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countermark2.JPG
24 viewsJRoME
countermark.JPG
21 viewsJRoME
Ancient_Counterfeits_Trajan_Limes_Falsum_Fortuna.jpg
63 viewsTrajan Limes Falsum?
Imitating a Dupondius, RIC 502 or RIC 591
Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V (VI?) P P
Apparently a double strike, which means that the coin was struck, not cast.
Rev: S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI
Fortuna standing l., holding rudder and cornucopiae
28mm, 3.31g
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Severus_Alexander_Fourree.jpg
23 viewsFourree Denarius, Severus Alexander, copying RIC 196
Obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG
Laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder
Double strike
Rev: FORTVNAE REDVCI
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae.

18mm, 3.04g
klausklage
maraveidi.jpg
17 viewsSpain, New World Colonies under Philip II 1551-1555. Copper 4-Maravedis. Countermarked IIII and dated counter-mark on reverse.Patrick O3
eightmaravedis.jpg
18 viewsSpain, New World Colonies under Philip II 1551-1555. Copper 8-Maravedis. Countermarked and obliterated monogram and castle on reverse.Patrick O3
TAMAR___DAVIT_Regular_Coinage.jpg
80 viewsGEORGIAN KINGDOM, QUEEN TAMAR, (1184-1213 AD) K'ORONIKON, 420 = 1200 AD; Obv.: Bagratid royal emblem in the form of a standard, to left and right: Initials for T'amar and David; in the corners, Georgian date formula, K'K V K (420 of the Paschal cycle = AD 1200). Two Counterstamps. Rev.: Christian inscriptions in arabic script, which reads: 1st line: Malekat al-Malekaat(s) / 2nd line Jellal Al-Dunya Wal Din / 3rd line : Tamar Ibnat Kurki / 4th line : Zahir Al-Massih. Translation: Queen of Queens Glory of the World and Faith T'amar daughter of Giorgi Champion of the Messiah. Reference: LANG # 11.

Reverse inscriptions read :
ملكة الملكات
جلال الدنيا و الدين
تمار ابنة كوركى
ظهير المسيح
dpaul7
timurid-01.jpg
9 viewsTIMURID: Abu Sa'id, 1451-1469, AR tanka, NM, ND, A-2417 variant, unknown counter-mark on issue of Abu Sa'id dated AH873SpongeBob
001a.jpg
Collection overview143 viewsAll my countermarked Spanish coins.

Click on the picture to enlarge.
1 commentsmauseus
Tiberius_RIC_90.jpg
3 Tiberius Countermarked AE 3029 viewsTIBERIUS
AE30 of uncertain mint in Commagene
19-20 A.D.

Laureate head right, with countermark: head of Hercules within circle / Winged caduceus between two cornucopiae.

RIC 89, RPC 3868. RIC 89. BMC 174.
Thanks to FORVM member R. Smits for helping to ID the countermark.
RI0053
1 commentsSosius
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c.jpg
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 64 12 BCE27 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
Roman_Prov.jpg
26 Geta?23 viewsNever nailed this one down. It was discussed here:

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=70693.msg443086#msg443086

From FORVM member Pscipio:
"Probably Geta as Caesar rather than Caracalla, cf. SNG Aulock 7165 for what looks like an obverse die match (different reverse type). Note that a similar left facing portrait also exists for Caracalla, but laureate, thus as Augustus: SNG Aulock 7162, which is clearly from the same hand and therefore probably belongs to the same emission.

The countermark appears to be Howgego 68."
Sosius
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_910_Tumanbay_II.jpg
Mamluks (Bahri). `Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din Ali) (778-783 A.H. = 1377-1381 A.D.)14 viewsBalog 509 Plate XX 509a-b; SNAT Hamah 632-634; Album 963

AE fals, Hamah mint, undated; 1.63 g., 18.50 mm. max.

Obv.: Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots. الملك المنصور (al-Malik al-Manusr) / tentatively ضرب طرابلس (duriba Tripoli per Balog but Hamah mint per SNAT)

Rev. Six-petaled flower, resembling a lotus, petals forming a counter-clockwise whorl.

Ali was the son of Sha'ban II and the great-grandson of Muhammad I. He was installed as sultan at age nine upon the death of his father in a revolt. He died four years later.

Attribution courtesy of Mervin.
Stkp
KAFFA_PUL_cm.jpg
Pul with Kaffa c/m5 views
CRIMEA, GOLDEN HORDE, (with Genoese countermark)

Anonymous AE - Pul

Obverse: uncertain Ornament, Kaffa Genoese trading colony; Circular countermark arms of Genoa with partitioned portal, within circular frame of dots.

Reverse: uncertain Ornament

Mint: Uncertain (Bulghar?)

Minted: 14th Century (?) cm - 1420 - 1475

Notes: Fair/Fair(c/m a/VF), Crude

Ref: Retowski, Coins with Genoese Countermarks 2


jimbomar
103265-1_(2)_-_Copy.jpeg
Zeugma, Philip II, 9 viewsPhilip II, Zeugma, Commagene, 29mm, countermark (eagle), SNG Copenhagen 35.Ancient Aussie
186.jpg
Г (incised)405 viewsPISIDIA. Ariassus. Julia Mamaea. 25. A.D. 222-235. Obv: IOVΛIAMA-MEAC(EB...). Diademed and draped bust right; Incises countermark before. Rev: (A)PIACC(EΩN). Dioscuri standing naked, each infront of a horse, holding a spear; above star in crescent. Ref: BMC -; SNG France (3) -; SNG Aul -. Axis: 195. Weight: 9.29 g. CM: Г (incised), incuse, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 778 (11 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
003~1.jpg
Γ in rectangular punch298 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVA)TEIP-HNΩN. Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder. Ref: BMC -; cf. Sear 3072 (same obv. die). Axis: 165. Weight: 7.92 g. CM: Γ in rectangular punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 772, 774 or 777 (?). Note: The coin is light for 772, has greater greater diamater than 774 and is not as late as 777. Collection Automan.
Automan
171.jpg
Δ and KA (monogram of)295 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Severus Alexander. 28. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AV▪K▪M▪AVP▪CEOVHPAΛEZA-NΔPO. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) on chest, (2) partly under (1). Rev: CEΛE(-YKEΩN)KAΛY-KA-ΔNΩ. Tyche of Seleuceia seated left on rock in distyle shrine, holding grains; river-god Calycadnus swimming left below. Ref: BMC -; SNG Levante Supp. 196 (same obv. die, var. rev. leg.). Axis: 195. Weight: 9.91 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Monogram of K and A, in shaped punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 618 (52 pcs). Note: The countermark likely refers to Calycadnum. Collection Automan.Automan
092n.jpg
Δ and NIKO308 viewsMOESIA INFERIOR. Nikopolis ad Istrum. Septimius Severus. 27. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (VK)ΛCEΠ-CEVHPOC (...) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark (1) on shoulder. Rev: VΠAVPΓAΛΛOVNIKOΠOΛITΠPOCIC. River-god reclining left, leaning against urn (?), holding branch in right hand; Countermark (2) to left. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 60. Weight: 11.68 g. CM(1): Δ, incuse punch, 7 x 6 mm. Howgego 782 (3 pcs). CM(2): NIKO, incuse, 14 x 5 mm. Howgego 553 (3 pcs, 2 of which on reverse). Note: All coins that have the Δ c/m apparently also bear the NIKO c/m and vice-versa, so they must have been applied at the same time. Collection Automan.Automan
005n.jpg
Δ and Six-pointed star291 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. 28. A.D. 235-238. Obv: IMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on bust. Rev: NIN-C-CLAV. Colonist ploughing behind two oxen, in background vexillum. Ref: BMC 8. Axis: 360. Weight: 9.86 g. CM (1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM (2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
006n.jpg
Δ containing dot270 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Gordian III. 33. A.D. 238-244. Obv: (ANTΩNI)OC-(ΓΩPΔIAN)OC, (C)EBA. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: CELEUKEΩ-N-(TΩΠPOCTΩK)-AΛV-KAΔ-NΩ. Athena standing left, holding Nike in right hand and resting left hand on shield, behind which rises a spear. Ref: BMC 37. Axis: 180. Weight: 19.13 g. CM: Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, c. 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. Collection Automan. Automan
170.jpg
Δ containing dot215 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. 23. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (IMP)MAXIMINVΓPI. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: NI-NI-CL-Ω-ΩΔ. Two vexilla. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 180. Weight: 6.92 g.CM: Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
007n.jpg
Δ in circular punch240 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Septimius Severus. 22. A.D. 193-211. Obv: ()-CEOYHPON(). Laureate head right; countermark on shoulder. Rev: ()-MHTPOΠ(). Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 28v; BMC -. Axis: 360. Weight: 7.24 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Note: May bave been countermarked during reign of Elagabalus, although this is uncertain since the coins of Elagabalus were too small to be countermarked Δ, and no coins were issued after his reign. Collection Automan.Automan
008n.jpg
Δ in circular punch279 viewsIONIA. Smyrna. Civic. 20. Time of Gordian to Valerian. Obv: .IEPACVNKΛHTOC. Laureate and draped bust of the Roman Senate right, countermark on bust. Rev: CMVPΓNE-ΩKOPΩN. Figure of Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia, inside tetrastyle temple. Ref: Ex. Lindgren II:556; BMC 233. Axis: 180. Weight: 4.95 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 791 (34 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably not applied before the time of the joint reign of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
047n.jpg
Δ in circular punch274 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Civic. 24. First half of 3rd century A.D. Obv: .TE-IOC. Diademed and draped bust of Teos right; countermark on neck. Rev: TIAN-ΩN. Dionysus standing facing, head left, emptying contents of cantharus, holding thyrsus. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 928ff (obverse).Axis: 30. Weight: 5.72 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 789 (34 pcs). Note: The latest coin bearing this countermark was issued for Hostilian. Collection Automan.Automan
102n.jpg
Δ in circular punch261 viewsUncertain mint, likely of Balkan origin. Septimius Severus. 28 (4 Assaria?). A.D. 193-211. Obv: (...)CE(...). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark behind head. Rev: Inscription largely obliterated, N (?) in exurge. Artemis (?) running right. Axis: 225. Weight: 13.09 g. CM: Δ in circular punch. Howgego 781, 783, 784 (?). Note: Δ countermarks have recently been found on many coins of the region, indicating that the coins in question are valued at 4 assaria. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
107.jpg
Δ in circular punch220 viewsMACEDON (?). Thessalonica (?). Augustus. 22. 27 B.C.- A.D. 14. Obv: KAIΣAP-(ΣEBAΣTOΣ) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before chin. Rev: Inscription obliterated. City ethnic in wreath. Weight: 9.25 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 706 (1 pc). Note: Howgego lists only one (!) coin of the period, where the countermark may be a Δ. That coin was struck for Octavian in Thessalonica, dated to 28/27 B.C. It is listed as "not verified" and the countermark described as A or Δ. In regard to [107], the countermark is very clearly Δ! Collection Automan.Automan
168.jpg
Δ, 6-pointed star and Nike188 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. 28. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (...MA)XIMINVΓP(A)UTΛ or similar. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 4 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on shoulder; (3) before chest, (4) behind neck. Rev: (C)-OLN-(I)NI-CLAUΔ. Colonist ploughing behind two oxen, in background vexillum, star before colonist. Ref: BMC 8 (var. obv. leg.). Axis: 210. Weight: 10.70 g. CM(1): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(2): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. . Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(3-4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm (not certain!). Howgego 262 (34 pcs). Note:The sequence of application appears to have been (1) Δ in circle (669), (2) six-pointed star (451), and (3) Nike (262). Collection Automan.Automan
013n~0.jpg
Δ, six-pointed star, eagle and Nike (6 cmks!)204 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. 27. A.D. 235-238. Obv: OIMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 6 countermarks: (1) to right, before bust, (2) on lower part of bust, (3) on neck, (4) behind and on back of head, (5) on upper part of head, (6) before head. Rev: NINIC-OL-CLA-UΔI, OPOLI in ex. Tetrastyle temple containing emperor, standing left, holding patera and spear. Ref: BMC 10; Sear GIC 3548 (same dies). Axis: 360. Weight: 9.12 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(3): Eagle standing right with head left, in shaped punch, c. 4 x 7 mm. Howgego 338 (11 pcs). CM(4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm. Howgego 262 (34 pcs). CM(5): Similar to CM(4). CM(6): Similar to CM(4). Note: The sequence of application appears to have been 669-451-262-338. Automan
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ΔAK in rectangular punch178 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. 22. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: (AY)KAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, holding sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30. Weight: 9.16 g. CM: ΔAK in rectangular punch, 6 x 3 mm. Howgego 529 (43 pcs). Note: Interestingly, the title Dacicus is already part of the inscription of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
125.jpg
ΘEC190 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. 27. A.D. 54-68. Obv: KAICAP-NEPWN. Bare head left; countermark on head. Rev: ΘECCA-ΛONIKH. Nike standing left on globe, holding wreath in extended right hand, palm branches in left hand. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1593 (2 pcs). Axis: 15. Weight: 22.04 g. CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. Collection Automan.Automan
126.jpg
ΘEC in rectangular punch181 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. 23. A.D. 54-68. Obv: NE(PΩNC)EBAΣΣ-TOΣKAIΣAP (sic.). Bare head left; countermark across neck. Rev: ΘECCAΛ-ONIKH-ΩN in three lines in oak-wreath, eagle at top. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1603 (5 pcs); Axis: 180. Weight: 7.36 g. Note: The name and face of Nero have been erased (damnatio). CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Note: Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. He also notes that the application of the countermark was not directly connected with the erasure of the name and face of Nero, since this was done to only one of the seven specimens he identified. Collection Automan.Automan
026n.jpg
ΘY (monogram of)208 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Severus Alexander. 20. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AΛEΞ(A)N-ΔPOC. Laureate bust right; countermark on head. Rev: ΘVAT-E-IPHN. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Cop -; Lindgren -.Axis: 180. Weight: 3.76 g. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
108.jpg
ΘY (monogram of)202 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVAT-E-I-)PHNΩN. Athena seated left, holding palladium in right extended arm, resting left arm on spear, wheel-like shield resing against throne. Ref: BMC 114. Axis: 180. Weight: 7.60 g. Note: Same obverse die as Sear (GIC) 3072. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.Automan
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Λ (or possibly Δ)199 viewsCILICIA. Adana (?). Elagabalus. 34. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVKMAVPANTΩNEINOCCEΓ (or similar), Π-Π on either side of portrait. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on head. Rev: AΔAN-EΩN (?). Zeus seated left on throne, holding staff in left hand and patera right hand, right arm extended. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 165. Weight: 22.31 g. CM: Λ (or possibly Δ) in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego -. Note: Deeply recessed countermark. Collection Automan.Automan
042n.jpg
ΛΓΓ179 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Gabala. Caracalla. 22. A.D. 198-217. Obv: (AVKMAANTΩNEINOC) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark across shoulder. Rev: Γ(ABAΛEΩ)N. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC Axis: 180. Weight: 7.53 g. CM: ΛΓΓ in rectangular punch, 7.5 x 4 mm. Howgego 551 (5 pcs). Note: Howgego describes the countermark as either ΛΠ or ΛΓI, while this specimen reads ΛΓΓ. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ on GETA, AE20 ARABIA PETRAEA.197 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. 20. A.D. 198-209 (as Caesar). Obv: (...)ΠCE(...)-(ГETACKAICAP) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before. Rev: AΔ(PI-ΠEP)TA-MHT. Within distyle temple, Tyche seated left, holding small stele in extended right hand, holding trophy in left hand. Ref: Spijkerman 51. Axis: 330. Weight: 7.75 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
00029x00~0.jpg
94 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14
Dupondius (25mm, 5.96 g, 1 h)
Balkans region. Imitating a Rome mint issue of an uncertain moneyer. Struck early 1st century AD.
Corrupt legend in two lines within wreath; two imitative countermarks
Large (retrograde S)C
Ardatirion
00034x00.jpg
30 viewsROME
PB (?) Tessera (24mm, 5.89 g, 2 h)
FELICIA, counterclockwise around shield (perhaps a 3rd century oval scutum?)
Bundle of thunderbolts, S C flanking
Unpublished

The metal appears too light for lead and is perhaps pewter or some other alloy. Until the metal content is scientifically analyzed and found to be similar to other ancient objects, I remain unconvinced of it's authenticity.
Ardatirion
00002x00~3.jpg
31 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.23 g, 12h)
Charioteer driving quadriga right, raising whip in right hand
Palm frond; c/m: VI
Rostovtsev 722; Rostovsev & Prou 156; Kircheriano 1169-70; BM 1389-90; Milan 127. Countermark unlisted

Ex Artcoins Roma 23 (17 February 2015), lot 584
Ardatirion
DSC_6021.jpg
41 viewsROME. Musa.
PB Tessera (14mm, 1.99 g, 1 h)
Crossed cornucopia, caduceus, and trident
MVSA counterclockwise around small central pellet
Rostowzew -

Ex Emporium Hamburg 67 (10 May 2012), lot 743

The attributes of the two major commercial deities, the cornucopia of Fortuna and the caduceus of Mercury, combined here with the trident of Neptune, suggest that Musa may have been involved in shipping.
Ardatirion
uncertain.jpg
39 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.33 g)
Contemporary counterfeit
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, GPR (Genio populi Romani) around
Blank
Rostowzew -

This tessera was cast from fractured molds, likely after the they had been discarded by the mint. It is the only possibly counterfeit tessera I have discovered to date.
Ardatirion
corinth_tessera.jpg
34 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.37 g)
Pegasos flying left; [COR?] below
Blank
BCD Corinth 529 (this coin)

Ex BCD Collection (Lanz 105, 26 November 2001), lot 529

This intriguing piece stands out from the main series of countermarked bronze type tesserae found at Corinth.
Ardatirion
Asia_Minor_tessera.jpg
24 viewsUNCERTAIN EAST
Circa 300 BC - 100 AD?
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.79 g)
Two punches: bee, Λ A flanking; Nike advancing facing, head right
Blank
Glbay & Kire -; Lang & Crosby -; Howgego -

The first punch depicts a bee with a long, cylindrical body, triangular pointed wings, and globular eyes with the letters Λ and A flanking. A second, added later over the edge of the first, shows Nike striding boldly forward with her head slightly to the right. The elegant engraving of the punches, both unlisted as countermarks in Howgego, contrasts starkly with the rough, unfinished flan. Although the basic types of Nike and a bee are common at Ephesos, the fabric and style differ from the issues of that city. Neither does the piece fit with the tokens found in the Athenian Agora. All considered, this piece appears consistent with what one would expect from a temporary token or entry pass, possibly of the pre-Roman period.
Ardatirion
NS_3A2.jpg
39 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A2; Corteau 278, tentative die state 6; Breton 871

Old residents state that these counterfeits were brought, in large quantities to St. John, N.B., and from thence distributed through fishing vessels to Nova Scotian out ports. And informant tells of having seen a fisherman from Yarmouth paid for his catch in this coin. R.W. McLachlan (Annals of the Nova Scotian Coinage, p. 37)
1 commentsArdatirion
00056x00~0.jpg
44 viewsHAITI, Premier Rpublique. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 25 Centimes (21mm, 1.99 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 25 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 18.1a; cf. Arroyo 99 (for official issue); Lissade 95
Ardatirion
00055x00~0.jpg
47 viewsHAITI, Premier Rpublique. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 50 Centimes (25.5mm, 4.26 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352

On 1 June 1835, local officials arrested engraver Joseph Gardner of Belleville on charges of counterfeiting. When searching his house, officials discovered dies for Spanish 8 reales in various states of completion, coining implements, a bag of gold dust, and several bags of "spurious Haytien coppers." Yet Gardner was not the only individual striking illicit Haitian coins. James Bishop of neighboring Bloomfield, New Jersey had been arrested several months before, and a third person was responsible for the issue brought to Haiti by Jeremiah Hamilton.

Today, two distinct issues of counterfeits can be identified: a group of 25 and 50 Centimes, clearly related in fabric, and two different dates of 100 Centimes. The smaller denominations are most often found lacking a silver plating, while the plating year 26 100 Centimes is fine enough to deceive the likes of NGC and Heritage. Additionally, there are a handful year 27 100 centimes overstruck on US large cents. While I have not yet found a regular strike from these dies, they are the most likely candidate for Belleville's production.
Ardatirion
00004x00~6.jpg
33 viewsHAITI, Premier Rpublique. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered Brass 50 Centimes (25mm, 4.55 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352
Ardatirion
00014x00~2.jpg
43 viewsHAITI, Premier Rpublique. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered CU 100 Centimes (31mm, 10.32 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 27 of the Republic (AD 1830/1)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 27
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 100 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM A23a; cf. Arroyo 117 (for official issue); Lissade 103
Ardatirion
bcountrm.jpg
"B" Countermark207 viewsUncertain provincial, possibly Philip II, with the reverse of Homonia holding a cornucopia and patera, sacrificing over an altar Sid
149.jpg
"EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY" (monograms to be read as)182 viewsPHRYGIA. Eumeneia. Fulvia. 19. Ca. 41-40 B.C. Obv: Draped bust of Fulvia as winged Nike r.; 2 cms, (1) on head, (2) above head. Rev: (ΦYΛOYIANΩN) to right, ΣMEPTOPIΓ(OΣ)/(ΦIΛΩNIΔOY) in 2 lines to l. Athena adv. l., hld. spear and shield. Ref: BMC 20-21 (?); RPC 3139 (7 pcs). Axis: 330. Weight: 6.84 g. Magistrate: Zmertorigos Philopatris. Note: Eumeneia changed its name to Fulvia on the occasion of Mark Antony's journey to the east in 41 B.C., likely propmting the issue of coins. After Fulvia died the city took back its old name. On BMC 21 the ethnic "ΦYΛOVIANΩN" may be purposefully erased, which also seems to be the case on this specimen! Both coins are countermarked, and the cm's may be read "EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY". The purpose of countermarking in combination with the erasure of the city name, thus, seems to have been to make note of second name change. CM(1): Monogram of EVMNO (?), in circ. punch, 4 mm. CM(2): Monogram of ΦIΛNΔ (?), in circ. punch, 3.5 mm. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
trajan_antioch_wreath.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN13 views98 - 117 AD
AE 27 mm; 18.69 g
O:Laureate head right, countermark on neck
R: SC, C below; all within laurel wreath.
Antioch, Syria
laney
ant_pius_tyche_syria_cm.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS13 views138 - 161 AD
25 mm, 7.00 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Antoninus Pius right; c/m: bust right within circular incuse
R: Turreted and draped bust of Tyche left.
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Laodicea ad Mare.
laney
commod_perseph_elaea.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS17 views177 - 192 AD
AE 19 mm; 3.77 g
O: ΑV ΚΑΙ ΚοΜΜοΔοС laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, right; countermark of head lower right
R: ƐΛΑΙΤΩΝ draped bust of Demeter or Persephone (with features of Crispina), r., holding poppy and two ears of corn
Aiolis, Elaea; ref. BMC 48, Cop 199
laney
commodus_crescent.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS -- MESOPOTAMIA, CARRHAE77 views177 - 192 AD
AE 22 mm 6.64 g
O: AVT K MANTWK[?]OCCEE (legend counterclockwise)
Commodus, Bust R
R: AVPHΛIΩN KAPPHN ΦIΛΩPΩM [AIΩN]
Crescent, fillets tied in bows below
(no longer in collection)
UNRECORDED
laney
commodus_horse_anchial_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--ANCHIALOS39 views177 - 192 AD
struck ca. 191 - 192 AD, issued by Caecilius Servilianus, Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae
29.5 mm; 6.90 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ Λ ΑΥΡ - ΚΟΜΟΔΟC , laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, facing right; two countermarks in ovals: helmeted head of Athena, and DX
R: ΗΓ ΚΑΙ CΕΡΟΥΙΛΙΑΝΟΥ ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ , emperor (Commodus) on horseback, r., wearing military dress, holding spear.
Thrace, Anchialos
Ref. cf AMNG 441, pl. VI. 16 (rev.) ; RPC online coin type temporary № 4532 (2 pieces listed) but described as "galloping" ; Moushmov 2799; rare
1 commentslaney
commodus_odessos.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--ODESSOS31 views177-192 AD
struck ca 182 - 184
25mm, 7.72 g
O: AVT K M AVP ANT KOMODOCLaureate head of Commodus, facing right (countermark near ear?)
R: ODHCC EITRN, Great God of Odessus standing left, holding cornucopiae and patera, a lit altar at his feet.
Thrace, Odessos; Moushmov 1592
d.s.
laney
septim_diony_retrograde_leg_b.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Retrograde Reverse Legend)25 views193-211 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.41 g
(struck under governor Aurelius Gallus)
O: [AV KL] CEP - CEVHRO[C P] Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: VP AVR GALL - OV NIKOPOLIT / PROC I (retrograde, beginning at 5 o'clock, counterclockwise)
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, standing left, resting with raised left hand on thyrsos, lowered right hand holding kantharos and pouring
wine
ref. a) not in AMNG
obv. AMNG I/1, 1304
rev. legend not in AMNG
AMNG I/1, 1306 (depiction)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) No. 8.14.8.8
d) Blancon list 43, 2003
Nikocopolis ad Istrum; very rare
(one of the rare coins with retrograde legend)
laney
egal_gerizim_neapolis,_samaria.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm 8.88 g
O: Bust right
R: Mt. Gerizim with arched colonnade, roadway, shrines, altar and temple; "A" Countermark
NEAPOLIS, SAMARIA
laney
tranq_singara_res.jpg
(0241) TRANQUILLINA35 views241 - 244 AD
AE 15 mm, 3.29 g
O: Draped diademed bust right (countermark at back of head)
R: Vexillum
Mesopotamia, Singara (possibly unpublished)
laney
philip_temple_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I37 views244 - 249 AD
AE 29 mm 17.01 g
O: AVTOK K M IOVL FILIPPOC CEB, laureate draped bust right (COUNTERMARKED)
R: ZEVG[MATEWN], tetrastyle temple (of Zeus?) with peribolos containing grove of trees, capricorn in ex.
Zeugma, Commagene. Roman Syria
laney
trebon_gallus_serap.jpg
(0251) TREBONIANUS GALLUS21 views251 - 253 AD
AE 24 mm; 6.78 g.
O: AUT K G BEIB GALLOC A, radiate draped bust right; countermark at shoulder
R: NIKAI-EWN, Serapis standing left, polos on head, holding sceptre and raising hand.
Bithynia, Nicaea; SNG Von Aulock 7061
laney
clau_min_cm_resb.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)31 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
AE 30 mm max., 10.66 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left; PR countermark
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
laney
cm_standing_figure_comb.jpg
(06) NERO--COUNTERMARKED49 views54 - 68 AD
AE 19 mm 3.02 g
Phrygia, Akmoneia (probably L. Servenius Capito and his wife Iulia Severa. Struck circa 65 AD).
O: draped bust right; countermark: Asklepios holding snake-encircled staff
R: Zeus seated left, holding patera and sceptre
cf SNG von Aulock 3375 (same countermark).
laney
titus_bery_cm_res.jpg
(11) TITUS31 views69 - 79 AD (as Caesar)
AE 26 mm, 9.2 g
O: Bare head left; c/m (Howgego 243): Astarte standing facing, holding scepter, being crowned by Nike on low column
R: Veiled founder plowing right with two yoked oxen.
Phoenicia, Berytus; RPC 2045
laney
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius87 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Gruebers view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye971 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
V539.jpg
00 Domitian as Caesar RIC 53993 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; cloak flying out behind, r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 539 (R). BMC 122. RSC 665. BNC -.
Acquired from NumisCorner, June 2018.

This is the first denarius struck at Rome for Domitian as Caesar. Fittingly, it commemorates Domitian's appearance at Vespasian and Titus' joint Jewish War Triumph - 'while taking part in the Judaean triumph, he rode on a white horse' (Suetonius, Domitian, ii), which was the normal conduct for a young prince on such occasions. The type was struck in three variants: firstly, with a clockwise obverse legend and DOMITIAN fully spelled out, as we see here. Secondly, it was shortened to DOMIT, with the legend still running clockwise. Lastly, the legend direction was changed to counter clockwise with DOMIT. The first two variants are quite rare, the last relatively common. On this coin we see a cloak flying out from behind Domitian. This interesting detail only appears on a few coins from the first variant and does not show up on subsequent issues of the type. Most likely this variant with the cloak was the earliest version of the type which was then quickly simplified by dropping the cloak all together.

Well centred in good early style.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
RI 001a img.jpg
001 - Augustus As (as Ceasar under Augustus) - RIC 230105 views As.
Obv: CAESAR PONT MAX, Laureate bust right. CCARN" in circle in countermark.
Rev: ROM ET AVG; Front elevation of the Altar in Lyon, decorated with the corona civica between laurels, these being made by nude male figures, usually stylized, to left and right, Victories on columns facing one another.
Minted in Lugdunum. B.C. 15 to B.C. 10.
Ref: BMC 550. RIC I Augustus 230

Rare countermark
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Marcus-Antonius_AR-Den_LEG-VI_ANT-AVG-III__VIR_R_P_C__Crafw-544-19_Syd-1223_RSC-33_Q-001_5h_17,5-18mm_3,35g-s.jpg
001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-19, AR-denarius, LEG-VI, ANT AVG III VIRRPC, Praetorian galley right,147 views001a Marc Antony ( 83-30 B.C.), Crawf 544-19, AR-denarius, LEG-VI, ANT AVG III VIRRPC, Praetorian galley right,
avers:- LEG-VI, legionary eagle (aquila) between two standards.
revers:- ANT-AVG-III-VIRRPC, Praetorian galley sailing right, mast with banners at prow. Nice Countermark above the galley.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,35g, axes: 5h,
mint: Legionary Denarius, date: B.C., ref: Crawford- 544/19, Sydneham-1223, RSC-33,
Q-001
quadrans
Aigina_turtle.jpg
002a, Aigina, Islands off Attica, Greece, c. 510 - 490 B.C.88 viewsSilver stater, S 1849, SNG Cop 503, F, 12.231g, 22.3mm, Aigina (Aegina) mint, c. 510 - 490 B.C.; Obverse: sea turtle (with row of dots down the middle); Reverse: incuse square of Union Jack pattern; banker's mark obverse. Ex FORVM.


Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson

Turtles, the archaic currency of Aegina, are among the most sought after of all ancient coins. Their early history is somewhat of a mystery. At one time historians debated whether they or the issuances of Lydia were the world's earliest coins. The source of this idea comes indirectly from the writings of Heracleides of Pontus, a fourth century BC Greek scholar. In the treatise Etymologicum, Orion quotes Heracleides as claiming that King Pheidon of Argos, who died no later than 650 BC, was the first to strike coins at Aegina. However, archeological investigations date the earliest turtles to about 550 BC, and historians now believe that this is when the first of these intriguing coins were stamped.

