. gVF.
1 commentsLordBest
IMG_8025.JPG
001. Octavian "Augustus" (41 B.C. - 14 A.D.)39 viewsAv.: IMP CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS IMP XX
Rv.: TRIBVN POT XXXIII PONT MAXIM

AE As Ø27 / 9.3g
RIC 471 Rome, Cohen 226
Juancho
42Hadrian__RIC4c.jpg
0015 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Concordia41 viewsReference
Strack 3; RIC III, 15; C.250; RIC II, 4

Bust B1 with Balteus strap

Obv: IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC.
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest.

Rev: PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P in exergue CONCORD.
Concordia seated left, patera in right hand, resting left elbow on statue of Spes standing on cippus, cornucopiae under chair.

3.0 gr.
18 mm
12h
okidoki
99Hadrian__RIC6_en_wat_een_lange_titel,_die_beslaat_voor-_en_keerzijde.jpg
0019 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Justitia67 viewsReference.
Strack 4; C 875; RIC III, 19; RIC II, 6

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P, in ex IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left, holding patera & sceptre.

3.18 gr
19 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
Octavius_AR-Den__IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·III·VIR·_ITER·R·P·C__COS·ITER_·ET·TER·DESIG_DIVO·IVL_Crawford_540·2_Rare_Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_3,89g-s.jpg
002 a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Octavianus, Crawford 540-2, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple, DIVO·IVL, Rare!!!,516 views002 a Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Octavianus, Crawford 540-2, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple, DIVO·IVL, Rare!!!,
Octavianus. Denarius, mint moving with Octavian 36 B.C.,
avers:- IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·III·VIR· ITER·R·P·C Head of Octavian r., slightly bearded.
revers:- COS·ITER·ET·TER·DESIG Tetrastyle temple within which veiled figure standing facing and holding lituus ; on architrave, DIVO·IVL and within pediment, star.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,89g, axis:- 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 36 B.C., ref: Crawford 540-2, Sydenham-1338,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
Augustus_AR-Den_CAESAR-AVGVSTVS-DIVI-F-PATER-PATRIAE_AVGVSTI-F-COS-DESIG-PRINC-IVVENT-C-L-CAESARES_RIC-207_C-43_Lugdunum_2BC-4AD_Q-001_axis-7h_xxmm_x,xxxg-s.jpg
002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 207, Lugdunum, AR-Denarius, AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES, Gaius and Lucius standing front,344 views002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC I 207, Lugdunum, AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT C L CAESARES, Gaius and Lucius standing front,
avers:-CAESAR-AVGVSTVS-DIVI-F-PATER-PATRIAE, Laureate head right.
revers:- AVGVSTI-F-COS-DESIG-PRINC-IVVENT-C-L-CAESARES, Gaius and Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, and in field above, a lituus right and simpulum left (in "b9"-like formation).
exerg: -/-//C L CAESARES, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 2 B.C.-4 A.D., ref: RIC-207, C-43,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
005.jpg
002 AUGUSTUS AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT18 viewsEMPEROR: Augustus
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right
REVERSE: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left (in "b9"-like formation)
DATE: 2 BC - ca 13 AD
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 3.63 g
RIC: I.207 (C)
Barnaba6
coin282.JPG
002. Augustus (31 BC- 14 AD)48 viewsAugustus

He suffered but two severe and ignominious defeats, those of Lollius [15 B.C.] and Varus [9 A.D.], both of which were in Germany. Of these the former was more humiliating than serious, but the latter was almost fatal, since three legions were cut to pieces with their general, his lieutenants, and all the auxiliaries. In fact, they say that he was so greatly affected that for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying: "Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!" And he observed the day of the disaster each year as one of sorrow and mourning.

Lyons mint, 2 BC - ca 13 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). BMC 533, RSC 43

This is one of my first 12 caesar coins. I got this from an all text list from M&R coins.
ecoli
0021.jpg
0021 - Denarius Augustus 15-13 BC45 viewsObv/AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Augustus head, bare, r.
Rev/IMP X, Apollo Citharoedus in long drapery, standing l., r. holding plectrum, l. lyre, ACT in ex.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.46g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/171a [C] - RCV 1611 - BMCRE 416 - BMCRR Gaul 175 - RSC 144 - Calicó 828
ex-Meister & Sonntag, auction S2, lot 207
2 commentsdafnis
225Hadrian__RIC7.jpg
0021 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Pax standing68 viewsReference.
Strack 6; RIC III, 21; BMC 13; RSC 1012a; Sear -; RIC II, 7

Bust A4

Obv: IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC.
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev: PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P / PAX. in Ex.
Pax standing left with branch and cornucopia.

3.38 gr
19 mm
11h
okidoki
0022.jpg
0022 - Denarius Domitian 80 AC115 viewsObv/CAESAR DIVI F DOMOTIANVS COS VIII, Domitian laureate head r.
Rev/PRINCEPTS (IVV)ENTVTIS, goat standing l. in laurel-wreath.

Ag, 19.1mm, 3.30g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IIa/267 [C] - RCV 2675 - BMCRE 88 - RSC 390
ex-Meister & Sonntag, auction S2, lot 219
6 commentsdafnis
0025.jpg
0025 - Denarius Tiberius 14-37 AC37 viewsObv/TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Tiberius laureate head r.
Rev/PONTIF MAXIM, female figure (Livia or Pax) seated r., r. holding long vertical sceptre, l. branch, on chair with plain legs above double line.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.70g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/26 [C] - RCV 1763 - BMCRE 34 - CBN 16 - RSC 16
ex-Áureo, auction 25 apr 2007, lot 1019
1 commentsdafnis
0026.jpg
0026 - Denarius Hadrian 117 AC15 viewsObv/IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, Hadrian laureate head r., with drapery on l. shoulder.
Rev/PARTH F DIVI NER NEP PM TR P COS, PIETAS on field, Pietas standing l. raising r. hand.

Ag, 20.05mm, 3.32g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/13a [C] - RSC 1023 - BMCRE 31
ex-Áureo, auction 25 apr 2007, lot 1029
dafnis
SPAIN__Caesaraugusta__Augustus_(27_BC-14_AD)__AE-(26)As__Mn__Kaninius_Iter_and_L__Titius,_duoviri__RPC_I_322,_SNG_Cop_544,_Q-001,_6h,_26-27,mm,_10,85g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, Tarraconensis, RPC I 0322, AE-26, Magistrate: Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with the yoke of two oxen, #174 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Caesaraugusta, Tarraconensis, RPC I 0322, AE-26, Magistrate: Mn. Kaninius Iter and L. Titius, duoviri, CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with the yoke of two oxen, #1
avers: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Laureate head right; simpulum to left, lituus to right.
reverse: CAESAR AVG MN KANINIO ITER L TITIO / II VIR, Priest plowing right with yoke of two oxen.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0-27,0 mm, weight: 10,85g, axis:6h,
mint: City: Caesaraugusta, Region: Hispania, Province: Tarraconensis,
Magistrate: L Titius (duovir); Mn Kaninius Iter (duovir),
date: B.C.,
ref: RPC I 0322, SNG Cop 544, Vives 148–1, 2, Hill 14–5, Beltrán 9, NAH 979,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Augustus,_Bilbilis,_Spain,_AE-As,_AVGVSTVS_DIVI_F_PATER_PATRIAE,_MVN_AVGVSTA_BILBILIS_M_SEMP_TIBERI_I_LICI_VARO,_II_VIR,_RPC_392,_2BC,_Q-001,_6h,_27-27,5mm,_12,19ga-s~0.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Tarraconensis, Bilbilis, RPC 0392, AE-27, MVN AVGVSTA BILBILIS M SEMP TIBERI I LICI VARO around II VIR in wreath, #168 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), Spain, Tarraconensis, Bilbilis, RPC 0392, AE-27, MVN AVGVSTA BILBILIS M SEMP TIBERI I LICI VARO around II VIR in wreath, #1
Magistrate: L Lici Varus (duovir); M Semp Tiberi (duovir).
avers: AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Laureate head right.
reverse: MVN AVGVSTA BILBILIS M SEMP TIBERI L LICI VARO (MVN, and AV, MP, and VA are legate) around II VIR in a wreath.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0-27,5 mm, weight: 12,19g, axis:6h,
mint: City: Bilbilis Region: Hispania Province: Tarraconensis date: 2 B.C.,
ref: RPC I (online) 0392, Vives 139–1, GMI 545, NAH 964,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian.jpg
003 - Domitian (as Caesar under Titus 79-81 AD), Dupondius - RIC 165a52 viewsObv: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureated head right.
Rev: CERES AVGVST S - C, Ceres standing left, holding corn-ears and long torch.
Minted in Rome 80-81 AD.
pierre_p77
Byzag.jpg
003 - John I Tzimisces (969-976 AD), Millaresion - Sear 179241 viewsObv: +IhSyS XRISTyS NICA*, Cross crosslet on globus above two steps. at centre, circular medallion containing facing bust of John with short beard, wearing crown and loros and dividing the inscription I/W - A/N. Triple border ornamented with eight equally spaced glbules.
Rev: IWANN / EN XW AVTO / CRAT´EVESb´/ bASILEVS / RWMAIW´in five lines, -:- above and beneath, triple bordet as on obv.
1 commentspierre_p77
3.jpg
003 Livia. AE dupondus 14gm44 viewsnew RIC I 47 var. with rev. PM
obv: SALVS AVGVSTA bust r.
rev: .TI.CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG P.M.TR.POT.XXIIII. large SC in middle
"wife of Augustus & mother of Tiberius"
2 commentshill132
004.jpg
003 TIBERIUS 14 viewsEMPEROR:Tiberius
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
REVERSE: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, holding long sceptre & olive branch, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below
DATE: Ad 14-37
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 3.59 g
RIC: I.30 (C)
Barnaba6
coin222.JPG
003. Tiberius (14 AD - 37 AD)68 viewsTiberius.

Hard and secretive by nature and embittered by the neglect with which his step- father allowed him to be treated, he did not arouse personal enthusiasm, and until recently was described by historians as a bloody tyrant. It is only during the last sixty years that he has been more fairly judged, and at present the opinion begins to prevail that he was a genuine Roman, a ruler faithful to his duties, just, wise, and self-contained. The strong opposition which grew up against him was due to his taciturn and domineering disposition, and to the influence of the prefect of the guard, Ælius Sejanus, who alone possessed his confidence.

Lugdunum mint. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right, holding olive branch & long scepter RSC 16a. Ex Calgary
ecoli
0032~0.jpg
0032 - Denarius Marcia 134 BC32 viewsObv/Helmeted head of Roma r., behind modius, before crossed X.
Rev/Victory in biga r., holding reins in l. and whip in r. hand; below M MAR C, below RO MA divided by two grain ears.

Ag, 19.7mm, 3.79g
Moneyer: M.Marcius Mn.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 245/1 [dies o/r: 120/150] - BMCRR 1008 - Syd. 500.
ex-Valencia Coin Market 20 may 2007
dafnis
622Hadrian_RIC535b.JPG
0035 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 117 AD Concordia seated80 viewsReference.
RIC cf535b; BMC cf1104; Strack cf502; Banti 145 ( 1 example)

Bust A4 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER,
Laureate bare bust with drapery, and balteus

Rev DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS P P, CONCORDIA and S C in field
Concordia seated left on throne, holding out patera and resting on a figure of Spes; cornucopia under throne

24.78 gr
35 mm
6h


When he became emperor following the death of Trajan in 117 AD, questions immediately arose regarding the validity of Hadrian's succesion. Although it is clear from Hadrian's early career and marriage to Sabina (Trajan's grand-niece) that the emperor brought his young kinsman within the imperial court, Trajan, unlike Nerva before, made no move to adopt Hadrian formally, instead possibly preferring others. This fact prompted Hadrian, in the early days of his reign to emphasize his legitimacy to the succession. Hadrian declared Trajan divus and ordered his ashes installed in the Column of his newly complete Forum. Trajan's name and titles were incorporated into the new imperial nomenclature, a privilege reserved solely for legitimate heirs. At the same time, coins were struck to associate the new reign with the previous administration and declare a peaceful transferral of power. The legend DAC PARTHICO (in the dedicatory dative), clearly refers to Trajan, while the Concordia reverse type (to date, uncommon with the addition of Spes), emphasized by the inclusion of CONCORDIA in the exergue, demonstrated Hadrian's potential willingness for the time to continue Trajan's policies, thereby insuring continued political harmony, something which disintegrated as Hadrian's reign progressed.
1 commentsokidoki
3363LG.jpg
003a. Drusus136 viewsDrusus

Tiberius' son, Drusus Caesar, d. 23, called Drusus Junior, served in the provinces Pannonia ( 15) and in Illyricum ( 17? 20). In 22 he was made tribune. Meanwhile, Sejanus, Tiberius' minister, had become jealous of Drusus' power and tried to turn Tiberius against him. Drusus may have been poisoned by Sejanus or by his wife under Sejanus' influence.