Aegina is a small, mountainous island in the Saronikon Gulf, about midway between Attica and the Peloponnese. In the sixth century BC it was perhaps the foremost of the Greek maritime powers, with trade routes throughout the eastern half of the Mediterranean. It is through contacts with Greeks in Asia Minor that the idea of coinage was probably introduced to Aegina. Either the Lydians or Greeks along the coast of present day Turkey were most likely the first to produce coins, back in the late seventh century. These consisted of lumps of a metal called electrum (a mixture of gold and silver) stamped with an official impression to guarantee the coin was of a certain weight. Aegina picked up on this idea and improved upon it by stamping coins of (relatively) pure silver instead electrum, which contained varying proportions of gold and silver. The image stamped on the coin of the mighty sea power was that of a sea turtle, an animal that was plentiful in the Aegean Sea. While rival cities of Athens and Corinth would soon begin limited manufacture of coins, it is the turtle that became the dominant currency of southern Greece. The reason for this is the shear number of coins produced, estimated to be ten thousand yearly for nearly seventy years. The source for the metal came from the rich silver mines of Siphnos, an island in the Aegean. Although Aegina was a formidable trading nation, the coins seemed to have meant for local use, as few have been found outside the Cyclades and Crete. So powerful was their lure, however, that an old proverb states, "Courage and wisdom are overcome by Turtles."

The Aeginean turtle bore a close likeness to that of its live counterpart, with a series of dots running down the center of its shell. The reverse of the coin bore the imprint of the punch used to force the face of the coin into the obverse turtle die. Originally this consisted of an eight-pronged punch that produced a pattern of eight triangles. Later, other variations on this were tried. In 480 BC, the coin received its first major redesign. Two extra pellets were added to the shell near the head of the turtle, a design not seen in nature. Also, the reverse punch mark was given a lopsided design.

Although turtles were produced in great quantities from 550 - 480 BC, after this time production dramatically declines. This may be due to the exhaustion of the silver mines on Siphnos, or it may be related to another historical event. In 480 BC, Aegina's archrival Athens defeated Xerxes and his Persian armies at Marathon. After this, it was Athens that became the predominant power in the region. Aegina and Athens fought a series of wars until 457 BC, when Aegina was conquered by its foe and stripped of its maritime rights. At this time the coin of Aegina changed its image from that of the sea turtle to that of the land tortoise, symbolizing its change in fortunes.

The Turtle was an object of desire in ancient times and has become so once again. It was the first coin produced in Europe, and was produced in such great quantities that thousands of Turtles still exist today. Their historical importance and ready availability make them one of the most desirable items in any ancient coin enthusiast's collection.

(Greek Turtles, by Gary T. Anderson .
1 commentsCleisthenes
Claudius_Jeton-_21,5mm_3,02ga-s.jpg
012j Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RIC I , Rome, AE-Jeton, 108 views012j Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RIC I , Rome, AE-Jeton,
avers: Countermark: TICA (mirror writing).
reverse: No legend -
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5 mm, weight: 3,02 g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC I , C ,
Q-001
quadrans
261-augustus as-ctmk02.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE As - struck by P LVRIVS AGRIPPA (7 BC)91 viewsobv: [CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT] (bare head of Augustus left) (with ALAR countermark)
rev: [P LVRIVS AGRIPP]A IIIVIR AAA FF / S.C.
ref: RIC I 426
9.81gms, 24mm

ALAR = ALA II Hispanorum et Arvacorum. It was a cavalry from Hispania settled to Pannonia at the limes of Danube (near Aquincum, today Budapest)
berserker
306-augustus as-ctmk01.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE As - struck by P. Lurius Agrippa moneyer (7 BC)58 viewsobv: [CAESAR] AVGVST PONT [MAX TRIBVNIC POT] (with AVG countermark)
rev: P LVRIVS [AGRIPPA] IIIVIR [AAA FF] / S.C.
ref: RIC I 426
9.18gms, 26mm
berserker
T389.jpg
03 Julia Titi RIC 389104 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA; Bust of Julia, draped, r., hair piled high in front and knotted low at back
Rev: VESTA in exergue; Vesta std. l., with palladium and sceptre
RIC 389 (R). BMC p. 144 note. RSC 16. BNC 108.

Titus struck a small issue of denarii for his daughter Julia Titi, most of which are fairly scarce. This Vesta reverse type is much rarer than the more commonly encountered Venus one. Julia is seen here sporting the classic Flavian lady hairdo.

Worn, but not unattractively so.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
049_Septimius-Severus_AE-26-Bithynia,_Nicomedia,_AVK-L-CE_T-CEVHPOC-laur_head-right_NIKOMH-_E_N-_IC-NE_KO-P_N-_ctastyle-temple-with-Counterm_BMC-41_Q-001_26-27mm_11,37gx-s.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, BMC-41, AE-26, Temple,65 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Bithynia, Nicomedia, BMC-41, AE-26, Temple,
avers:- AVK-L-CEΠT-CEVHPOC, Radiate head right.
revers:- NIKOMH-ΔEΩN-ΔIC-NEΩKO-PΩN, Ο Ctastyle temple with Countermark.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26-27mm, weight:11,37g, axis:1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nicomedia, date: ?? , ref: BMC-41,
Q-001
quadrans
049-Septimius-Severus_AE-24-xx_xxIVLxxL-SEP-SEV-xx-laureate-head-right-with-Countermark_CLI_COR_BMC-xx_Corinth_Q-001_5h_24mm_6,79gx-s~0.jpg
049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Corinth, AE-24, Demeter standing right,62 views049p Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), Corinth, AE-24, Demeter standing right,
avers:- xxIVLxxL-SEP-SEV-xx, Laureate head right with Countermark (Yung boy head right).
revers:- CLI-COR, Demeter (?) standing right, holding sceptre (?) and patera.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 6,79g, axes: 5h,
mint: Corinth, date: 193-211 A.D., ref: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII_RIC-302_C-139_Rome-213-17_AD_Q-001_axis-h_19mm_3,06g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, 123 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-302, p-258, C-139,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT_LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII_RIC-IV-I-302rev-p-258_Rome-213-17-AD_Limes_Q-001_0h_17,5mm_2,40g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),132 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT (!!!), Laureate head right. (This legend Not in RIC!!)
revers:- LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,40g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-302, p-258, (but base metal, "limes" ?), C-139,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT_LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII_RIC-IV-I-302rev-p-258_Rome-213-17-AD_Limes_Q-001_0h_17,5mm_2,40g-s~0.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),120 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT (!!!), Laureate head right. (This legend Not in RIC!!)
revers:- LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,40g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-302, p-258, (but base metal, "limes" ?), C-139,
Q-001
quadrans
053_Geta_(209-211_A_D_),_AE-26,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia,________N,_Tyche,_______-dot-_ET_C-dot-K_I_____-___N_Q-001_26mm_10,01gx-s.jpg
053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-26, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Tyche,64 views053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, AE-26, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Tyche,
avers:- ..ΠΤΙΜ-dot-ΓETΑC-dot-KΑI, Laureate head of the younger Geta right. Behind the bust countersign.
revers:- ΝΙΚΑ-ΙΕΩN, Tyche, wearing polos, standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26mm, weight: 10,01g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: 209-211 A.D., ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 064aw img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 278a40 viewsObv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left with counter and cornucopia
Minted in Rome, A.D. 209
References: VM 71, RIC 278a, RCV02 6306, RSC 298
maridvnvm
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_LIBERALITAS-AVG_RIC_10,_RSC_19,_BMC_45_Q-001_5h_18,5-19,5mm_2,09g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 010, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERALITAS AVG, Liberalitas standing left, #169 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 010, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERALITAS AVG, Liberalitas standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 10, p-, RSC 19, BMC 45,
Q-001
quadrans
Gordianus-III__AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-MANT-GORDIANVS-AVG_LIBERALITAS-AVG-II_S-C_Roma-240-RIC-269a_Q-001_17_91ga-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 269a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, LIBERALITAS AVG II, 202 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 269a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, LIBERALITAS AVG II,
avers:- IMP-CAES-MANT-GORDIANVS-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- LIBERALITAS-AVG-II, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and two cornucopiae; S-C across fields.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 28,0-30,0mm, weight: 17,91g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 240 A.D., ref: RIC-269a, C-136,
Q-001
quadrans
654Hadrian_RIC841.jpg
0841 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Africa OSTROGOTHS. Uncertain king. Follis circa VI cent.20 viewsReference. very rare
RIC 841; C 147. BMC 1714. MEC I, 66 for countermark.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate and draped bust right; in front XLII.

Rev. AFRICA
Africa reclining left, wearing elephant-trunk, holding scorpion and cornucopia; in front, basket of corn.

12.22 gr
26 mm
6h

From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection.
okidoki
trajan_RIC642.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD71 viewsobv: [IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP] (laureate, draped bust right)
rev: [ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA IN POTESTATEM P R REDACTAE] (Trajan standing to the front, head turned right, holding spear and parazonium; on both sides of him and reclining are the three females figures, Armenia, Euphrates, Tigris), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 642 (R), BMC 1039, C.39 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
22.41gms, 33mm
Rare

History: Trajan declared war against the Parthians, after overrunning Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, he defeated in every encounter, establishing several governments, and thereby gaining from the Roman Senate the title of Parthicus.

This coin is worn enough, even the legends are disappeared, too, but shows the result about one of the most impotant Roman conquest.
berserker
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
Aug_and_Caesar_2_v3.jpg
1) Julius Caesar & Octavian27 viewsJulius Caesar & Octavian
AE23 of Thessalonika.

ΘΕΟΣ, laureate head of Divus Julius right, countermark on neck / ΘΕΣΣΑΛΟΝΙΚΕΩΝ, bare head of Augustus right.

RPC 1554
RM0017
Sosius
IMG_0134.JPG
1.0 Khusroe II69 viewsKhusroe II
Sassanian (Persian) Empire
Silver Dirhem
30 mm.

Khusroe II conquered Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire, but soon lost it in a counter offensive by Emperor Heraclius.
Zam
686_P_Hadrian_RPC1015.jpg
1014A BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian AE 33 Octastyle temple39 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1014A;cf SNG von Aulock-284; cf SNG Hun. 1049
S is graffito

Issue I. 7

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right Countermark dot/S

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Octastyle temple on podium; Nikes on raking cornices and on apex

25.89 gr
32 mm
7h
okidoki
Rep_AR-Den_MN-Fonteius_Heads-Dioscuri-r-in-field-PP__MN-FONTEI_countermark-F_Crawford-307-1a_Syd-566_Rome_108-07-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19,5mm_3,31g-s.jpg
108-107 B.C., M.N.Fonteius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 307/1a, Rome, Galley with Rostrum right, #1139 views108-107 B.C., M.N.Fonteius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 307/1a, Rome, Galley with Rostrum right, #1
avers: Laureate conjoined heads of the Dioscuri right six-pointed star below the chin, P P in front of the face, stars above.
reverse: MNFONTEI (MN and NTE are ligated), Galley with Rostrum right, F below.
exergue:-/-//F, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 108-07 B.C., ref:Crawford 307-1a, Syd-566, Fonteia 8 var.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
568_P_Hadrian_RIC495.jpg
1380 Hadrian, Cistophorus CARIA, Mylasa Zeus Karios standing40 viewsReference. very rare
RPC III, 1380, (this coin plate 59)Metcalf Type 42, BM-1063, C-274 (citing BM, 100 Fr.), RIC-495 (R2). Pinder 51.

Obv. HADRIANVS - AVGVSTVS P P
Head bare right.

Rev. COS - III
Zeus Karios standing front, holding spear and shield, both of which rest on ground; in front of the shield an eagle on a curving pedestal.

10.57 gr
25 mm
6h

Ex HJB 2016, Gemini III, 29 Jan. 2007, lot 373; CNG 70, 21 Sep. 2005, lot 995

Note.
Unusual image of a local Carian form of Zeus, which appears nowhere else in ancient coinage or ancient art. Very rare: only two specimens known to Metcalf. Our coin shares its obverse die with Metcalf's specimen 192, but is from a new reverse die. Apparently overstruck on a PAX cistophorus of Augustus, RPC-2203: the AX of PAX and the outline of Pax's lower body is faintly visible in reverse left field to the right of the C of COS, and above Zeus' head we can probably make out a leaf and two berries from the wreath encircling the original reverse type. The curious triangular indentation at 5 o'clock on obverse edge may be the lower corner of an IMP VES AVG countermark that had been applied to the cistophorus of Augustus and that was largely filled in when the coin was restruck for Hadrian.
1 commentsokidoki
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julians Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
1392_P_Hadrian_RPC1450B.jpg
1450B Hadrian, Cistophorus Uncertain mint in Asia Minor 130 AD Dionysus standing5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1450B; Metcalf 99 var.; RIC II 485 var.

HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS P P,
Laureate, draped bust right

Rev. COS-III
Bacchus standing facing, head left, emptying oenochoe in right hand over panther seated left at feet to left, scepter in left hand.

10.30 gr
29 mm
7h

Note.
Host coin countermarked by Vespasian.
1 commentsokidoki
RI_146do_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II - Bust Type C18 viewsAntoninianus
Obv: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from front)
Rev: IOVI AVGG, Jupiter standing right holding thunderbolt and spear,eagle at feet.
Minted in Lugdunum (//A). Emission 7. Officina 1. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291
Reference(s) Cohen -. Bastien - (0). RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum - Bust Type C. This reverse type not noted in RIC or Bastien for Maximianus Herculius. It is noted in RIC and Bastien for Diocletian (RIC quotes as common, Bastien 300 (1), 301 (1) and 302 (3) would appear to counter this rating)
maridvnvm
064.JPG
162 Lucius Verus40 viewsLucius Verus, Ancient Counterfeit with Faustina II Reverse

Silver denarius, for reverse cf. RIC III Faustina II A506a, Fair, illegal mint, weight 1.553g, maximum diameter 17.3mm, die axis 0o,obverse L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, laureate head right; reverse LAETITIAE PVBLICAE, Laetitia standing left, diadem in right, scepter in right

"Interesting hybrid of a Marcus Aurelius obverse with a Faustina II reverse (RIC A506a.)" ex Forvm
Randygeki(h2)
517_P_Hadrian_RPC_1662.JPG
1662 TROAS, Pionia Hadrian Ae 26 Hadrian on horse16 viewsReference. very rare.
RPC III, 1662; B I-B SNR XIII (1905), p. 215 Pionia 1 'im handel'
http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/1662/

Magistrate N(e)ikomachos (strategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, right Counter mark Senate?

Rev. ΕΠΙ СΤΡ ΝΙΚΟΜΑΧΟΥ ΠΙΟΝΙΤΩΝ
Emperor on horse, right

7.9 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932050 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
384_P_Hadrian.JPG
1726 MYSIA, Pergamum Hadrian AE 30 Zeus standing27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1726;

Magistrate Cl. Cephalin (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΝΕΡ ΤΡΑ(ΙΑ) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate bust right, seen from front
Countermarks.
a wreath (Howgego 480).
a helmeted bust of Athena right (Howgego 185).

Rev. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗ ΕΠΙ СΤΡΑ ΚΛ ΚΕΦΑΛΙΩΝΟС, ΤΟ Β (in field, l.)
Zeus naked standing facing, his r. hand on his hip from which falls a drapery, holding thunderbolt in his l. hand; at his feet, r., eagle standing facing, head l., a wreath in its beak
Countermark.
Telesphoros/telesphorus (Howgego, Greek Imperial Countermarks, 267)

15.67 gr
30 mm
6h
okidoki
1792_YARMOUTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Yarmouth, Norfolk.24 viewsObverse: LET YARMOUTH FLOURISH :. Coat of Arms of Yarmouth over crossed sprigs of oak. Small incuse rosette countermark in field to right of shield. The Coat of Arms combines three lion's heads from the Royal Arms with the tails of three silver herrings, believed to come from the original arms of Yarmouth.
Reverse: YARMOUTH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; 1792, in panel below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE GLASS WAREHOUSE OF W. ABSOLON X .
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 52

This token was issued by William Absolon (1751 1815), a British ceramist who, from 1784, sold English and foreign china and glass but also later offered gilding, enameling and painting services at his shop, No 4, at the lower end of Market Row in Yarmouth.
Absolon bought in wares from the Wedgewood, Davenport, Turner and Staffordshire factories, which he then decorated. He painted dessert services with botanical subjects with the Latin name of the plant inscribed on the plate or dish and also his mark; Absolon Yarm and No 25. He also decorated Turner Ware and Cream Ware Jugs adding mottoes, such as; a Trifle from Yarmouth, or Success to the Trade. Absolon died in 1815 and although his business continued, the quality declined. Today, his work attracts high prices at auction.
*Alex
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.89 viewsObverse: Ic NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
George_III_Bank_of_England_Dollar_1804.JPG
1804 GEORGE III AR BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 48 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BANK OF ENGLAND 1804. Britannia, seated left, holding a branch and spear, her left arm resting on a shield which in turn rests on a cornucopia, a beehive is in the background to the left; all within a garter inscribed FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR. The garter is surmounted by a castellated "crown" of five circular stone turrets.
On this coin there are enough traces of the host coin discernible on the reverse, near the edge between 'BANK' and 'OF', and on the obverse below the bust to make an accurate identification of the undertype possible. It was overstruck on a Spanish Colonial 8 Reales minted at Potosi in Bolivia which bore the date 1806.
Spink 3768; Obverse die A, Reverse die 2
Diameter: 41mm | Weight: 26.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3768

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by C. H. K. in raised letters on the truncation at the king's shoulder. The reverse, which was also designed by Kuchler has the raised initial K in the triangular space between the shield, cornucopia, and Britannia's dress. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

Note on George III Bank of England Silver Dollars
Although George III reigned for sixty years from 1760 to 1820, the only crowns issued were in the last three years of his reign, apart from these Bank of England dollars issued as an emergency measure.
There had been a persistent shortage of silver coins throughout most of George's reign, and the Bank of England attempted to alleviate this by counter-marking Spanish colonial 8-Reale pieces (the pieces of eight of pirate legend) with a punch bearing the head of George III. When this counter-mark was enthusiastically counterfeited, the bank resorted to counter-stamping the entire coin. Most survivors were struck on Mexican or Peruvian 8-Reale pieces, though a few have been found to be struck on issues from Spain proper. Although these Bank of England dollars are all dated 1804, they were issued every year until 1811, and occasionally the dates of Spanish 8 Reales minted after 1804 can be discerned on them. In 1811, to take account of the increase in the value of silver, the Bank of England dollar coins were revalued at 5s6d and they stayed at this value until they were withdrawn from circulation in 1817, by which time a massive silver re-coinage was being undertaken.
2 comments*Alex
OthoDenSecuritas.jpg
1au Otho36 views69

Denarius
Bewigged head, right, IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P
Securitas stg., SECVRITAS P R

RIC 10

Suetonius wrote: Otho was born on the 28th of April 32 AD, in the consulship of Furius Camillus Arruntius and Domitius Ahenobarbus, Neros father. In early youth he was so profligate and insolent that he earned many a beating from his own father. . . . After his father died, he feigned love for an influential freedwoman at Court, though she was old and decrepit, in order to win her favour, and then used her to insinuate himself among the emperors friends, easily achieving the role of Neros chief favourite, not only because they were of a similar disposition, but also some say because of a sexual relationship. . . .

Otho had hoped to be adopted by Galba as his successor, and anticipated the announcement daily. But Piso was chosen, dashing Othos hopes, and causing him to resort to force, prompted not only by feelings of resentment but also by his mounting debts. He declared that frankly he would have to declare himself bankrupt, unless he became emperor. . . . When the moment was finally ripe, . . . his friends hoisted him on their shoulders and acclaimed him Emperor. Everyone they met joined the throng, as readily as if they were sworn accomplices and a part of the conspiracy, and that is how Otho arrived at his headquarters, amidst cheering and the brandishing of swords. He at once sent men to kill Galba and Piso. . . .

Meanwhile the army in Germany had sworn allegiance to Vitellius. When the news reached Otho he persuaded the Senate to send a deputation, advising the soldiers to maintain peace and order, since an emperor had already been chosen. However he also sent envoys with letters and personal messages, offering to share power with Vitellius, and marry his daughter. With civil war clearly inevitable, on the approach of Vitelliuss advance guard, who had marched on Rome led by their generals, . . . Otho began his campaign vigorously, and indeed too hastily. . . .

His army won three engagements, but of a minor nature, firstly in the Alps, then near Placentia, and finally at a place called Castors, and were ultimately defeated in a decisive and treacherous encounter at Betriacum (on the 14th April). . . . After this defeat, Otho resolved to commit suicide, more from feelings of shame, which many have thought justified, and a reluctance to continue the struggle with such high cost to life and property, than from any diffidence or fear of failure shown by his soldiers. . . . On waking at dawn (on the 16th of April, AD69), he promptly dealt himself a single knife-blow in the left side of his chest, and first concealing and then showing the wound to those who rushed in at the sound of his groaning, he breathed his last. . . . Otho was thirty-six years old when he died, on the ninety-second day of his reign. . . .

Neither his bodily form nor appearance suggested great courage. He is said to have been of medium height, bandy-legged and splay-footed, though as fastidious as a woman in personal matters. He had his body-hair plucked, and wore a toupee to cover his scanty locks, so well-made and so close-fitting that its presence was not apparent.
Blindado
MarcAntonyDenGalley.jpg
1bd Mark Antony Battles Octavian11 viewsMark Antony
32-31 BC

Denarius

Galley, ANT AVG III VIR R P C, counter-marked
Legionary eagle between two standards, counter-marked

Seaby, Mark Antony 26ff

Plutarch described the outbreak of the conflict thusly: That night Antony had a very unlucky dream, fancying that his right hand was thunderstruck. And, some few days after, he was informed that Caesar was plotting to take his life. Caesar explained, but was not believed, so that the breach was now made as wide as ever; each of them hurried about all through Italy to engage, by great offers, the old soldiers that lay scattered in their settlements, and to be the first to secure the troops that still remained undischarged. Cicero was at this time the man of greatest influence in Rome. He made use of all his art to exasperate the people against Antony, and at length persuaded the senate to declare him a public enemy, to send Caesar the rods and axes and other marks of honour usually given to proctors, and to issue orders to Hirtius and Pansa, who were the consuls, to drive Antony out of Italy.
Blindado
AurelianusAntPietas.jpg
1dk Aurelian28 views270-275

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex, PIETAS AVG

Zosimus recorded: Aurelianus, having regulated the empire, went from Rome to Aquileia, and from thence into Pannonia, which he was informed the Scythians were preparing to invade. For this reason he sent orders to the inhabitants of that country to carry into the towns all their corn and cattle, and every thing that could be of use to the enemy, in order to distress them with famine, with which they were already afflicted. The Barbarians having crossed the river into Pannonia had an engagement, the result of which was nearly equal. But the same night, the Barbarians recrossed the river, and as soon as day appeared, sent ambassadors to treat for peace. |25

The Emperor, hearing that the Alemanni and the neighbouring nations intended to over-run Italy, was with just reason more concerned for Rome and the adjacent places, than for the more remote. Having therefore ordered a sufficient force to remain for the defence of Pannonia, he marched towards Italy, and on his route, on the borders of that country, near the Ister, slew many thousands of the Barbarians in one battle. Several members of the senate being at this time accused of conspiring against the emperor were put to death ; and Rome, which before had no walls, was now surrounded with them. This work was begun in the reign of Aurelianus, and was finished by Probus. At the same time Epitimius, Urbanus, and Domitianus, were likewise suspected as innovators, and were immediately apprehended and punished. During these occurrences in Italy and Pannonia, the emperor prepared to march against the Palmyrenians, who had subdued all Egypt, and the east, as far as Ancyra in Galatia, and would have acquired Bithynia even as far as Chalcedon, if the inhabitants of that country had not learned that Aurelianus was made emperor, and so shook off the Palmyrenian yoke. As soon as the emperor was on his march thither, Ancyra submitted to the Romans, and afterwards Tuana, and all the cities between that and Antioch. There finding Zenobia with a large army ready to engage, as he himself also was, he met and engaged her as honour obliged him [an defeated the enemy. . . .

[Having crushed Palmyra and razed it] He then entered Rome in triumph, where he was most magnificiently received by the senate and people. At this period also be erected that sumptuous temple of the sun, which he ornamented with all the sacred spoils that he brought from Palmyra; placing in it the statues of the sun and Belus. After this he easily reduced Tatricus with his rebellious accomplices, whom he brought to signal punishment. He likewise called in all the counterfeit money, and issued new, to avoid confusion in trade. Besides which he bestowed on the people a gift of bread, as a mark of his favour; and having arranged all affairs set out on a journey from Rome. . . .

During his stay at Perinthus, now called Heraclea, a conspiracy was thus formed against him. There was in the court a man named Eros, whose office was to carry out the answers of the emperor. This man had been for some fault threatened by the emperor, and put in great fear. Dreading therefore lest the emperor should realize his menaces by actions, he went to some of the guard, whom he knew to be the boldest men in the court; be told them a plausible story, and shewed them a letter of his own writing, in the character of the emperor (which he had long before learned to counterfeit), and persuading them first that they themselves were to be put to death, [h]e endeavoured to prevail on them to murder the emperor. The deception answered. Observing Aurelianus to go out of the city with a small retinue, they ran out upon him and murdered him.

RIC 138
Blindado
833_P_Hadrian_RPC3226~0.jpg
2 countermarks (NIKE) on CILICIA Claudiopolis Hadrian Ae 28 Howgego 262126 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3226; SNG Levante 595; Lindgren 1472
for c/ms: Howgego 262 4x Nike standing r., holding wreath, within oval incuse.
1 commentsokidoki
Augustus_Odessus_mint.jpg
2 countermarks on Augustus. Odessus mint. AE 24.167 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. Odessus mint. AE 24, 8.547g., 24.4mm. G. Countermarks F. Obv: obverse bare head right, two countermarks on neck, on left turreted head of Tyche right, on right laureate head of emperor (Hadrian?). Rev: cornucopia in wreath, ODHSIT. Ex. FORVM ancient coins Ref: RPC 1801. Countermarks do not appear to be listed in Howgego. RareBard Gram Okland
049n.jpg
2 Countermarks on obverse of Geta ΠCEΠT-ΓETAKA AE24282 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. 24. A.D. 198-209. Obv: (ΠCEΠT-ΓETAKA) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, (1) on bust, (2) behind bust. Rev: (AΔPIΠETP-AMHTPOΠ) or similar. Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 48. Axis: 360. Weight: 7.28 g. CM(1): Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm.Howgego 801 (19 pcs). CM(2): Second application of same CM. Collection Automan.Automan
3290481.jpg
202. Septimius Severus55 viewsThe Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the throne. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrians Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian". This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. As (25mm, 11.07 g, 7h). Victoria Britannica issue. Rome mint. Struck AD 211. Laureate head right / Victory standing right, holding vexillum; seated captives flanking. RIC IV 812a. Near VF, brown surfaces with touches of green and red, porous. Rare.

From the Fairfield Collection.

ex-cng EAuction 329 481/100/60
1 commentsecoli
99134.jpg
204a. Julia Paula167 viewsIVLIA CORNELIA PAVLA was the daughter of Julius Paulus, who was a Praetorian Praefect under Elagablalus. The Emperor Elagabalus, who arrived in Rome in the autumn of 219, was quickly becoming unpopular. It was probably Julia Maesa, his grandmother, who conceived the plan to marry him to a well-born Roman woman for two reasons: 1) to counter his public displays of homosexual and trans-sexual tendencies, and 2) to soften the disdain Romans felt for Syrians. She became the first wife of the fifteen-year-old Elagabalus 219, but was divorced only one year later, and returned to private life.

JULIA PAULA, wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 219 AD. AR Denarius (20mm, 2.67 gm). Rome mint. Draped bust right / Concordia seated left holding patera; star in left field. RIC IV 211 (Elagabalus); RSC 6a. Toned;Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
rjb_geta_01_09.jpg
20920 viewsGeta 209-12 AD
AE 26mm
Petra in Arabia
Roma seated left in distyle temple. Small countermark, male bust right, on obverse
BMC 28; countermark Howgego 126
mauseus
rjb_2013_04_05.jpg
218a38 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 29 mm
Tyre in Phoenicia
Hexastyle temple with curved arch containing a statue of Astarte left, palm tree and murex shell flanking an altar in the foreground
BMC 393, Rouvier 2363, countermark Howgego 359
1 commentsmauseus
22006.jpg
22006 Domitian/Athena11 viewsDomitian/Athena
ΔOMITIANOC KAICAP
laureate head right.
Legend is counter-clockwise
CIΔ - HT
Athena advancing left, holding pomegranate, spear and shield,
serpent at foot.
Mint: Side, PAMPHYLIA 19.8mm 4.3g
RPC II 1527; SNG Copenhagen 415
Blayne W
22066.jpg
22066 Augustus/ IMP Countermark17 viewsAugustus/Large SC
AE As. 7 BC.
Obv: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNEC POT,
bare head left
Rev: M SALVIVS OTHO III VIR AAA F F
Legend around large S C.
With IMP monogram countermark.
Mint: Rome 26.1mm 5.4g
RIC I (second edition) Augustus 431
1 commentsBlayne W
22067.jpg
22067 Augustus/CAE Countermark15 viewsAugustus/Large SC
As
Obv: CAESARAVGVSTPONT MAXTRIBVNICPOT
Bare head right.
Rev: PLVRIVSAGRIPPA IIIVIRAAAFF
Legend around large SC.
with CAE monogram countermark.
Mint: Rome 28.4mm 9.4g
RIC I (second edition) Augustus 427
Blayne W
rjb_gor3_sel_02_06.jpg
23833 viewsGordian III 238-44 AD
AE 34 mm
Seleucia ad Calycadnum in Cilicia
City goddess seated left, small shrine at feet containing magistrates (?) name
BMC 39
Countermark Howgego 670
The plate coin from Sear's Greek Imperial Coins
mauseus
rjb_2012_08_07.jpg
24416 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
AE 30mm
Zeugma
Obv Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right viewed from the rear, weak countermark of eagle standing right in oval applied to obverse
Rev Tetrastyle temple on top of rocky hill, buildings at base and colonnades or steps up the sides, Capricorn right below
Butcher CRS 31a, BMC 29, countermark GIC 340
mauseus
rjb_val2_04_06.jpg
253a23 viewsValerian I 253-60 AD
AE 30 mm
Sagalassus in Pisidia
Cult statue in octastyle temple
Countermark of eaglestanding facing with head turned left, wreath in beak - Howgego 335
mauseus
claudius2 ant.jpg
268-270 AD - CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) - AR antoninianus55 viewsobv: IMP.C.CLAVDIVS.AVG (radiate head right)
rev: LIBERALITAS AVG (Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia)
ref: RIC57, C.144
mint: Rome, 3.08gms, struck 268-270 AD
This coin is AR!! Rare
berserker
871_P_Hadrian_RPC2695.jpg
2695 PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian AE 20 Artemis standing left22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2695; SNG France 397-8

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate, bust right, with drapery on l. shoulder and across back of neck, seen from front

Rev. ΑΡΤΕΜΙΔΟС ΠΕΡΓΑΙΑС
Artemis, with quiver and bow in raised hands, running l., head r.; above, crescent

4.81 gr
20 mm
6h

Note.
Reverse legend is counter clockwise.
1 commentsokidoki
964Hadrian_RIC274.jpg
274 Hadrian Aureus Roma 134-38 AD Spes standing107 viewsReference,
RIC 274; C.1412; Strack 272; BMC 732; Hill 798

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev. SPES P R
Spes, draped, standing left, holding flower in right hand and raising skirt with left.

7.11 gr
18 mm
6h

Oud geld

Note.
Spes was the Roman personification of Hope
the Greek counterpart was Elpis
9 commentsokidoki
513_P_Hadrian_RPC_2818.JPG
2818 PISIDIA, Selge Hadrian AE 24 two styrax-trees23 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 2818; BMC 68-69

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, and Triskeles countermark

Rev. СΕΛ-ΓΕΩΝ
large quadrangular base on which two styrax-trees in boxes; l. and r., altar

7.42 gr
23 mm
5h
okidoki
513_P_Hadrian_RPC_2818~0.JPG
2818 PISIDIA, Selge Hadrian AE 24 two styrax-trees4 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2818; BMC 68-69; c/m Triskeles countermark

Rev. СΕΛ-ΓΕΩΝ
large quadrangular base on which two styrax-trees in boxes; l. and r., altar

7.42 gr
23 mm
6h
okidoki
240_P_Hadrian__SNG_france_2010.jpg
2820 PISIDIA, Selge Hadrian AE 20 Thunderbolt25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2820; SNG France 2010

Obv. ΗΑΔΡΙΑΝ ΚΑΙCAP,
laureate bust right countermark Triskeles

Rev. CEΛΓΕΩΝ
thunderbolt, bow with stag heads on top.

3.87 gr
19 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
196.jpg
3 countermarks - A.Pius, Tyche and SAE225 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Trajan. 26. A.D. 114-116 (year 162 or 163 in the era of Laodiceia). Obv: (AVTOKPNEPTPAIANOCAPICTKAICCEBΓEPΔAK) or similar. Laureate head right; 3 countermarks: (1) on neck, (2) before face, (3) on head. Rev: (IOVΛIEWNTWNKAI)-ΛAO(ΔIKEWNBΞP) or sim. Turreted bust of Tyche right, uncertain inscription in field to right. Ref: BMC 40-52 (?); Sear GIC 1080(v?). Axis: 360. Weight: 8.37 g. CM(1): Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right, in oval punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 113 (156 pcs). CM(2): Turreted bust of Tyche right, in oval punch, 4 x 5 mm (?). Howgego 203 ? (4 pcs). CM(3): SAE in rectangular punch, 8 x 4 mm. Howgego 572 (7 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
coin241.JPG
305b. Herennius Etruscus24 viewsQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (c. 227 - July 1, 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Trajan Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in Pannonia, during one of his father's military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful on defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. On July 1, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 138, RSC 4
1 commentsecoli
coin260.JPG
321. Carinus31 viewsMarcus Aurelius Carinus, Roman emperor, 283 - July, 285, was the elder son of the emperor Carus, on whose accession he was appointed governor of the western portion of the empire. He fought with success against the German tribes, but soon left the defence of the Upper Rhine to his legates and returned to Rome, where he abandoned himself to all kinds of debauchery and excess. He also celebrated the ludi Romani on a scale of unexampled magnificence.

After the death of Carus, the army in the East demanded to be led back to Europe, and Numerianus, the younger son of Carus, was forced to comply. During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerianus was murdered, and Diocletian, commander of the body-guards, was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Carinus at once left Rome and set out for the East to meet Diocletian. On his way through Pannonia he put down the usurper Marcus Aurelius Julianus, and encountered the army of Diocletian in Moesia. Carinus was successful in several engagements, and at the battle on the Margus (Morava), according to one account, the valour of his troops had gained the day, when he was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced. In another account, the battle is represented as having resulted in a complete victory for Diocletian.

Carinus has the reputation of having been one of the worst of the emperors.

Carinus. 283-285 AD. ? Antoninianus. Antioch mint. IMP C M AVR CARINVS NOB C,radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGGG Carinus standing right, holding sceptre and receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left, holding long sceptre; B/XXI. RIC 208F.
1 commentsecoli
727_P_hadrian_RPC3228.jpg
3228 CILICIA Claudiopolis Hadrian Ae 25 Tyche standing40 viewsReference.
RPC III 3228; SNG von Aulock 5656; BMC 1; Countermark How 103. Laureate bust r

Obv: AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIANOC CЄB.
Laureate head right; Countermark female bust

Rev: KΛAVΔIOΠOΛЄITωN.
Tyche wearing kalathos standing, l., resting on rudder and holding cornucopia.

9.25 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
747_P_Hadrian_RPC3233var_.jpg
3233 CILICIA, Seleucia ad Calycadnum Hadrian Ae 27 Heracles standing28 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3233; SNG France 968

Issue Year 20 (K)

Obv. ΤΟ Κ ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟC ΣΕΒ Π
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from rear.
Countermark ?

Rev. ϹΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩ ΠΡ ΚΑΛΥ ΤΗϹ ΙΕΡ, ΚΑΙ ΑϹ ΑΥΤ (in field r.)
Heracles, wearing short chiton, standing, facing, head l., resting on club and lions skin.

14.22 gr
27 mm
6h
okidoki
1333_P_Hadrian_RPC3263_13.jpg
3262 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm 117-18 AD Tyche11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3262/13; Prieur 761; M. Prieur coll.; SNG Levante 998 var. (obv. legend); SNG BN 1401; for c/m: Howgego 843.:
c/m: laureate and draped bust right of Caracalla (AMK) within oval incuse. Prieur 761 for coin & 777 for countermarked issue;

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕB
Laureate head of Hadrian, r.; fillet border

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche of the City, turreted and veiled, seated, l., on diphros, holding palm; at her feet, river-god Kydnos, crowned with sedge swimming, right

8.74 gr
24.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 51 (15 September 1999), lot 951.
okidoki
1333_P_Hadrian_RPC3263_13~0.jpg
3262 CILICIA, Tarsus Hadrian Tridrachm 117-18 AD Tyche5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3262/13; Prieur 761; M. Prieur coll.; SNG Levante 998 var. (obv. legend); SNG BN 1401; for c/m: Howgego 843.:
c/m: laureate and draped bust right of Caracalla (AMK) within oval incuse. Prieur 761 for coin & 777 for countermarked issue;

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕB
Laureate head of Hadrian, r.; fillet border

Rev. ΤΑΡϹΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche of the City, turreted and veiled, seated, l., on diphros, holding palm; at her feet, river-god Kydnos, crowned with sedge swimming, right

8.74 gr
24.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 51 (15 September 1999), lot 951.
okidoki
779_P_Hadrian_RPC3692.JPG
3692 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As AB below. Laurel-branch countermark16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3692; SNG Copenhagen 230; McAlee 536a
Countermark Laurel-branch Howgego 378

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S C
in laurel wreath; beneath: AB

15.23 gr
27 mm
12h
okidoki
234_P_Hadrian_BMC_299.jpg
3694 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian, As ΓΔ below.29 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3694; BMC Galatia 299, p186; McAlee 536(b)

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S C
In laurel wreath beneath ΓΔ

14.10 gr
26 mm
12h

According to Howgego, the laurel branch countermark appears as an undertype on a Bar Kochba bronze, indicating that it was applied prior to 132-5 AD.
okidoki
723_P_Hadrian_RPC3696.jpg
3696 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As Єς below. 27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3696; SNG Copenhagen 209; McAlee 536c
Countermark Laurel-branch Howgego 378

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S C
In laurel wreath beneath Єς

16.75 gr
27 mm
12h

Note.
Auktion 417 Lot 298
Sammlung Lckger
1927 bei Leo Hamburger, Frankfurt am Main.
okidoki
243_P_Hadrian_BMC_296.JPG
3699 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As H below.32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3699; BMC Galatia 296, p186; var (without countermark) McAlee 536e; for c/m: Howgego 378 ( According to Howgego, the laurel branch countermark appears as an undertype on a Bar Kochba bronze, indicating that it was applied prior to AD 132-135.)

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3699/

Obv. TP.Π . ΥΙ.ΘΝΕΡ.ΥΙω.ΤΡ.ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟCCEΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust right, Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S C
In laurel wreath beneath H

15.85 gr
27 mm
12h
okidoki
agrippa cmk as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)76 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)(with Vespasian countermark)
rev: - / S.C. (Neptune holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left)
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
10.51gms, 28mm
Rare with this cmk

The capricorn originally a sign related to Augustus, it became a symbol of Vespasian' reign also. This countermark often attributed to Vespasian during the civil war, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region. The emblem beneath could be variously interpreted as a plough or a globe with ships rudder, or maybe instrument. This Agrippa coin with Vespasian cmk was found in the balkan region, too. Top of the picture is the original counterstamp-mint.
berserker
athens-counter.jpeg
4 countermarks on Athens Tetradrachm185 views449-413 B.C. Attica Old style Tetradrachm

Obverse: Head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, hair in parallel curves. 4 countermarks across cheek.

Reverse: AOE Right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square. Test cut and counter punch, and countermark.

1 commentsDk0311USMC
akragas_cm.jpg
405 - 392 B.C.; Herakles Head Countermark. Bronze hemilitron12 viewsAkragas, Sicily, 405 - 392 B.C.; Herakles Head Countermark. Bronze hemilitron, Calciati I p. 197, 92; for undertype: Calciati I pg. 176, 42, F, countermark Fine, 20.660g, 27.5mm, obverse large round countermark of young head of Herakles; obscured undertype: eagle grasping fish; reverse, crab. Ex FORVMPodiceps
1AnastasiusI491AD.jpg
491-518 AD, Anastasius I16 viewsAe; 22mm; 7.55g

DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG
pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Large M, star to left, cross above, star to right, A below.
CON in exergue

(countermarked in left field at top of star, circle with star?)

SB16; Doc 20a
Robin Ayers
177.jpg
5-pointed star171 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Zeugma. Antoninus Pius. 20. A.D. 138-161. Obv: AYT(OKAITIANAΔPIANTWNEINOCCE) or similar. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: (ZEV)-ГMA-(TWN), (A) in upper field to left (?). Tetrastyle temple, with periobolos containing grove, and having on right and left a collonade and in front a portico or panelled wall of two stories. Ref: BMC 1 (obv. or sim.)/2 (rev.; var. leg. breaks, though). Axis: 360. Weight: 6.03 g. Note: The meaning of the numerals on the reverse is not known, but may indicate issue. CM: 5-pointed star, in roughly square punch with rounded corners, 4 mm. Howgego 453 var. (32 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
089n.jpg
5-pointed star in shaped punch189 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Zeugma. Antoninus Pius. 20. A.D. 138-161. Obv: (AYTOKAITIAAΔ)PIA.-AN(TWNINOCCEB...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: ZEY-ΓMA-TEWN, A above to left. Tetrastyle temple, with periobolos containing grove, and having on right and left a colonnade and in front a portico or panelled wall of two stories. Ref: BMC 1 (obv)/2 (rev). Axis: 360. Weight: 8.37 g. Note: The meaning of the numerals on the reverse is not known, but may indicate issue. CM: 5-pointed star in shaped punch, 5 mm from point to point. Howgego 453 (32 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing21 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
coin267.JPG
515b. Magnus Maximus35 viewsA Spaniard, Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 383, while serving with the army in Britain. Later legend made him King of the Britons; he handed the throne over to Caradocus when he went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions.

Following his destruction of Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, Gratian, who he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25, 383. Soon after, Maximus managed to force Valentinian II out of Rome after which he fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul. He became a popular emperor, although also a stern persecutor of heretics.

Theodosius I and Valentinian II campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July-August 388. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, near Emona, and retreated to Aquileia. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and killer of Gratian, was defeated near Siscia, his brother Marcellinus again at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia and although pleaded for mercy was executed. However, his wife and two daughters were spared. Maximus' son, Flavius Victor, was defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast in the fall of the same year.

What happened to his family is not related, although it is clear that they survived and that his descendants continued to occupy influential posts. We encounter a possible daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Another daughter was possibly married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Their grandson was Petronius Maximus, who was another ill-fated emperor, ruling in Rome for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21).

Magnus Maximus AE-4

Obv: MM right, DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with two turrets and star above. Coin is nice VF for this small issue.
ecoli
1183Hadrian_RIC552.jpg
552 Hadrian Orichalcum Sestertius, Roma 118 AD Hadrian and Liberalitas 57 viewsReference.
RIC 552; Strack 516; Hunter II 324, BMCRE III 1137, Cohen II 914, SRCV II 3606 var. (band over shoulder, S - C at sides); Banti 488

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / S C LIBERALITAS AVG
Hadrian seated left on raised platform, before him sits an attendant distributing coins to a togate citizen climbing steps of platform, Liberalitas standing left on far side of attendant, holding coin counter, LIBERALITAS AVG / S C (senatus consulto) in exergue

25.81 gr
35 mm
6h

Note.
The generosity and munificent largesses of Hadrian, after having been recorded many times on various coins and in diverse ways, are on the reverse of a first brass medal of great rarity, glorified altogether by the above splendid title, "The Benefactor of the World," a superlative the more remarkable, inasmuch as, neither before nor afterward, is it found conferred on any other emperor. -- Dictionary| of Roman| Coins|
FORVM coin
5 commentsokidoki
426Hadrian_RIC582.jpg
582 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-20 AD Hadrian seated61 viewsReference.
RIC 582c; C 930 rare.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III:
Laureate, draped bust right, seen from front.

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG III in Ex. S C
Hadrian, togate, seated left on platform, on right, extending right hand; behind, an officer standing left; in front, on his right, an attendant holding up coin counter; at foot of platform, citizen standing right, holding out fold of toga in both hands.

24.93 gr.
33 mm.
Note.
Comment on Tablet by Curtis Clay.
The object in question was a tablet with a set number of shallow coin-size depressions drilled into it, say 50 depressions. It was dipped into the chest of coins like a scoop, and shaken until one coin had settled into each depression. Any excess coins were then swept back into the chest with the official's other hand, and the full board containing exactly fifty coins was then emptied into the outstretched toga of the recipient. So the object in question was a coin scoop/coin counter, meant to rapidly and accurately distribute the required number of coins to each recipient.
2 commentsokidoki
753_P_Hadrian_RPC607.JPG
607 MACEDONIA Pella, AE 26 Pan seated left17 viewsReference
RPC III, 607; Varbanov III 3714; BMC 33; AMNG 30

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRA HADRIANVS AVG COS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder (countermarked head right)

Rev. COL IVL AVG PELL
Pan, naked, seated l. on rock, his r. hand raised to head, left arm resting on syrinx.

9.83 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
753_P_Hadrian_RPC607~0.JPG
607 MACEDONIA Pella, AE 26 Pan seated left9 viewsReference
RPC III, 607; Varbanov III 3714; BMC 33; AMNG 30

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRA HADRIANVS AVG COS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder (countermarked head right)

Rev. COL IVL AVG PELL
Pan, naked, seated l. on rock, his r. hand raised to head, left arm resting on syrinx.

9.83 gr
26 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
Constans II.jpg
641-668 Constans II - follis from Constantinople37 viewsProbably minted in Constantinople. Circular countermark with christogram on reverse.Ginolerhino
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia111 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho66 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
218.jpg
A in rectangular punch146 viewsSAMARIA. Neapolis. Elagabalus. 22. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAVPA-NTWNINOC. Laureade, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (ΦΛNEACΠOΛCVPΠAΛ). Mt. Gerzim, consisting of two rocky masses; the left surmounted by temple approached by stairway; the right has altar on summit. Ref: BMC 95; Sear GIC 3122. Axis: 30. Weight: 11.38 g. CM: A in rectangular punch, 2 x 3 mm. Howgego 666 (37 pcs). Note: The "A" may stand for (Severus) Alexander. Collection Automan.Automan
202.jpg
AΔP150 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Macrinus. 26. A.D. 217 (year 254). Obv: (AVK)OΠEMA-KPEINOCCE. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (Λ)EV(KAΔIΩN), Δ N C in ex. Emperor (?) in quadriga facing. Ref: SNG Switzerland 2174 (var. obv. bust); Lindgren 2187 (?). Axis: 360. Weight: 16.84 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
201.jpg
AΔP130 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Macrinus. 27. A.D. 217 (year 254). Obv: (AV)KOΠEMA-KPEINO(CCE). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark behind. Rev: ΛE-VKAΔIΩN, (Δ N C) in ex. Emperor (?) in quadriga, galloping right. Ref: Sear GIC 2956. Axis: 360. Veight: 15.97 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
200.jpg
AΔP166 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. 20. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: AYKAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or sim.Laur. head right; CM on neck. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, hld. sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30. Weight: 6.52 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Note: Interestingly, no coins countermarks "AΔP" are also countermarked "ΔAK". "ΔAK" is clearly the more common of the two countermarks. The meaning of "AΔP" is uncertain. There are also coins of Macrinus from Leucas countermarked "AΔP", and Howgego therefore argues that it cannot refer to Hadrian. It seems odd, though, that issues of Trajan and Macrinus (but NONE of intervening emperors) should have been countermarked at the same time. If this really were the case, one would expect coins of Trajan to be heavily worn, which is not the case. Collection Automan.Automan
TrajanLeucas.jpg
AΔP on Trajan AE21259 viewsTrajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Leucas, Coele-Syria
9239. Bronze AE 21, SGI 1082, F, 7.73g, 21.1mm, 0o, Leucas ad Chrysoroas mint, 102/103 A.D.; obverse AY KAI NEP TPAIANOC [ ... ], laureate head right, countermarked; reverse LEIKADIWN KLAYDIEWN, Trajan, holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right; date EN (year 55 of the Era of Leucas = 102/103 A.D.); $90.00
The obverse countermark appears to read ADR, Emperor Hadrian; however a nearly identical mark has been interpreted as DeltaAK, Trajan's title Dacius.
1 commentswhitetd49
abdera_cm.jpg
Abdera, Ptolemy III/ griffin; countermark48 viewsAbdera , 281 - 200 BC 22. 5.2g. Svoronos 929, Lindgren 740, SNG Cop 380, RPC II -, BMC Thrace -, AMNG II -, Abdera mint; obverse head of Ptolemy III right, circular countermark of a club; reverse ΑΒΔΗ−ΠΙΤΩΝ, griffin recumbent to left, star and pellet before. SNG Copenhagen speculates the kings depicted on this series are Ptolemy III, IV, or V.Podiceps
gythium.jpg
Achaea. Laconia, Gythium. Caracalla AE20. 23 viewsObv: Caracalla bust r. Uncertain counter mark above.
Rev: Hermes standing left, chlamys over l. shoulder, holding purse in his right hand and kerykeion in his left. GYThEATWN.
Ex. BCD coll.
ancientone
01_Xerxes.jpg
Achaemenid Empire18 viewsAR Siglos, 486 - 420 B.C., Lydia, Sardis(?), 15.9mm, 5.35g, 0, Carradice Type IIIb A/B.
Obv: Great King advancing right, holding bow and scepter; countermark at elbow.
Rev: Incuse punch.
Marti Vltori
Persia.jpg
Achaemenid Empire - AR siglos7 viewsSardis
times of Artaxerxes I and Dareios II
455-420? BC
hero or king holding bow and dagger right
incuse square
crescent countermark
Carradice type IV (early) A
5,09g
Johny SYSEL
Persian_Empire_siglos_c_450_BC.jpg
Achaemenid Kingdom33 viewsAchaemenid Kingdom, Persia. Time of Xerxes II to Artaxerxes II. Circa 485-420 BC. AR Siglos (15mm, 5.53 g). Obv.: Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear and bow. Rev.: Incuse punch. Eye counterstamp on rim. Reference: Carradice Type IIIb C. Ex Ardatirion collection.dpaul7
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Achaemenid Kingdom, West Asia Minor, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, AR Siglos.13 viewsLydia 375-336 B.C. 5.47g - 14.8mm.

Obv: Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, three annulets on breast of kandys, holding dagger and bow, quiver with arrows over shoulder. Back to back crescent ountermark on the left.

Rev: Irregular incuse punch mark.

Carradice type IV (late) C: Carradice plate XV, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia p. 171, 172 ff., pl. XXVII, 18 - 19; BMC 42 Countermark.

Christian Scarlioli
Achaeus.jpg
Achaios 220 - 214 B.C.22 viewsAchaios/Achaeus (Usurper in Asia Minor) 220 - 214 B.C. Ae (20.6, 19.3, 19.1, 17.0)mm. (5.02, 6.04, 5.22, 4.04)g. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right, with corkscrew curls. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AXAIOY, Eagle standing right with closed wings, palm branch over shoulder. Counterstamp horse's head right. BMC 3, Newell 1441.ddwau
pergamon_owl_cm.jpg
AE 19.2; Asklepios/ Serpent around omphalos; countermark: owl34 viewsPergamum, Mysia, 133 B.C. Augustus. AE 19.2mm, 4.85g. Head of Asklepios laureate r. / ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ Serpent around omphalos; countermark, owl. BMC 129, 161. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
sb_1007wmomo.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100722 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, long beard (noted on r side of face) stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANA and NEOG officina B below M, regnal yr X(?) below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date:650-6CE
Sear 1007 with countermark covering the rest of the regnal yrs after X.
14/19mm 2.85
wileyc
IMG_4487-horz.jpg
Ae Pergamon with countermark Owl on the amphora22 viewsAe, Pergamon,
Obv: head of Zeus right
Rev: [ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩ]ΤΗΡΟΣ, serpent, countermark of Koinon (Galatia): Owl on the amphora
Diameter: 19mm
Weight: 9,15g
3 commentsTomasz P
Jeton_AE-_Q-016_18mm_2,24g-s.jpg
AE-Jeton, Radiate head right, Single sided, Howgego 30,99 viewsAE-Jeton, Radiate head right, Single sided, Howgego 30,
avers: Radiate head right, before the face "KOTI", belowe the neck another radiated head, looking like double stike..
revers: Single sided,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,24g, axis: h,
mint: , date: A.D., ref: Howgego #30 ,
Q-001
"KOTI before laureate bust right (Antonine emperor?) Applied twice on one example
(countermark applied at Cotiaeum, where one was found).
W.H. Waddington, Voyage en Asie-Mineure au point de vue numismatique, 1853, p.21,
1= P.Waddington 5880; P.876 (countermark applied twice).
All the coin are worn flat. One of a group of countermarks bearing the name of a city
which were applied such 'blanks' "
quadrans
Jeton_AE-_Q-015_23-24mm_3,79g-s.jpg
AE-Jeton, Two Nemeses facing each other, two countermark, Howgego # 225, and Howgego # 560, Single sided, 67 viewsAE-Jeton, Two Nemeses facing each other, two countermark, Howgego # 225, and Howgego # 560, Single sided,
avers: Two Nemeses countermark reads: CMYR and is listed by Howgego #225. (applied at Smyrna?).
The other countermark, is CAP/Γ and would thus indicate that the countermark has been applied in Sardes (Howgego # 560) and that the coin was valued three assaria
(not sure that the actual currency in Sardes would have included the assarion as a denomination, could be another denomination).
revers: Single sided,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 23-24mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: h,
mint: , date: A.D., ref: Howgego # 225, and Howgego # 560,
Q-001
quadrans
pergamon_cm_bulls.jpg
AE17.9mm, helmeted head of Athena left, cm/ two confronted bull heads8 viewsPergamon, Mysia, c. 300 - 284 B.C. Bronze AE 17, SGCV II 3956, F, Pergamon mint, 3.820g, 17.9mm, 270o, obverse helmeted head of Athena left, wreathed with olive, round countermark in center; reverse, two confronted bull heads, PERG below; nice sea-green patina. Ex FORVMPodiceps
pergamon_cm.jpg
AE20; Asklepios/ snake, oval countermark24 viewsPergamon, Mysia, c. 133 - 16 B.C. Bronze AE 20, BMC Mysia p. 129, 158, F, Pergamon mint, 6.618g, 19.7mm, 0o, c. 133 - 16 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Asklepios right; reverse ASKLHPIOU / SWTHROS, snake coiled around omphalos, oval countermark. ex FORVMPodiceps
Aegina_stater.jpg
Aegina stater47 views16x20 mm, 11.38 g
obv: Sea turtle with pellets on back and countermark (female head right)
rev: incuse square divided into five triangles.
1 commentsareich
Aeolis_aegae_2.PNG
Aeolis Aegae AE18 2nd-1st cent. BC5 viewsAeolis Aegae AE18 2nd-1st cent. BC

Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right, owl countermark on helmet
Reverse: Zeus advancing left, holding eagle and sceptre

Size: 18.01 mm Weight: 7.8 grams
Macedonian Warrior
12187643_1022107541145388_3508276178395110819_n.jpg
Aeolis, Aegae AE17. 2nd - 1st Century BC. 16 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right [c/m eagle with spread wings in round countermark] / AIGAEWN, goat standing right. BMC 10, SNG Cop 10.
17mm, 3,8 gr.
Antonivs Protti
aigai_apollo_goat_lyre_cm.jpg
Aigai, Aeolis, AE 16.8, Bust of Athena r. cm lyre/ ΑΙΓΑΕΩΝ 
goat standing right29 viewsAIOLIS. Aigai. 2nd-1st century B.C. 16.8mm, 3.85g. Head of Apollo laureate r.; countermark: Lyra 
ΑΙΓΑΕΩΝ 
Goat standing r.
 BMC 96, 10. Ex Gerhard Rohde,Podiceps
Aigeai.jpg
Aigeai, Cilicia c. 164 - 130 B.C.17 viewsAigeai, Cilicia c. 164 - 130 B.C. AE19.6 - 21mm. Weight 5.65g. Aigeai mint. Obv: Turreted head of Tyche right, countermark left. Rev: ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ, bridled horses head left. Monogram lower left. Sear #5513, SNG Levante 1634 var (monogram), SNG Cop 28 var (same), SNG BnF 2281 ff. var (same), SNG Pflzer 31 ff. var (same), SNGvA 5441 var (same)ddwau
kyme_CM.jpg
AIOLIS, KYME--COUNTERMARKED48 viewsca 3rd - 2nd Century BC
AE 19.5 mm 6.37 g
O: Head of the Amazon Kyme right in taenia and earring - countermark on lower side of head.
R: KU[MAI-WN]- horse prancing right, one-handled cup below; magistrate PUQAS
cf BMC 67-68; SNGvA 1635; SNG Cop. 102
laney
Seleucid_Alexander_I_SNG_1489~0.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC29 viewsObv: No legend, diademed head of Alexander I facing right.

Rev: AΠAMEΩN on right, Zeus standing left holding Corinthian helmet (detail missing) and a scepter, ΓΞP in field before him, ΩA in monogram. Branch counterstamp.

21, Apameia mint, 150 - 145 BC

6.2 grams, 21.5 mm, 0

SNG Israel 1489
SPQR Matt
Alexander_III_Ae_Asia~0.jpg
Alexander III - AE 198 viewsAsia Minor
323-310 BC
head of young Heracles in lionskin right
bow in quiver and club; torch
BAΣIΛEΩΣ
Price 2800
5,38g

countermark
Johny SYSEL
Alexander_III_-_countermark.jpg
Alexander III - AR drachm19 viewsmint ?
323-200 BC ?
head of young Heracles in lionskin right
countermark: Kalchedon ? - head of Demeter ?, bee below, (KA) right
Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter
AΛEΞANΔPOY
zum Gegenstempel vgl. Price, Alexander, S. 69
probably same as: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-10207
ex Sol numismatic
Johny SYSEL
25643q00.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Ancient Counterfeit45 viewsFouree silver plated didrachm, cf. Price 3603 (official, Babylon mint, 325 -323 B.C., very rare), F, plating breaks, 4.936g, 17.2mm, 270o, obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse ALEXAND[POY], Zeus seated left, legs uncrossed, holding eagle and scepter; M in left field, monogram below throneCaffaro
Alexander_AE20.jpg
Alexander III, AE2094 views20mm, 5.43g
obv: head of Alexander as Heracles right
rev: BAΣIΛEOΣ between club and bow in bow case, below, racing torch
countermark (helmet left?)
3 commentsareich
Alexander_AE20~0.jpg
Alexander III, AE2084 viewsuncertain mint in Asia minor, ca. 323-310 BC
20mm, 4.72g
obv: head of Alexander as Herakles right
rev: BAΣIΛEOΣ between club and bow in bow case, below, racing torch
countermark (lion's head)
Price 2800
3 commentsareich
005BAlexanderSeverus.jpg
Alexander Severus13 viewsBrass Sestertius
Roman Imperial - The Principate

Alexander Severus

Rome mint, 226 A.D.
Obverse aVF, reverse aF. Encrustations and deposits.
31.0 mm / 12.96 g / 0

Obverse: "IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG", laureate, draped bust right.
Reverse: "LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI III", Liberalitas standing left with coin counter and cornucopiae. "S - C"

RIC 573. Sear 7974. Cohen 129. BMCRE 312.

Ex C4S - DS (2015)

MyID: 005B
TenthGen
1376_Alexander_Severus_Caesarea2.jpg
Alexander Severus - Caesarea7 views224-225 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind; countermark - radiate head of Helios-Genius Argaeei
AV K CEOV__AΛEΞAN
Mount Argaeus agalma, wreath above
(MH)TPO__KAIC / ET Δ
Volume VI, № 6784, S 555; SM 556b corr.; countermark: GIC 12
Johny SYSEL
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River24 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this hed. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
Alexander_Tet_Phaselis.jpg
Alexander, Tet, Phaselis25 viewsPhaselis
33 mm, 16.63 g
obv: head of Herakles wearing lion skin right
rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ; Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter, C over Φ to left, anchor countermark to right

areich
alex_troas.jpg
Alexandria, Troas, AE16; Apollo/ Horse feeding r.; Obv cm lyre6 viewsTroas, Alexandria, 300 B.C. 16.3mm, 4.19g. Head of Apollo laureate r.; countermark: lyre, ΑΛΕΞΑΝHorse feeding r., below, monogram. BMC 9, 5. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
Q-025.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (possibly virtvs) reverse, unattibuted mint (possibly Londinium)15 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS AVG ? / - - / QL ?
Galley sailing right (possibly waves below)
Unattributed mint, but possibly struck at Londinium.