As. Sear 2594, restitution issue by Titus. 10.0 g, 26x27 mm. Glossy dark green patina with slight roughness. OBV.: Drusus left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N. REV.: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around SC.
1 commentsecoli73
996Hadrian_Strack3_eastern.jpg
004 Hadrian Denarius 117 AD Trajan and Hadrian standing vis-à-vis eastern mint34 viewsReference.
Strack *3; Paris 4616

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front.

Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P ADOPTIO in exergue
Trajan holding with both hands, Hadrian's right hand; left hand on hip

2.73 gr
18 mm
6h

Note.
This early series celebrates the adoption of Hadrian by Trajan, therefore legitimizing Hadrian's succession to the people.
on Rome Mint Trajan or both would hold a volumen/rolls
2 commentsokidoki
4.jpg
004 Tiberius. AR denarius 3.7gm65 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS laur. head r.
rev: PONTIF MAXIM female fig. seated r. holding long vertical scepter.
l. branches, chair legs are ornamental with line below
4 commentshill132
Tiberius_AR-Den_TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVSTVS_PONTIF-MAXIM_RIC-29_C-15_Lugdunum_14-37-AD_Q-007_axis-7h_xxmm_x,xxxg-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 029, Lugdunum, AR-denarius, PONTIF MAXIM ,Livia, as Pax, seated right,180 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 029, Lugdunum, AR-denarius, PONTIF MAXIM ,Livia, as Pax, seated right,
avers:- TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right.
revers:- PONTIF-MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right.
exerg: -, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 14-37 A.D., ref: RIC-29, C-15,
Q-001
quadrans
Tiberius(14-37AD)_AE-Ast_TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVST-IMP-VIII_PONTIF-MAXIM-TRIBVN-POTEST-XXIIII_S-C_RIC-44_BMC-91_C-25_Rome-21-22-AD_Q-001_6h_26mm_9,45ga-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 044, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII, Around large S•C,112 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 044, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII, Around large S•C,
avers:-TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVST-IMP-VIII, Bare head of Tiberius left.
revers:-PONTIF-MAXIM-TRIBVN-POTEST-XXIIII, Around large S•C.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 26mm, weight: 9,45 g, axes: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: 21-22 A.D., ref: RIC I 44, BMC-91, C-25,
Q-001
quadrans
Tiberius(14-37AD)_AE-Sest__CIVITATIBVS_ASIAE_RESTITVTIS_TI_CAESAR_DIVI_AVG_F_AVGVST_P_M_TR_POT_XXIIII_S-C_RIC-48_BMC-70_C-3_Rome-22-23-AD_Q-001_6h_36-37mm_24,48ga-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 048, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, Rare!!!107 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 048, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, Rare!!!
avers:- CIVITATIBVS-ASIAE-RESTITVTIS, Tiberius laureate, seated left, foot on stool, holding patera and sceptre, border of dots.
revers:- TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXIIII, around S•C, border of dots.
exerg:S/C//-- , diameter: 36-37mm, weight: 24,48 g, axes: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: circa 22-23 A.D., ref: RIC I 48, BMC-70, C-3, Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Tiberius_AE-As_GVSTVS_PONTIF-MAXIM_RIC-58_C-__14-37-AD_Q-007_axis-0h_24-25mm_1015g-s.jpg
005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 058, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, Rare!!182 views005 Tiberius (14-37 A.D.), RIC I 058, Rome, AE-As, PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, Rare!!
avers:-TI-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-F-AVGVST-IMP-VIII, Laureate head of Tiberius left.
revers:-PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, Rudder standing vertically before large banded globe, small globe at base of rudder to left, S—C at edge of left & right fields, dotted border.
exerg:S/C//--, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 10,14 g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 35-36 A.D., ref: RIC I 58,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
coin2.jpg
005. Claudius 26 viewsClaudius (A.D. 41-54),,

Copper As,

bare head of Claudius left,
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP,
rev., Minerva advancing right brandishing spear and holding shield,
dividing S C (RCV 1861; RIC 100),
27mm, 11.9g

Check
ecoli
0052~0.jpg
0052 - Denarius Augustus 15-13 BC16 viewsObv/AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Augustus bare head r.
Rev/Bull butting r., IMP X in ex.

Ag, 18.2mm, 3.31g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/167a [C] - RCV 1610 - BMCRE 451
ex-Valencia Coin Fair, 29 feb 2007
dafnis
424Hadrian_RIC9.jpg
0053 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Concordia59 viewsReference.
Strack 13; RIC III, 53; C. 248; RIC II, 9

Bust A4 Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bare bust with drapery, and balteus

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS CONCORD in Ex.
Concordia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in right hand and resting left on figure of Spes on low base; cornucopiae under throne.

3.32 gr
20 mm
12h
okidoki
1370Hadrian_RIC53_A4.jpg
0053 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Concordia17 viewsReference.
Strack 13; RIC III, 53; C. 248; RIC II, 9

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS CONCORD in Ex.
Concordia, draped, seated left on throne, holding patera in right hand and resting left on figure of Spes on low base; cornucopiae under throne.

3.27 gr
18 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1311Hadrian_RIC10.jpg
0057 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Fortuna35 viewsReference
Strack 14; RIC III, 57; C. 749; BMC 20; RIC II 10

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS
Fortuna, veiled, enthroned left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left, FORT RED in exergue.

4.02 gr
19 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
165Hadrian__RIC10.jpg
0058 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Fortuna59 viewsReference
Strack 14; RIC III, 58; C. 749a; BMC 20; RIC II, 10

Bust B1 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest.

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS
Fortuna, veiled, enthroned left, rudder in right hand, cornucopiae in left, FORT RED in exergue.

2.48 gr
19 mm
12h

Note.
"Imp(eratori) Caes(ari) Traian(o) Hadriano Aug(usto) Divi Tra(iani) / Parth(ici) f(ilio) Divi Ner(vae) nep(oti) p(ontifici) m(aximo) tr(ibunicia) p(otestate) co(n)s(uli) Fort(unae) red(uci)"
okidoki
coin190.JPG
005c. Germanicus48 viewsGermanicus

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16.

Germanicus died in Alexandria, Egypt. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius.

AS, struck under Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC. Cohen 1.

Check
ecoli
coin313.JPG
005c. Germanicus24 viewsGermanicus AS / SC

Attribution: RIC(Claudius) 106

Date: 19 AD
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N Bare head right
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANI IMP P P around large SC
Size: 28.73 mm
Weight: 11.6 grams
Description: A decent and scarcer bronze

ecoli
80Hadrian__RIC11.jpg
0060 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD. Justitia51 viewsReference.
Strack 15; RIC III, 60; RIC II, 11a

Bust A4 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bare bust with drapery, and balteus

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP PM TR P COS in excerque IVSTITIA
Justitia seated left holding patera en sceptre

2.66 gr
20 mm
6h
okidoki
493_Hadrian_RIC12.jpg
0064 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Pax standing27 viewsReference.
Strack 16; RIC III, 64; C 1011 var. BMC 27; RIC II, 12

Bust A4 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bare bust with drapery, and balteus

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP PM TR P COS in Ex. PAX
Pax standing left, holding branch in right hand and cornucopiae in left

2.66 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
129Hadrian__RIC13.jpg
0067 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Pietas59 viewsReference.
Strack 17; RIC III, 67; RIC II, 13

Bust A4 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate bare bust with drapery, and balteus

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS PIE | TAS across fields
Pietas, veiled, standing facing, head left, right hand raised.

3.04 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
986Hadrian_RIC8a.jpg
0067 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Pietas standing49 viewsReference.
RIC III, 67; BMCRE 15; C 1024; Strack 17; RIC II, 8a

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC
Laureate bare bust with drapery


Rev. PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG F P M TR P COS P P PIETAS
Pietas, veiled, standing left, raising her right hand

3.13 gr
19 mm
6h
4 commentsokidoki
85Hadrian__RIC13.jpg
0068 Hadrian Denarius Roma 117 AD Pietas49 viewsReference.
Strack 17; RIC III, 68; C 1023; RIC II 13

Bust B1 with Balteus strap

Obv. IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, balteus strap over shoulder and across chest

Rev. PARTH F DIVI NER NEP PM TR P COS/ PIE-TAS across field.
Pietas, veiled, standing facing, head left, right hand raised.

3.25 gr
20 mm
6h
okidoki
8.jpg
008 Drusus. AE as 11.4gm34 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTESTITER/SC in center
"son of tiberus and Vispania"
1 commentshill132
0086.jpg
0086 - Denarius Tiberius 15-6 AC50 viewsObv/TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, Tiberius laureate head, r.
Rev/TR POT XVII, Tiberius, laureate and cloacked, standing in slow quadriga, holding laurel branch and eagle-tipped sceptre; the horses' heads all turned r.; IMP VII in ex.

Ag, 18.3mm, 3.70g
Mint: Lugdunum
RIC I/4 [R2] - BMCRE 8
ex-Ingemar Wallin Mynthandel
3 commentsdafnis
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_S-dot-C_RIC-50_BMC-74_C-4_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_30mm_11,12g-s.jpg
009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,610 views009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N, Bare head of left.
revers:- C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 11,12g, axis:- h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC-50 (Caligula), BMC-74 (Caligula), C-4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMP_P_P_S-dot-C_RIC_106(Claudius)_Cohen_9,_BMC_241_Rome-41-43-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #188 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #1
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-001
quadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMPPP_S_C_RIC_106(Cl)_C_9,_Rome-41-3AD_Q-001_6h_30,5mm_11,03ga-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2147 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 29,5-30,5mm, weight: 11,03g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
Augustus_RIC_167aBlack.jpg
01 Augustus RIC 167a65 viewsAugustus 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 15 - 13 B.C. (3,71 gr) Obv: AVGVSTVS DIVI F, Bare head right. Rev: in ex. IMP X, Bull butting right.
RIC 167a, RSC 137, Sear 1610.

Ex: Poinsignon Numismatique

This coin has great beauty in its simplicity and it's also a great example of propaganda. Divi F (filius) means that Octavianus is not only Augustus but also the son of a god.
2 commentsPaddy
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)92 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_207_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)39 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio 2.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 103 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_211_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 29 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
Denarius_Augusto_RIC_180.jpg
01- 04 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 101 viewsAR denario 3,27 gr.

Esta acuñación conmemora la famosa Victoria de Augusto sobre Marco Antonio y Cleopatra en la batalla de Actium, que indirectamente termina con la trágica muerte de estos dos últimos.

Anv: AVGVSTVS DIVI F - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: IMP / XII - ACT en exergo - Apolo Citharoedus de Actium, de pié de frente viendo a izq., vistiendo larga vestimenta y portando Plectrum/Plectro (Pequeña púa hecha de diferentes materiales que se usa para tocar instrumentos de cuerda, como un reemplazo o ayuda de los dedos) en mano der. y Lira en izq.

Acuñada: Entre el 11 y 10 A.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Lyon
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I 180; Lyon 37; RSC 165; BMCRE 478-9 = BMCRR Gaul 194-5; BN 1418-9.
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_180_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 04 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 20 viewsAR denario 18 mm 3,27 gr.

Esta acuñación conmemora la famosa Victoria de Augusto sobre Marco Antonio y Cleopatra en la batalla de Actium, que indirectamente termina con la trágica muerte de estos dos últimos.

Anv: AVGVSTVS DIVI F - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: IMP / XII - ACT en exergo - Apolo Citharoedus de Actium, de pié de frente viendo a izq., vistiendo larga vestimenta y portando Plectrum/Plectro (Pequeña púa hecha de diferentes materiales que se usa para tocar instrumentos de cuerda, como un reemplazo o ayuda de los dedos) en mano der. y Lira en izq.