Burnett:

Besides the mintmarks (QC & QL) in the exergue, there are 3 other ways to identify which mint struck a quinarius. Quinarii with the reverse legend LAETITIA AVG were only struck at the C mint; those with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG and waves below the galley were struck at Londinium; but if there are no waves below the galley and the reverse legend is VIRTVS AVG then it was struck at the C mint.

Unfortunately, on this example the reverese legend and mintmark are not visble. However, the style of the galley suggests a coin with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG. It seems also that there are waves below the galley (but I cannot be certain) which would mean that it was struck at London. Additionally galleys sailing right (with VIRTVS AVG reverse legend) are most commonly encountered from the London mint.
Ice
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c~0.jpg
AN countermark in rectangle punch.82 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. A N in rectangle Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
NORMAN K
Anastasius_Sear_17XP.jpg
Anastasius I, SBCV 1712 viewsDN ANASTASIUS PP AVG
Diademed, draped bust right
Large M, Cross above, star left, Chi-Rho countermark below
CON in ex.
Constantinople
AE follis - small module, 24mm, 7.61g
novacystis
Com_Anchialos_cae_serv_city_gate_amng_442.jpg
Anchialus Commodus Caecilius Servilianus City gate35 viewsCommodus

Governor Caecilius Servilianus (perhaps 186 AD; Stein)

AE29 13.45g

AV ∙ KAI Λ ∙ AVP | KOMOΔOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

HΓ ∙ KAI | CEPOVIΛI | ANOV
Ex: AΓXIAΛEΩN

City gate with 2 towers and a gallery of 6 arches

AMNG II 442 (not depicted); cf. Varbanov (E) II 125 (depicted); Mionnet -; BMC ; RPC online-

2 countermarks on obverse. Howgego 183 (Athena helmed right) and 534 (ΔX)

rennrad12020
23175q00~0.jpg
Anchor120 viewsTitus and Domitian, 79-81 A.D.
Germe, Lydia
Bronze AE 16
F, 3.038g, 17.3mm, 0*, RPC 930, SNG Cop 135, BMC Lydia -

obv. AYTO KAI CEBAC, Laureate head if Titus right
rev. AYTO KAI CEBAC, Laureate head of Domitian right

Each side countermarked with uncertain object within round punch. One probably an anchor.
randy h2
SidePamphylia.jpg
Anchor, Seleukid type277 viewsSide, Pamphylia, Asia Minor, 333 - 187 B.C.
10094. Silver tetradrachm, S 5432 var, VF, 16.2g, 29mm, 0o, obverse head of Athena right in a crested Corinthian helmet, countermarked with a Seleukid type anchor; reverse Nike advancing left holding wreath, pomegranate in left field, KL-E below (magistrates name); sold.
1 commentswhitetd49
Ancient_barbarous_antoninianus_of_Tetricus_(ca_270-280_AD),_PAX_type,_hoard_coin_from_France11.jpg
Ancient barbarous antoninianus of Tetricus (ca.270-280 AD), PAX type, hoard coin from France40 views[IMP C TET]RICVS PIC, radiate and draped bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and scepter. 16mm, 2.18 grams, nicer than the scan. Excellent quality for these. Found in a hoard in Northern France.
These coins with the figure on the reverse bent at the waist were manufactured in Normandy, though the exact sites of their production are unknown.

Ancient barbarous radiates seem to have been produced between the reigns of Claudius II and ca.274 AD, when Aurelian banned the circulation of these small imitative bronzes throughout the Empire. It is likely that at least some of the barbarous radiates were produced after 274 AD all the way into the early 280's. The value of the barbarous imitations was almost certainly not equal to their official counterparts - they probably saw only local limited circulation, and fulfilled the role of token coinage in times of an acute coin shortage.

Antonio Protti
ANTIGONOS_GONATAS.jpg
ANTIGONOS GONATAS, King of Macedonia AE 1915 viewsOBVERSE: Head of Athena right in crested Corinthian helmet
REVERSE: BA above, ANTI monogram below, Pan advancing right, erecting trophy
Struck at Macedonia, 277-239 BC
4.58g, 19mm
Lindgren III, 105, Sear #6786 (var)
Countermarked on obverse
Legatus
ANTIOCH.jpg
ANTIOCH - Syria55 viewsANTIOCH - Syria, Bronze AE 27, RPC I 4223; BMC Galatia pg. 154, 25, 41 - 40 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse ANTIOCEWN MHTROPO THS IERAS KAI ASULOU, Zeus seated left holding Nike and scepter; pileus surmounted by star before, date BOG below (= Seleukid year 272).

Data from FORVM catalogue: About the time this coin was minted, the Parthians led by Quintus Labienus and Pacorus I attacked Syria, which was under Marc Antony's authority. Quintus Labienus was the son of Caesar's general Titus Labienus. He served under Brutus and Cassius, and after the battle at Phillipi fled to Parthia, which he had visited before as an ambassador. After several battles against Antony's governor, Saxa, they occupied the entire province and later Asia Minor and Palestine. In Judea, Pacorus deposed king John Hyrcanus II and appointed his nephew Antigonus king in his place. Labienus was killed during a Roman counter attack in 39 B.C. The territory they captured was recovered for Rome. Pacorus retreated to Parthia but died one year later in an attack on a Roman camp.
1 commentsdpaul7
cleo.jpg
Antioch ad Orontes, Semi-Autonomous21 viewsAE23, 10.77g, 12h, Denomination A; Antioch: after 47 BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right; countermark of Cleopatra VII.
Rev.: ‭[‬A]NTIOΣEΩN‭ [‬ME]TPOΠOΛ[EΩΣ‭]; Zeus seated left, holding Nike and scepter, thunderbolt above.
Reference: Butcher 20, SNG Cop 80
Notes: The attribution of the countermark to Cleopatra is conjectural, but seems to jibe with the historical and numismatic evidence.
John Anthony
6Dsqo4PxjTZ3fo8FN7QceNQ95Bbmzw.jpg
Antioch c. 47 - 41 B.C. Cleopatra Countermark. AE 10 viewsAntioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Cleopatra Countermark. AE , SGCV 5855 - 5856; RPC 4218 ff., Coin and countermark F, Antioch mint, , c. 47 - 41 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, countermarked; reverse ANTIOCEWN THS MHTROPOLEWS, Zeus enthroned left holding Nike and scepter. jimbomar
antioch_cleo.jpg
Antioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. AE 2438 viewsAntioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. Bronze AE 24, SGCV 5855 - 5856; RPC 4218 ff., Coin and countermark F, Antioch mint, 11.012g, 23.7mm, 180o, c. 47 - 41 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, countermarked; reverse ANTIOCEWN THS MHTROPOLEWS, Zeus enthroned left holding Nike and scepter, uncertain date in ex; brown patina. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Antioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. AE 2411 viewsAntioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. Bronze AE 24, SGCV 5855 - 5856; RPC 4218 ff., coin and countermark VG, Antioch mint, 11.797g, 24.4mm, 0o, c. 47 - 41 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, countermarked; reverse ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ, Zeus enthroned left holding Nike and scepter, uncertain date in ex; brown patina. RPC notes this countermark as "Head of Apollo" but it may be Cleopatra. The bun behind the head and the piece of hair dangling behind the neck are similar to portraits of Cleopatra on bronze coins from Chalkis and Cyprus and tetradrachms from Syria. Perhaps it was countermarked by the mint that struck the Cleopatra / Antony tetradrachms. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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ANTIOCHA AD ORONTEM - SYRIA53 views"Star of Bethlehem" bronze of Antioch
Anonymous Issue under Nero, AE Small Denomination, 56/57 (Caesarean Year 105), Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Antiochia ad Orontem ANTIOXEWN - Veiled, turreted head of Tyche right, countermark of star (of Bethlehem?) in left field - EPIKOUADRATOU Ram leaping right, looking back, star and crescent above
ET EP in exergue 16mm. Butcher Antioch 121; SNG Copenhagen 101
Michael Molnar, an astronomer, believes this coin depicts Jupiter's occultation of Aries in 6 B.C., the most probable "Star of Bethlehem."
dpaul7
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Antiochos I Soter23 viewsAntiochos I Soter. 280-261 BC. 14mm. Sardes mint. Facing bust of Athena in triple-crested helmet / BASILEWS ANTIOCOU, Nike walking left, holding wreath and palm; counter mark (anchor) to right. SNG Spaer 233; Newell, WSM 1369; cf. Houghton 626. Molinari
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Antiochos II 261-246 BC13 viewsAntiochos II 261-246 BC Ae 19mm. Weight 8.18g. Obv: Helmeted bust of Athena right. Rev: Nike standing left, with anchor countermark. SNG Cop 118ddwau
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Antiochos III Megas 223-187 B.C.16 viewsAntiochus III, Uncertain mint, Syria, Ae 19.6~20.2mm. 8.51g. Obv: Head of Athena in crested helmet right, ΜΑΧ lower left. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, winged Nike standing left holding wreath, anchor counterstamp in inner left field. ddwau
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Antiochos III Megas 223-187 BC. 46 viewsAntiochus III, Uncertain mint, Syria, AE20. 6.4g. Obv: Head of Athena in crested helmet right, ΜΑΛ lower left. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, winged Nike standing left holding wreath, anchor counterstamp in inner left field. Houghton 6681 commentsddwau
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Antiochos III Megas 223-187 BC. 52 viewsAntiochus III, The great. Uncertain mint, Syria, AE21 - 22. weight 9.65g. Obv: Head of Athena in crested helmet right, ΜΑΛ lower left. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, winged Nike standing left holding wreath, anchor counterstamp in inner left field. Houghton 668ddwau
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Antiochus I 280 - 261 B.C.12 viewsAntiochus I, 280 - 261 B.C. Antioch on the Orontes mint, 5.23g. 19.1~19.8mm. Obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, thunderbolt and club above, jawbone in ex, all within dotted border. Anchor countermark. Newell WSM 949, Houghton Col. 23, SNG Spaer 194.ddwau
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Antiochus I Soter, 281 - 261 B.C.12 viewsAntiochus I Soter, 281 - 261 B.C. Ae 16.9~18.4mm. 4.45g. Obv: Smyrna or Sardes mint. Helmeted bust of Athena facing. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Nike advancing left, holding wreath & palm; monogram in outer left field, countermarked - winged helmet with face plates. SNGIs 233, Newell, WSM 1370, SNG Cop 77.ddwau
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Antiochus I Soter, 281 - 261 B.C.13 viewsAntiochus I Soter, 281 - 261 B.C. Ae 13.5~15.2mm. 1.99g. Obv: Smyrna or Sardes mint. Helmeted bust of Athena facing. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, Nike advancing left, holding wreath & palm; monogram in outer left field, countermarked - winged helmet with face plates. SNGIs 233, Newell, WSM 1370, SNG Cop 77.ddwau
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Antiochus III 223-187 B.C.14 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus III, 223-187 BC, e 19.9~20.8mm. 10.18g. Antioch Mint. OBV: Laureate head of Apollo r. REV: Elephant r. surmounted by mahout, tripod behind. Countermark, horse head in square punch. Houghton 76.ddwau
AntoniaClaudius.jpg
Antonia/Claudius mule55 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Bare head of Antonia right

CERES AVGVSTA SC
Ceres enthroned left holding corn ears and torch

Provincial mint? 41-2 AD

10.83g
Die axis 180

Obverse Sear 1902 or 1903, RIC 92 or 104
Reverse Sear 1855 or 1856, RIC 94 or RIC 110

SOLD!


An interesting and rare dupondius. The obverse from Claudius in honor of his mother Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. The reverse is from a dupondius of Claudius. Both dies were in use at the same time giving rise to speculation, was this an "official" mistake from the mint or is this an ancient counterfeit? Style suggests a Provincial mint.

Encrustations and some bronze disease on the obverse is being treated.
1 commentsJay GT4
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Antoninus Pius (head of)187 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Antoninus Pius. 25. A.D. 142/143 (year 190 (?) in the era of Laodiceia). Obv: (AVTOKAITIAIΛIAΔPIA)-NTΩNEIN(ONC) or similar. Laureate head left (possibly draped and cuirassed bust); countermark on neck. Rev: (IOVΛIE)ΩNTΩN-KAIΛAOΔIK(EΩN). Turreted bust of Tyche left, inscription in field to left (?), in field to right ΓP (?). Ref: BMC 67-69 (?); Sear 1497v. Axis:360. Weigth: 9.71 g. CM: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right, in oval punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 113 (156 pcs). Note: Since the head is that of A. Pius and the latest countermarked coins were struck in A.D. 143/4, the countermarking can be dated to A.D. 143/4-161. Collection Automan.Automan
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Antoninus Pius (head of)190 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Trajan. 25. A.D. 114-116 (year 162 or 163 in the era of Laodiceia). Obv: (AVTOKPNEPTPAI)ANOCAPICTKAI(CCEBΓEPΔAK) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark below chin. Rev: (IOVΛIEWNTW)NKAI-ΛAOΔ(IKEWNBΞP) or similar. Turreted bust of Tyche right, uncertain inscription in field to right. Ref: BMC 40-52 (?); Sear GIC 1080(v?). Axis: 30. Weight: 7.64 g. CM: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right, in oval punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 113 (156 pcs). Note: Since the head is that of A. Pius and the latest countermarked coins were struck in A.D. 143/4, the countermarking can be dated to A.D. 143/4-161. Collection Automan.Automan
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Antoninus Pius (head of)198 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Antoninus Pius. 25. A.D. 140/141 (year 188 in the era of Laodiceia). Obv: (AVTOKAITIAIΛIAΔPIA-NTΩNEINONC) or similar. Laureate head left; countermark on neck. Rev: IOVΛ(IE)WNTWN(K)-AIΛAOΔIKEWN, KO in field to left, HΠP in field to right. Turreted and draped bust of Tyche left. Ref: BMC 64 (?); Sear GIC 1497. Axis: 330. Weight: 9.77 g. CM: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right, in oval punch, 4 x 5.5 mm. Howgego 113 (156 pcs). Note: Since the head is that of A. Pius and the latest countermarked coins were struck in A.D. 143/4, the countermarking can be dated to A.D. 143/4-161. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
Antoninus Pius - Corinth.JPG
Antoninus Pius - Corinth17 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth
Antoninus Pius. 26. A.D. 138-161.
Obverse : (ANTONI)NVS -(AVGPIVS). Laureate head right; Countermark before face.
Reverse: (CLI)-C-OR. Nike moving right.
26mm, 10.49 g.
CM: Laureate bust right, in oval punch, 5 x 6 mm. Howgego 56 (89 pcs). Likely applied after circa A.D. 205. The vast majority of coins bearing this countermark are from Corinth
Jerome Holderman
Ancient_Counterfeits_Antoninus_Pius_and_Marcus_Aurelius_Fourree.jpg
Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Fourree20 viewsFourree Denarius, imitating RIC 415a
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS [P P TR P COS III]
Head, bare, r.
Rev: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS
Head, bare, r.

2.76g, 18mm
klausklage
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Antoninus Pius Denarius83 viewsAntoninus Pius Denarius, Rome 145AD

ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Laureate head right

TR POT COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia, LIB IIII in exe.

RIC155, Sear 4089

ex-Mike Vosper
3 commentsWill Hooton
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Antoninus_Pius_Roma.jpg
Antoninus Pius Roma12 viewsAntoninus Pius denarius, reverse imitating RIC 273
Obv: Head, laureate r.
Rev: TR POT XXI COS IIII
Roma, helmeted, seated l., holding Victory and parazonium

3.27g, 17mm
klausklage
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Antoninus Pius,19 viewsLaodicea ad Mare mint, Antoninus Pius, 138-161 A.D. AE, 25mm 10.25g, SNGCop 351, BMC Galatia, etc. pg. 254, 57ff
O: ANTONЄINOC CEB, laureate head right; uncertain countermark at neck (the wildwinds example also has a countermark at the neck, but also as uncertain and in a different position)
R: IOVΛIEΩN TΩN KAI ΛAOΔIKEΩN, Turreted and draped bust of Tyche right; Θ to right
casata137ec
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Antoninus Pius, RIC III, 293(e) var., falsum12 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE 17, 2.38g, 17.31mm, 180
cast denar, contemporary counterfeit
obv. ANTONINVS - AVG PIVS PP
laureate head r.
rev. VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III / COS IIII
Emperor, togate, stg. l., sacrificing from patera over burning altar
ref.: RIC III, 292(e) var. (note: rev. RIC III, 293); C. 1117
F+/F-, dark green patina, rev. double struck
Jochen
Ptolemy2Phil.jpg
AP Monogram262 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II, Philadelphos, 285 - 246 B.C.
10785. Silver tetradrachm, Svoronos 714, SNG Cop 506-507, aVF, 14.08g, 26.5mm, 0o, Phoenicia, Sidon mint, obverse diademed head of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis, small D behind ear; reverse PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, SI left, AP countermark right; slightly frosty; $125.00
whitetd49
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Aphrodite (standing figure of)222 viewsLYDIA. Tralles. Tranquillina. 30. A.D. 241-244. Obv: ΦOY.CAB.T-PANKYΛΛINA. Draped bust right; countermark on lower front part of bust Rev: ()ΩNΠ ()I.KΛ.ΦIΛIΠΠON.KENTA(). Inscription around oak-wreath; inside wreath TPAΛΛIA-ΠYθIA on either side of tripod, which is encircled by serpent . Ref: BMC -. Axis: 165. Weight: 12.40 g. Note: Unpublished? CM: Cult statue of Aphrodite right, in oval punch, 6 x 8 mm. Howgego 228 (16 pcs). Note: The countermark of this coin was applied at Aphrodisias in Caria, where only foreign coins were countermarked to make them valid in that city. Collection Automan. Automan
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Apollonia Pontica Topalov 63 - Bronze Tetrachalk; Topalov 73 - with solar symbol countermark171 views350 B.C.
3.95 gm, 16.5-19 mm.
Obv.: Apollo seated left on omphalos, right hand resting on bow, left on omphalos
Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand
Rev.: Anchor; A and A[KOYΣY/]ΛEΩΣ (magistrate's name partially flattened by countermark blow on opposite side) to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p.414, 1; p.600, 63
D. Sear, Greek coins and their values, Vol. 1, p. 165, 1658,
BMC Mysia Apollonia ad Rhyndacum, p. 10, 17 var (magistrate)

Topalov Type: "Apollo sitting on the Omphalos Upright Anchor" Bronze Tetrachalk (about 350 B.C.)
Obv.: Apollo sitting on the omphalos, holding a bow in his right hand, his left hand hanging downwards or resting on the omphalos. Round solar symbol countermark over Apollo's left hand (second half of the 3rd c. B.C.)
Rev.: Magistrates' initials or names on the left or on the right. Upright anchor with thick flukes and a rectangular stock. The letter A on one side and the additional symbol of a crab viewed from above on the other side betwee flukes and the stock.
1 commentsJaimelai
AthensTet.jpg
AR Athens Tetradrachm28 viewsAR Athens Tetradrachm, 440 420 B.C., Athens, 25.8mm, 17.12g, 45, SNG Cop 32.
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right, wearing earring. Countermark on cheek.
Rev: AΘE. Owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent behind.
Marti Vltori
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AR Siglos43 viewsAR Siglos Sear 4683. King advancing right, bearing dagger & bow. Countermarks are consistent with this type. cars100
aretas_IV_foure.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Fouree silver plated drachm4 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Ancient Counterfeit. Fouree silver plated drachm, cf. Meshorer Nabataean 99 - 111, BMC Arabia 11 - 12, and SGICV 5695 - 6 (official, Petra mint, 20 - 40 A.D.), F, illegal mint, 3.364g, 13.8mm, 45o, after 20 A.D.; obverse Aramaic, 'Aretas, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people', laureate and draped bust of Aretas right; reverse Aramaic, 'Shuqailat, queen of the Nabataeans, year ?' (date off flan), jugate busts of Aretas and Shuqailat right. Aretas IV was the greatest of the Nabataean kings, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. Little is known of him because Nabataeans did not keep records. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32). Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Artemis holding bow174 viewsCILICIA. Anemurium. Severus Alexander. 31. A.D. 224/225 (year 3). Obv: ▪AV▪KAI▪M▪AV-(OVHPAΛEΞAN or similar)Δ, PON in field to left. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: ETΓA-NE(MO)YPIEWN.Cult-Statue of Ephesian Artemis facing, single stag behind and to left. Ref: BMC -; SNG France 705 (var.). Axis: 180. 13.22 g. CM: Artemis the huntress standing right, holding bow, in oval punch, 3.5 x 5.5 mm. Howgego - (?).There are no countermarked coins of Anemurium listed by Howgego. None of the (few) Artemis huntress groups noted matches this one. While 232 is similar, this coin is probably too late. Collection Automan.Automan
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Artuqids of Mardin: Najm al-Din Alpi. (547-572 AH) Dirham (Whelan Type I, 37-8; S&S Type 27; Album 1827.2; ICV 1200)46 viewsObv: Diademed male head right, ﻧﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ (Najm al-Dn; Arabic Laqab meaning 'Star of Religion') in Naskh script engraved into the die horizontally across the neck of the figure; counter-marked legend ﻧﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﺑﮑﺮ (Najm al-Dn, King of Diyarbakr); dotted border
Rev: Multi-line legend in a modified Ayyubid Kufic script continuing to right, top and left all within irregular circle with arabesque in exergue; dotted border

1st Line: ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻣﺮﺍ (Malik al-umar; King of the Princes)
2nd Line: ﺍﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻔﺮ (Abu al-Muzaffar; Man of Conquering)
3rd Line: ﺍﻟﭙﻰ ﺑﻦ (Alp bin; Alpi, Son of)
Right Field: ﺗﻤﺮﺗﺎﺵ ﺑﻦ (Timurtsh bin; Timurtash, Son of)
Upper Field: ﺍﻳﻞﻏﺎﺫﯼ (l-Ghz; Il-Ghazi)
Left Field: ﺑﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻖ (bin Artuq; Son of Artuq)
2 commentsQuant.Geek
As_Med_Lib_III_dark_red.jpg
As Medallion Liberalitas III93 viewsObverse: IMP CAES M AVR SEV_ALEXANDER AVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: PONTIF MAX TR P V COS II P P, LIB AVG III in exergue
Severus Alexander seated left on curule chair on a platform; behind him an officer and a soldier holding a spear; in front, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopiae; at left, a citizen mounting steps to platform.
BMC 312 (plate 11, same reverse and maybe obverse die), RIC 572*
Weight, 10.428g; die axis, 12h.

mix_val
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As; Liberalitas, RIC 141713 viewsLucius Verus, AE As. 11,2g, 25mm. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right / LIBERAL AVG TR P V IMP II COS II S-C, Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopiae. RIC 1417, Cohen 120, BMC 1269. Podiceps
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Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Tyche, Tyche standing8 viewsLydia, Hierokaisareia
Pseudo-autonomous issue
Time of the Severans (193-235)
Obv: IЄPOKAICAPЄIA, Turreted and draped bust of Tyche right.
Countermark "head of Artemis with quiver" ?
Rev: IЄPOKAICAPЄΩN, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia.
AE, 4.96g, 20.9mm
Ref.: BMC 21
shanxi
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Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Asklepios, snake, omphalos, c/m owl21 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE 21, 200-133 BC
Obv.: laureate head of bearded Asklepios
Rev.: ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, snake coiled around omphalos, without monogram, countermark owl

AE, 10.6g, 20.5mm
Ref.: SNG France 1815 (with countermark)
1 commentsshanxi
Pergamon_35.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, bull, owl15 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE18, 3rd century BC
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena left. (countermark on helmet)
Rev: ΠΕΡΓA, Head and neck of bull left, owl right, monogram above
AE, 4.48g, 17x18mm
SNG Copenhagen 333; SNG France 1575, BMC Mysia p.112, 20-21
shanxi
Pergamon_1.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, Stars22 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE9, 310-284 BC
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right, countermark "x"?
Rev.: ΠΕΡΓ, Two stars, Θ above
AE, 1.11 g, 9.4 mm
Ref.: SNG Cop. 325
Ex Lanz Numismatik
shanxi
Pergamon_26.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Owl with closed wings, Athena, 30 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE18
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right, countermark griffin
Rev: ΑΘΗΝΑΣ ΑΡΕΙΑΣ, Owl standing slightly right, all within ring of lines and dots
AE, 5.45g, 18.3mm
Ref.: SNG von Aulock 7488
Ex Gitbud&Naumann 2015
1 commentsshanxi
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Asklepios, hld. serpent-staff223 viewsPHRYGIA. Acmoneia. Nero. 20. Circa A.D. 65. Obv: (NEPWNACE)BACTOИ-AKMONE(IC). Laureate head right, aegis on chest; above crescent; beneath winged caduceus (not visible); Countermark before. Rev: (CEP)OYHNIOYKAΠITWNO(CKAIIOYΛIACCEOYHPAC), EΠI APX TO Г in field to right. Zeus enthroned left, in right extended hand holding phiale over owl, resting left arm on sceptre. Ref: BMC 43; SNG Cop 29; RPC 3176. Axis: 330. Weight: 4.27 g. Magistrate: L. Servinius Capito (archon). Third issue. CM: Asklepios standing, holding serpent-encircled staff, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 9 mm. Howgego 241 (12 pcs). Note: There was a local cult of Asklepios. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
BOTH_ASPENDOS.jpg
Aspendos Alexander 111 Tetradrachm 188/7 BC4 viewsObs : Head of Herekles with lionskin
Seleucid Anchor countermark of c 161 BC
16.5gm 30mm
Price 2907
Reverse- Zeus seated holding eagle
ΑΣ = Aspendos ΚC= year 26
Spear in exergue
Inscription: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
cicerokid
PAMPHYLIA_Aspendos_23.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia.156 viewsCirca 380/75-330/25 BC.
With the influence of the Olympics games , Silver Stater.
Obverse : Two wrestlers grappling; LΦ between, below.
Reverse : Slinger in throwing stance right; EΣTFEΔIIYΣ to left, counterclockwise triskeles of legs to right , Small eagle's head banker mark.
Mint : Aspendos (in our days , Antalya province of Turkey).
Ref ; Tekin Series 4; Arslan & Lightfoot 6172 (same dies); Izmir 413 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 4565; SNG France 105 (same obv. die); SNG Copenhagen 227.
Extremely fine . 10.86 Gr . Max Dia 23 mm . Struck from fresh , artistic and well executed dies.

The Sam Mansourati Collection.
3 commentsSam
42841_Assos,_Troas,_c__400_-_241_B_C_.jpg
Assos; AE10; Athena left, owl countermark / griffin left16 viewsTroas, Assos. c. 400-241 B.C. Bronze AE 10, SNG Cop 237, SNG Von Aulock 7587, F, Assos mint, weight 3.944g, maximum diameter 15.4mm, die axis 0o, c. 400 - 241 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena left, owl countermark from Pergamum; reverse ΑΣΣΙ, griffin seated left; green patina; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
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Athena184 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Gabala. Trajan. 21. A.D. 105/106 (year 152 of the Caesarean era). Obv: NEPKAIC-TPAIACEB(ΓEP). Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: ΓABAΛEΩN, BNP in field. Astarte (?) seated left, holding corn-ears and poppy in extended right hand and spear in left hand; Sphinx seated left, star above head. Ref: BMC 4-5; Sear GIC 1079. Axis: 345. Weight: 6.85 g. CM: Athena standing right, holding spear, in rectangular punch, 3 x 4 mm. Howgego 246 (7 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Athena257 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Claudius. 25. A.D. 41-54. Obv: (IMTICLACAE-AVG)ER or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: S C within laurel-wreath. Axis: 360. Weight: 13.40 g. CM: Athena standing right, holding spear and shield, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 5.5 mm. Howgego 245 (139 pcs). Note: May be an imperial countermark due to Domitian's association with Athena/Minerva, likely applied between A.D. 83-96 in Antioch. Collection Automan.Automan
144.jpg
Athena (bust of) and ΔX173 viewsTHRACE. Uncertain mint. Septimius Severus. 25. A.D. 193-211. Inscription illegible. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) behind bust, (2) before bust. Inscription illegible. Two deities or members of the imperial famila standing, facing each other. Axis:180. Weight: 8.73 g. CM(1): Helmeted bust of Athena right, in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 183 (2 pcs). CM(2): ΔX in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 534 (2 pcs). Note: The countermark may be interpreted as 4 chalcoi. Both coins that bear countermark (1) also bear countermark (2) and vice-versa. Howgego argues that they were probably applied at the same time (at Anchialus or Apollonia, since the two coins come from there, or somewhere adjacent). Collection Automan.Automan
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Athena (helmeted bust of)202 viewsTROAS. Ilium. Faustina Jr. 25. A.D. 146-175. Obv: CEBAC-ΦAVCTINAAVΓ. Draped bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: IΛI-EΩ. To right bull suspended from tree, on back of bull sits male figure (Ilos), plunging knife into bulls neck; to left statue of Athena Ilias on pedestal. Ref: BMC 53. Axis: 15. Weight: 9.50 g. CM: Helmeted bust of Athena right, in oval punch, 6 x 7 mm. Howgego 186 (53 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Athena (helmeted bust of)207 viewsCILICIA. Flaviopolis. Domitian. 22 (Assarion). A.D. 89/90 (year 17 of era of Flaviopolis). Obv: ΔOMETIANOC-KAICAP. Laureate bust right; countermark to right, below head. Rev: (ET)OYCZIΦΛAV-IOΠOΛ(EITWN). City-goddess seated left, holding poppy-flowers (?). River-god reclining at her feet. Ref: BMC 2. Axis: 360. Weight: 7.77 g. CM: Helmeted bust of Athena right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 190 (21 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Athena (helmeted bust right)192 viewsCILICIA. Flaviopolis. Domitian. 26 (2 Assaria). A.D. 89/90 (year 17 of era of Flaviopolis). Obv: (ΔOMET)IANOC-KAICAP. Laureate bust right; Countermark before neck. Rev: (Φ)ΛAYI-OΠOΛEI-TWN-ETOYCZ(I). Laureate and draped bust of the Dioskuri face to face, each with star on forehead. Ref: BMC 1; Sear SGI 861; SNG Levante 1529; RPC 1756. Axis: 360. Weight: 10.51 g. CM: Helmeted bust of Athena right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 190 (21 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Athena (helmeted bust)186 viewsCILICIA. Flaviopolis. Domitian. 28 (2 Assaria). A.D. 89/90 (year 17 of era of Flaviopolis). Obv: ΔOMETIANOC-KAICAP. Laureate bust right; countermark in front of head. Rev: ΦΛAYI-OΠOΛEI-TWN-ETOYCZI. Laureate and draped bust of the Dioskuri face to face, each with star on forehead. Ref: BMC 1; Sear SGI 861; SNG Levante 1529. Axis: 360. Weight: 14.03 g. CM: Helmeted bust of Athena right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 190 (21 pcs).Automan
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Athena (helmeted bust)238 viewsCILICIA. Flaviopolis. Domitian. 23 (Assarion). A.D. 89/90 (year 17 of era of Flaviopolis). Obv: ΔOMETIANOC-KAICAP. Laureate bust right; countermark to right, below head. Rev: ETOYCZIΦΛAV-IOΠOΛEITWN. City-goddess seated left, holding flowers (?). River-god reclining at her feet. Ref: BMC 2. Axis: 360. Weight: 6.19 g. CM: Helmeted bust of Athena right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 190 (21 pcs). Collection Automan. 1 commentsAutoman
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Athena (standing)181 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Nero. 20 (Medium denomination, as?). A.D. 66-68. Obv: (IMNERCLAVCAESAR) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: SC within circle within laurel-wreath of eight leaves. Ref: RPC 4297, 4308, 4310 or 4312. Axis: 360. Weight: 7.13 g. CM: Athena standing right, holding spear and shield, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 5.5 mm. Howgego 245 (139 pcs). Note: May be an imperial countermark due to Domitian's association with Athena/Minerva, likely applied between A.D. 83-96 in Antioch. Collection Automan.Automan
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Athena and "two opposing curvilinear objects"219 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Domitian. 30. A.D. 81-96. Obv: (IMPDOMITI)-ANVSCA(ESARAVG?). Laureate head left; countermark (1) on shoulder, countermark (2) to right of bust. Rev: S C within laurel-wreath. Ref: BMC 249(?). Axis: 360. Weight: 13.10 g. Note: Probably struck early in the reign of Domitian. CM(1): Athena standing right, holding spear and shield, in rectangular punch, 4 x 5.5 mm. Howgego 245 (139 pcs). Note: May be an imperial countermark due to Domitian's association with Athena/Minerva, likely applied between A.D. 83-96 in Antioch. CM(2): Two opposing curvilinear motifs containing pellets, in circular punch with serrated border, circa 11 mm. Howgego 504i (5 pcs). Note: Applied sometime between the early years of the reign of Domitian and the end of the reign of Antoninus Pius, and may have been applied at Edessa due to some of the other specimens also bearing countermarks of that city. Collection Automan.Automan
Athens_Owl.jpg
Athenian Owl485 viewsAttica-Athens
Silver tetradrachm
449-414 B.C.
17g, 24mm, 45o
Interesting Countermark on reverse
6 commentskypros84
Athnes 2.jpg
Athens - tetradrachm (IVth C. BC)32 viewsObv.: head of Athena right weraing helmet and wreath. Phoenician countermark on her cheek.
Rev.: AΘE , owl right.
Ginolerhino
athenstet.jpeg
Athens Tetradrachm57 views449-413 B.C. Attica Old style Tetradrachm 17g

Obverse: Head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, hair in parallel curves. Test cut and Countermark on cheek.
Reverse: AOE Right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square. Test cuts and counter punch in eye.