Acuñada: Entre el 11 y 10 A.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Lyon
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I 180 Pag.53; Lyon #37; RSC I #165 Pag.142; BMCRE #478-9 = BMCRR Gaul #194-5; BN #1418-9; SRCTV I #1611var Pag.319
mdelvalle
RPC_168_Semis_CARTAGONOVA_Augusto_2.jpg
01-61 - Cartago Nova - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)20 viewsAE Semis 23 mm 6.5 gr.
C.Varius Rufus y Sex Iulius Pollio - duoviri.

Anv: "AVGVSTVS - DIVI F" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "C·VAR·RVF·SEX·IVL·POL·II·VIR·Q" (Leyenda anti-horaria),Implementos sacerdotales, Simpulum (Copa pequeña con mango), aspergillum/aspersorio (Instrumento para espolvorear o rociar), Securis/Segur (Hacha ritual) y Ápex (Gorro utilizado por los Sacerdotes o Flamines).

Acuñada 27 A.C. - 14 D.C.
Ceca: Cartago Nova, Hispania (Hoy Cartagena, España)

Referencias: RPC #168, SNG Cop #510, ACIP #3137, SNG München #130, Sim.NAH #992, Vives #131/132 Pl.CXXXI #12, Burgos (2008) #455, FAB #1451 P.180, Sim. Sear GICTV #12 Pag.2 (Semis en lugar de AS), Beltram #23
mdelvalle
ABH_617_AS_CELSA_Augusto.jpg
01-64 - Celsa - Hispania - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)30 viewsHoy Velilla del Ebro, Tarragona, España
CN.Domitius y C.Pompeius duoviri

AE AS 28 mm 8.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR DIVI F AVGVSTVS COS XII" (Leyenda anti-horaria)- Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: Toro estante a derecha, "CN DOMIT" arriba, "C POMPEI" debajo, "II VIR" delante y "C V I CEL" detrás.

Acuñada 05 - 03 A.C.
Ceca: Colonia Lépida Victrix Iulia - Hispania

Referencias: RPC I #278, ACIP #3169e, SNG Cop #541, ABH #811/2, ABH (Ant) #1486 P.184, Vv Pl.CLXI #8, Cohen Vol.1 #700 Pag.156, Guadan #446, Ripolles #3159 P.368
mdelvalle
RI 010a img.jpg
010 - Germanicus AS - RIC 10698 viewsObv:– GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head of Germanicus right
Rev:– TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S C
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – 50-54 A.D.
Reference – RIC 106
maridvnvm
011_Gaius_(Caligula),_AE-Quadrans,,_BMC_64,_Cohen_7,_RIC(2),_52,__Rome,_40-41_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_17,5-18,5mm,_3,11g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 052, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT around R C C, #1112 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 052, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT around R C C, #1
avers: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG around pileus flanked by large S C.
reverse: PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT around R C C.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,11g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 40-41, ref: RIC I 52, BMC 64, C 7,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_VESTA_S-C_RIC-54_BMC-73_C-29_Rome-39-40-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_26-28mm_10,25g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,304 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,
avers: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 10,25g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 39-40, ref: RIC I 054, BMC-73, C-29,
Q-001
quadrans
0110.jpg
0110 - Semis Augustus 13-14 AC40 viewsObv/ AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of A. l.
Rev/ C LAETILIVS APALVS II V Q, diadem or wreath: inside, REX TOL.

AE, 20.3 mm, 4.48 g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/173 [6-8 dies] – RPC I/173
ex-Soler y Llach, auction may 2011, lot 2186
1 commentsdafnis
0116.JPG
0116 - Denarius Octavian 32-29 BC33 viewsObv/ Head of Venus r., wearing diadem.
Rev/ CAESAR DIVI F, Octavian l., in military dress, cloak flying behind, holding spear.

Ag, 20.2 mm, 3.51 g
Mint: Italy (Brundisium or Roma?)
RIC I/251 [S]
ex-Nomisma, auction e2, lot 18
dafnis
11a.jpg
011a Germanicus. AE As 10.96gm39 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P IIII PP/SC
"son of N.C.Drusus and Antonia"
1 commentshill132
11b.jpg
011b Germanicus. AE AS 10.26m16 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N bare head l.
rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT/SC
hill132
IMG_8168~0.JPG
016. Germanicus, son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius (15 B.C.–19 A.D.) 19 viewsAv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III PP / S-C

AE As Ø27 / 11.6g
RIC 43 Rome, BMC 60, BN 106
Juancho
IMG_7130.JPG
018. Drusus, son of Tiberius (Died 23 A.D.)26 viewsAv.: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rv.: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER / S-C

AE As Ø29 / 10.8g
RIC 45 Rome, Cohen 2
Juancho
0185.jpg
0185 - As Augustus 2-1 BC35 viewsObv/ AVGVSTVS DIVI F, bare head of A. r.
Rev/ C VAR RVF SEX IVL (P)OL II VIR Q, pontifical instruments (aspergillum, simpullum, ax and apex).

AE, 28.9 mm, 12.88 g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/167a [36 dies] – RPC I/167
ex-AENP Numismatic Convention, Madrid, march 2014 (Miró)
dafnis
Augustus-RIC-350.jpg
019. Caesar Augustus.21 viewsDenarius, 2 BC - 4 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE / Laureate bust of Augustus.
Reverse: C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT / Caius and Lucius, each holding spear and shield. Lituus and Simpulum above.
3.85 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #350; RSC 43c; Sear #1597.

The reverse of this coin is unusual in that the Lituus is on the left and the Simpulum is on the right. Most coins have it the other way around.
Callimachus
Tiberius.jpg
02 Tiberius44 viewsTiberius. 14-37 AD. AR Denarius. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST, laureate head right / PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated right; plain legs to chair. BMCRE 34; RSC 16. Weight, 3.78 g. Die Axis, 6hr.

mix_val
augustus.jpg
02 02 Augustus. Caius and Lucius47 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C. to 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lyons Mint. c. 2 B.C.- 4 A.D. 3.68 g./20 mm. Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Laureate head right. Reverse: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES in exergue, Caius and Lucius Caesars standing facing, shield and spears between, simpulum and and lituus above. RIC 207. 1 commentsLucas H
Augustus denarius.jpg
02 B.C. - 4 A.D Augustus Denarius124 viewsSilver denarius, S 1597, RIC 207, BMC 533, EF, Lugdunum mint, 3.876g, 19.2mm, 180o, 2 B.C. - 4 A.D.;
obverse CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right;
reverse C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on l. a simpulum r. and on r. a lituus l.;
lustrous, nice portrait, reverse slightly off center
jimwho523
Tribute_pennyBlack.jpg
02 Tiberius RIC 2639 viewsTiberius 14-37 AD. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 14-37 AD. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head facing right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, female figure seated right, holding sceptre and branch.
RIC 26; BMC 34; RSC 16.

Ex: Ancient Delights
Paddy
tb2971.JPG
020 Tiberius 33 viewsTiberius Æ As. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII?, bare head left / PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXI[III?] around large SC. Randygeki(h2)
t3070.JPG
020 Tiberius 39 viewsTiberius Æ As. TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, Laureate head left / PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXXVII, S-C across field, Winged caduceus. RIC 59, Cohen 22, BMC 120Randygeki(h2)
0200.jpg
0200 - Semis Augustus 2-1 BC49 viewsObv/ AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of A. r.
Rev/ C VAR RVF SEX IVL POL II VIR Q, simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex.

AE, 22.5 mm, 6.50 g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/168 [12-33 dies] – RPC I/168
ex-Herrero, auction december 2014, lot 41.
dafnis
0201.jpg
0201 - As Augustus 7-8 AC36 viewsObv/ AVGVSTVS DIVI F, laureate head of A. r.
Rev/ (M POSTV)M ALBIN L PORC CAPIT II VIR Q, priest standing facing front, holding simpulum and branch.

AE, 28.0 mm, 10.98 g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/170 [7-20 dies] – RPC I/170
ex-Soler y Llach, auction 84, lot 32
dafnis
024~2.JPG
021 Drusus15 viewsDrusus Caesar Æ As. Struck under Tiberius, 21-22 AD. DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S•C.
RIC 45 (Tiberius), Cohen 2, BMC 99
Randygeki(h2)
Tiberius-RIC-3.jpg
021. Tiberius.23 viewsDenarius, ca 16 - 37 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS / Laureate bust of Tiberius.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM / Livia seated, as Pax, holding branch and sceptre.
3.56 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #1763.

Because this is the denarius that was in circulation at the time of Jesus, this coin is often called the "Tribute Penny" -- a name which is derived from the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible where the word denarius was translated as penny.
Callimachus
Bela-IV__U-226_C1-238_H-302_1235-1270-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
022. H-302 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-302, CNH I.-238, U-226, AR-Obulus, #0184 views022. H-302 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-302, CNH I.-238, U-226, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: King enthroned facing, holding sceptre and orb, a border of dots.
reverse: B Є/L A R/Є X, In three lines divided into five parts by horizontal and vertical lines, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-302, CNH I.-238, Unger-226,
Q-001
quadrans
0225_CAST_EnrII_Cy1313.jpg
0225 - 1 real Enrique II 1369-79 AC7 viewsObv/ Crowned monogram, around in two lines DOMINVS : MICHI : AIDVTOR : EDEGO : DIS + / PICIAM : INIMICOS : MEOS
Rev/ Castles and lions divided by cross, around roses and S below; around ENRICVS : DEI : GRACIA : REX : CASTEL +

Ag, 26.9 mm, 3.46 g
Mint: Sevilla
AB406 - Cy 98/1247 - Cy/1313
ex-Cayón, speed auction 55, lot 9131
dafnis
0226_HISP_FerVI_Cy10345.jpg
0226 1 Real Fernando VI 1758 AC5 viewsObv/ Coat of arms, RI and crowned M on left, JB and dots on right. Around, FERDINANDUS - VI - D - G
Rev/ Castles and lions divided by cross, around HISPANIARUM REX 1758

Ag, 21.2 mm, 2.91 g
Mint: Madrid
Cy 98/9640 - Cy/10345
ex-Cayón, speed auction 55, lot 9613
dafnis
0227_CAST_EnrIV_Cy98_1493a.jpg
0227 - 1 Real Enrique IV 1454-74 AC6 viewsObv/ Bust of Henry IV l.; around, ENRICVS QARTVS DEI GRACIS REX C +, words separated by roses
Rev/ Castles and lions divided by cross; around, ENRICVS REX CASTELE ET LEGION +, words separated by roses; S below

Ag, 27.5 mm, 3.31 g
Mint: Sevilla
AB685 - Cy98/1493a
ex-Spink, The Numismatic Collector's Series, lot 741
dafnis
Caligula-RIC-40.jpg
023. Caligula.14 viewsQuadrans, 40 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG / Liberty cap between SC
Reverse: COS TERT PON M TR P IIII P P / R C C
2.68 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #40; Sear #1804.