2 commentsDk0311USMC
Athens_Silver_Tetradrachm.jpg
Attica Athens AR silver Tetradrachm121 viewsAttica Athens AR silver Tetradrachm - some horn silver on the reverse which could be improved
Size: 22.5mm Weight: 16.69 grams
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right. Countermark on cheek, test cut through helmet
Reverse: AΘE, Owl standing right, head facing, crescent and olive sprig behind, the same countermark on the reverse
Antonivs Protti
TCouwKhx.jpeg
Augustus15 viewsAE As, Turiaso Mint
Obverse: IMP AVGVSTVS PATER PATRIEA, laureate bust right, legionary Eagle Head countermark.
Reverse: L MARIO L NOVIO MVN TVRIASO, II VIR within wreath.
Reference: RPC 411 mit Gegenstempel 92
Justin L
RIC_Claudius_on_Augustus_Martini-Pangerl_58.JPG
Augustus (Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (27 B.C. 14 A.D.) and Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar) (14-37 A.D.)29 viewsHowgego 602, Martini-Pangerl 58, on a RIC I (Augustus) ___

Countermark of Tiberius often encountered on coins found in the Moesia region (Bulgaria), on an AE as (25 mm) issued by Augustus in the name of a moneyer. Rome mint.

Obv: [illegible], bare head of Augustus, right.

Rev: [illegible], SC in field, TICA countermark within a rectangular incuse.

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
RIC_Augustus-Caligula_Martini-Pangerl_90,_95__etc.JPG
Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (27 B.C. – 14 A.D.) and Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar) (14-37 A.D.) or Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) (37-41 A.D.)26 viewsMartini-Pangerl 90 (re TIC), 75 & 83 (re AVG), 98 (re helmet), 95-97 (re dolphin)

AE 23-26 mm

Obv: TIC, AVG and helmet countermarks on an unidentified undertype.

Rev: Dolphin countermark on an unidentified undertype.

The TIC countermark is late Augustinian and is often combined with the dolphin and helmet countermarks. The AVG countermark is probably associated with Tiberius or Caligula.

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
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Augustus Amphipolis AE2124 viewsObv. KAIΣAP ΘEOY YIOΣ (Caesar son of god, starting downward on right, ending downward on left), bare head right.
Rev. AMΦIΠOΛEITΩN (counterclockwise starting lower left), Artemis Tauropolos riding bull right, holding billowing veil with both hands.
References: SNG ANS 165; SNG Cop 89 - 90; RPC I 1626 var. (legend arrangement); BMC Macedonia p. 52, 73 var.
Green patina, Amphipolis mint,7.7g, 20mm.
Canaan
augustus_comme.jpg
Augustus Commemorative minted by Tiberius, Countermarked by Vespasian14 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D., Commemorative minted by Tiberius, Countermarked by Vespasian. Copper as, RIC I Tiberius 81, Pangerl 94, coin Fair, countermark Fine, Rome mint, 8.935g, 28.8mm, 0o, c. 22 - 30 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left, capricorn in rectangular countermark right; reverse PROVIDENT S C, altar with double panelled door, ornaments on top. Vespasian used the Capricorn countermark, as had Augustus. It was his birth-sign too. ex FORVMPodiceps
Augustus_Copper_Rome~0.jpg
Augustus Copper Rome29 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.
OBV: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX . . ., bare head right;
REV: Legend around SC, possible countermark
Maybe:
Augustus AE As. 6 BC. Rome
25.3mm
4.517g
May be:
Obv: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT, bare head right
Rev: VOLVSVS VALER MESSAL IIIVIR AAAFF, around large SC.
RIC I 441,
EX: Forvm Ancient Coins

SCARCE
Romanorvm
augustus_countermarks.jpg
Augustus countermarks29 views2 commentsDk0311USMC
Augustus1.JPG
Augustus With Countermark31 viewsAugustus Moneyer series by PISO
Sear 1681
1 commentsJeromy G
46.jpg
Augustus, 27 BC-AD 1430 viewsGAUL, Nemausus.

AE As, 25.54mm (10.59 gm).

Addorsed heads of Agrippa left, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus on right, bare headed; IMP above and DIVI F below; D-D countermark / Crocodile chained to palm tip, wreath with long ties above; COL-NEM.

RIC I, 155 (pg. 51); RPC I, 523; RCV I, 1729.

This particular coin carries the D-D countermark, which is within a dotted circle and with the two D's disected by a dotted line, branch or club. This countermark stands for Decreto Decurionum, which means 'by decree of the town Decuria (or Council)'.
socalcoins
combine_images~8.jpg
Augustus, AE of Gabala, Syria. AD 1-14. 27 viewsObv. Bare head of Augustus right, countermark.
Rev. GABALEWN, Astarte seated left, holding poppy and sceptre, sphinx at foot. LM in left field, ZH in exergue.
Countermark: Howgego 366. Bee. Gabala
References: RPC 4452; BMC 70; Mionnet V, 627.
21mm, 6.3 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
Augustus_RPC_I_1557.jpg
Augustus, AE22, Barbaric As, Countermarked5 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. 14 A.D.

AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, TICAE (Tiberius Caesar) and Subsequently an S (which may signify the coins downgrading to a Semis).
Reverse: A laurel Wreath.

Weight: 7.69 g, Diameter: 22 x 23 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 0, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the AE22's of Thessalonica for Augustus, RPC I 1557
Masis
Augustus_RPC_I_1557_Second_example.jpg
Augustus, AE22, Barbaric As, Countermarked12 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. 14 A.D.

Coin: AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, ⏊I●CA (Tiberius Caesar).
Reverse: SC within a Laurel Wreath.

Weight: 6.97 g, Diameter: 22.5 x 25.2 x 1.4 mm, Die axis: 0, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the AE22's of Thessalonica for Augustus, RPC I 1557
Masis
48a.jpg
Augustus, imitation(Regular?) Moesia & Pannonia 12 B.C-14 A.D AE 26mm.16 viewsAugustus, imitation(Regular?) Moesia & Pannonia 12 B.C-14 A.D
AE 26mm (Dupondius Of Augustus)
Obverse: S.C, Combination of countermarks AVC, TICAE (Moesia) & PP, CAE (Pannonia).
Reverse: Various lettering visible.
Lee S
augustus_375_counterrmarked.jpg
Augustus, RIC 375 (countermarked)19 viewsAugustus, 27 BE - AD 14
AE dupondius, 7.50g, 28mm, 0
struck under moneyer C. Cassius Celer , Rome, 16 BC
obv. [AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTES]
(legend in 3 lines in corona civica)
rev. [C CASSIVS CEL]ER IIIVI[R AAAFF]
around big S - C
ref. RIC I, 375
countermarked:
obv. AVG (MPC 75), TICAE (AE ligate; MPC 90)
rev. CAE (MPC 77), PP (MPC 81)

AVC, TICAE refer to the emperor Tiberius Claudius. The abbreviation AVC is most likely another title of Tiberius and stands not for Augustus Caesar.
MPC = Martini Prangerl Collection
Jochen
augustus_384_Gegenstempel.jpg
Augustus, RIC 384, countermarked14 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AE - Dupondius(?), 6.70g, 24.24mm, 330
struck under moneyer L. Naevius Surdinus
Rome, 15 BC
obv. at the upper edge oak leafs, beneath remains of a legend, perhaps:
[AVGVS]TVS / [TRIBVNICI] / [POT]ES[T.]
in 3 lines within oak wreath
rev. [L.]SVR[DINVS.IIIVIR A.]A.A[.F.F.] (?)
around big S - C
ref. RIC I, 384; C. 472; BMCR I, 441, pl. 19, 2

2 countermarks on obv.:
2x AVC: Werz 31; MPC 75
AVG(vsti), mid-late Augustean AD 11 - 14
Usually these countermarks can be found only on asses from Lugdunum and Nemausus (Werz). The combination of a Dupondius obv. with a As rev. is indicative of a "barbaric imitation". Then to search for the name of the moneyer is useless.
Jochen
Augustus_RPC_I_1557_Second_example~0.jpg
AVG ⏊I●CA, AE22, Barbaric As115 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. 14 A.D.

Coin: AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, ⏊I●CA (Tiberius Caesar).
Reverse: SC within a Laurel Wreath.

Weight: 6.97 g, Diameter: 22.5 x 25.2 x 1.4 mm, Die axis: 0, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the AE22's issued by Thessalonica for Augustus (R.P.C. I 1557)
Masis
RIAugustusAsCounterM~0.JPG
AVG and TICAE on AUGUSTUS AS (25 BC)317 views(26mm - 10.8g). Obv: Bust right (CAESAR), countermarked "AVG" (AVGUSTUS) & "TICAE" (TIBERIUS CAESAR). Rev: Legend within wreath (AVGVSTVS). Minted in Ephesus. Reference for this coin is RIC 486. Augustus was adopted by Julius Caesar as heir. After the assassination of Caesar, Octavian and Mark Antony fought together and won the resulting Civil War. They shared the rule of the Roman Empire. Antony's alliance with Cleopatra provoked a split with Octavian that led to a new Civil War. At the Battle of Actium (31 BC) Antony was defeated and Octavian became the sole ruler of the Empire. He was declared "Augustus" and became the proto-type emperor of Rome.1 commentskerux
064n.jpg
AVG and TICAE243 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Augustus. 24. 27 B.C. - A.D. 14. Obv: AVGVST-TRPOT (?). Laureate head right; 2 countermarks: (1) before head, (2) on neck. Rev: Large SC inside circle, inside laurel-wreath. Ref: BMC 130. Axis: 360. Weight: 8.72 g. CM(1): AVG in rectangular punch, 9 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 577 (1 pcs). CM(2): TIC in rectangular punch, 4 x 9 mm.Howgego 602 (1 pcs). Note: These countermarks were more commonly applied to imperial coins, the place of application likely being somewhere in the Balkan provinces, the countermarking probably taking place during the reign of Tiberius. Collection Automan.Automan
083n.jpg
AVG and TICAE 248 viewsBALKAN imitation of Augustus' moneyers' series Dupondius. 23. 1st century A.D. Obv: Blundered legend within oak-wreath; 2 countermarks. Rev: Blundered legend around large S.C, all inverted. Axis: 360. Weight: 6.82 g. CM(1): AVG (inverted), in rectangular punch, 9 x 5 mm. Cf. Howgego 577. CM(2): TIC (inverted), in rectangular punch, 4 x 7.5 mm. Cf. Howgego 602. Note: Interestingly, not only the coin is imitative, but also the countermarks, which are inverted version of the commonly encountered TICAE and AVG countermarks. Collection Automan.Automan
Augustus_RPC_I_1557~0.jpg
AVG TICAE & S, AE22, Barbaric AE As116 viewsAugustus
27 B.C. 14 A.D.

Coin: AE22 "Barbaric" As, Countermarked

Obverse: Bare headed bust facing right. Countermarks of AVG, TICAE (Tiberius Caesar) and subsequently an S (which may signify the coins downgrading to a Semis).
Reverse: A laurel Wreath.

Weight: 7.69 g, Diameter: 22 x 23 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 0, Mint: The Balkans, 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Reference: Similar to the
AE22's issued by Thessalonica for Augustus (RPC I 1557)
Masis
140.jpg
AVKTR(?) and ΠPY171 viewsBITHYNIA. Prusias (?). Domitian (?). 26. A.D. 81-96 (?). Obv: Laureate head right; countermark (1) before face. Rev: Countermark (2). Note: .All coins noted by Howgego with these countermarks are from Domitian and are attributed to Prusias or Bithynia in Genere (which, in turn, may have been from Prusias also). CM(1): Monogram of AVKTP (?), in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 608 (8 pcs). CM(2): Monogram of ΠPY, in square punch, 7 mm. Howgego 630 (3 pcs). All coins countermarked with (1) are also countermarked with (2). Collection Automan.Automan
147.jpg
AVP (engraved monogram in cartouche)156 viewsTHRACE. Topirus. Caracalla. 22. A.D. 198-217. Obv: AVTKMAVP-(ANTΩN)INOC. Laureate bust right; "Cartouche" on shoulder. Rev: (OVΛΠ)ACTOΠIPOV. Naked figure of Herakles seated left on rock covered with lion's skin, holding club in extended right hand, resting left hand on rock. Ref: BMC 6. Axis: 210. Weight: 6.81 g. CM: Monogram of AVP in circular "cartouche". Howgego -. Note: This is not actually a countermark, since it was engraved on the original die. Collection Automan.Automan
150.jpg
Axe, double-headed175 viewsPHRYGIA. Eumeneia. Agrippina Jr. 17. A.D. 54-59 (?). Obv: AΓPI(ΠΠINA-ΣEBA)ΣTH. Draped bust right; Countermark behind. Rev: (BAΣΣAK)ΛEΩNOΣ-(EVMENEΩN). Kybele enthroned left, holding phiale in right hand streched out, left arm resting on drum. Ref: BMC 44-46; Sear GIC 536; RPC 3151. Axis: 360. Weight: 2.80 g. Magistrate: Bassa Kleonos archierea. CM: Axe, double-headed, with serpent around the handle, in rectangular punch, c. 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 374 (11 pcs, 2 of which from Agrippina Jr.). Collection Automan.Automan
ISL_Ayyubid_Al_Zahir_Ghazi_Ghiyath.jpg
Ayyubids, Branch at Aleppo (Halab), al-Zahir Ghiyath al-Din Ghazi ibn Yusuf (al-Zahir Ghazi) (emir of Aleppo 1186-1216 A.D = 582-613 A.H.)5 viewsBalog 671, 674 or 676, most probably Balog 674; Album 838.4

AE fals, Halab mint, dated 604 A.H. = 1207/08 A.D., 607 A.H. = 1210/11 A.D. or 609 A.H. = 1211/12 A.D., most likely 607 A.H. (scarce with legible date, per Album); 4.39 g., 23.08 mm. max. 180

Obv.: Border of pellets within which is an eight-pointed star, within which is an eight-pointed star of pellets; al-malik / al-Zahir in two lines in center; mint and date (counterclockwise) in margin segments.

Rev.: Border of pellets within which is an eight-pointed star, within which is an eight-pointed star of pellets; al-imam / al-Nasir (refering to caliph al-Nasir [1180-1225 A.D. = 575-622 A.H.]) in two lines in center; Kalima (counterclockwise) in margin segments.

al-Zahir Ghazi was the third son of al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Saladin) (1169-1193 A.D. = 564-589 A.H.), the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.

Album rarity C

Dating assistance courtesy of Alex Koifman.
Stkp
122008099.jpg
B in circular punch126 viewsJulia Mamaea AE 26 As of Rome 224/5 AD obv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA rv: VENERI FELICIT RIC 695 cmk. "B" in circular punch on neck 5 mm. Origin of counter mark unknown to me. Cassius
082n.jpg
B in oval punch195 viewsUncertain mint, likely of Balkan origin. Uncertain emperor. 21. Late 2nd - early 3rd century A.D. Obv: Inscription obliterated. Laureate bust right; countermark behind bust. Rev: Inscription obliterated. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia (?). Axis: 30. Weight: 4.63 g. CM: B in oval punch, 5.5 x 7 mm. Possibly Howgego 765i (125 pcs). Note: It is difficult to say which of the B countermark groups identified by Howgego that this coin belongs to, if any. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
238.jpg
B▪AV in rectangular punch216 viewsEPIRUS. Buthrotum. Nero. 21 (As). A.D. 54-68. Obv: (NER)OCLAVDIV(SCAESARAVGGERM) or sim. Radiate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: (EXCONSENSVD, CCIB in ex) or similar. Butting bull right. Ref: RPC 1406 (or possibly 1403, 1408 or 1410). Axis: 180. Weight: 5.38 g. CM: B▪AV in rectangular punch, 9 x 4 mm. Howgego 579 (19 pcs). Note: The countermark may possibly be read "Bvthrotvm Avgvsta". Collection Automan.Automan
BalbSe01.jpg
Balbinus, RIC 15, Sestertius of AD 23817 views Sestertius (24.11g, 31mm, 12h), Rome mint, Struck AD 238
Obv.: CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laurate, draped bust of Balbinus facing right.
Rev.: LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM (around), S C (in ex.), Liberalitas standing left, holding a coin counter and a cornucopiae.
RIC 15
ex CNG eAuction 87; ex Garth R Drewry Collection; ex Gibbs Collection; ex H. Schulman (6 April 1971, lot 959)
Charles S
julian_II_the_barbarian.jpg
Barbaric Counterfeit: Apis bull10 viewsJulian II 'the Apostate,' February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D., Barbaric Counterfeit. 21530. Bronze AE 1, ancient counterfeit imitative of SRCV 4074, Fair, unofficial mint, 6.622g, 24.5mm, 90o, after 361 A.D.; obverse [D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG], diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB, Apis bull right, two stars above horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Antoninus_Pius_Concordia.jpg
Barbarous Antoninus Pius - Concordia15 viewsObv. IM CAI HAIIANVS TONINVI AVI
Rev: CONCORD AVG COS
Crossed hands holding caduceus.

2,89g, 17mm
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Faustina_II.jpg
Barbarous Denarius of Faustina II41 viewsImitating RIC 676 (Marcus Aurelius)
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Bust r.
Rev: FECVND AVGVSTAE
Fecunditas standing l. between two girls and holding two infants in her arms.
18mm, 2.54g
1 commentsklausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius.jpg
Barbarous Denarius of Trajan36 viewsObv: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GIR (?) DAC
Rev: COIS C IIIV (?)
Personification holds Patera and Rudder, looks like a merger of a Genius with Fortuna to me.
20mm, 4.09g

Lovely!
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius_Column.jpg
Barbarous Denarius of Trajan, Fouree42 viewsObv: IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR (no P)
Barbarous portrait
Rev: COS VI P P SPQR
Man with tambourine and spear dancing on the world's smallest column. Two vultures at base waiting for him to fall down.
18mm, 2.44g

Sweet!
1 commentsklausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Faustina_I__POP_ROMANI.jpg
Barbarous Faustina I23 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA
Rev: [GENIVS] POP PAMANI (blundered)
Genius of the Roman people, standing front, head r., holding sceptre and cornucopiae. (Cf. Antoninus Pius RIC 70, for an Aureus).

1.96g, 17mm
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius_Roma.jpg
Barbarous Trajan Roma8 viewsBarbarous imitation of a Trajan denarius, possibly RIC 116
Obv: Laur. r.
Rev: Roma seated l., holding Victory and spear.
Blundered legend.

3.49g, 19mm
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius_Salus.jpg
Barbarous Trajan with Salus 20 viewsObv.: IMP TRAIANVS AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI PP
Laur. r., dr. and cuirassed
Rev.: P M TR P COS II, SALVS AVG in exergue.
Salus seated l. in front of an altar, holding patera.
2.94g, 18mm

Crude style. The obverse legend should read "TRAIANO". The reverse type is copying Hadrian RIC 46; the snake appears to have taken a day off.
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius_Aequitas.jpg
Barbarous Trajan/Aequitas8 viewsObv: Blundered legend
Laur. head right.
Rev: Blundered legend
Aequitas standing l., holding sceptre and scales (cf. Hadrian RIC 228).

18mm, 2.98g
klausklage
maurice_Islamic_c_m_BCC_B15.jpg
BCC B1530 viewsByzantine Caesarea
Maurice Tiberius 582-602 CE
AE Follis, Antioch
Obv: [D N MAVRI] - CN P AVT
Facing bust, crown with trefoil ornament,
Rev:Large M, to left ANNO, to right X/II
below: Γ? In ex: THEUP.
Unidentified, possibly Heraclian, countermark in
circular punch. 28mm. 10.72gm. Axis:180
SB 533
v-drome
Heraclius_2C_M_BCC_B2.jpg
BCC b216 viewsByzantine - Caesarea Maritima
Base coin - Constantinople mint
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE follis 40 nummia
Obv: Traces of image.
REV: Large M, below, gamma. in ex. CON
Countermarks of Heraclian monograms
type 1f (var.) and type 2c, (Schulze et. al.)
23x28mm. 4.65gm.
v-drome
heraclius_type_1c.png
BCC B3x63 viewsByzantine Caesarea
Uncertain mint
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE cut follis with CM
Obv:Traces of facing bust and inscription
Rev:Large M, cross above, to
left A[N...]. Overstruck on
40 nummia (XXXX) of Phocas?.
Finally struck with Heraclian monogram
CM type 1c (Schulze et. al. 2006)
31.5x23mm. 5.18gm.
v-drome
maurice_cm_eagle.jpg
BCC B4x107 viewsByzantine - Caesarea Maritima
Maurice Tiberius 582-602CE
AE follis 40 nummia
Obv: DN MAURC PP AVI
crowned and cuirassed bust
facing, holding cross on globe.
REV: Large M , cross above
ANNO II, officina Δ , in ex.
C[ON] with rare eagle countermark.
30x32mm. 11.30g. Original Axis:180
1 commentsv-drome
heraclius_K_c_m_comp.jpg
BCC B540 viewsByzantine
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE 1/2 follis 20 nummia
Obv: Traces of image.
Rev: Large K
Countermark of Heraclian
monogram type 2c, (Schulze et al)
c/m 8mm, die worn and cracked at top
18x23mm. 4.85g.
v-drome
nero_caesarea_c_m_LX.jpg
BCC CM40x67 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Nero 54-68 CE
Obv:[ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ ΝΕΡWΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ]
Laureate, undraped bust right.
Countermark: XF (Legio Decima Fretensis) in incuse square. Probably applied between 68 and 132 CE (Hendin GBC III).
Rev: [ΣΕΒΑΣΤW ΛΙΜΕΝΙ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙΑ ΠΡΟΣ]
"Caesarea (the one) near the port of Augustus"
Tyche standing left, foot on prow, holding bust in right
hand, standard in left. In field date: LIΔ (year 14).
AE 23mm 10.4g. Axis 0
Hendin 3, coin 834; C/M see coin 807.
v-drome
titus_c_m.png
BCC j7 (BCC 17)71 viewsJudaean - Roman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Titus 79-81 CE
Obv:[AVTOKP TITOC KAICAP]
Laur. head right. Countermark of bust, right,
in incuse rectangle. (punch 8x6mm.)
Rev:[ΙΟΥΔΑΙΑΣ ΕΑΛWΚΥΙΑΣ]
Judaea in mourning below, left of trophy,
hands tied, shield to right of trophy.
Hendin 745 21x22mm. 9.43gm. Axis:30
1 commentsv-drome
elagabalus_C_M_Neapolis.jpg
BCC rgp3119 viewsRoman Provincial
Neapolis-Samaria
Elagabalus 218-222C.E.
Obv:[AYT K M ] AYP ANTΩN[INOC]
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
C/M A in incuse square.
Rev: [ΦΛ ΝΕΑC ΠΟ] CΥΡ ΠΑΛ
Mt. Gerazim with stairs, temple and colonnade.
Poss. ref.: Rosenberger 36
countermark: Howgego 666
21mm. 12.65 gm. Axis:330
v-drome
DecapolisCM.jpg
Bearded male head195 views8895. Bronze AE 18, Spijkerman 1a, VF, Decapolis, Philadelphia mint, 7.45g, 18.0mm, 315o, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse FILADELFEWN, diademed, draped and veiled bust of Demeter left, countermarked with a bearded male head; reverse G - M / L- P ( = Year 143 = 80 / 81 A.D. ), five ears of corn, leaf on either side; $70.00. Forum catalog.
whitetd49
Septimius-Severus_AE-26-Nicomedia-in-Bithynia_AVK-L-CE_T-CEVHPOC-laureate-head-right_NIKOMH-_E_N-_IC-NE_KO-P_N-_ctastyle-temple-with-Countermark_BMC-41_Q-001_26-27mm_11,37g-s.jpg
Bithynia, Nicomedia, 049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AE-26, BMC-41 Temple,89 viewsBithynia, Nicomedia, 049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AE-26, BMC-41 Temple,
avers:- AVK-L-CEΠT-CEVHPOC, Laureate head right.
revers:- NIKOMH-ΔEΩN-ΔIC-NEΩKO-PΩN, Ο Ctastyle temple with Countermark.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26-27mm, weight:11,37g, axis:1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nicomedia, date: ?? , ref: BMC-41,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Phil1NicomMerge1.JPG
Bithynia, Nicomedia. Philip I. SNG von Aulock 829.82 views28. Bithynia, Nicomedia. Philip I (AD 244-249), radiate head, draped and cuirassed bust to r. M IOVΛIOC ΦIΛI-Π-Π[OC AVG] (VG ligate) or Marcus Julius Philippus Augustus. Countermark CAP/Γ in round punch (Howgego 560) or "Sardis, 3 assaria." Rev., Nude statue of Heracles stg. atop girlanded cippus, head to r, holding lionskin in l. arm, and supported by club with r. hand. NIKOMH[ΔE]ΩN - ΔIC NEΩK[OP] (ΩN ligate). SNG von Aulock 829. Ex Marcus Gruss 8-25-2009.