The letters R C C signify "remissa ducentesima," referring to the abolition of a tax by Caligula in 39 AD. It was a tax of one percent levied on all commodities sold by auction, the vectigal rerum venalium.
Callimachus
0230_HISP_CarII_Cy98_6745.jpg
0230 - 1 Real Carlos II 1674 AC4 viewsObv/ Bust of Charls II l., around CAROL - II - D - G - HISP - REX
Rev/ Circles and dots divided by cross, around BAR-CINO CIVI 1674

Ag, 21.2 mm, 2.54 g
Mint: BARCELONA
Cy98/6745
ex-Áureo & Calicó, auction 323, lot 1359
dafnis
0238_HISP_FerVI_1_2_real.jpg
0238 - 1/2 Real Fernando VI (year ?)2 viewsObv/ Coat of arms, crowned M and JB to the sides, around, FERDINAND - VI - D - G
Rev/ Castles and lions divided by cross; around, (HISPA)NIARUM - REX - (illegible date)

Ag, 14.9 mm, 0.94 g
Mint: Madrid
Cy98/9460 to 9545
Gifted, early 1990's
dafnis
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-50(Titus)_RIC-new-266_80-AD_Q-001_7h_17-18mm_2,93gx-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, lighted and garlanded altar, #1126 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, lighted and garlanded altar, #1
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Lighted and garlanded altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 2,93g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus) p-122, RSC 397a, BMC 92,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-dot-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS_IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-267-new-49_(Titus)_C-390_80-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-_h__-_mm__g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left, Scarce!, #1131 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left, Scarce!, #1
avers:- CAESAR•DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left within laurel wreath.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus) p-122, RSC 390, BMC 88,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-51_RIC-new-271_80-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5-18mm_3,31g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #1188 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #1
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus) p-122, RSC 399a, BMC 98,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-51_RIC-new-271_80-AD_Q-002_5h_17,7-18,6mm_2,89ga-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #2100 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #2
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,7-18,6mm, weight: 2,89g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus) p-122, RSC 399a, BMC 98,
Q-002
quadrans
Domitian_AE-Sest_CAES-DIVI-AVG-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII_PAX-AVGVST_S-C_RIC-II-155b_RIC-New-Titus-288_C-343_Rome-80-AD_Q-001_6h_32,5-34mm_22,33ga-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0290, RIC II(1962) 0155a(Titus), AE-Sestertius, Rome, PAX-AVGVST, S-C, Pax left, #1164 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0290, RIC II(1962) 0155a(Titus), AE-Sestertius, Rome, PAX-AVGVST, S-C, Pax left, #1
avers:- CAES-DIVI-AVG-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PAX-AVGVST, Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia, S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 32,5-34mm, weight: 22,33g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome , date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0290, RIC II(1962) 0155a(Titus) p-135,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AE-AS_CAES-DIVI-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII_S-C_RIC-II-169b_RIC-New-348_C-_Rome-80-81-AD_Rare_Q-001_6h_25,5-26,5mm_10,63g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0348, RIC II(1962) 0169b(Titus), AE-As, Rome, No legend, S-C, Minerva left, #1121 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0348, RIC II(1962) 0169b(Titus), AE-As, Rome, No legend, S-C, Minerva left, #1
avers: CAES-DIVI-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian left.
revers: No legend, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear, shield at her side. S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 25,5-26,5mm, weight: 10,63g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome , date: 80-81 A.D., ref: RIC 0348, RIC II(1962) 0169b(Titus) p-138, C-443,
Q-001
quadrans
augustusAE19.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS & RHOEMETALKES I AE19 - struck 11 BC-12 AD171 viewsobv: BACILEWS POIMHTALKOY (diademed head of Rhoemetalkes right)
rev: KAICAPOC CEBACTOY (bare head of Augustus right)
ref: RPC 1718, SNGCop 1192, BMC 7-9, Moushmov 5782, Jurukova 200.
mint: Byzantion (?), Thracian Kingdom
5.47gms, 19mm

History: The Hellenistic kingdom of Thrace broke up in the 1st century BC - conquered by Rome. Rhoemetalkes I was awarded the kingdom of Thrace by the Romans in 11 BC. After his death in 12 AD, the emperor Augustus divided Thrace between Rhoemetalkes son & brother.
berserker
augustus_RIC207.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 2 BC-ca. 13 AD85 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE (laureate head right)
rev: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below (Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ["b9"])
ref: RIC I 207, BMC 533, RSC 43
mint: Lugdunum
3.35gms, 18mm

This type was struck to celebrate Gaius and Lucius Caesars, the sons of Marcus Agrippa, as heirs to the imperial throne. Gaius became Princeps Iuventutis in 5 BC and Lucius in 2 BC. They died in 4 AD and 2 AD respectively, thus promoting Tiberius to heir apparent. An obligatory issue for collectors.
berserker
augustus_RIC381.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE dupondius - struck by Cnaeus Piso Cn F moneyer (15 BC)53 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST in wreath
rev: CN PISO CN IIIVIR A A A F F around large SC
ref: RIC I 381 (R), Cohen 378 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
10.33gms, 25mm
Rare

Augustus was awarded all the powers of the tribunate (tribunitia potestas) in addition to the governing authority of the consulate, cementing him as a supreme individual princeps, or emperor.
berserker
Tiberius_RIC_I_4.jpg
03 01 Tiberius RIC 454 viewsTiberius 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint, 15-16 A.D. (3.74g, 17.6mm, 6h). Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: [TR POT X]VII. IMP [VII] in exergue, Tiberius, laur. And cloaked, stg. In slow Quadriga r., holding laurel branch and eagle tipped scepter. RIC I 4 (R2), BMC 7, RSC 48.

For an emperor with relatively long reign, Tiberius’ silver coinage was remarkably unvaried with the ubiquitous “tribute penny” making up the bulk of his denarii. This is a decent example of, perhaps, the second most common silver coin. Although the reverse legends are largely off the flan, the obverse has a decent portrait and legend.
2 commentsLucas H
03_Tiberius,_RIC_I_30.jpg
03 02 Tiberius RIC 30152 viewsTiberius. 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) Mint. 3.78 g., 19 mm. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch. Feet on footstool. Ornate chair legs. One line below throne. RIC I 30, RSC 16a.

The well known "tribute penny." When brought a coin as requested, Jesus asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
8 commentsLucas H
tiberiuscombhoriz.jpg
03. TIBERIUS20 views14 - 37 AD
struck 35-36 AD
AE As 26.46 mm 9.5 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII, Laur head left
R: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIIII S C, Winged Caduceus
RIC 44, Sear 1771
laney
002~3.JPG
031 Germanicus60 viewsAE AS
Germanicus AE As. Struck under Caligula, 39-40 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P around large SC. Cohen 4 var.

RIC 43 (Caligula) ex Zizum
Fine+, 27.5mm, 10.18gram
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Hadrianus_fouree-Denarius_Q-001_18mm_2,83g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC II 013v, Rome, PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS II P P, PIE-TAS, Plated (Fouree),65 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC II 013v, Rome, PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS II P P, PIE-TAS, Plated (Fouree),
avers: - IMP-CAESAR-TRAIAN-HADRIANVS-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers: -PARTHIC-DIVI-TRAIANA-AVG-P-M-TR-P-COS-II-P-P, PIE-TAS, Pietas standing left, raising hand; PIE TAS across fields.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter:18mm, weight:2,83g, axis:h,
mint: Rome, date:117 A.D., ref:RIC-13var.,???,
Q-001
quadrans
Hadrianus_fouree-Denarius_Q-001_h_18mm_2,83ga-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0013var., Rome, AR-Denarius, PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS II P P, PIE-TAS, Plated (Fouree),66 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0013var., Rome, AR-Denarius, PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS II P P, PIE-TAS, Plated (Fouree),
avers: - IMP-CAESAR-TRAIAN-HADRIANVS-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers: -PARTHIC-DIVI-TRAIANA-AVG-P-M-TR-P-COS-II-P-P, PIE-TAS, Pietas standing left, raising hand; PIE TAS across fields.
exergo: PIE/TAS//--, diameter:18mm, weight:2,83g, axis:h,
mint: Rome, date:117 A.D., ref:RIC-13var.,???,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 035d img.jpg
035 - Domitian As - RIC II Titus 169b81 viewsAE As
Obv:– CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, Laureate head left
Rev:– S-C, Minerva standing left, holding spear & thunderbolt, shield at feet
Minted in Rome. A.D. 80-81
Reference:– Cohen 443. RIC II Titus 169b
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Antoninus-Pius_DIVVS-ANTONINVS_DIVO-PIO_Q-001_3_25g.jpg
035a Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0441 (Marc. Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, DIVO PIO, Altar,99 views035a Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0441 (Marc. Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, DIVO PIO, Altar,
"DIVO" Altar Marcus Aurelius A.D. 139-180
Silver Denarius "Divine father Antoninus Pius."
avers:- DIVVS-ANTONINVS, Bare head right.
revers:- DIVO-PIO, Square altar with double doors.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 162 A.D., ref: RIC-III-(Marcus Aurelius)-441-p-247, C-357,
Q-001
quadrans
Ant_Pius_AR-Ant_DIVO-PIO_CONSECRATIO-Eagle_RIC-Tr-Dec-89_249-51-AD_Q-001_0h_22-23mm_2,78ga-s.jpg
035d Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0089 (Traj.Dec.), AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing,126 views035d Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0089 (Traj.Dec.), AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing,
Silver Denarius "Divine father Antoninus Pius."
avers:- DIVO-PIO, Radiate, head right.
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing with wings open, head left.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 7h,
mint: , date: 249-251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-(Traianus Decius)-89-p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Ant_Pius_AR-Ant_DIVO-PIO_CONSECRATIO_RIC-Tr-Dec-90_Mediolanum_250-51-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_21-22mm_2,56g-s.jpg
035d Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0090 (Traj.Dec.), Mediolanum, AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Flaming Altar,202 views035d Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0090 (Traj.Dec.), Mediolanum, AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Flaming Altar,
Silver Denarius "Divine father Antoninus Pius."
avers:- DIVO-PIO, Radiate, head right.
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Square altar with double doors.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 250-251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-(Traianus Decius)-90-p-, C-357,
Q-001
quadrans
D717sm.jpg
04 Diva Julia Titi RIC 76035 viewsÆ Sestertius, 24.33g
Rome mint, 92-94 AD (Domitian)
Obv: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F above; S P Q R in exergue; Carpentum drawn r. by two mules
Rev: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P; S C, large, in centre
RIC 760 (R). BMC 471. BNC 502.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2020. Ex Agora Auctions Sale 84, 4 September 2019, lot 187. Ex CNG E314, 6 November 2013, lot 364.

Titus' daughter Julia Titi was granted the title Augusta sometime in 80 or 81 during his reign. After Titus' death she lived with her uncle Domitian at the imperial residence. In 90 or 91 AD she died and was deified by Domitian, this was commemorated on the coinage. The ancient sources are quick to malign her reputation in the name of smearing Domitian. It is said she had an ongoing affair with Domitian and became pregnant. She then was forced by Domitian to abort the baby and died during the attempted abortion sometime in 90 or 91. The Flavian historian Brian Jones has called the supposed affair between Domitian and his niece Julia (some ten or eleven years his junior) and the subsequent forced abortion which killed her as "implausible" and "nonsense". Further he wrote "Scholars seem not to have stressed one of the most significant factors in assessing the rumour's accuracy - Martial's epigram 6.3, written not long after Julia's death and deification. In it, he expresses the hope that Domitian will produce a son, implies that the baby's name will be Julius (6.3.1) and states that (the now deified) Julia will be able to watch over him (6.3.5). Martial was neither a hero or a fool. Had there been the slightest hint of an affair between emperor and niece, he would hardly have written those lines; had Julia's recent death been caused by an abortion forced on her by Domitian, would Martial have so far neglected the bounds of 'safe criticism' and common sense as to humiliate Domitia publicly, urging her to become pregnant, to give the child a name reminiscent of her husband's mistress and finally to remember that same mistress, now dead and deified (thanks to her husband), would be able to protect the child?" No doubt, the Diva coins testify that Domitian felt great affection towards his niece, however, there is no evidence that they had an illicit love affair. The incestuous rumour was spread after Domitian's death.

This sestertius struck for Diva Julia Titi between 92 and 94 copies an early carpentum and mules type struck under Tiberius for Diva Livia and another under Titus struck for her grandmother Domitilla. It is the second issue of this type struck under Domitian and is slightly rarer than the earlier one produced in 90-91. In the early empire the carpentum was granted to ladies of the imperial house by the Senate as an imperial honour. It was frequently used to convey an image of the deceased Divae and to symbolise the event on the coinage. The style of the Diva Julia Titi sestertii are so similar to those of the earlier Memoriae Domitilla sestertii that the RIC authors speculate a few of the older Domitilla dies were recut for Julia's issues (p. 317, note). It's astonishing to think that the mint still had access to dies that were nearly a decade old and were able to re-use them for a new issue!

Dark brassy tone with some minor pitting.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-01- TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)34 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio_1.jpg
04-02 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)24 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-05 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 18.5 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-06 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberius_RIC_30_2_Fourree.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)45 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)21 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario Tiberio RIC 26.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)108 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Acuñada 14 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #5 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_anterior.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)69 viewsAnv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_1.jpg
04-11 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_29_2.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)86 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_30_1.jpg
04-14 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)91 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
1 commentsmdelvalle
AS TIBERIO RIC 211.jpg
04-20 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)61 viewsAE AS 27 mm 8.9 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por Tito

Anv: "[TI CAES]AR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "IMP T CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Tito) #211 Pag.143 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Tito) #2591 Pag.331 - BMCRE #284 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #73 Pag.196 - DVM #20 Pag.77 - CBN #293
mdelvalle
RIC_33_AS_Tiberio.jpg
04-20 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 27 mm 9.0 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS IMP VII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XVII" - Livia ? sedente en trono a derecha, portando Cetro largo vertical en mano izq. y Patera en su mano der. extendida. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada 15-16 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #33 Pag.96 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1769 var. (Busto) Pag.348 - BMCRE #65 Pag.128 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #17 Pag.191 - DVM #15 var. (Busto) Pag.76 - CBN II #39 Pag.44
mdelvalle
RIC_211_AS_Tiberio.jpg
04-30 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 27 mm 8.9 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por Tito

Anv: "[TI CAES]AR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "IMP T CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Tito) #211 Pag.143 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Tito) #2591 Pag.331 - BMCRE #284 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #73 Pag.196 - DVM #20 Pag.77 - CBN #293
mdelvalle
RPC_65_AS_ITALICA_Tiberio.jpg
04-40 - Cnia. Itálica - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)18 viewsAE AS 27/29 mm 13.85 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR AVGVSTVS PONT MAX IMP" (Leyenda anti-horaria), Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MVNIC ITALIC PERM DIVI AVG" (Leyenda anti-horaria), Altar en el que se inscribe en tres líneas "PROVIDE / NTIAE / AVGVSTI".