Same dies as Jochens example:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-32987
1 commentsMark Fox
053_Geta_(209-211_A_D_),_AE-26,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia,________N,_Tyche,_______-dot-_ET_C-dot-K_I_____-___N_Q-001_26mm_10,01gx-s~0.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, 053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), AE-26, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Tyche,64 viewsBithynia, Nikaia, 053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), AE-26, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Tyche,
avers:- ..ΠΤΙΜ-dot-ΓETΑC-dot-KΑI, Laureate head of the younger Geta right. Behind the bust countersign.
revers:- ΝΙΚΑ-ΙΕΩN, Tyche, wearing polos, standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 26mm, weight: 10,01g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: 209-211 A.D., ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
712.jpg
bmc1998 viewsElagabalus
Berytos, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right, countermark.
Rev: COLIV L [A VGFEL]→BER, tetrastyle temple surmounted by figure riding panther to right, Maryas under central arch.
25 mm, 11.26 gms


BMC 199, SNG Cop 116
Charles M
67c.jpg
bmc388_29 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, indistinct countermark.
Rev: SEPT IM T VRO →COLO, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
30 mm, 15.02 gms

BMC 388
Charles M
1850__Naville_Numismatics_Live_Auction_52_(54)_9-22-19_#3.jpg
bmc390_12 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANT[ON]INVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear; oval countermark-- head of Melqart right .
Rev: SEPT IM T VRO →COLO, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Marayas on left and murex shell on right.
30 mm, 18.90 gms

BMC 390; Rouvier 2358; Naville Numismatics, Auction 52, lot 244 (this coin); Countermark: Howgego 15
Charles M
1433.jpg
bmc393var8 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right, seen from front. Countermark of laureate head in incuse oval.
Rev: SEP TIM TVR COL, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle with pellet in pediment over arch, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
30 mm, 15.48 gms

BMC 393 variant (bust type, no Marsyas to left of Astarte). Triskeles Auctions, Sale 22, Lot 368. Countermark Howgego 65
Charles M
60.jpg
bmc396_324 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind. Oval countermark of a male head right.
Rev: TV RI O RVM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
32 mm, 14.14 gms

BMC 396, Countermark: Howgego 65
1 commentsCharles M
1516.jpg
bmc396_54 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV ANTONINVS [AVG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind. Oval countermark of a male head right.
Rev: TV RI O RVM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
27 mm, 11.76 gms

BMC 396 Countermark: Howgego 65
Charles M
1720__Naville.jpg
bmc396_62 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN-TONIN[VS AVG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind. Oval countermark of a male head right.
Rev: TVR IO R VM, Astarte wearing turreted crown and short chiton and himation, standing front left foot on prow, right hand on trophy and holding in left arm transverse scepter and is being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Palm tree on left and murex shell on right.
27 mm, 8.40 gms

BMC 396, Countermark: Howgego 65
Charles M
1532a.jpg
bmc404_712 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: [IMP CAES M]AV ANTONINVS A[VG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right. Indistinct countermark.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
27 mm, 12.87 gms

BMC 404
Charles M
1823.jpg
bmc404_83 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES MAV AN[TONINVS AVG], laureate draped and cuirassed bust right. Countermark with scorpion within oval incuse.
Rev: T VRI ORV M, Temple of Astarte with 6 columns, arch over middle, Astarte within with right hand on trophy being crowned by Nike standing on column on right. Altar at base of steps with palm tree on right and murex shell on left.
26 mm, 11.60 gms

BMC 404. Countermark: Howgego 354
Charles M
1022.jpg
bmc41312 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: [IMP CAES MAV] ANTONINVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, uncertain countermark.
Rev: TVRIORVM, Serpent entwined ovoid baetyl, palm tree to left, murex shell to right.
29 mm, 12.70 gms

BMC 413
Charles M
1912__Roma_Numismatics_E-Sale_62_lot_692.jpg
bmcxxx-610 viewsElagabalus
Tyre, Phoenicia

Obv: IMP CAES M AVR AN-TONINVS AV, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front; indistinct counter mark.
Rev: TVR-IO-RV-M, Victory standing left on galley, holding wreath in right hand and trophy cradled in left arm; to left, palm tree; between, murex shell.
26 mm, 11.85 gms

BMC---; SNG Cop---; Cf. Rouvier 2385; Cf. Imhoof - Blumer, Monnaies grecques, p. 447, No 42; Roma Numismatics Limited, E-SALE 62, Lot 692 (this coin).

Neither Rouvier nor Imhoof - Blumer mention the galley.
1 commentsCharles M
105034.jpg
BOEOTIA, Thebes171 viewsIn the late 6th century BC the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480479 BC). Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas until just before the last stand when they surrendered to the Persians[1], the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League, and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens.

In 457 Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457447). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece.

After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, finding that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the battles of Haliartus (395) and Coronea (394) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later the Spartan garrison was expelled, and a democratic constitution definitely set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece. Some years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 in a remarkable victory over the pick of the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition permanently crippled the power of Sparta. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions.

However the predominance of Thebes was short-lived; the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had joined with Thebes in 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 387 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea in 362 the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighbouring state of Phocis (356346) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 against his son Alexander was punished by Macedon and other Greek states by the severe sacking of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.

BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 395-338 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 11.98 gm). Boeotian shield / Amphora; magistrate AM-FI. Hepworth, "The 4th Century BC Magistrate Coinage of the Boiotian Confederacy," in Nomismatika Xronika (1998), 2; BMC Central Greece -. Fine.

Ex-Cng eAuction 105, Lot: 34 225/200

2 commentsecoli
233689_l.jpg
Boeotia, Thebes (Circa 379-368 BC)20 viewsAR Stater

22 mm, 11.44 g

Obverse: Boeotian shield

Reverse: Amphora; ΠO-ΘI (Pothi - magistrate) across field.

Hepworth 81; BCD Boiotia 515; HGC 4, 1331

Thebes was the largest city of the ancient region of Boeotia. It was a major rival of ancient Athens, and sided with the Persians during the 480 BC invasion under Xerxes and Sparta during the Peloponnesian war (431-404 BC). In 404 BC, they had urged the complete destruction of Athens; yet, in 403 BC, they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. The result of the war was disastrous to Thebes, and by 382 BC a Spartan force was occupying its citadel. Three years later, the Spartan garrison was expelled and a democratic constitution was set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta, the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself formidable. Years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 BC in a remarkable victory over the Spartans at Leuctra.
Nathan P
166.jpg
Branch170 viewsCILICIA. Mallus. Domitian. 23 (Assarion?). A.D. 81-96. Obv: AYTOKPATWPΔOMI-TIANOC. Laureate head right; Countermark before. Rev: MAΛΛΩTΩN, IOY/AΓA in two lines in field to left. Tyche seated right, holding ear of corn; beneath two river-gods swimming left and right. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1738 (2 pcs); Levante 1271; Lindgren 1543A. Axis: 360. Weight: 7.07 g. Note: Ziegler (1993) notes 6 coins of Domitian from Mallus. RPC only notes two specimens of this type. CM: Branch in oval punch, 3 x 4 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
194.jpg
Bucranium192 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Trajan. 24 (As). A.D. 115/116 (?). Obv: IMPCAESNERTRAIANOOPTIMOAVGGE(RM). Radiate and draped bust right; Countermark behind. Rev: DAC(PARTH)ICO(PMTRPOTXXCOSVIPP) or similar. SC in laurel-wreath. Ref: RIC 644 or 647 (?). Axis: 180. Weight: 7.39 g. CM: Bucranium, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 294 (23 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
RZ-1_16_10(1).jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire: Ivanko Terter, Despotes in Karvuna (1386-1387) Trachy (Raduchev & Zhekov 1.16.10; Youroukova & Penchev 148-50; Dobrinić & Dimnik 13.2.1; Dochev 6070) 13 viewsObv: Terter monogram; countermarked with star and crescent
Rev: Double-headed eagle with outstretched wings; countermarked with head facing right
Dim: 18mm, 0.91 g, 12h
Quant.Geek
RZ-1_16_11.jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire: Ivanko Terter, Despotes in Karvuna (1386-1387) Trachy (Raduchev & Zhekov 1.16.11; Youroukova & Penchev 148-50; Dobrinić & Dimnik 13.2.1; Dochev 6120)22 viewsObv: Terter monogram with star and crescent below
Rev: Double-headed eagle with spread wings, full-face, without crowns on the heads; between them - small cross; countermarked with head facing left
Dim: 19mm, 0.77 g, 4h
Quant.Geek
173.jpg
Bull standing right195 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Nicopolis Seleucidis. Philip Sr. 29. A.D. 244-249. Obv: AVTKMIOV-ΛIΦIΛIΠΠO(CC)E. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark before face. Rev: NEIKO(ΠOΛEI)-TWNCEΛEVKI(ΔO?) or sim., IO(?) in ex. Nemesis standing left within distyle temple, left hand raised to her head; lit altar to right, crossed cornucopiae and wheel to left. Ref: BMC - (only 3 coins of this city); Lindgren 2110a (?). Axis: 360. Weight: 13.23 g. CM: Bull standing right, in oval punch, 8 x 5.5 mm. Howgego 296 (2 pcs). Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
130.jpg
Bust (laureate right) and Nike187 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicaea. Lucius Verus (?). 24. A.D. 161-169 (?). Obv: Laureate bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) before bust, (2) behind bust. Rev: Tyche standing, holding cornucopia and rudder (?). Ref: SNG Cop 477 (?). Axis: 30. Weight: 5.69 g. CM(1): Laureate bust right, in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 65 (130 pcs). CM(2) Nike standing right, in oval punch, 7 x 8 mm. Howgego 254 (94 pcs). Note: The Nike probably referred to the city and not a specific victory. Collection Automan.Automan
205.jpg
Bust and Nike left164 viewsUncertain mint, possibly SYRIA. Uncertain emperor, possibly Trajan. 24.1st century A.D. Obv:Inscription illegible.Outline of imperial head; 2 countermarks: (1) to left of head, on neck. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 9.62 g. CM(1): Laureate imperial bust right, in roughly rectangular punch, 5 x 7 mm. Howgego 133 ? (17 pcs). CM(1): Winged figure of Nike walking left, holding wreath in extended hand, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 6 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
145.jpg
Bust right131 viewsBITHYNIA (?). Uncertain mint. Commodus. 24. A.D. 177-192. Obv: (...)V-KOMO(...). Head or bust right. Rev: (...)EΠYO-ΠKO (?). Eagle standing right, wings spread; countermark before. Axis: 180. Weight: 7.52 g. CM: Laureate bust right, in circular punch, 6.5 mm. Howgego ? Collection Automan.Automan
175.jpg
Bust right (?) and star in crescent175 viewsCAPPADOCIA. Caesarea. Elagabalus. 35. A.D. 220/221. Obv: (AYTKMAYPHΛIANTWNEINOCCEB) or sim. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, both before bust. Rev: (MHTPOΠOΛ or similar)-KAICAPIA, NEΩKOPON/(ETГ) in two lines in ex. Tyche seated left on throne, holding cornucopia and agalma of Mt. Argaeus (?), on either side urn with palm-branch. Ref: SNG Cop -; SNG Aul - (6502 for obv.). Axis: 360. Weight: 24.98 g. CM(1): Bust right (?), in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego (?). CM(2): six-pointed star in crescent, in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
135.jpg
Bust right (laureate)156 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicaea. Maximus. 21. A.D. 235-238. Obv: Г(.?)IOV.OVHMAΞIMOC.K. Draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark behind. Rev: N-IK-AI-E, ΩN in ex. Three standards. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 30. Weight: 3.96 g. CM: Laureate bust right, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 65 (130 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
222.jpg
Bust right (laureate)124 viewsSAMARIA. Sebaste. Julia Soemias or Julia Maesa. 20. Obv: Draped bust right; countermark below chin. Rev: COL▪L▪SEP▪SEB-(ASTE) or similar. Scene of rape of Persephone: Hades in galloping quadriga right, carrying Persephone in right arm, above horses Eros flying right; below overturned basket (?). Ref: BMC 16 or 18. Axis: 235. Weight: 10.75 g. CM: Laureate (?) bust right, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 6 mm. Howgego 141 (19 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
053n.jpg
Bust right in oval punch203 viewsPHOENICIA. Aradus. Trajan. 24. A.D. 115-117 (year 374 or 375). Obv: (AYTOKPNEPTPAIANOCAPICTKAICCEBΓEPΔAKΠAPΘ) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (Δ or E)OT to left, 9 to right, (APADIWN) beneath. Tyche, nude to the waist, seated left on rudder, her right hand on the tiller, her left holding cornucopia with bunch of grapes. Ref: BMC 371-373 or 378. Axis: 360. Weight: 11.03 g. CM: Bust right in oval punch, 5 x 6.5 mm. Howgego 171-172 (?). Note: Howgego notes two coins from Aradus (Domitian and Marcus Aurelius/Lucius Verus) bearing somewhat similar countermarks. Collection Automan.Automan
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Bust right, in circular punch169 viewsPHRYGIA. Eumeneia. Agrippina Jr. 16. A.D. 54-59 (?). Obv: AΓPIΠΠI(NA)-ΣE(BAΣ)TH. Draped bust right; Countermark before. Rev: BAΣΣAKΛEΩNOΣ-EVMENEΩN. Kybele enthroned left, holding phiale in right hand streched out, left arm resting on drum. Ref: BMC 44-46; Sear GIC 536; RPC 3151. Axis: 360 Weight: 3.34 g. Magistrate: Bassa Kleonos archierea. CM: Bust right, in circular punch, 5.5 mm.Howgego - (?). Collection Automan.Automan
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Bust right, laureate157 viewsCORINTHIA. Corinth. Antoninus Pius. 26. A.D. 138-161. Obv: (ANTONI)NVS -(AVGPIVS). Laureate head right; Countermark before face. Rev: (CLI)-C-OR. Nike moving right. Ref: BMC -; SNG Cop -. Axis: 315. Weight: 10.49 g.CM: Laureate bust right, in oval punch, 5 x 6 mm. Howgego 56 (89 pcs). Likely applied after circa A.D. 205. The vast majority of coins bearing this countermark are from Corinth. Collection Automan.Automan
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BYZ▪Δ134 viewsUncertain mint. 26. 1st-2nd Century A.D. (?). Obv: Outline of early imperial bust; countermark before. Reverse worn smooth. Weight: 8.80 g. Found in Spain according to sellers notes. CM: BYZ▪Δ in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 11 mm (actually the "Z" is mirrored). Howgego 520 var. (2 pcs). Note: Likely applied in Byzantium (Thrace). This specimen is quite clear, and it would seem that the countermark is made up of a combination of a city reference (BYZ) and a denomination (Δ). Collection Automan.Automan
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Byzantine Empire: Heraclius (610-641) Follis, Syracuse (Sear-884; DOC-243; Berk-610)10 viewsObv: Oval counterstamp containing facing busts of long-bearded Heraclius and short-bearded Heraclius Constantine.
Rev: Oval counterstamp containing monogram and letters SCs.

Undertype: Follis of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine from Constantinople
SpongeBob
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Byzantine Empire: Anonymous Class B Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1823; DOC B.1-64) - Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034)14 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, square in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book; Mardin Hoard Countermark #13 (عز)
Rev: IS-XS ЬAS-ILЄ ЬAS-ILЄ to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps; Unkown Countermark

Countermarked by Izz al-din Abu Bakr al-Dubaysi between 1146 and 1156 AD at the mint of al-Jazirah (obverse) and an unknown countermark that is not listed in The Mardin Hoard on the reverse.
Quant.Geek
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Byzantine Empire: Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear 1901; DOC K.1)12 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets; Mardin Hoard Countermark #10 (عدل‎) and #17 (لله)
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing, nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ
Quant.Geek
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BYZANTINE, Heraclius 610-641 Constantinople (CON)55 viewsObv: Emperor and Heraclius Constantine Standing
Rev: Large M, ANNO XXII, Counterstrike of Heraclius Monogram Similar to Sear 22, and a Second Counterstrike of Uncertain Attribution
Sear 810
Laetvs
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C▪II in rectangular punch186 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Tiberius. 29 (Dupondius). A.D. 19-21. Obv: (TICAESA)RDIVIAVGVSTIFA(VGVS-TVS). Laureate head right; countermark below chin. Rev: (PONT)MAXIMCOSIIIIMPVIITRPO(TXXII). Two crossed cornucopiae, between which winged caduceus. Ref: RPC 3868; RIC 90. Axis: 360. Weight: 13.36 g. CM: C▪II in rectangular punch, 6.5 x 4.5 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
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C▪II in rectangular punch137 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Tiberius. 29 (Dupondius). A.D. 19-21. Obv: (TICAESA)RDIVIAVGVSTIFA(VGVS-TVS). Laureate head right; countermark below chin. Rev: (PONT)MAXIMCOSIIIIMPVIITRPO(TXXII). Two crossed cornucopiae, between which winged caduceus. Ref: RPC 3868; RIC 90. Axis: 360. Weight: 13.36 g. CM: C▪II in rectangular punch, 6.5 x 4.5 mm. Ref: Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
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C.Mamilius C. f. Limetanus & Argos + Ulysses12 viewsRome, Republic, Denarius serratus, with letter M. C.Mamilius C. f. Limetanus, 82 BC. Dr. bust of Mercury right earing winged petasus, caduceus over shoulder, control letter behind. Rev: Ulysses walking right holding staff, his right hand extended toward Argos the dog, C MAMIL on left, LIMETAN (TA in monogram) on right. CRR 741. Sear RCV I: 282, RSC Mamilia 6, with countermarkPodiceps
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c/m owl, Pergamon8 viewsc/m owl, Pergamon

click to see the coin
shanxi
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CAГ156 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Septimius Severus. 28. A.D. 193-198 (i.e. before Laodiceia became colony). Obv: (AYT)KAI(CEΠ)-CE(OYHPOC). Laureate head right; countermark bafore chin. Rev: IEYΛ-ΛAOΔI-CEOVHM-(HTPOΠ-OΛEΩ) or sim. in laurel-wreath. Ref: BMC 85 or 86. Axis: 360. Weight: 15.04 g. CM: CAГ in rectangular punch, 6 x 3.5 mm. Howgego 581 (116 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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CAΓ and COL179 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Septimius Severus. 31.A.D. 197-211. Obv: IMP(CAESL) or similar. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Septimius Severus right, before and partly obscuring draped bust of Julia Domna, also right; 2 countermarks: (1) on bust of Septimums Severus, (2) before bust of Julia Domna. Rev: (SEVERMETROPOLI-SEPT) or similar. Marsyas walking left, with wine-skin over shoulder. Ref: SNG Cop. Suppl. 8/249; BMC -; Lindgren (III) 1204 similar (Caracalla). Axis: 45. Weight: 20.46 g. CM(1): Monogram of CAΓ (?), in largely rectangular punch, 5 x 3 mm. Howgego 581 (116 pcs). CM(2): COL in largely rectangular punch, 6.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 586 (88 pcs). Note: The CM was applied after the city achieved status as colony in A.D. 197/198, allowing older coins to circulate alongside newer coins with Latin legends, although the countermark was also applied to coins with inscriptions in Latin. All coins bearing countermark (2) also bear (1). Collection AutomanAutoman
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caes003b0 viewsElagabalus
Caesarea, Cappadocia


Obv: ... ΑΝΤⲰΝΙΝ CƐB..; Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear. Indistinct countermark.
Rev: (MH)TPOΠO ...; agalma of Mt. Argaeus placed on garlanded altar, in exergue, ƐΤ Β.
27 mm, 10.72 gms

RPC Online---

From Naville Numismatics, Auction 50, lot 188
Charles M
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Caesarea, Mt. Argaeus, countermark26 viewsCaracalla, Caesarea, Mt. Argaeus, 205/6 A.D. Obverse: ΑΥ ΚΑΙ Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟC; radiate, laureate head right. Reverse: ΜΗΤΡΟΠ KAICAPEI, ETIΓ, Agalma of Mt. Argaeus on altar. Countermark: head in circular punch. Ex Gerhard Rohde.Podiceps
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CAG and COL195 viewsCaracalla and Plautilla, 202 - 22 January 205 A.D., Laodicea ad Mare, Syria
9074. Bronze AE 32, SNG Cop 367, S -, Lindgren -; c/m Howgego 581 (116 pcs) & 586 (88 pcs), F, Laodicea ad Mare mint, 25.64g, 32.3mm, 0o, obverse legend illegible and unknown from references, ]PET[, jugate heads right of Caracalla, radiate, draped, and cuirassed, and Plautilla, draped, countermarks; reverse [SEPT LLVDIC COLONE METROPLI] (illegible), statue of Artemis Brauronia right, stag behind; all inscriptions are illegible on the SNG Copenhagen coin as well; scarce; $180.00
The countermarks, CAG in rectangular 5 x 3 mm punch (Howgego 581, 116 pcs) and COL in rectangular 6.5 x 3 mm punch (Howgego 586, 88 pcs), were applied after the city became a colony in 197/198, allowing older coins to circulate alongside newer coins with Latin legends. (Although the countermark was also applied to coins Such as this one with Latin inscriptions). All coins countermarked COL also bear CAG. Forum catalog.
whitetd49
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CALABRIA, Tarentum186 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kaila (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
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Caligula RIC 001680 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
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Caligula, AE As, RIC I 38, Countermarked5 viewsGaius Germanicus "Caligula"
Augustus, 37 - 41 A.D.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare headed bust facing left.
Reverse: VESTA, Vesta, seated to the left, S - C across the fields.

Weight: 8.89 g, Diameter: 28.5 x 27 x 2 mm, Die axis: 200, Mint: Rome, struck between 37-38 A.D. Reference: RIC I 38, Countermark: "TI.C.A" on the obverse side, done in the reign of his successor, Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus).
Masis
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Cantharos201 viewsTHRACE. Maroneia. Julia Domna. 23 (3 Assaria). A.D. 198-217. Obv: IOYΛIA-ΔOMNACEB. Draped bust right; countermark on bust, below chin. Rev: MAPΩN-EITΩN. Naked figure of Dionysus standing, facing left, holding bunch of grapes in right hand, arrows and drapery in left. Ref: BMC -; Moushmov 3966. 30, 8.15 g. Very rare. Cm: Vase or cantharos (?) in circular punch, 5 mm, Howgego 485 (2 pcs). Maroneia was commonly associated with Dionysus, and one of Dionysus attributes was the cantharos, so the identification of the countermark as such is logical.Automan
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CAP/▪Δ‾, Serapis and bust171 viewsLYDIA. Tripolis (?). Commodus (?). 32. A.D. 175-177. Obv: Dr. bust r.; 3 CMs. Ref: SNG Aul -; SNG Cop -. Weight: 19.49 g. Note: The identif. of the coin is consistent with other specimens bearing cm (2), which are from Tripolis, bear the portrait of Faustina Jr., and are around 30 mm. CM(1): CAP, ▪Δ‾, in 2 lines, in oval punch, 10 x 9 mm. Howg. 561 (46 pcs). Note: The "dash" to the right of the Δ might indicate that the denom. is 4 1/2 assaria. This, and other denominational countermarks, were applied at Sardis to worn coins of other cities in w. Roman Asia, although not to Sardian coins (unless worn smooth). Appl. may have taken place during the sole reign of Gallienus, the reason being that coins bearing the portr. of Gallienus have been found cm'd, while a cm'd coin has been found bearing the cm of another city consistent with this date. CM(2): Hd of Serapis r., in modius, n circ. punch, 4 mm. How. 20 (3 pcs). CM(3): Bust in circ punch, 5 mm. How. 95 ? (2 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Capricorn193 viewsMACEDON. Philippi. Tiberius. 18 (Semis). A.D. 14-37. Obv: TI.AVG. Bare head right; countermark on neck. Rev: Two colonists ploughing right with two oxen. Ref: BMC 89-91 (MYSIA. Parium). Axis: 360. Weight: 4.27 g. CM: Capricorn, right (?), in circular punch, 4 mm. Howgego 301v (?). Note: The application of the capricorn, a standard type of Parium (Mysia) to which the host coin was traditionally attributed, may have indicated a devaluation of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
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Capricorn200 viewsMACEDON. Philippi. Tiberius. 17 (Semis). A.D. 14-37. Obv: TI.AVG. Bare head right; countermark on neck. Rev: Two colonists ploughing right with two oxen. Ref: BMC 89-91 (MYSIA. Parium). Axis: 360. Weight: 4.91 g. CM: Capricorn right, in rectangular punch, 5 x 3-3.5 mm. Howgego 302 (2 pcs). Note: The application of the capricorn, a standard type of Parium (Mysia) to which the host coin was traditionally attributed, may have indicated a devaluation of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
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Capricorn left in square punch176 viewsMACEDON. Philippi. Claudius. 16. A.D. 41-54. Obv: (TICLAV-AVG). Bare hear left; countermark on neck. Rev: Two priests/colonists ploughing right. Ref: RPC 1660. Axis: 180. Weight: 4.43 g. CM: Capricorn left, in square punch, 3 mm. Howgego 303 (16 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Car of Astarte166 viewsPHOENICIA. Sidon. Severus Alexander. 24. A.D. 222-235. Obv: (IMPCAEMAV)RSE-VALE(XANDR). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before face. Rev: COLAVR-(RIA-MET)RO, SID in ex. Car of Astarte on two wheels with four columns supporting roof; within spherical object (Baetyl), inverted crescent above, two uncertain figures at base. Ref: BMC 318-319 (var. obv. leg. breaks). Axis: 165. Weight: 9.26 g. CM: Car of Astarte, in square punch, 4.5 mm. Howgego 396i (53 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Car of Astarte134 viewsPHOENICIA. Sidon. Severus Alexander. 24. A.D. 222-235. Obv: (IMPCA)EMAVRSE-(VALEXANDR). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark behind neck. Rev: COLAVR-RIA-ME(TRO), SID in ex. Car of Astarte on two wheels with four columns supporting roof; within spherical object (Baetyl), two uncertain figures at base. Ref: BMC 318-319 (var. obv. leg. breaks). Axis 360. Weight: 9.49 g. CM: Car of Astarte, in rectangular punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 396i (53 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Caracalla14 viewsPlated Counterfeit of Caracalla (198-217 CE)
Laureate bust right/Felicitas facing left holding caduceus and cornucopiae. Legend: Felicitas Augustus
AE Denarius
Belisarius
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Caracalla (?) and ΔIOΓ (?)179 viewsMYSIA. Hadrianothera. Caracalla. 24. Circa A.D. 198-209. Obv: AVTKMAVP.-AN(TΩNEINO). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, both before bust. Rev: AΔPIANO-ΘHPITΩ-N. Bull standing right. Ref: BMC 7. Axis: 180. Weight: 9.32 g. CM(1): Laureate and bearded head right, likely of (mature) Caracalla, in oval punch, 5 x 6.5 mm. Howgego 69 (9 pcs). CM(2): Monogram of ΔIOΓ (?) in rectangular punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 615 (20 pcs). Note: Howgego cites von Fritze who interprets the countermark as referring to the magistrate Diogenes, whose name appears on other coins bearing the same countermark. Collection Automan.Automan
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Caracalla (?), head right138 viewsBITHYNIA. Nikomedia. Marcus Aurelius. 29. A.D. 161-169. Obv: Inscription illegible. Draped bust of Marcus Aurelius to left, facing draped bust of Lucius Verus to right. Rev: NEO(K...-...), OMONΩ(I)A in ex. Female deity seated left, holding spear and patera (?), inside tetrastyle temple; countermark on architrave. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 180. Weight: 14.84 g. CM: Laureate head right (Caracalla?), in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 67 (48 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Caracalla (head of)152 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicomedia. Marcus Aurelius. 24. A.D. 161-169. Obv: (AYTKAIM)AVP-ANTΩ(NINOC). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (AVTKAIΛ)AVP-OYHP(OCNIKOM). Head of Lucius Verus right. Ref: SNG Aul 761; BMC 23; Sear GIC 1703. Axis: 195. Weight: 8.59 g. CM: Laureate head of emperor right, in circular punch, 6.5 mm. Howgego 67 (48 pcs). Note: May have been applied because Caracalla spent his birthday 4/4 215 in Nicomedia; Other specimens have the countermark applied to the reverse, but this coin has an imperial portrait on both sides, so the rev-obv. distinction may not have been an easy one for the person applying the countermark. Collection Automan.Automan
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Caracalla --AE32, Cilicia, Diokaisarea. 592 viewsObv.: Laureate bust of Caracalla, eagle & T-bolt countermarks. Rev.: Athena, riding quadriga, holding thunderbolt and snake-fringed shield. SNG Levante 673 (same eagle-countermark, same dies but not the thunderbolt-countermark); Howgego 337 (for same two countermarks on one coin). (featherz)featherz
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Caracalla Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, imitation of RIC IV 22414 viewsUnknown mint, Caracalla Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, 210-213 A.D.(?) AE, 19mm 3.42g, imitation of RIC IV 224, RSC 165
O: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
R: MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales & cornucopiae
*note on the actual denarius, Moneta is facing left, the scale is also on the left with the cornucopiae on the right. This coin is exactly backwards.
casata137ec
Ancient_Counterfeits_Caracalla_Castor.jpg
Caracalla Castor22 viewsImitation in good silver, combining a Caracalla portrait with a reverse that belongs to Geta.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Rev: CASTOR
Castor standing l. in front of horse, which he holds by rein, holding spear (RIC 6).
2.86g, 17mm
klausklage
Caracalla_Caesar_Denarius_Liberalitas.jpg
Caracalla Denarius Liberalitas27 viewsObv.
ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust right

Rev.
LIBERALITAS AVGG V
Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter & cornucopia

ancientdave
1532LG.jpg
Caracalla from Cilicia70 viewsCaracalla --AE32, Cilicia, Diokaisarea. Obv.: Laureate bust of Caracalla, eagle & T-bolt countermarks. Rev.: Athena, riding quadriga, holding thunderbolt and snake-fringed shield. SNG Levante 673 (same eagle-countermark, same dies but not the thunderbolt-countermark); Howgego 337 (for same two countermarks on one coin).1 commentsfeatherz
ric158.jpg
Caracalla Liberalitas29 viewsCaracalla Denarius.208 AD. ANTONONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopiae. RSC 128.

owellber
Caracalla_Lyre_Caria.JPG
Caracalla Lyre Caria46 viewsCaracalla, Caria (Alabanda), 198 - 217 AD, 26mm, 11.10g, BMC 43, SNG Cop 16,
OBV: AVKMAVPANTΩNINO, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, countermark of a youthful male head to rt.
REV: AΛABANΔEΩN, Lyre
Countermark is Howgego 52, radiate head of emperor.

RARE
1 commentsRomanorvm
caracalla-.jpg
Caracalla Sestertius22 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv.: M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT,
Rev.: LIBERALITAS AVG VIII S C, Liberalitas holding coin counter and cornucopia,
212-3 AD, RIC 510b.

Quite a scarce type on sestertii.
Tanit
cf.elagabal_148_mule.jpg
Caracalla, cf. Elagabal RIC 148 (hybrid)33 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
unknown illegal mint
AE - Antoninian Fouree (hybrid), 3.68g, 20.4mm
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, radiate, r.
rev. TEMPORVM FELICITAS
Felicitas, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and caduceus in r. hand
cf. Elagabal RIC IV/2, 148
VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Hybrid (mule): Interesting ancient hybrid counterfeit combining obv. of Caracalla with a rev. of Elagabal.
Jochen
27 Nike Countermark.JPG
Caracalla, Nikaea, Nike countermark94 viewsAE26, 198-217 AD
Obv: Laureate head right, Nike Countermark to left.
Rev:Fortuna standing with rudder.
26mm, 10.8 gm
Same obv. die as Recueil Generale pl. LXXIX.30
3 commentsjdholds
Caracalla_Perge_Artemis_AE18_3_1g.jpg
Caracalla, Perge, Artemis, AE1840 views18mm, 3.1g
obv: AV K M A[VP...ANTO] NINOC CE B; laureate, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right, countermark (owl or eagle?)
rev: ΠEPΓAIΩN; Artemis facing, head right, holding arrow in right, bow in left hand
areich
Caracalla_Tium_Asklepios_AE25_10.0g.jpg
Caracalla, Tium, Asklepios, AE2582 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Caracalla; A.D. 209-217
15mm, 10.0g, 30
Obv: ANTΩNEINOC-AVΓOVCTO(C); laureate head right; countermark on neck.
Rev: TIA-NΩN. Aesculapis standing facing, head left, holding serpent-encircled staff.
Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 965.
CM: S (lunate sigma) in circular punch, 7 mm. Howego 809 (47 pcs).
Note: While the latest coin bearing this countermark listed by Howgego was issued for Gordian III, considering that other coins bearing denominational countermarks were issues as late as Hostilian, the countermark was likely not applied until the time of Valerian and Gallienus.

ex Automan (description stolen from him)
GICV -
areich
Caracalla-Perga.JPG
Caracalla-Perga27 viewsPAMPHYLIA, Perga
Caracalla. 28. Circa A.D. 209-217.
Obverse: AKMAY-ANTΩN(EINOC)-CEB. Laureate bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) before bust, below chin, (2) below (1).
Reverse: ΠEP-ΓAI-Ω-N.Emperor in military outfit standing left, holding spear, raising right hand, crowned by Nike, holding palm-branch.
27mm, 10.59 g.
CM(1): Eagle facing, head right (?), wings open, in oval punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 334 (50 pcs).
CM(2): A.K. in rectangular punch, 5 x 3 mm. Howgego 513 (43 pcs).
Note: Countermark (2) was applied earlier than (1) which is found on coins of Severus Alexander while countermark (2) is not found on coins struck later than the reign of Elagabalus.
Jerome Holderman
Aphrodisias.JPG
Caria, Aphrodisias (AD 200-250) AE 24. Senate/Aphrodite32 viewsImperial Times, ca 200-250 AD. AE24. IЄPA CV - NKΛHTOC, diademed bust of Senate right; countermark. / AΦPOΔЄI-CIЄΩN, Aphrodite standing facing, holding scepter and apple.
BMC 31; SNG Copenhagen -
ancientone
Caria_Attuda_Men_temple_AE23_5_31g.jpg
Caria, Attuda, Men / temple, AE2330 views23mm, 5.31g
obv: MHN KAROV; bust of Mn Karou right, wearing Phrygian cap, uncertain countermark
rev: A-TTOV-Δ - EΩN, large garlanded altar of Mn, on it, three pinecones, two small flaming altars between

BMC 18, p. 65, #18
areich
Ancient_Counterfeits_Trajan_Cast_Denarius_Mars_IMP_VI_COS_III.JPG
Cast Denarius11 viewsObv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P
Trajan laur. r.
Rev: IMP VI COS III
Mars standing r., holding spear and shield (Marc Aurel RIC 262)

3.44g, 19mm
klausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Caracalla_RIC_22.jpg
Cast of Caracalla RIC 2234 viewsImitating a Caracalla Denarius that was probably struck around 198/199.
Obv: IMP CAES M AVR ANTON AVG
Dr. head bare r.
Rev: SECVRIT ORBIS
Securitas seated r. by altar, propping head on r. hand and holding sceptre.
20mm, 2.40g
1 commentsklausklage
Ancient_Counterfeits_Cast_of_Trajan_RIC_219.jpg
Cast of Trajan RIC 21923 viewsAncient cast of a Trajan Denarius, cf. RIC 219
Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P
Laur. r.
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI
Dacia seated right in mournful attitude on shield; below, curved sword.
18mm, 2.67g
klausklage
195.jpg
CCO (?),CAГ and Artemis179 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Domitian. 25. A.D. 84/85 (year 132). Obv: (ΔOMETIANΩKAICAPICEBACTΩГEPMANIKOΩ, BΛP in front of bust) or similar. Laureate head left; 3 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on neck, (3) on neck, on top of (2). Rev: (IOYΛIEΩNTΩN)-KAI-(ΛAOΔIKEΩN), or similar, uncertain letters in field. Veiled and turreted bust of city-goddess right. Ref: RPC 2027-2030. Axis: 30. Weight: 8.45 g. CM(1): CCO (?) in shaped punch, 6 x 3 mm. Howgego -. Note: May be a blundered variant form of Howgego 586, which reads "COL". CM(2): CAГ in rectangular punch, 6 x 3.5 mm. Howgego 581 (116 pcs). CM(3): Artemis, bust right, quiver over shoulder, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 5 mm. Howgego 181 (15 pcs). Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
Celtic-Ag-Tetradrachm_countermark-on-the_revers-_Q-001_22mm_13,29g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Tetradrachm, with countermark,177 viewsCeltic Ar-Tetradrachm, with countermark,
avers:-,
reverse:-,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 13,29g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Strymon5.jpg
Celtic imitation of Macedon AE 2253 viewsoverstrike

Serdi region
? (original Macedonian issue 185-168 BC)
head of rivergod Strymon right
wide trident
MAKE / ?ΔONΩN?
H countermark
type E3A
imitation of: SNG Copenhagen 1298-9 var.
6,70g 22mm

Wave on Strymon's face is relic of original coin also there is slightly visible inscription (perpendicular to trident).

original coin probably is:

Thessalonica
158-31 BC
head of Dionysos with ivy wreath right
goat standing right
ΘEΣΣA_ΛO / N_IK_HΣ
(NE) / ? other monograms
Sear #1466; BMC Macedonia p. 110, 10 - 16

Imitations from Serdi region weren't used to fool Macedonian traders but as their own currency. This coin is one of overstrikes on official Macedonian coins which prooves this theory.
Johny SYSEL
Strymon30.jpg
CELTIC, Celtic imitation - AE 22180 viewsoverstrike

Serdi region
? (original Macedonian issue 185-168 BC)
head of rivergod Strymon right
wide trident
MAKE / ?ΔONΩN?
type: type E3A
imitation of: SNG Copenhagen 1298-9 var.
6,70g 22mm

Wave on Strymon's face is relic of original coin also there is slightly visible inscription (perpendicular to trident).
original coin probably is:

Thessalonica
158-31 BC
head of Dionysos with ivy wreath right
goat standing right
ΘEΣΣA_ΛO / N_IK_HΣ
(NE) / ? other monograms
Sear #1466; BMC Macedonia p. 110, 10 - 16

Imitations from Serdi region weren't used to fool Macedonian traders but as their own currency. This coin is one of overstrikes on official Macedonian coins which prooves this theory.
Johny SYSEL
IMGP0087Charcombo.jpg
Charakene, Attembelos IV, ca. 53 - 64 AD20 viewsAE tdr, 15,01gr, 25,38mm,
SGIC 5924var. (Attambelos III.), Mitch. ACW 729var. (Attambelos III.),
mint: Charax Spasinou (?), axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, right, w/diadem and 2 ribbons; medium-long hair in 7 spiral locks, short beard; countermark monogram in neck area;
rev.: naked Herakles on rock or omphalos resting club on knee;
ex: Baltimore Coin Show.
Schatz
CHINA_HU-PEH_COUNTERFEIT.jpg
CHINA - Hu-Peh Province COUNTERFEIT363 viewsCHINA - Hu-Peh Province COUNTERFEIT - Counterfeit of an Emperor Zai Tian - Guang Xu Reign (1875-1908) 20 cents from Hu Peh province, reference KM#125.1. Notice the dragon's face! Also, the garbled and mis-spelled/mis-shaped English letters. The calligraphy in Chinese is not correct for these coins, also! But still an interesting collectible example of a counterfeit!dpaul7
WangMang2.jpg
China: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D.95 viewsChina: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D. AE24 mm, Cash. Obv: Huo Chuan. Schjoth-165.

"As soon as his [Wang Mang's] power was sufficiently consolidated, 3 years after his return to court, lists of his political opponents were drawn up, and hundreds were executed. Shortly after this he established a new penal colony in Tibet in the far West, a sort of ancient gulag. Unfortunately we have no direct account as to the nature of the crimes of those exiled to Tibet. In 6 AD the reins of power were still more firmly in his grasp, and Mang ordered his first reform of the coinage. Fundamentally this was a stratagem to nationalize the gold stocks, and put the empire back on a copper standard. Gold was requisitioned and exchanged against very high value bronze tokens. Two years later the tokens were demonetized. The cash assets of the aristocracy and the wealthy merchants must have been largely wiped out overnight. It is in the first couple of years of Mang's independent reign that the astonishing breadth of his reform proposals appear. His reforms include:

1) the abolition of slavery.
2) the nationalization of land.
3) standard plots of arable land for all adult males who wished to work them.
4) farming families grouped in hamlets of 6 or 8, with a common tax assessment.
5) a national bank offering fair rates of interest to all.
6) government market activity to counteract cornering and monopolization.
7) a new currency system in 15 denominations - circulating by government fiat.
8) defeat of the Huns

His new taxes include

taxes to be paid in cash or kind on cultivated land (one tenth)

triple rates to be paid on uncultivated land (parks and gardens etc.)

c) all self-employed or professional people outside farming shall register for income tax, which will be universally levied at 10% per annum. Those avoiding registration, or submitting false accounts to be sentenced to one years hard labour.

d) the state monopolies on iron, salt, silk, cloth and coinage to be retained

e) a new state monopoly on wine to be introduced.

Discussion of the proposals

1) Events in his private life show Mang's abhorrence of slavery. He vilified the political system of the legalists, established in the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) specifically by alluding to the manner in which they established market places for male and female slaves, "putting human beings in auction pens as if they were cattle."

Reforms 2, 3, 5 & 6) The nationalization of land and its distribution amongst the peasant farmers themselves is of course one solution to the central economic problem in all pre-modern civilizations, (which presumably finds its roots in the bronze age and persisting right down to the machine age). Peasants must have security of tenure and just returns for their labour, otherwise they will not be encouraged to work effectively - and the state and all within it will thereby be impoverished. However if they are made private landowners then clever, unscrupulous, hard-working individuals within and outwith the peasantry will begin to gain land at the expense of their neighbours. The chief mechanisms of this gradual monopolization of the land by a class of people distinguished by their wealth are:

Preying upon private 'misfortune', (illness, death, and marriage expenses) by loansharking.
Preying upon public misfortunes (bad harvests) by loansharking.
Creating shortages by rigging the markets, exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

Unfairly biasing tax assessments, creating and exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

The end result of this tendency is likely to be that the bulk of farmers lack security of tenure and or just returns, and cease to work effectively, to the impoverishment of all. Reforms 2, 3 & 5 bear on this problem in an obvious way.

Reform 6 - the "Five Equalizations" is a little more complicated, so I shall explain it at greater length. Fundamentally it required the installation of government officials at the five important markets of the empire who would "buy things when they were cheap and sell them when they were dear." In more detail: "The superintendent of the market, in the second month of each of the four seasons, shall determine the true price of the articles under their responsibility, and shall establish high, middle and low prices for each type of item. When there are unsold goods on the market, the superintendent shall buy them up at the cost (low?) price. When goods become expensive (ie exceed the high price?) the superintendent shall intervene to sell goods from the official store (and thereby reduce the price)." The regulation thus allows markets to operate, but provides for state intervention to stop speculation . . . Mang's regulations allow for a review and revision of the trading bands four times a year.

4). In resettling the people securely on the land, Mang choose to group them into "chings" of 6 or 8 families - attempting to restore the traditional "well field" system. This provided for the regular exchange of land between the families, to give all a go at the best ground, and for joint responsibility for a common tax demand. The ching system was believed, by the Confucian party in the 1st century BC at least, to have been destroyed by the growth of mercantilist exploitation under the Chin legalists. There are hints that the state went on to use the ching structure in crime prevention measures, by making all members of the ching culpable for the unreported crime of any single member. The installation of a land nationalization scheme under the banner of a return to the ancient Chou system of 'chings' had a great deal of propaganda value amongst the Confucian elite which surrounded Mang. A sentimental view of rural working class life seems to be a common weakness amongst aristocratic and middle class intellectuals of all periods. Mang's own observations of the labouring poor would necessarily have been made at a distance - perhaps he too shared in this sentimental myopia. The evidence suggests that the peasantry did not welcome this aspect of the reforms

7) Food was the first concern of Confucian government, but coinage was the second. Only fair prices could encourage the farmers. Only markets could create fair prices. Only with coins could markets exist. Mang introduced a rational set of 15 denominations of coin, valued from 1 to 1,000 cash and circulated by government fiat. Mang did not invent the idea of fiat or fiduciary currency, a brief attempt had been made to circulate one in China a century earlier. However Mang was the first to systematically think through the matter in a practical context, and to apply it over a protracted period. Future successful ancient and medieval experiments with fiat currency, first in China, then in Japan and Central Asia, and unsuccessful ones in medieval India and Persia all looked back - directly or indirectly - to Mang. The first successful fully fiduciary currencies in Europe are products of the 20th century, more than 700 years after Europeans became aware of Chinese practices. (I am neglecting a great deal of late Roman copper coin here of course. I am by no means knowledgeable on such coins, but my understanding is that in principle, if not in practice, Rome was generally on the silver or the gold standard, and copper was exchangeable on demand.) On my own reading of the text, Mang's main concern is to get gold and silver off the market, so they could not be used to bid his tokens down - his coinage was intended to replace gold coinage, not supplement it."--Robert Tye

For a more complete study of Wang Mang, see Robert Tye's compositon about this enigmatic leader at http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/tye/Wang%20Mang.htm
Cleisthenes
Picture_4.png
Cilicia, Olba Æ66 viewsCilicia, Olba
c. 1st C. AD
3.61g
Obv: Temple of Zeus Olbius.
Rev: Thunderbolt.
Interesting countermark of Griffin??
1 commentsmihali84
soloi_grapes_res.jpg
CILICIA, SOLOI18 views430 - 390 BC
AE 16 mm; 3.6 g
O: Head of Athena right; countermark of mongram in circle to left
R: ΣOΛEΩN (on left), cluster of grapes; monogram to right
Soloi; SNG Lev. 856 Rare
laney
tarsos_sandan_pyre_res.jpg
CILICIA, TARSOS36 views2nd to 1st Century B.C.
AE 21 mm; 6.63 g
O: Veiled and turreted head of Tyche, right; countermark beneath chin.
R: Pyramidal Pyre of Sandan containing figure of Sandan on lion, all on a garlanded square base, eagle at apex.
1 commentslaney
tyche_sandan_tars.jpg
CILICIA, TARSOS15 views2nd to 1st Century B.C.
AE 16 mm, 2.90 g
O: Veiled and turreted head of Tyche, right; countermark beneath chin.
R: Pyramidal Pyre of Sandan containing figure of Sandan on lion, all on a garlanded square base, eagle at apex.
laney
bow_case_stamp.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Autonomous City Issue, Bow and Case Counterstamp9 viewsAE 19 mm, 5.1 gm, 7h; after 164 BC.
Obv: Draped, veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right, bow case counterstamp to left of bust.
Rev: TAPΣEΩN; Zeus in himation seated left on throne, holding eagle-tipped sceptre; monograms to right.
SNG Levante 918ff; SNG France 1285-1294.
Notes: sold to Aleg, 10/29/15
John Anthony
Gordian_III_Seleuceia_ad_Calycadnum,_Cilicia.jpg
CILICIA. Seleukeia ad Kalykadnon. Gordian II34 viewsAE 29 /13.27g)
obv. MAP ANTΩΝ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC.
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rev. CEΛEVKEΩN TΩ ΠPOC TΩ KAΛV.
Athena advancing right, holding aegis and spear, attacking snake-legged giant

Obverse countermarked with monogram of K and A
Second countermark contains dot, in triangular punch
HG
SNG_Lev_763var_238-244_Gordianus_III.jpg
Cilicia_Seleucia ad Calycadnum_Gordianus_III_SNG Lev 763 var.9 viewsGordianus III.
AE, Cilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum
Struck: 238-244 / 28-32 mm / 11,69 g

Av: ΜΑΡ ΑΝΤΩ-Ν ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind
Countermark: Howgego 670

Rv: C[ΕΛΕΥ]ΚΕ-ΩΝ ΤΩ Π[ΡΟ]C / ΤΩ / ΚΑΛΥ
Athena Alcidemus advancing right, attacking anguipede Giant, raising hands in defense

Reference: SNG Lev 763 var.
Andicz
norwich1.jpg
CITY-GATE, Norwich Halfpenny 1792157 viewsNot that old, but it matches the category. This is a Norwich Halfpenny token from 1792. OBVERSE: The Armorial bearings of the City of Norwich. (A castle triple-towered, in base a lion passant gardant.)

Legend: MAY NORWICH FLOURISH. PRO BONO PUBLICO

Reverse - Arms: (Gules, on a bend between six crosses crosslets fitche argent, an escutcheon or, charged with a demi-lion [a lion on the token], rampant pierced through the mouth with an arrow, within a double tressure flory, counter-flory gules.) [The tressure is not so shown, and the tincture would be impossible to engrave at this minute scale] of the Howard Family the Duke of Norfolk's. Behind the shield are two truncheons or Marshal's staves, in saltire or, enamelled at each end sable. [This tincture is omitted on the token.]
Legend: NORFOLK AND NORWICH HALFPENNY. 1792

Edge: PAYABLE AT N. BOLINGBROKES HABERDASHER &C NORWICH .X.
aarmale
Civic_Tium_TycheAndZeus_AE30_11_9g.jpg
Civic, Tium, Tyche and Zeus, AE3058 viewsBITHYNIA, Tium. Civic Issue. Circa AD 220-240. 30mm (11.92 g). Diademed and draped bust of Tius right; c/m: H surmounted by star within circular incuse / TIA-N-WN, Tyche standing right, holding sceptre, facing Zeus standing left, also holding sceptre and sacrificing over altar between them. RG pg. 617, 10; BMC -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock 923 (same obverse die); Howgego 825 (for countermark). Good Fine, light brown patina, some minor surface striations.


From the Garth R. Drewry Collection; Ex The Philip DeVicci Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 57, 28 March 2001), lot 800.
same obverse die as GICV 4894
1 commentsareich
Civil_War_Cannonball~0.jpg
Civil War Cannon Ball135 viewsWeight: Approx. 3 lbs.

Excavated from the Perryville, Kentucky Battlefield - Fought Oct. 8th, 1862.

Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg's autumn 1862 invasion of Kentucky had reached the outskirts of Louisville and Cincinnati, but he was forced to retreat and regroup. On October 7, the Federal army of Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell, numbering nearly 55,000, converged on the small crossroads town of Perryville, Kentucky, in three columns.

Union forces first skirmished with Rebel cavalry on the Springfield Pike before the fighting became more general, on Peters Hill, as the grayclad infantry arrived. The next day, at dawn, fighting began again around Peters Hill as a Union division advanced up the pike, halting just before the Confederate line. The fighting then stopped for a time. After noon, a Confederate division struck the Union left flank and forced it to fall back.

When more Confederate divisions joined the fray, the Union line made a stubborn stand, counter attacked, but finally fell back with some troops routed. Buell did not know of the happenings on the field, or he would have sent forward some reserves. Even so, the Union troops on the left flank, reinforced by two brigades, stabilized their line, and the Rebel attack sputtered to a halt.

Later, a Rebel brigade assaulted the Union division on the Springfield Pike but was repulsed and fell back into Perryville. The Yankees pursued, and skirmishing occurred in the streets in the evening before dark. Union reinforcements were threatening the Rebel left flank by now. Bragg, short of men and supplies, withdrew during the night, and, after pausing at Harrodsburg, continued the Confederate retrograde by way of Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee. The Confederate offensive was over, and the Union controlled Kentucky.

Result(s): Union strategic victory

Location: Boyle County

Campaign: Confederate Heartland Offensive (1862)

Date(s): October 8, 1862

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell [US]; Gen. Braxton Bragg [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Ohio [US]; Army of the Mississippi [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 7,407 total (US 4,211; CS 3,196)
1 commentsNoah
B_006 w-ctsp.JPG
Class = B [006]18 views6.09 grams
22.4 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
"Mardin" type 16var counterstamp
cmcdon0923
K_003.JPG
Class = K [003]77 views8.01 grams
25.8 mm
Attributed to ALEXIUS I, Comnenus (1081-1118)
SEAR 1901
multiple "Mardin" type countermarks:
Types 1 and 13, plus one unidentifiable
2 commentscmcdon0923
t10~0.JPG
Claudius Sestertius Countermarked10 viewsDVP - Dupondius, struck upon worn specimens of sestertii and downgrading their value by half.ecoli
Claudius_Britannicus.jpg
Claudius and Britannicus - Thessalonica35 viewsAE 23
53-54 AD
bare head of Claudius left
countermark
TI KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP CΕΒACTOC
draped bust of Britanniccus left
BPETANNIKOC ΘECCAΛONI
RPC 1588
7,22g 23,5-21,5mm

tooled haircut
Johny SYSEL
ClaudiusSest1.jpg
Claudius Underweight Sestertius18 viewsObv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP - Laureate head right - Countermarked DV

Rev: SPES AVGVSTA - Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt

Rome 41-50 A.D.

Downgraded to a Dupondius
BamaCS
cl1OR.jpg
Claudius, RIC I 10016 viewsRome mint, Claudius As, 41-50 A.D. AE, 26mm 7.31g, RIC I 100, BMC 224 (possibly a contemporary counterfeit)
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP Bare head to l.
R: Helmeted Minerva advancing to r., brandishing spear in r. hand and holding round shield in l. hand. To the sides S C
casata137ec
010~0.JPG
Cleoniceras Ammonite55 viewsCleoniceras Ammonite: Ammolite
140 million years old
found in Mahajanga, Madagascar.

Ammonites are extinct cephalopods that lived in the oceans millions of years ago and are ancestors to the modern-day squid, octopus, and chambered nautilus. Ammonites were wide spread around the globe and flourished for 100s of millions of years. These ammonites date to about 140mya and come from the area around Mahajanga, Madagascar. Ammonites were first called Ammons Stones for their resemblance to the rams horns of Ammon, ancient Egyptian God of life and procreation.



The photo between is of a living relative, the Nautilus.



"A countermarked coin described here provides evidence that ancient Greeks created artistic portrayals of ammonite fossils, although they probably valued them more for their religious significance rather than for their significance for the study of natural history."
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3284/is_314_81/ai_n29405665/
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
chalkis_diosc_b.jpg
COELE SYRIA, CHALKIS--PTOLEMAIOS15 views85 - 40 B.C
AE 20 mm; 5.82 g
Tetrarchy of Chalkis, PtolemaiosAE
O: Zeus (or tetrarch) right, countermark on neck
R: Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) standing facing with spears, heads confronted
Chalkis sub Libano mint, Herman 1, SNG Cop 413, HGC 9 1439 (S), BMC Galatia -
laney
ART_Dukat_weight_Hungarian.JPG
Coin Weight for Hungarian Ducat (=aranyforint = gulden)244 viewsAE 13 mm x 14 mm x 1.5 mm; original weight 3.5 gr.

Withers, P. and B.R., "Lions, Ships & Angels: The Galata Guide to Identifying Coin-Weights Found in Britain" (1995 & 2nd ed. revised 2011), p. 29 (per the dealer's flip).

Obv: Crowned St. Lszlo (= Ladislaus) standing facing, holding long cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left, flanked by H-D (= Hungaricus Ducatus), all in a beaded circle.

Rev: Blank.

The Hungarian aranyforint was struck in great quantities and circulated widely throughout Europe, so that they are found as far afield as England and Scotland. As many currencies circulated throughout Europe, coin weights were sold in boxed sets containing weights for a wide variety of coins that a merchant may encounter, together with a scale.

The obverse devise on this weight is similar to the medieval depiction of St. Lszlo which continuously appeared on the aranyforint from the reign of Lajos I (1342-1382) through the reign of Lajos II (1516-1526), and after the defeat of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Mohcs, on the ayanyforints of Jnos Szapolyai (1526-1540), but not on those of his Habsburg rival, Ferdinand I (1526-1564), or on those of the subsequent Habsburg kings of Hungary (the depiction of St. Lszlo on the Habsburg coins, and even on some of the later Jagiellon issues, was in a Renaissance style). The devise on the weight differs from that on the aranyforint primarily in that (a) St. Lszlo is holding a long cross rather than a halberd; and (b) St. Lszlo is not nimbate (although he is not consistently nimbate on the later Jagiellon issues and is not nimbate on the issues of Jnos Szapolyai). The style of this weight suggests that it was manufactured pre- Mohcs, and according to Withers, it was made in Germany during the 1400s to 1500s (Note: I am reliant upon the dealers flip for this information, as I have not been able to obtain Withers). However, a number of similarly styled coin weights issued by Antwerp masters who were active in the mid to late 1500s (i.e., Bernaert Foncq (active 1550-1578), his son, Hans Foncq (active 1577-1603) and Rogier Verpoorten (active ca. 1580 and later)) indicates that the medieval St. Lszlo continued to appear on coin weights even after that style had become obsolete on the actual coins. presenting the possibility that this weight may have been manufactured post-Mohcs.
1 commentsStkp
coin303.JPG
Coin with 4 Counter Stamp9 viewsObv: AVC, TICA, Flower
Rev: Capricorn

Check
ecoli
Commagene,_Kings,_Antiochos_IV__Epiphanes__A_D__38-72__BA_I_E___ME__ANTIOXO__E_I_KOMMA-_HNON_Q-001_0h_27,5-28mm_12,8ga-s.jpg
Commagene, Kings, Antiochos IV. Epiphanes, (38-72 A.D.), BMC 17-19., AE-28, KOMMA-ΓHNON, Scorpion, R!148 viewsCommagene, Kings, Antiochos IV. Epiphanes, (38-72 A.D.), BMC 17-19., AE-28, KOMMA-ΓHNON, Scorpion, R!
avers: - BAΣIΛEΩΣ ME ANTIOXOΣ EΠI, Diademed and draped bust right, anchor countermark on the neck.
revers: - KOMMA-ΓHNON, Scorpion within wreath.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter:27,5-28mm, weight:12,8g, axis:0h,
mint: Commagene, Kings, date:38-72A.D., ref: RPC 3854, BMC 6-7, SNG Cop 1, Sear Greek Imperial Coins 5507,
Q-001
quadrans
Commodus AR combined.JPG
Commodus45 viewsAR Denarius 16-17mm 2.3g 183 AD
OBV :: M COMMODVS-ANTONINVS AVG. Laureated head right
REV :: LIB(AVGI)III TR P VI IMPIIII COS III PP. Liberalitas standing holding coin counter and cornucopea
RIC 22, BMC 53 Cohen 307

purchased 03/2006

Reverse depicts the 4th distribution of money to the people of rome
1 commentsJohnny
00140-Commodus.JPG
Commodus95 viewsCommodus Sestertius
30 mm 22.73 gm
O: M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT
Laureate head right
R: P M TR P XII IMP VIII COS V P P S C
LIBERAL AVG V in ex, two togate figures seated left on platform, while Liberalitas, holding cornucopia, distributes largess from a coin counter to a citizen scaling steps to left.

I'm a little worried this is a fake, any comments appreciated
3 commentsJohn Campbell
CommodusCM.jpg
Commodus Provincial Countermark40 views[Α Κ?] Μ ΑΥ ΚΟ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟΣ
laureate head of Commodus, r.

ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟ ΝΕΩ ΝΙΚΟ
seafaring hero (an Argonaut?) standing with foot on prow, r., head, l., extending r. hand, holding transverse sceptre

Countermark of "young Emperor" facing right (Caracalla?)

177192 AD
Nicomedia Bithynia-Pontus; Bithynia

REC 152

SOLD
Titus Pullo
com8OR.jpg
Commodus, Rec 282(2)29 viewsNicaea mint, Commodus, 184-190 A.D. AE, 28mm 9.35g, Rec 282(2)
O: A K M AY KO ANTΩNIN, laureate head, right, (uncertain countermark: Winged Victory standing right holding wreath)
R: NIKAIEΩN, turreted and draped bust of Nymph Nicaea wearing ivy wreath, r.
casata137ec
Commodus_Tmolos-Aureliopolis_Tyche_Tmolos_AE30_13_34_g.jpg
Commodus, Tmolos-Aureliopolis, Tmolos crowning Tyche, AE3042 viewsCommodus, 177-192 AD, Tmolos-Aureliopolis / Tmolus-Aureliopolis, Lydia

30mm, 13.34g

obv: AV K M AVP KOMMOΔOC; laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; countermark Δ on head
rev: AΠOΛΛΩNIΔHC CTPA ANЄΘ / AVPHΛIO / TMΩ; city-goddess, turreted, seated right, holding on her knee cista mystica; behind, mountain-god Tmolos, naked but for nebris round body, advancing right, placing a wreath upon her head with his right and holding in left over his shoulder a branch of wine with three bunches of grapes (?)

BMC Lydia, p. 324, No. 5, SNG Aulock -, SNG Leypold -, SNG Righetti -, Imhoof-Blumer KM -, Lydische Stadtmnzen -, Lindgren I + III -, Sear GIC

ex R&W
areich
Commodus-Corinth.JPG
Commodus-Corinth28 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth
Commodus. 25. A.D. 177-192.
Obverse: IMPCOMMODVS-(ANTONINVS AVG) or similar. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before bust.
Reverse: CLI-(COR).Nike walking right, holding wreath and palm.
BMC 640-641v (size).
25mm, 9.89 g.
CM: Laureate bust right, in oval punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 56 (89 pcs). Note: Likely applied after circa A.D. 205, the vast majority of coins bearing this countermark are from Corinth
Jerome Holderman
CSA_CT16_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: CT-16 1861 $50 (Front)14 viewsContemporary Counterfeit of a 1861 $50 Confederate Note.Quant.Geek
CSA_CT16_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: CT-16 1861 $50 (Rear)8 viewsContemporary Counterfeit of a 1861 $50 Confederate Note.Quant.Geek
IMG_0142.jpg
Constantine II, Issue 4, Toone 3418 viewsCONSTANT_INVSIVNNC, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
BEATTRA_NQLITAS, Altar
Mintmark F/B//PLON
Weight 2.42g
A truly draped and cuirassed bust and not the trabeate version usually encountered
Adrianus
DSCN6990.JPG
Constantine X Doukas 1059 - 67 AE 25-29mm8 viewsConstantine X Doukas 1059 - 67

Obv. Eudocia on l., Constantine bearded on r., stg. facing holding cross between them labarum with cross on shaft resting on three steps each wearing crown and loros.