Acuñada 14 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Cnia. Municipium Itálica, Hispania (Hoy Saltipontes, Sevilla, España)

Referencias: RPC #65, SNG Cop #417, ACIP #3333, Vives Pl.CLXVIII #9, ABH #1593, Burgos #1250, Chaves #115-263, GMI #A1049-1051, FAB #1683 P.205, Sear GICV #253 P.24, Cohen I #89 P.197, Heiss #8 P.380, Mionnet Vol.I #131 P.17/18
mdelvalle
011~1.JPG
041 Germanicus17 viewsGermanicus, Caesar
Died 10 Oct 19 A.D.

Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C

Fair, 8.138g, 27.4mm, 180*, Rome min, 42 A.D., S 1905, RIC 106, BMC 215 ex Forvm ex Bill D.

"Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor, but died of and unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula ontain the throne after Tiberius died."

-----

"Such virtuous conduct brought Germanicus rich rewards. He was so deeply respected and loved by all his kindred that Augustus - I need hardly mention his other relatives - wondered for a long time wether to make him his successor, but at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him."
Randygeki(h2)
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
42.jpg
042 Pertinax. AR Denarius34 viewsobv: IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG laur head r.
rev: OPI DIVINAE TRP COS II ops seated l. holding two corn ears
hill132
Pertinax_AR-Den_IMP-CAES-P-HELV-PERTIN-AVG_OPI-DIVIN-TR-P-COS-II_RIC-IV-I-8a-p_C-43_Rome-193_AD_Q-001_6h_16-17,5mm_2,60g-s.jpg
043 Pertinax (193 A.D.), RIC IV-I 008a, Rome, AR-Denarius, OPI-DIVIN-TR-P-COS-II, Ops seated left, Rare!138 views043 Pertinax (193 A.D.), RIC IV-I 008a, Rome, AR-Denarius, OPI-DIVIN-TR-P-COS-II, Ops seated left, Rare!
avers:- IMP-CAES-P-HELV-PERTIN-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- OPI-DIVIN-TR-P-COS-II, Ops seated left, holding grain ears.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,60g, axis: 6h ,
mint: Rome, date: 193 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-8a, p-, C-33, S-, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
RI_044m_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Ae Sestertius - RIC 0541a var.50 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG, Laureate bust right with drapery on far shoulder, strap across chest from right to left shoulder
Rev:- PONT MAX TR POT COS, FORT RED/S C in two lines in exergue, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Rome. A.D. 117
Reference:– BMCRE 1111. Cohen 751 var. (cuirassed). RIC II 541a var. (cuirassed).

Quite a scarce coin.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_044s_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC 0004c19 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER DAC, Laureate cuirassed bust right, with drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTHIC DIVI TRAIAN AVG P P M TR P COS P P, Concordia enthroned left holding patera, arm on statue of Spes, cornucopiae below, CONCORD in ex.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 117
Reference:– RIC 4c. RSC 250a.
maridvnvm
RI_044g_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC 001229 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, Laureate, heroic bust right with drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTH DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS / [PAX] in exe, Pax standing left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– BMCRE 27. RIC 12. RSC 1011.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_044ah_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC 01016 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, Laureate bust right with light drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS / FORT RED, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopia
Rome Mint.A.D. 117. Group II.
Reference:- RIC 10, BMC 22-23
maridvnvm
RI_044ai_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC 011c23 viewsObv:- IMP CAES TRAIAN HADRIANO AVG DIVI TRA, Laureate cuirassed ust right with light drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- PARTH F DIVI NER NEP P M TR P COS / IVSTITIA, Justitia seated left on throne holding in right hand and verticaal sceptre in left
Rome Mint. A.D. 117. Group II.
Reference:- RIC 11c, RSC 874, BMC 26
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_044ao_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Sestertius - RIC 541a19 viewsSestertius
Obv:- IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- PONT MAX TR POT COS / FORT RED / S C, Fortuna,seated left, holding rudder and cornucopa.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 117
Reference:- RIC 541a, Cohen 751. BMCre 1110
maridvnvm
Septimius-Severus_AE-Sestercius_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-xxx_P-M-TRPxxx_RIC-xxx_C-xx_Q-002_28,5mm_15,77gx-s.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 702, Rome, AE-, DIVI MP II F P M TR P III COS II P P, Septimius Severus and Victory left,283 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 702, Rome, AE-, DIVI MP II F P M TR P III COS II P P, Septimius Severus and Victory left,
avers:- L-SEPT-SEV-PERT-AVG-IMP-VII - Laureate head right.
revers:- DIVI-MP-II-F-P-M-TR-P-III-COS-II-P-P, Septimius Severus standing left on left, holding Victory and spear, being crowned by Roma to right, holding parazonium.
exe: -/-//S-C, diameter: 28,5 mm, weight: 14,73g, axis: h,
mint: Rome , date: 195-196 A.D., ref: RIC IV-I ,
Q-001
quadrans
Druso_AS.jpg
05 - 10 - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)135 viewsAE AS 28.65 mm 10.05 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por su padre Tiberio

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 23 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Tiberio) #45 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1794 - BMCRE #99 - Cohen Vol.1 #2
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_45_AS_Druso_Cesar.jpg
05 - 10 - DRUSO (20 - 23 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 28.65 mm 10.05 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por su padre Tiberio

Anv: "DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 23 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.I (Tiberio) #45 Pag.97 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1794 Pag.354 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #99 - Cohen Vol.1 #2 Pag.217 - CBN (Tiberius) #78
mdelvalle
548Hadrian_RIC546.jpg
0546 Hadrian AS Roma 118 AD legionary eagle between two standards57 viewsReference.
RIC 546; C. 1182; cf Strack 518

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRA PARTH F DIVI NER NEP TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II, S-C in exergue.
legionary eagle between two standards

12.01 gr
27 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
Denarius Octavio RIC 543a.jpg
06-01 - OCTAVIO (32 - 27 A.C.)63 viewsAR Denario 16.5 x 18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de un joven e inmaduro Octavio viendo a derecha.
Rev: Escudo Español (?) circular con tres filas concéntricas de clavos de adorno y un broche central - "IMP" sobre, "CAE" campo izq., "SAR" campo der. y "DIVI F" debajo.

Acuñada 35/34 A.C.
Ceca: Incierta

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #543a Pag.85 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1546 Pag.299 - Sear CRI #392 - BMCRR (Galia) #119 (= BMCRE #309) - RSC Vol.1 #126 Pag.140 - Cohen Vol.1 #126 Pag.82
mdelvalle
RIC_543a_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
06-01 - OCTAVIO (32 - 27 A.C.)15 viewsAR Denario 16.5 x 18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: Cabeza desnuda de un joven e inmaduro Octavio viendo a derecha.
Rev: Escudo Español (?) circular con tres filas concéntricas de clavos de adorno y un broche central - "IMP" sobre, "CAE" campo izq., "SAR" campo der. y "DIVI F" debajo.

Acuñada 35/34 A.C.
Ceca: Incierta

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #543a Pag.85 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1546 Pag.299 - Sear CRI #392 - BMCRR (Galia) #119 (= BMCRE #309) - RSC Vol.1 #126 Pag.140 - Cohen Vol.1 #126 Pag.82
mdelvalle
AS GERMANICO RIC 35.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)62 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
RIC_35_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)12 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
AS_Germanico_1.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)73 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
RIC_43v_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)13 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
09-Alex-Alexandria.jpg
09. Alexandria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.123 viewsTetradrachm, ca 310 - 305 BC, Alexandria (Egypt) mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander with Horn of Ammon, wearing elephant skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Athena carrying shield and hurling spear. Also small eagle sitting on thunderbolt at right. Two monograms: one at left, one at right.
15.10 gm., 26 mm.
S. #7749; BMC 6.6, 46.

You may have noticed that I refer to the obverse portraits on the Alexander the Great coins as "Head of Alexander as Herakles." Much has been written about these portraits as to whether or not they really portray Alexander's likeness. There can be no doubt, however, that the portrait on this coin was intended to be that of Alexander. Ptolemy issued this coin in the name of Alexander while he was Satrap of Egypt. The elephant skin headdress was probably inspired by the lion's skin headdress on Alexander's own coins. It likely refers to Alexander's conquests in India where he defeated an Indian army with 200 elephants. Beneath the elephant skin headdress, right above his ear, Alexander wears the Horn of Zeus Ammon. The priests of Zeus Ammon recognized Alexander as divine when he visited Egypt in 331 BC.
4 commentsCallimachus
trajan quadrans RIC704-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 99-102 AD50 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG (laureate head right)
rev: DARDANICI (woman standing left, holding branch and gathering up drapery)
ref: RIC II 704 (R2), C.139 (30frcs), BMCRE 1106 note
mint: Dardanian mines
2.90gms, 16mm
Very rare

Dardania was a region situated in Moesia Superior. For the Romans this was the mining province par excellence; were divided into several mining districts managed by the procuratores. It is unknown why these coins were struck, though many feel that they were made for use at the mines themselves, as payment for the workers. The original denomination of this coin is uncertain.
berserker
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
1028-1034 Anon B S 1823 2.jpg
1028-1034 - follis (Anonymous class B)62 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels ; in field IC / XC (icon of the "Pantocrator")
Cross on three steps dividing IS / XC // bAS / ILE // bAS / ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)

Sear 1823
Ginolerhino
1028-1034 Anon B S 1823.jpg
1028-1034 - follis (Anonymous class B)33 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels ; in field IC / XC (icon of the "Pantocrator")
Cross on three steps dividing IZ / XC // IAZ / ILE // IAZ / ILE (a blundered version of the previous coin's reverse)

Sear 1823
Ginolerhino
1034-1041 Anon C S 1825.jpg
1034-1041 - follis (Anonymous class C)73 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , 3/4 length figure of Christ standing (icon of the "Antiphonetes") , in field IC / XC
Jewelled cross dividing IC / XC / NI / KA ("Jesus Christ conquers").

Sear 1825
Ginolerhino
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSAECRATIO_T_RIC-257var_Temp-1298_Siscia-270-271-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_19-21mm_2,10g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1298 (Estiot), RIC V-I 257var., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSAECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar,92 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1298 (Estiot), RIC V-I 257var., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSAECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar,
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, seen from rear. (B2).
revers:- CONSAECRATIO, Altar, with flame above, divided in four squares with a dot inside of each square. (Altar 1a).
exerg: -/-//T, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,10g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, off-3, iss-1, date: 270-271 A.D., ref: T-1298, RIC V-I 257var,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_DIVO-CLAVDIO_CONSECRATIO_T_RIC-_Temp-1299_Siscia-270-271-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_21-22mm_3,42g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1299 (Estiot), RIC V-I 261corr., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar, 146 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-1299 (Estiot), RIC V-I 261corr., Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, -/-//T, Altar,
avers:- DIVO-CLAVDIO, Bust right, radiate. (A1).
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Altar, with flame above, divided in four squares with a dot inside of each square. (Altar 1a).
exerg: -/-//T, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,42g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, off-3, iss-1, date: 270-271 A.D., ref: T-1299, RIC V-I 261corr.,
Q-001
quadrans
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
JohnIISB1954.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
1.67g; 15.7mm; 180°
Pep
JohnIISB1954_2.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron - 2nd Example29 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
2.14g; 16.3mm; 210°
Pep
ManISear1966.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy26 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
4.49g; 31.3mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966_2.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy - 2nd Example10 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
3.96g; 30.4mm; 180°
Pep
1180-1189_Henry_II_Penny_Short-cross.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR Short-cross Penny, Struck 1180 - 1189 at Winchester, England6 viewsObverse: HENRICVS • REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry II holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GOCELM • ON • WIN. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Gocelm, which is a name of Germanic Frankish origin.
Issue type Class 1b
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1344

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' or 'Tealby' coinage was introduced in England. While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when the short-cross penny, a new style coin of much better workmanship, was introduced.

On the night of 14th/15th July 1180 the Winchester mint burnt down, and the fire spread to ‘the greater and better part’ of the city. The production of the new Short Cross coinage had just started earlier in 1180, and Winchester evidently only had one centralized mint building from the beginning of the new coinage. At the time of the fire the mint appears to have had four moneyers (Clement, Gocelm, Henri, and Rodbert), and Short Cross Class Ia2 was in production. After the fire some of the mint’s obverse dies of Classes Ia1 and Ia2 were used at the Wilton mint, apparently as an emergency measure. The coinage of the moneyer Henri ends abruptly at this time and he seems to have been replaced by Adam, whose known issues start in Class Ia2, and at Wilton in Class 1a2 it looks like Osbert replaced Iohan. Osbert continued to issue coins in Winchester after the fire, but he seems to have been regarded as a Wilton moneyer allowed to use the facilities of the Winchester mint. The Winchester coinage of Osbert and three other moneyers (Clement, Reinier, and Rodbert) whose issues end in Class Ib1 was probably restricted to the recoinage of 1180 to 1182. After that only two moneyers remained striking Class Ib2 at Winchester (Adam and Gocelm), and from 1183 to 1184 these moneyers were responsible for a rent of 2 marks each per annum for the use of the mint building.
1 comments*Alex
hadrian_RIC546b.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE as - struck 118 AD54 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.DIVI.TRA.PARTH.F.DIVI NER.NEP.TRAIANO.HADRIANO.AVG (laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder)
rev: PONT.MAX.TR.POT.COS.II (legionary eagle between two standards), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 546b (S), C.1182 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
8.68gms, 28mm
Scarce

History: Quintus Marcius Turbo (who was governor of Pannonia [117-118] and later became Hadrian's praetorian prefect) successfully led II Adiutrix against the Sarmatians in 118, this coin probably commemorated the succesfull campaign.
1 commentsberserker
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.35 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)3 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland18 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England16 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)98 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.62 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Edward_II_AR_Penny_Bury_St_Edmunds.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1307 at Bury St. Edmunds, England4 viewsObverse: + EDWAR R ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: VILL SCI EDMVNDI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.37gms | Die Axis: 12
Rare mint
SPINK: 1465

Class 11c penny with angular backs to C and E's in legends.

Edward II was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England and when Edward I died in July 1307 Edward II became king because his three elder brothers were already dead. Edward II was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.
Unfortunately Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, the best known being Piers Gaveston who he recalled from exile, Edward I having banished him to France due to his bad influence on his son. Furthermore, Edward II gave Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, a title which had previously only been conferred on royalty.
Opposition to the king and his favourite began almost immediately, and in 1311 the nobles issued the 'Ordinances', in an attempt to limit royal control of finance and appointments. Gaveston was twice exiled at the demand of the barons, only for him to return to England shortly afterwards. However, in 1312, he was captured by the barons and executed.
In 1314, Edward invaded Scotland where he was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. So bad was this for Edward's rule that by the following year parts of England had fallen into anarchy and power was in the hands of the barons headed by Edward's cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who had virtually made himself the real ruler of England.
By 1318, Edward and Lancaster had been partly reconciled, but the king now had two new favourites, Hugh le Despenser and his son. When Edward supported the two Despensers' ambitions in Wales the barons banished both father and son. This prompted Edward to fight back and he defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322, Lancaster was executed him and the Despensers were called back to Edward's court.
But now, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, emerged as a focus of opposition. In 1325, she was sent on a diplomatic mission to France where she met and became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled opponent of Edward. In September 1326, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England. There was virtually no resistance and the Despensers were captured and executed. Defeated, Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward who was crowned Edward III in January 1327.
Edward II was imprisoned at Berkeley Castle and later murdered there.
*Alex
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. However Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston and in 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms which included Gaveston being banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Edward's wife, Isabella, was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reputedly horrifically murdered on the orders of the new regime by having a red hot poker inserted into his rectum.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)62 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)71 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England12 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland5 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England9 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
Denario_Neron_RIC_69.jpg
14 - 16 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.) 72 viewsAR Denario 3,07 gr.

Anv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: IVPPITER CVSTOS - Júpiter sentado hacia la izq., portando trueno en mano derecha y largo cetro vertical en der..

Esta emisión se realiza para agradecerle a Júpiter El Guardian (CVSTOS), el haber actuado para salvarlo de la famosa Conspiración Pisoniana , según Nerón únicamente la intervención divina de Éste pudo evitar su muerte, nombrándolo de aquí en adelante como protector del Imperio Romano.
La Conspiración Pisoniana: Luego del incendio del centro de Roma acaecido en el 64 D.C., recordemos la imagen de Nerón tocando la lira mientras se quemaba Roma, Nerón comienza la construcción en el sector quemado del Domus Aurea o Casa Dorada, nombre recibido por los azulejos dorados en su fachada; Este y otros excesos del Emperador hacen que se forme una conspiración para derrocarlo y colocar en su lugar a Gaius Calpurnius Piso / Cayo Calpurnio Pisón, político perteneciente a una noble familia romana, contando con el apoyo de senadores y personajes cercanos al Emperador como Petronio, Lucano, Séneca, y Faenio Rufo, comandante de la Guardia Pretoriana. Cuando la conspiración fue descubierta Cayo Calpurnio Pisón optó por quitarse la vida. Esta Conspiración había sido preparada para el 19 de abril de 65 d. C., en el templo del dios Sol (vecino al Circo Máximo). El arma homicida había sido escondida en el templo de Ceres y el autor era un hombre de la clase de los senadores llamado Escevino, la conspiración fracasa cuando un esclavo de este último le cuenta al Emperador de las intenciones de su amo.

Acuñada: 67 - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC I # 69 Pag.154 - Cohen I #122 Pag.200 - DVM #8 Pag.85 - BMC #80
mdelvalle
RIC_69_Denario_Neron.jpg
14-06 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.) 23 viewsAR Denario 18.6 mm 3,07 gr.

Anv: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P P - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: IVPPITER CVSTOS - Júpiter sentado hacia la izq., portando trueno en mano derecha y largo cetro vertical en der..

Esta emisión se realiza para agradecerle a Júpiter El Guardian (CVSTOS), el haber actuado para salvarlo de la famosa Conspiración Pisoniana , según Nerón únicamente la intervención divina de Éste pudo evitar su muerte, nombrándolo de aquí en adelante como protector del Imperio Romano.
La Conspiración Pisoniana: Luego del incendio del centro de Roma acaecido en el 64 D.C., recordemos la imagen de Nerón tocando la lira mientras se quemaba Roma, Nerón comienza la construcción en el sector quemado del Domus Aurea o Casa Dorada, nombre recibido por los azulejos dorados en su fachada; Este y otros excesos del Emperador hacen que se forme una conspiración para derrocarlo y colocar en su lugar a Gaius Calpurnius Piso / Cayo Calpurnio Pisón, político perteneciente a una noble familia romana, contando con el apoyo de senadores y personajes cercanos al Emperador como Petronio, Lucano, Séneca, y Faenio Rufo, comandante de la Guardia Pretoriana. Cuando la conspiración fue descubierta Cayo Calpurnio Pisón optó por quitarse la vida. Esta Conspiración había sido preparada para el 19 de abril de 65 d. C., en el templo del dios Sol (vecino al Circo Máximo). El arma homicida había sido escondida en el templo de Ceres y el autor era un hombre de la clase de los senadores llamado Escevino, la conspiración fracasa cuando un esclavo de este último le cuenta al Emperador de las intenciones de su amo.

Acuñada: 67 - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC I # 69 Pag.154 - Cohen I #122 Pag.200 - DVM #8 Pag.85 - BMC #80 - CBN #239 - Sear RCTV #1943 Pag.384 - RSC II #123 Pag.14
mdelvalle
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
tiberius RIC58-RR.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE As - struck 36-37 AD55 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (laureate head left)
rev: PONTIF MAX TR POT XXXVII, S-C to left and right of rudder placed vertically across banded globe, small globe at base of rudder
ref: RIC 58 (R2), Cohen 13 (2frcs), BMC 117
10.58gms, 26mm
Very rare
1 commentsberserker
tiberius sest-.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE sestertius - struck 22-23 AD57 viewsobv: CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS (Tiberius seated left on curule chair with patera and scepter)
rev: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII / S.C.
ref: RIC I 48 (S), Cohen 3 (15frcs), BMC70
23.46g, 34mm
Very rare

The obverse legend refers to Tiberius' donations and tax remissions to twelve Asian cities devastated by an earthquake in 17 A.D., and another two cities which suffered an earthquake in 23 A.D.
berserker
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141br_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Follis - RIC VI Trier 677a (corr. Cyzicus)70 viewsObv:– D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Cyzicus (not Trier) ( S | F / KS //PTR)
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 677a (R) (see notes)
Notes:- This is perhaps one of the most unusual issues in the entire follis series. It is nearly always attributed to Trier (Treveri), but a comparison of portrait styles and an examination of follis hoards reveals that this issue was not struck in Trier but in Cyzicus. Two officinae struck this issue, and the KS in the field between the two figures is actually the mintmark, not the PTR. A look at the coins of Cyzicus (RIC 22-23) shows that the same two officinae struck this issue without the PTR also. The Senior Augustus issues of Diocletian and Maximianus were struck at every mint currently in operation. Apparently, the first coins of this type were prepared at Trier and examples were sent to the various mints for the individual mints to copy. At Cyzicus, the die engravers copied everything, including the Trier mintmark and put their own mintmark in the field. Eventually someone soon realized the mistake and new dies were prepared with the mintmark in its proper location.

Nicely silvered with little / no visible wear.
maridvnvm
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England3 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France31 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
Elagabalus-RIC-146.jpg
15. Elagabalus.20 viewsDenarius, 221-222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG / Elagabalus standing, holding patera and branch, sacrificing over altar. Star in field.
3.00 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #146; Sear #7549.

Many of Elagabalus' later coins have a horn on his head. It is visible as a prong coming out of the top of his head and pointing forward. There was an idea in antiquity that a horn (or horns) on someone's head symbolized divine power coming from that person.
Callimachus
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)55 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)51 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)75 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)84 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1526_-_1530_Henry_VIII_AR_Halfgroat.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
tiberius tribute penny.jpg
16 - 37 A.D. Tiberius - Ric 30 "Tribute Penny"156 viewsSilver denarius, Lugdunum mint, 3.494g, 18.8mm, 225o, 16 - 37 A.D.;
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right;
PONTIF MAXIM, Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; nicely centered
RIC 30, RSC 16a, S 1763, VF

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
2 commentsjimwho523
Divus Verus RIC1507 - RR.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 169 AD101 viewsobv: DIVVS VERVS (bare head of Divus Verus right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (elephant quadriga advancing left, atop car shrine containing statue of Divus Verus seated left, raising hand), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1507 (M.Aurelius), C.53 (30frcs), BMCRE (Marcus) 1369
23.51gms, 30mm, bronze
Very Rare
History: In the end of 168 AD as Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus were returning home from the fontier of south Pannonia, Lucius suddenly became ill with symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and was dead at the age of 38 near Altinum (Altino). The older Emperor accompanied the body to Rome, where he offered games to honour his memory. After the funeral, the senate declared Verus divine to be worshipped as Divus Verus.
2 commentsberserker
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
0030-310np_noir.jpg
1685 - Octavian, Dupondius69 viewsMinted in Italy 38 BC
DIVI F, bare head of Octavian right
DIVOS IVLIVS, in a laurel wreath
27.07 gr
Ref : HCRI # 309, RCV # 1570
Potator II
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius272 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
13_-_1754_-_6,47g_-_D102.JPG
1754 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,47g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
"Louis XV ressuscité et triomphant"
Statue du roi sur un piédestal, vêtu à l’antique, derrière, des drapeaux ; à droite la Bretagne assise, devant, les armes de la province, derrière, une ancre sortant de la mer ; à gauche Hygie et un autel allumé .
Sur le piédestal on peut lire l'inscription :
LUDOVICO XV
REGI CHRISTIANISSIMO
REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
HOC AMORIS PIGNUS
ET SALUTATIS PUBLICAE MOMUMENTUM
COMITIA ARMORICA POSUERE
ANNO M DCC LIV
au revers :
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1754.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 102
PYL
1754_2.JPG
1754 - États de Rennes5 viewsLouis XV
6,55g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
"Louis XV ressuscité et triomphant"
Statue du roi sur un piédestal,
vêtu à l’antique, derrière, des drapeaux;
à droite la Bretagne assise,
devant les armes de la province,
derrière une ancre sortant de la mer;
à gauche Hygie et un autel allumé .
Sur le piédestal on peut lire l'inscription :
LUDOVICO XV
REGI CHRISTIANISSIMO
REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
HOC AMORIS PIGNUS
ET SALUTATIS PUBLICAE MOMUMENTUM
COMITIA ARMORICA POSUERE
ANNO M DCC LIV
au revers :
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1754.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 102
PYL
commodus_RIC218.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 AD39 viewsobv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P (laureate head right)
rev: APOL PAL P M TR P XVI COS VI (Apollo attired in the stola, holding the plectrum in the right hand and resting his left on the lyre, which surmounts on a short column)
ref: RIC III 218 (S), C.24 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
2.7gms, 17mm
Scarce

Apollini Palatino – this coin has reference to the temple, which Emperor Augustus erected at Rome, in honour of his guardian divinity in the Palatium. This temple was destroyed by fire during the reign of Julian the Apostate.
berserker
1791_Rochdale_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.27 viewsObverse: ROCHDALE / 1791. Sheep facing left, being weighed suspended in a sling round it's waist.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Detailed view from behind of a weaver, sitting half-right, working at a loom.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 140

This token was engraved and manufactured by J.G.Hancock in Birmingham.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen mill in the town.

Rochdale's recorded history begins with an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086 under Recedham Manor. The ancient parish of Rochdale was a division of the hundred of Salford and one of the largest ecclesiastical parishes in England comprising several townships. By 1251, Rochdale had become important enough to have been granted a Royal charter. Subsequently, the town flourished into a centre of northern England's woollen trade, and by the early 18th century was described as being "remarkable for many wealthy merchants".
During the 19th century, Rochdale rose to prominence as a major mill town and centre for textile manufacture. It was amongst the first ever industrialised towns during the Industrial Revolution and the Rochdale Canal was a highway of commerce during this time, being used for the haulage of cotton, wool and coal.
*Alex
2-pb-dx.jpg
1916 ALEXIUS PB Tetarteron S-Unlisted DOC 32 Constantinople mint71 viewsOBV Half length figures of John II beardless on r., and Christ holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Christ wears tunic and kolobion.

REV Half length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 19.29mm

Weight 5.8gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera.
DOC lists 6 examples with sizes from 17mm to 20mm and weights 4.22gm to 4. 74gm
1 commentsSimon
s-pb-tc.jpg
1919 ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 18 mm

Weight 6.31 gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

My first example that I am able to get good photographs from, most are white lead very difficult to photograph, this example also has much more detail than normal.
Simon
s-pb-tf.jpg
1919a ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 59 views
OBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 16.57

Weight 2.8gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

Another beautiful example, much lighter.
1 commentsSimon
i3~0.jpg
1919b ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 37 CLBC 2.5.1 38 viewsOBV Full length figures of John II beardless on r., and st Demetrius, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Saint wears short military tunic , breastplate, and saigon; holds sword, point resting on ground, in r. hand.

REV Full length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 17.49mm

Weight 4.4gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 6 examples with weights running from3.33 gm to 6.16 gm and sizes from 17mm to 19mm

1 commentsSimon
2pb-c.jpg
1919b ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 42 CLBC 2.5.1 48 views
OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels( open) in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbate cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. Cr.

Size 17.19

Weight 3.7

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 12 examples with weights from 3.17gm to 7.07
Simon
s-1920.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 48 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 16.55mm

Weight 4.4gm

All around very nice coin, I would consider the rarity for this coin 3/5

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
c6.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 31 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 19.56mm

Weight 3.8gm

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
o3~0.jpg
1920B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 104228 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.
Simon
4c~0.jpg
1920C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 24 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 17/16mm

Weight 3.9 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.

This particular coin grades as aF/aVF , this has the most interesting portrait of Alexius, seems to be much older in age than other examples.

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
i3~1.jpg
1920d ALEXIUS Constantinople Tetarteron SBCV-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 1 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 18mm

Weight 3.8gm

This coin has an excellent portrait of Christ, I would grade the coin EF/F

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
p6~1.jpg
1920F ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 0 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 16.55mm

Weight 4.4gm

All around very nice coin, I would consider the rarity for this coin 3/5

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
n4.jpg
1921 ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 4 viewsBust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

All of the Constantinople coins are uncommon but this one appears very rarely, I would mark its rarity 4/5 This example has a very dark patina in hand, I lightened this pic for a better view of the details. This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain.
Simon
s-1921c.jpg
1921c ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 22 viewsBust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 15.63mm

Weight 4.0gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain. This is only the third example I have seen in twenty years, not in great condition but is a great rarity.
Simon
f7.jpg
1922 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 4 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 16.6mm

Weight 3.0 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
4m.jpg
1922A ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 42 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.9gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
s-1922c.jpg
1922B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 21 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 3.6 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This is a thick square coin, very unusual beveled edges.
Simon
4p.jpg
1922C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 21 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand. ( This is what it should be , coin is a brokerage of sorts.)

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 4.00gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This coin was attributed by rev alone, it is the only possible match for Alexius and it is clearly by inscription, his rule.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
l3~0.jpg
1922D ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 44 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18.35

Weight 3.3gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash, ,HOWEVER this coin is not the norm of black silver, very grainy and hard to photograph but white silver in color, much higher than what was normal.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
sear1923b.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.439 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17.48mm

Weight 4.8

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm.
Simon
c1.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 43 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 15.64mm

Weight 4.6

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm. My example is running heavy at 4.6gm
Simon
n5.jpg
1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 4 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 3.96

Weight 17.mm

A really nice example

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)


DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm
Simon
5c.jpg
1929 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 21 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 4.2

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My example has more detail than normally seen, most of these coins have no faces recognizable on either side.
Simon
s-1929-3c.jpg
1929A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.5/21mm

Weight 3.3

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
3c~0.jpg
1929B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 21 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-2d.jpg
1929C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 16 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.2gm

This coin is interesting for its details, more than most but the jagged edge flan is very unusual.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
a9.jpg
1929D ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 41 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.91mm
Weight 1.9gm

This is an imitation of Sear 1929, better to say it was not produced to the same standards as coins from the other mints. Interesting enough , imitations only seem to occur under Alexius rule and the Manuel's rule, I have never seen an imitation of John II coinage, that leaves me to believe these were authorized in some way by Alexius. Perhaps to help the introduction of the new coinage.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
a6.jpg
1929E ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 27 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 3.5

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929c.jpg
1929F ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 17 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.80mm

Weight 3.2gm

The burnt orange to the patina of this common coin is what makes it special.
.
DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-5c.jpg
1929g ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 50 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.11mm

Weight 2.6gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My nicest example. Very Fine
Simon
s-1929-4c.jpg
1929h ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 39 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.97mm

Weight 2.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
h3.jpg
1929J ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 40 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

This is a strange example, Alexius side fits the norm a bit cruder but with good detail, the Christ side lacks the book and Christ's blessing. Imitations of this particular type of coin were created well into the 14th century. This coin was a very recent find in Paphos Cyprus.
Simon
s-1929-6c.jpg
1929k ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 62 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.99mm

Weight 4.8 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
s-1929-7c.jpg
1929L ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 67 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.00mm

Weight 2.66gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
pertinax den-.jpg
193 AD - PERTINAX AR denarius - struck January-March 193 AD83 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.P.HELV.PERTIN.AVG (laureate head right)
rev:OPI.DIVIN.TR.P.COS.II (Ops seated left, holding two corn ears, left hand on top of throne)
ref: RIC IVi 8 (R2), C.33 (60frcs)
2.43gms
Very rare

This coin is ugly, worn and holed, but... it's a Pertinax.

Publius Helvius Pertinax was commander of an equestrian unit in Moesia Superior (or Pannonia Inferior), on the Middle Danube in 167 AD, and fight against the Yaziges. He was also the commander of the First legion Adiutrix, stationed at Brigetio (modern Szöny) between 171-174 AD. Pertinax played an important role during the campaigns against the Marcomanni. It is very likely that I Adiutrix and the two newly founded legions II Italica and III Italica were grouped together in a single task-force. According to the historian Herodian, Pertinax freed the provinces of Noricum and Raetia completely, and took part in the attacks on the Quadi and Sarmatians north of the Danube.
2 commentsberserker
jdomna_RIC632.jpg
193-196(?) AD - JULIA DOMNA AR denarius49 viewsobv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG (draped bust right, hair coiled and waved)
rev: VENERI VICTR (Venus half naked standing to r., holding an apple and a palm and leaning on a column)
ref: RIC IVi 632, C.194 (5frcs)
mint: Emesa and Laodicea (or probably Rome)
3.5gms, 18mm
Scarce

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. She was a great support for Severus in serving her family and the empire. A staunch opponent to Severus' praetorian prefect Plautianus, she attempted to turn his influence from the emperor. Her attempts to mitigate in the hatred between her two sons did not succeed. However, she seems to have prevented them from splitting the empire between them, fearing an all-out civil war. Perhaps this was one of the turning points of Roman history. If the empire had been divided at this time, future history may have become wholly different. Her greatest tragedy was probably the death of Geta in her arms from the murderers instigated by Caracalla. Nevertheless she continued serving the empire and Caracalla until, he too, was murdered. After bearing Caracalla's ashes to Rome, she starved herself to death.
2 commentsberserker
b3.jpg
1930 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 51 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20.10

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

It is difficult to find a clean strike of this issue. This one is unusually clean. They way to differ this coin from Manuel's version is the position of Alexius arm on the labrum.
Simon
2m.jpg
1930 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 62 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22.75

Weight 3.6mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

This coin has been clearly overstruck over an earlier follis. DOC also notes 3 out the five examples are also overstruck. I believe this issue was created quickly when a shortage of the new coinage occurred. It is difficult to find a clean strike of this
1 commentsSimon
s-1930c.jpg
1930A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 37 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

This is considered to be very nice condition for this type of coin, normally they appear overstruck or just messy, this one I had almost confused with a Manuel S-1970 but the key of these coins is the position of Alexius right arm being raised, the Manuel has the emperors r. arm in a lower position.
Simon
a3~0.jpg
1930B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 22 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20/21mm

Weight 1.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This coin is a mangled mess overstruck and made quickly.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m
Simon
k5.jpg
1930c ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 20 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.58mm

Weight 2.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m

It is difficult to find a clean strike of this issue.
Simon
s-1930-bc.jpg
1930C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1930 DOC 39 CLBC 2.4.6 Imitation?27 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 2.2

I am uncertain where this coin fits in the picture. Its weight is within range but its size and die size is not. It could be an imitation.

DOC lists 5 examples with weights ranging from 2.05gm to 4.02gm and sizes ranging from 20mm to 22m
Simon
l3.jpg
1931 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 61 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 3.3gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm
Simon
s3~0.jpg
1931 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 28 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger. Complete Inscription

Size 19mm

Weight 3.08

This is a Thessalonica minted coin.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

Simon
d3.jpg
1931A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 21 views
OBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23/20mm

Weight 5.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm This coin is its brother being purchased from the same dealer at the same auction.
Simon
s-1931-4c.jpg
1931B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 SBCV-1910???52 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 25/22mm

Weight 3.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This example is more than likely the coin listed as S-1910 , Sear 1931 struck over a Class I or Class K anonymous follis. Hendys ( S-1910) lists at 2.96gm around 23mm
Simon
c3~0.jpg
1931C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 25 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 23/25mm

Weight 6.2

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This is the heaviest example noted, at 6.2 gm
Simon
4v.jpg
1931D ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 26 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 3.2 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This coin is a very pleasing example grading VF/F

I have another example in my collection that has a weight of 6.2 gm and 25mm
Simon
3f.jpg
1931E ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 29 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21/16 mm

Weight 2.6

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This is my smallest example, I love the green patina, it was one of my earliest acquisitions.
Simon
2z.jpg
1931F ALEXIUS AE Tetarteron S-1931 Var DOC 40 Var CLBC 2.4.7 33 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18mm

Weight 2.22gm

This is a barbarous imitation and an attempt to copy DOC 40

This coin is not listed in DOC or Sear but it is in CLBC They record sizes from 20-21mm and weights 3.0 to 3.5 gm , mine is a smaller. example
Simon
g4.jpg
1931G ALEXIUS AE Tetarteron S-1931 Var DOC 40 Var CLBC 2.4.7 28 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20/22mm

Weight 1.3gm

This is a barbarous imitation and an attempt to copy DOC 40

This coin is not listed in DOC or Sear but it is in CLBC They record sizes from 20-21mm and weights 3.0 to 3.5 gm , this example is very flat unlike my other, the seller sold it as a trachy but it is not concaved in any way. This is also a very low weight.
Simon
n3.jpg
1931H Alexius AE Tetarteron S-1931 Imitation 24 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.42mm

Weight 1.8gm

This is an imitation and an attempt to copy DOC 40, hoard evidence shows many of these variations were minted , some were created as late as the 13th century.
Simon
s-1931-3c.jpg
1931vaALEXIUS AE Imitation TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 23 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.33gm

Weight 1.7gm

This is another imitation coin, the weight is a tip off and the style is not right. Imitation coins of this style were very common and were misted into the 1200's long after Alexius death.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
s-1931c.jpg
1931x ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 44 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.72mm

Weight 3.2 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This coin is a very pleasing example grading, the patina makes the photo.
Simon
s1931-2c.jpg
1931y ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 46 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.72

Weight 2.8gm

Very nice example..

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm
Simon
l5.jpg
1932 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 2 views
OBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.81mm

Weight 2.0gm

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides but the Globus Cruciger is missing due to an imperfect strike. I believe this one by style alone to be minted in Thessalonica.
Interesting find, even though Michael Hendy attributed this to a unknown mint recent excavations of the Metro in Thessalonica have shown
these coins in the hundreds, bringing once again Thessalonica back in to the fold.
Simon
s-1932c.jpg
1932A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 17 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 13mm

Weight 2.09gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides , it is a thicker but smaller in size version, I believe this example to be from the Thessalonica mint.
Simon
s-1932-3c.jpg
1932B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 27 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17/15mm

Weight 2.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. Some official, some not. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins.
Simon
s-1932-2c.jpg
1932C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 28 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 1.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

This example I have always admired, the portrait of Alexius is so simple it is beautiful. Reminds me of a Guy Fox mask.
Simon
s-1932-4c.jpg
1932D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 IMITATION 22 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight .6 gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace. Imitation perhaps produced in the 13th century.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Very thin flan light weight, patina makes it an interesting example.
Simon
s-1932-5c.jpg
1932E ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 21 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.5/14

Weight 1.6mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

Again the cross on this coin was my main interest for the collection.
Simon
s-1932-6c.jpg
1932F ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 22 views
OBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16/14mm

Weight 1.1gm



DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

This example has the inscription on the cross reversed. Also the design of the cross is a bit more elaborate. I believe this to be a barbarous imitation. Current studies have this style from a Bulgarian mint.
Simon
j5.jpg
1933 ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 18 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.40

Weight 4.9

.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

This example appears much larger and heavier than anything else listed.
Simon
m3~0.jpg
1933 ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 39 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.94

Weight 3.6

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

This coin has a beautiful deep green Patina that hinders its photo. One of my nicest examples.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
1 commentsSimon
s-1933-1c.jpg
1933A ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 18 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17/18mm

Weight 2.7gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
s-1933-2d.jpg
1933B ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 18 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23/16mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
f3~0.jpg
1933b ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.94 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.94

Weight 3.6

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

This coin has a beautiful deep green Patina that hinders its photo. One of my nicest examples.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
s9.jpg
1933D ALEXIUS 1/2 TETARTERON ? S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 15 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21/12mm

Weight 1.3gm

Interesting point, these coin sizes in my collection represent 1gm to 5 gm, this coin is the lightest and in the best condition. Even though it is on a small flan the coin I wouldhave to say this is the finest example known.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

I have several examples with weights from 1.3 gm to 5gm, Sommer in his catalog lists this coin as a half tetarteron? and SBCV lists it as a full tetarteron.
Simon
s-1933-4c.jpg
1933E ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 19 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23mm

Weight 5.44gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
s-1934c.jpg
1934 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 17 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15mm

Weight 1.8gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s-1934-1c.jpg
1934A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 20 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.67mm

Weight 2.9gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

I currently have several examples of this coin and this is my favorite, I love the style of coin, it reminds me of the detailed coinage of Isaac Commenus of Cyprus

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm .
Simon
s-1934-2c.jpg
1934B ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 20 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16/15

Weight 1.7 gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s-1934xc.jpg
1934C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 46 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.34mm

Weight 3.00gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm

This example is a good very fine, my best example.
Simon
sear1934f.jpg
1934D ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 44 views OBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 15.76mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin has been in my collection the longest and is very different from the other examples , the flan is much thicker It differs from the examples that are showing in the market today, I believe it to be from another mint. The coin was acquired in a group lot I acquired a dozen years ago, I have no idea of the dealers origin.

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm
Simon
s6.jpg
1934XXX ALEXIUS I AE Tetarteron S- Unlisted DOC 41 CLBC 2.4.11 13 views
OBV Monogram of Alexius.

REV Bust of Emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16/18mm

Weight 2.3gm

This is believed to be a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. This example has now been published in BULLETIN du cercle d'etudeas Numismatiques VOL 52 Jan 2015 by Cedric Wolkow, three examples are shown. This one appears to be in the best condition.

DOC lists the above coin as the only example Weight 3.74gm and size at 17mm. Mine is considerably lighter.
Simon
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193834 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
d3~0.jpg
1939 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 2 Constantinople Second Coinage SBCV-193931 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: r hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.
REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 32mm

Weight 4.38gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 3.73gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 30 mm to 34mm
Simon
b5~0.jpg
1940 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 3 Constantinople Third Coinage Variation B SBCV-194038 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Pellet in each limb of the cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 30.57mm

Weight 4.3gm

DOC lists 5 examples of type B with weights from 4.22gm to 4.43gm and sizes from 30 mm to 31mm
Simon
p6~0.jpg
1941 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8 Constantinople SBCV-194127 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, holds sword in l. hand.

Size 31.13 mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists several variations 4 examples total with weights from 3.56gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 32 to 34 mm.
Simon
q6~0.jpg
1942 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8c Variation II Constantinople SBCV-194224 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold patriarchal cross on a long shaft at the base of which three steps.

Size 30.47mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 9 examples total with weights from 3.11gm to 4.40gm and sizes from 30 to 33 mm.
Simon
1944.jpg
1944 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 10 Constantinople SBCV-194433 viewsOBV IC XC in field
Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision,collar piece and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. gl.cr

Size 29.10

Weight 4.9gm

DOC lists 20 examples total with weights from 2.59gm to 5.00 gm and sizes from 28 to 30 mm. It has two variations A and B , both are equal in rarity , the difference is a stroke on shaft on type B.

This coin is very heavily silvered, it was part of a hoard that was once thought to be electrum, it is not, just very heavily silvered.
Simon
4c~1.jpg
1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 61 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm

I have this coin in the best of type gallery. Beautiful example.
Simon
2s.jpg
1945 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 24 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 20.14mm

Weight 4.5.gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
1945.jpg
1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 26 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm
Simon
s-1945-1c.jpg
1945A JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 22 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.87mm

Weight 4.3gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

Interesting example because of the ancient graffiti on Christ, also the OC of the obverse gives the impression Christ is seated, he is not
Simon
s-1945c.jpg
1945B JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 3.8gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

John IIs Metro tetartera are easy to come by, the do not have the same rarity as the other emperors metro issues. This one has been in my collection near the beginning , it grades as fine an evenly worn.
Simon
2p.jpg
1945C JOHN II METROPOLITIAN ( HALF?)TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 51 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 2.18 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1946c.jpg
1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 49 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.71mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm

Beautiful unique coin design that no other emperor duplicated.
Simon
b5.jpg
1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 28 views
OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 19mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm
Simon
h3~3.jpg
1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2 22 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.71mm

Weight 4.2gm

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm
Simon
s-1946-2c.jpg
1946a JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.224 views1946 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1946 DOC 13 CLBC 3.4.2

OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size

Weight

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 9 examples with weights from 2.97gm to 4.57gm and sizes from 17mm to 20mm

Very old example in my collection, would grade as only fine. These coins rarely come to market and when they do the design does not command a high price. Mary was the patron of Constantinople, she is seen in much of the coinage minted there.
Simon
s6~0.jpg
1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194724 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
septsev_RIC702.jpg
195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS sestertius31 viewsobv: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII (laureate head right)
rev: DIVI M PII F PM TRP III COS II PP (Septimius Severus standing left on left, holding Victory and spear, being crowned by Roma to right, holding parazonium), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC IVi 702 (R), C.128 (15frcs)
mint: Rome
20.11gms, 28mm
Rare

This coin is commemorated that Septimius Severus adopted himself into the family of Marcus Aurelius. The reverse legend DIVI Marci PII Filius shows the false assumption of an illustrious genealogy, Severus rendered himself particularly acceptable to the soldiers and to the uneducated classes of people. It was also from this circumstance that he acquired the power of conferring upon his son Bassianus (Caracalla) the name of Antoninus.
berserker
y4~1.jpg
1951 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8e Thessalonica SBCV-195128 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold between them labarum on a long shaft at the base of which a small globe.

Size 30.48mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.98gm to 4.12gm and sizes from 31 to 33 mm.
Simon
g3.jpg
1952 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 11 Thessalonica SBCV-1952 32 viewsOBV MO OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion , seated upon throne without back; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast

REV Full-Length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 27.19mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 5 examples total with weights from 2.65gm to 4.46 gm and sizes from 27 to 28 mm.
Simon
y5~0.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 28 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 4.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
1 commentsSimon
x4.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation94 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size

Weight

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm
3 commentsSimon
1953.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON Thessalonica SBCV-1953 DOC IV 14 CLBC 3.4.3 20 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
Simon
i3.jpg
1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 53 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17mm

Weight 3.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This is a smaller flan example, still has the weight of a full Tetarteron but a smaller flan than most. The details on this coin give it a grade of VF , very pleasing example.
Simon
h4~0.jpg
1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation 28 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.17mm

Weight 3.6gm

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

Simon
f3.jpg
1953B JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 24 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21mm

Weight 6.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This one is in the collection because of its heavy weight. I would grade it at VG/aF However this is the heaviest I have seen listed anywhere.
Simon
g5.jpg
1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 19 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
1953V.jpg
1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 17 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
i6.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 22 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h5.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 20 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
sear1954.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 56 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.38mm

Weight 1.7mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
p7.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.53 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size

Weight

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This is a nice example easily grading aEF/EF Off center slightly on OBV cutting off part Christs head.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h6.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.


Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
Sear1954A.jpg
1954B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.555 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.25mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today�s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
i5.jpg
1954CV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
s-1945-2c.jpg
1954DV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 16mm

Weight 1.9gm
This coin even though in poor condition is also an example of the Right arm raised .l. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
ComparisonJohnIIS1945.jpg
1954E JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 and S-1954V68 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Bothe examples are in excellent condition, the top is S-1954 Christ hand is on book. The bottom is the variation with Christ hands raised in benediction.

Size 19mm ( Bottom coin.)

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the l. hand is raised much higher than normal. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
s-1955-1c.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 43 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16.81mm

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
1955.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 23 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-3a.jpg
1955A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 59 views
OBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-4c.jpg
1955B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 16 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 17.22mm

Weight 2.17gm

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s1967B.jpg
1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 46 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 18/17mm

Weight 2.4gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

This is one of my two examples of this coin and would grade as only fine, few years back a small batch of these in beautiful condition were on ebay but I lacked the funding to add to my collection. To this day nice examples or any examples are rarely seen.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
o5~0.jpg
1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 21 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 19mm

Weight 3.54gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

My nicest example, Both Christ and Manuel are depicted as young men.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
s1967.jpg
1967A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 51 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 17.97 mm

Weight 3.2 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Lightly nicer than my other example , the reverse would grade as aVF, the obv has an old collectors mark or museum mark on it.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
c3~2.jpg
1968 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.2 49 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 16/20mm

Weight 3.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
4s.jpg
1968A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.2 43 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r.