Rev. + KWN T AK EVAK AVTO or similar . countermark near the center is Mardin #14, with the Arabic name 'Imad. It is attributed to the Zengid ruler 'Imad al-din Zengi II, Atabeg of Sinjar and Nisibin (565-94 AH / 1169-97 AD), probably applied at the mint of Nisibin.
Lee S
Contemporary-barbaric-imitation_3,09g_Q-003.jpg
Constantinus-I. (307-337) AE-3 Ancient Counterfeits and Barbarous Imitation #03155 viewsConstantinus-I. Ancient Counterfeits and Barbarous Imitation
avers:- confusing text, --VVoo- CVoV--(probably:IMP-CONSTANT_INVS-PF-AVG), Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right,
revers:- confusing text, (probably:VOTXX/MVLT/XXX/TS dot gamma dot) wreath, legend within
exergo: TS dot gamma dot ??
date: 317-318 ??
mint: Thessalonica ??
diameter: 17-18mm
weight: 3,09g
ref: probably RIC(VII,Thessalonica)-28 imitation !?
Q-003
quadrans
862Hadrian_RIC221_Limes.JPG
Contemporary Counterfeit 221 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Securitas (contemporary cast)17 viewsReference.
RIC 221 var.; C.1400; Hunter 196; Strack 351

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head left, with aegis on breast

Rev. SECVR PVB COS III P P,
Securitas seated left, holding sceptre and resting head on hand

3.39 gr
20 mm

Note.
Contemporary cast not silver
Bust not know there must be an official Roma mint out there
new bust left and with aegis on this rare coin (RIC II notes common)
okidoki
Corinth_1.PNG
Corinth 306 - 303 B.C3 viewsCorinth 306 - 303 B.C.

obverse. Pegasus flying left, Countermarked

reverse. ornate trident

8mm
Macedonian Warrior
049-Septimius-Severus_AE-24-xx_xxIVLxxL-SEP-SEV-xx-laureate-head-right-with-Countermark_CLI_COR_BMC-xx_Corinth_Q-001_5h_24mm_6,79gx-s.jpg
Corinth, Corinth, 049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AE-24, Demeter standing right,62 viewsCorinth, Corinth, 049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), AE-24, Demeter standing right,
avers:- xxIVLxxL-SEP-SEV-xx, Laureate head right with Countermark (Yung boy head right).
revers:- CLI-COR, Demeter (?) standing right, holding sceptre (?) and patera.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24mm, weight: 6,79g, axes: 5h,
mint: Corinth, date: 193-211 A.D., ref: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
193.jpg
Cornucopiae151 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Domitian. 26 (Large denomination, dupondius?). A.D. 81-83. Obv: IMPDO(MITI)-ANVSC(AESAVG). Laureate head left; countermark (1) on shoulder, countermark (2) to right of bust. Rev: S C, Δ beneath, all within laurel-wreath. Ref: RPC 2023. Axis: 360. Weight: 14.73 g. CM: Cornucopiae containing two bunches of grapes, in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 402 (3 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
COSTA_RICA_cntst.jpg
COSTA RICA24 viewsCOSTA RICA - AR 1923 50 Centavos - COUNTERSTAMPED ON 1890 25 CENTAVO COIN. Reference: KM#129.dpaul7
coin1000.JPG
Counter Mark TICA9 viewsecoli
LarryW2236tag.jpg
Counter tag, B. A. Seaby66 viewsAcquired AR drachm, reduced weight, Peloponnesos, Elis c. after 191 BC. Sent coin along with counter ticket to Mr. Sear.
"The ticket accompanying the Elis drachm was written by Col. Kozolubski of the Seaby Ancient Coin Department whose assitant I was from 1958 until his death in 1964. "The Colonel", as we called him in the Seaby office, undertook my numismatic education in the early days of my career ... He was co-author, with H. A. Seaby, of the 1959 edition of Greek Coins and Their Values..."
Lawrence Woolslayer
elag20~0.jpg
Countermark (Helios) on Elagabalus --AE 37, Cappadocia. Struck 219 AD. 328 viewsRadiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, with aegis on chest; c/m radiate head of helios right / Mt. Argaeus; on summit, nude figure holding globe and sceptre; in field, star and crescent; before mountain, tetrastyle temple; on each side, an agonistic urn. Sydenham 520b; SNG von Aulock 6499; c/m: Howgego 12. (featherz)featherz
tn_counter2.jpg
Countermark (Hippocamp) on Gortyna -- AE21. 301 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right/Europa riding bull left; countermark hippocamp left. Svoronos 120 var. (no countermark); SNG Copenhagen -; BMC Crete pg. 45, 66 var. (same). (featherz)featherz
philipp.jpg
Countermark (star) on unidentified GREEK AE66 viewsHerakles with lion skin - young rider
countermark star
Franz-Josef M
Countermark_Bee.jpg
Countermark Bee on Antiochos II 13 viewsCountermark Bee (Ephesos ?)
on worn
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochos II Theos
261-246 B.C.
Obv.: Head of Apollo right, hair falling in curls
Rev.: [B]A[ΣIΛ]E[ΩΣ] ANTIOX[OΥ], tripod
AE, 14.4mm, 3g
shanxi
076n.jpg
Countermark consisting of circular object above and below roughly triangular object on Caracalla AE27203 viewsCARIA. Stratonicea. Caracalla. 27. Circa A.D. 196-209. Obv: MAPAYPHΛIOC(). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before head. Rev: (CT)PA-TON().Zeus (?) seated left, holding spear and patera. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 180. Weight: 14.66 g. Note: The attribution of this coin is uncertain. CM: Circular object above and below roughly triangular object, in oval punch, 3.5 x 8 mm. Howgego -.Note: The countermark is not listed by Howgego and it is uncertain what the geometrical objects are meant to symbolise. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
maxmin13.jpg
Countermark Crazy! :)128 viewsMaximinus I --AE33, Ninica-Claudiopolis. Draped bust of Maximinus R/Draped bust of Maximus R.. SNG France 2, 796. Multiple c/m.4 commentsfeatherz
204.jpg
Countermark of Aurelius and Verus (?)163 viewsUncertain mint, possibly PHOENICIA. Ptolemais (Akko)? Uncertain emperor, possibly Trajan. 22. A.D. 98-117 (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. (Laureate head right?).Rev: Inscription illegible. (Tyche seated right?); countermark. Weight: 9.39 g. CM: Two facing bearded busts (Aurelius and Verus?), in rectangular punch, 6 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 50 ? (2 pcs). Note: Howgego 50 is the only countermark resembling this one, although the identification is uncertain. The speciment illustratd by Howgego, is also heavily worn, though. Collection Automan.Automan
0116lyc2[1].jpg
Countermark of KALLATIS on LYSIMACHUS (Lysimachos) 305-281 BCE138 viewsMint, Thrace
Obverse: Head of Athena attic helmet.
Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛΥΣIMAXOΥ, lion running jumping right, spearhead below
Nice smooth, deep-green patina. SNG COP 1149-1151, McClean 4499. s.sch.4.80g/22mm
NORMAN K
Atheny~0.jpg
Countermark on Athens - AR tetradrachm 182 views431-393 BC
head of Athena right - almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll
owl standing right, head facing, olive sprig and crescent left
AΘE right
Phoenician contermark
bēth yōdh (yōdh~hand; bēth~house
(Type C), Sear 2526
RARE CONTERMARK
16,5 g 22 mm
Johny SYSEL
normal_Athens_Owl~0.jpg
Countermark on Athens Owl285 viewsAttica-Athens
Silver tetradrachm
449-414 B.C.
17g, 24mm, 45o
Interesting Countermark on reverse
1 commentskypros84
avg~0.jpg
Countermark on Augustus As196 viewsAugustus as with countermarkCibalia
_T2eC16V,!)QE9s3HFdodBQhF6YhUgQ~~60_57.JPG
Countermark on coin of Septimius Severus904 viewsSeptimius Severus AE45 medallion of Acrasus, Lydia. 43.5 gr.

AYT KAI L CEP CEOYHROC PER, laureate, draped cuirassed bust
right, countermark of Artemis Ephesia standing facing (Howgego 234.)
EPI CTRA ONHCIPFOROY APOLL TO B AKRACIWTWN (or [2] EPI CTR
FILODHMOY NOYMERIANOY AKRACIWTWN), Biga of stags right
with statue of Artemis Ephesia standing half right with supports.

SNG von Aulock 2883; Hirsch Collection 1571; [2] SNG Cop 6.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection
2 commentsSam
new2.jpg
Countermark on Commodus --AE25. 324 viewsCommodus --AE25. Laodicea ad Mare, City Goddess in temple. 'gamma' countermark on cheek. SGI 2044. (featherz)featherz
tn_sidon.jpg
Countermark on Elagabalus --AE24, Sidon.267 viewsElagabalus --AE24, Sidon. R: Kadmos subduing lion (?) or Artemis w/Lion, Cart of astarte above. BM262. Unknown c/m (featherz)featherz
tn_gordian26.jpg
Countermark on Gordian III --AE26, Temnus.262 viewsGordian III --AE26, Temnus. R: Herakles standing left with club, lionskin and kantharos. Unknown c/m on obverse. (featherz)featherz
123.jpg
Countermark on Greek coin171 viewsI think that the coin is Kings of Bithynia Prusias I Cholos. 230-182 BC. Head of Apollo left, Nike Athena standing left. Countermarks looks like a Lyre and head of Apollo?
Joe Holderman
Arif Isik
1~0~0.jpg
Countermark on reverse of Alexander III, Cyprus Amathus 144 viewsAlexander the great AE
Amathus,Cyprus
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles right
Reverse: Club and quiver,below ,eagle flying left,star over quiver.Between ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ
16.47mm 4.48g
PRICE 3090 ,TZIAMBAZIS 38/3
maik
#23_Unidentified_GREEK_-_obv___rev.png
Countermark on unidentified Greek coin114 viewsusshelby10
double_countermark.jpg
Countermark--2 heads20 views20 mm 6.34 glaney
countermark_augustus.jpg
Countermark--Augustus Julia Trad.22 viewslaney
agrippa-cm.jpg
Countermark: Bust of Hercules14 viewsAgrippa AE As. Countermark: Bust of HercluesHolding_History
cm4.jpg
Countermark: Wreath and Bust8 viewsRoman AE As. Countermarks: Wreath and BustHolding_History
TICAE4267.JPG
Countermarked 23 viewsAE 25, dupondius?

obv. Bust right

2 counter marks, AVG, TICAE (Tiberius?)
Randygeki(h2)
tica4230.JPG
Countermarked 29 viewsAe 23, as?
counter mark, TICA, Claudius?
Randygeki(h2)
elephant.jpg
COUNTERMARKED12 viewsELEPHANT HEAD COUNTERMARKlaney
CounterUnk.jpg
Countermarked Coin159 viewsEmperor: Unknown
Date: Unknown
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: Unknown

Obverse: Countermark: ||●C●V
Maybe an imitation of TI●C●A

Reverse: Unknown

5.23g; 24.5mm
Pep
tmouse.jpg
Countermarked Troas! :)83 viewsTroas -- AE18. 2nd-1st Century BC. Facing bust of Apollos 3/4 to left, countermarks of mouse and bust of Apollo/Lyre, countermark of horse's head. cf. SNG Cop. 88 (no mouse, head 3/4 to r.). ex: Mabbott Collection Hans Schulman sale, 6/691 commentsfeatherz
cm3.jpg
Countermarks: DVA, Helmet, Dolphin9 viewsAugustus AE As. Bust right, Countermarks: DVA, Helmet / Countermarks: DolphinHolding_History
cm2.jpg
Countermarks: S, AAC, TICA13 viewsAugustus AE As. Countermarks: S (devalued to a semis), AAC, TICA Holding_History
cm1.jpg
Countermarks: S, AVG, TICA 13 viewsAugustus AE As. Countermarks: S (devalued to a semis), AVG, TICA Holding_History
001a~0.jpg
Countermmarked Spanish24 viewsClick picture to enlargemauseus
Sassanid_1.png
Counterstamped Khurso II AR Drachm56 viewsShahanshah Khurso II
AR Drachm
RY 25 (615/616 AD)
Ohrmazd-Ardaxīr (AW) mint
Two rings surrounding, Pahlavi Script
Right facing, crowned bust of Khurso II
Three rings surrounding, Pahlavi Script
Fire Altar with two attendants

Hepthalite Counterstamp
Extra: Contemporary Hepthalite gouge in the reverse margin
1 commentsWindchildPunico
432G407Aemilia.jpg
Cr 415/1 AR Denarius L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus10 views62 BCE Rome mint
o: Veiled and diademed head of Concord right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS- CONCORDIA around
r: L. Aemilius Paullus erecting trophy before three captives, PAVLLVS in ex., TE - R above
Crawford 415/1; Aemilia 10
3.99gg. (6h).
The reverse depicts King Perseus of Macedon and his sons, the non-winners at Paullus' victory at Pydna in 168 BCE, which ended the Macedonian dynasty and was not particularly healthy for the enslaved and looted cities, either.
The moneyer was likely engaged in a bit of counter-adoption, as the great general's agnate family technically died out upon his death.
PMah
genoa_pul_cm.png
CRIMEA, GOLDEN HORDE, JUJID (with Genoese countermark)10 viewsAnonymous AE-Pul

Obverse: Inscription
Kaffa Genoese trading colony "Christogram" countermark

Reverse: Ornament (pentagram?)

Mint: Uncertain (Bulghar?)

Minted: 14th Century (?) cm - 1420 - 1475

Wt.: 1.78g

Ref: Lunardi -; Zeno #167674 ff; Retowski -
jimbomar
C653ECA2-859E-4783-B657-5B7D0C00C9BC.jpeg
Crusaders . Principality of Antioch, Late Anonymous 1250-1268 AE 39 viewsCrusaders . Principality of Antioch, Late Anonymous 1250-1268 AE
15.4 mm , 0.32 g.
A-N-T-V counterclockwise in the angles of a long cross patte
blundered A-N-T-I in the angles of a long cross patte
Seltman, NC 1966, p. 61, 2 var.; CCS 132 var.
Ex Slocum Collection, Sotheby's, London, Auction of March 6th, 1997, lot 164 ; ex collection of Alex G. Malloy ; Forum Ancient Coins,April 2013 ; Ex Erich Wckerlin collection
Ex Mnzen & Medaillen GmbH
Auction 47 lot 160 .
1 commentsVladislav D
1502.jpg
cyzicus003b3 viewsElagabalus
Cyzicus, Mysia

Obv: AY KAI M AVP AN - TΩΝЄIN..., laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Countermark of laureate male head in oval incuse.
Rev: KV / ZIKH / N...N/OPΩ. ethnic in four lines within laurel-wreath.
27 mm, 8.33 gms

RPC Online 3721 variant (reverse legend). Countermark: Howgego 65
Charles M
71313q00.jpg
Danubian Celts, Serdi Region, 168-31 B.C.40 viewsVery rare coin, if anyone knows of another like it (with the river god facing left) please let me know!

Bronze AE 20, Malloy Danubian Celts type -2C; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, VF, beautiful green patina, 6.760g, 20.0mm, 0o, tribal mint, 168 - 31 B.C.; obverse stylized head of the river god Strymon left; reverse trident, bar across near base of prongs, scroll-like ornaments between the prongs, monograms flanking shaft, counterclockwise retrograde blundered inscription similar to MAKEDONWN; the only example known to Forum with the river god's head left, an extremely rare variant and possibly unique;
jimmynmu
IMG_4429-horz.jpg
Denarius Licinus Macer, countermarked15 viewsObv: Apollo, thunderbolt in hand
Rev: Minerva in quadriga with shield and speer, in the field LICINVS L F MACER
Diameter: 20-22mm
Weight: 3,67g
RRC 354/1
(on the left bank countermark)
Tomasz P
U3141F1METMNPEN.JPG
Denarius Serratus, Q Antoninus Balbus26 viewsSilver-plated (Subaeratus) Denarius Serratus of Q Antonius Balbus 83-82 BCE.

Laureate head of Jupiter right, S C behind. E in ex./ Victory in quadriga right, control letter below, Q ANT BALB P R in ex.

Cr364/1; Syd 742.
Belisarius
diocletian.JPG
Diocletian/Genio Large Follis48 viewsLarge Follis of Diocletian, Antioch Mint Sear 3434
o: IMP DIOCLETIANUS PF AVG ; r: GENIO POPULI ROMANI ; ex: ANT and 'H' in right.

The "Genio" reverses were adopted by Diocletian and Galerius to counter the growing influence of Christianity as a force in society - countering it with the traditional "spirit of the Roman people"- Mattingly

From Baltimore Coin show 2010
daverino
224.jpg
Dioscuri stg. facing, hld. spears136 viewsUncertain mint. Uncertain emperor. 25. 2nd century A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust; countermark. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 8.93 g. CM: Dioscuri standing facing, holding spears, in rectangular punch 7 x 9 mm. Howgego 250 ? (1 pc!). Note: The only "Dioscuri standing" countermark noted by Howgego is applied to an Ascalon bronze from Septimius Severus, dated A.D. 197. Collection Automan.Automan
V4402_Lydia,_Dioshieron__Roman_Imperial_Times_1st-2nd_century_AD,_AE_25mm_.jpg
Dioshieron, AE25, Bust of Senate right/ Hera seated left, cm9 viewsLydia, Dioshieron. Roman Imperial Times 1st-2nd century A.D., AE 25mm (6.76g) IEPA CVNKΛHTOC; Bust of Senate right, countermark (capricorn) in right field, EΠI AΠOΛΛΩNIOY ΔIOCIEPITΩN; In fields: HRA (Hera); Hera seated left, veiled, holding patera and scepter. Imhoof-Blumer, Lydische Stadtmnzen p.65, 7; Howgego 306 (c/m); Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
_Divus_Julius_Octavian.jpg
Divus Julius Caesar and Octavian99 viewsMACEDON, Thessalonica. Divus Julius Caesar and Octavian. 28-27 BC? 23mm 7.93g
O: Wreathed head of Julius Caesar right; c/m: ligate NK in circle
R: Bare head of Octavian right; D below.
For coin: Touratsoglou, Thessaloniki, Em. 1, 27 (V5/R25); RPC I 1554; SNG ANS 824; for c/m: Howgego 625.

The D has been interpreted as either a denomination mark (four assaria) or, more likely, a date - year four of the Actian era (28/7 BC). The ligate NK monogram has been generally accepted as a reference to Nero (Nerwn Kaisar). This is problematic considering that Thessalonica had abundant coinages issued under Claudius and Nero, such that countermarking these quite older coins would be unlikely. Touratsoglou (p. 105) follows Kraay's suggestion that the NK is an abbreviation for Nike (NiKh), and was applied to the coins during celebrations of the city's 50th anniversary of its grant of liberty by the Romans. All but two of the known specimens of this countermark occur on the coins of this first issue of Thessalonica, and the wear on the countermarks is nearly identical to that of the coins, suggesting that the countermarks could not have been applied very long after the coins entered circulation.
Nemonater
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DO 211 (Heraclius Constantine?) - Countermarked Follis - ca. 641 AD - Constantinople mint192 viewsProbable Emperor: Heraclius Constantine (r. 641 AD) (Countermarks)
Condition: VF
Date: ca. 641 AD
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
To left, Heraclius standing, with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross. He holds in right hand long cross, left hand on hip. To right, Heraclius Constantine standing, with short beard, wearing chlamys and crown with cross; in right hand, globus cruciger. Between heads, cross. To left, ; To right, .

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross and ; To left, ///; To right, date (Years 20 or 21); Beneath, .
Exergue:
Countermarks: at 120; at 300

Constantinople mint, third officina
DO 211
10.64g; 31.8mm; 180

Struck on a Sear 810, itself overstruck on a previous Follis of Heraclius.
Pep
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Domitian (as Caesar), 69 - 81 AD68 viewsObv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head of Domitian facing right.

Rev: TRP VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII PP, radiate statue atop a rostral column.

Plated Denarius, Type of Rome mint, c. 80 - 81 AD

3 grams, 19.5 mm, 180

By looking at this coin accuracy wasn't important to ancient counterfeiters. The obverse is a Domitian as Caesar whereas the reverse is taken from a coin of his brother Titus as Augustus.

A similar hybrid is listed in Roman Silver Coins as Domitian 590b with slightly different inscriptions.
SPQR Coins
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Domitian RIC-85173 viewsAR Cistophorus, 9.99g
Rome mint (for Asia), 95 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIIII IMP XXII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XVII CENS P P P; Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand; G in exergue
RIC 851 (C). BMC 253. RSC 94. RPC 873 (8 spec.). BNC -.
Ex NFC Coins, eBay, 18 April 2018.

A small issue of cistophori were struck by Domitian in 95. Style and die axis identify Rome as the home mint. Curiously, K. Butcher and M. Ponting's metal analysis reveal they were struck from a different stock of metal than contemporary denarii, possibly from recycled older denarii. The traditional military type of aquila and standards is the most commonly encountered reverse from the series. It is copied from coins struck for Nero and Galba. The 'G' in exergue may be the mark of an officina.

Struck in good late style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian Sebaste, Samaria Countermark LXF88 viewsDomitian Ae 25mm, 14.02 g. Sebaste, Samaria. O: Laureate head of Domitian IMP DOMITIANVS CAESAR; Countermark: LXF, of the Tenth Legion Fretensis in rectangular punch. R: Tyche standing to left resting foot on rock(?) holding spear and globe, [CEBAC]THNWN (of the people of Sebaste); in l. field, date: LΘΡ (year 109 = 81/2 AD). Host coin - RPC II 2226, with LXF - Hendin 1613a.

The Tenth Legion probably acquired its name, Fretensis, from the Fretum Siculum, the straits where the legion fought successfully against Sextus Pompey.

It is undoubtedly most famous for its part in the destruction of Jerusalem under General Titus. Starting in 66 CE, Roman armies began fighting their way from the northern parts of Israel, down to Jerusalem.

Titus advanced on Jerusalem near Passover 70 C.E., trapping the residents and pilgrims inside the city. His forces stripped the Judean countryside of trees to build a 4.5-mile-long wall of pointed stakes around the capital.

In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the five month siege of Jerusalem that would result in what Jewish Bible scholar Alfred Edersheim described as a, tribulation to Israel unparalleled in the terrible past of its history, and unequalled even in its bloody future.

What was the Tenth Legion doing in Sebaste, Samaria? According to some scholars it was perhaps to defend against the appearance of a pseudo-Nero, who had garnered the support of the Parthians.
1 commentsNemonater
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Domitian, 81 - 96 AD52 viewsObv: DOMITIAN AVGVSTVS (no such inscription was ever used on official coins of this emperor), laureate head of Domitian facing right.

Rev: IMP VIIII COS XI CENSORIA POTEI (a bungling of IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT PP), Minerva standing left holding a scepter and resting her left hand on her hip.

Note: Based on the obverse inscription, this counterfeit might have been made during the time of Hadrian.

Silver Plated Denarius, Unknown/Illegal mint, type of 84 AD

2.3 grams, 18 mm, 180

No listing
SPQR Coins
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Domitian, AD 81-9631 viewsCILICIA, Flaviopolis.

AE two-assaria.

ΔOMETIANOC KAICAP, laureate head right, countermark of Athena facing right / ΦΛAYIOΠOΛEITWN ETOYC ZI, busts of laureate Dioscuri facing each other; stars above heads. Struck AD 89/90.

RPC II, 1757; BMC, 001; Levante, 1529. Howgego 190, for countermark.

socalcoins
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Domitian, AE29 of Antioch, with countermark14 viewsDomitian, AE 29 of Antioch, 11.55g
Obverse: laureate head left; countermark of Athena (Howgego 150, 245) on neck. Reverse: SC in wreath, letter below obscured due to the application of the countermark on the obverse around RPC II, 289, 2023, countermark Howgego 150, 245. ex areich.

Podiceps
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Draped bust and Δ158 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Septimius Severus. 23. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (..)KMAV(...) or similar. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: ()MHTPO(). Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?); countermark (1) behind and (2) below figure of Tyche. Ref: Spijkerman 27-36 (??). Axis: 180. Weight: 8.35 g. Ntoe: It is not certain that this coin comes from Petra, although it seems likely. The obverse legend, however, does not seem to match any of those listed by Spijkerman. CM(1): Draped bust in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego (?). Note: It is unlikely that this countermark corresponds to Howgego 126, since that countermark is applied to the obverse. CM(2): Δ in triangular punch, 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 801 (?) (19 pcs). Note: It is not certain that this is actually a countermark, since the outline if very faint. Although since it seems too regular to be part of the coin's design, this can not be excluded. Collection Automan.Automan
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Draped female bust right189 viewsUncertain mint. Uncertain emperor. 28. Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of laureate imperial bust right; countermark on head. Rev: Inscription illegible. Weight: 18.37 g. CM: Draped female bust right, in oval punch, 6 x 9 mm. Howgego - (?). Note: The bust resembles Faustina Sr., but may well depict another empress. Collection Automan.Automan
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Dupondius, RIC 3254 viewsAUGUSTUS 27 B.C.-A.D.14. Dupondius. 8.7g 26mm. Obv. AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST within wreath. Rev. C CENSORINVS L F AVG III VIR AAAFF around large SC. Uncertain countermark on rev. RIC 325, Sear RCV I 1661Podiceps
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E in circular punch145 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Side. Gallienus. 30. A.D. 253-260. Obv: AVTKAIΠOAIstarΓAΛΛIH-NOCCEB. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; before bust AI (?) obliterated by countermark. Rev: (CIΔHTΩN-NEΩKOPΩN) or similar. Tyche seated left. Ref: BMC -; SNG France (3) 905. Axis: 360. Weight:14.86 g. Note: This coin was struck during the joint reign of Gallienus and Valerian. CM: E in circular punch, 7.5 mm. Howgego 805 (169 pcs). Note: The coin was devalued to 5 assaria, likely at the same time when (during the reign of Gallienus) coins bearing the denomination "I" (i.e. 10 assaria) were issued. Collection Automan.Automan
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E in circular punch170 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Side. Salonina. 32. A.D. 253-260. Obv: KOPNHΛIA*CAΛΩNIN(A)-CEBA. Draped bust right, wearing stephane; before bust AI or I obliterated by countermark. Rev: CIΔHTΩN-NEΩKOPΩN. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 30. Weight: 14.37 g. Note: Since the countermark was not applied to coins issued later than the joint reign of Gallienus and Valerian, this coin was likely struck between A.D. 253 and 260. CM: E in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 805 (169 pcs). Note: The coin was devalued to 5 assaria, likely at the same time when (during the reign of Gallienus) coins bearing the denomination "I" (i.e. 10 assaria) were issued. Collection Automan.Automan
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E in circular punch160 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Side. Gallienus. 30. A.D. 253-260. Obv: (AV)TKAIΠOAIΓA-ΛΛIHNOCCEB, (I)A before bust. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, below eagle to right with wings spread, head left; star (?) above head; Countermark before bust. Rev: CIΔHTΩN(NE)Ω-KOPΩN. Apollo standing to front, looking left, wearing short chiton, chlamys and high boots; patera in extended right hand, left hand rests on long laurel branch. Ref: BMC 110 (var. rev. leg. Breaks. Axis: 180. Weight: 16.39 g. CM: E in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 805 (169 pcs).The coin was devalued to 5 assaria, likely at the same time when (during the reign of Gallienus) coins bearing the denomination "I" (i.e. 10 assaria) were issued. Collection Automan.Automan
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E in circular punch134 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Side. Gordian III. 33. A.D. 238-244. Obv: (A)YKMANT-ГOPΔIANOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark before face. Rev: CI-Δ-H(T)ΩN. Apollo standing to front, looking left, wearing short chiton, chlamys and high boots; patera in extended right hand, left hand rests on long laurel branch. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 180. Weight: 18.51 g. CM: E in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 803 (37 pcs). Note: Howgego divides "E" countermarks (primarily on coins of Side) into two groups, arguing that there were two distinct periods of countermarking. Howgego then argues that this countermark was likely applied during the reign of Philip, equating old coins to new coins bearing an "E" as part of the design. Collection Automan.Automan
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Eagle174 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Perga. Caracalla. 24. Circa A.D. 209-217. Obv: AYKMAY-ANTΩNINO. Laureate bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: ΠEP-ΓAI-ΩN.Artemis standing right, holding bow and arrow.Ref: SNG Cop. 329v; BMC 37v (size). Axis: 330. Weight: 6.69 g. CM: Eagle facing, head left, wings open, in oval punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 334 (50 pcs). Note: There are also countermarks of eagles with head right, which are more common. Collection Automan.Automan
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Eagle190 viewsPHRYGIA. Ancyra. Sabina. 20. A.D. 117-137. Obv: CA(BEINA)-CEBACTH. Draped bust right, elaborate hairdo; countermark on head. Rev: ANKYP-ANΩN.Cult-Statue of Ephesian Artemis facing, flanked by two stags. Ref: BMC 23-24; Sear GIC 1308. Axis: 180. Weight: 3.18 g. CM: Eagle standing, head left, wings spread, E.C.H between wings and legs, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
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Eagle (to front)156 viewsCILICIA. Diocaesarea. Geta. 28. A.D. 198-209 (struck as Caesar). Obv: (ΠCEΠ)ΓETAC-KA(ICAP). Draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark before. Rev: (A)ΔPΔI(OKAICAPE)ΩN. Naked figure of Dionysus standing left, holding kantharos and thyrsos. Ref: BMC -; Sear 2881; SNG Aul 5545; SNG France (2) 873. Axis: 30. Weight: 13.64 g. CM: Eagle to front, head left, in oval punch, 5 x 7.5 mm. Howgego 337 (43 pcs). Note: Howgego notes that H337 was applied together with H469. Indeed, all those that bear H469 also bear H337. However, Howgego lists three specimens of H337 that lack H469, as does this specimen.Automan
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Eagle and Δ containing dot134 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. 25. A.D. 235-238. Obv: I-MPMAXIMINVΓPI. Laureate head right; Countermark (1) on head.Rev: COL(N)-INICAU. Turreted and draped bust of Tyche/City right; Countermark (2) on bust. Ref: BMC 11-12 (var. rev. leg.). Axis: 180. Weight: 8.93 g. CM(1): Eagle standing right with head left, in shaped punch, c. 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 338 (11 pcs). CM(2): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm (not certain). Howgego 669 ? (49 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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Eagle and "A.K."200 viewsPAMPHYLIA. Perga. Caracalla. 28. Circa A.D. 209-217. Obv: AKMAY-ANTΩN(EINOC)-CEB. Laureate bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) before bust, below chin, (2) below (1). Rev: ΠEP-ΓAI-Ω-N.Emperor in military outfit standing left, holding spear, raising right hand, crowned by Nike, holding palm-branch. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 360. Weight: 10.59 g. CM(1): Eagle facing, head right (?), wings open, in oval punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 334 (50 pcs). CM(2): A.K. in rectangular punch, 5 x 3 mm. Howgego 513 (43 pcs). Note: Countermark (2) was applied earlier than (1) which is found on coins of Severus Alexander while countermark (2) is not found on coins struck later than the reign of Elagabalus. Collection Automan.Automan
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Eagle, wings half-spread, head left152 viewsIONIA. Ephesus. Otacilia Severa. 28. A.D 244-249. Obv: MAPΩT(A)-CEYHPACEB. Diademed and draped bust right; countermark on shoulder. Rev: (APTEMIC)-EΦE-CIAC or similar? Artemis huntress, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver, stands in biga drawn right by two stags. Ref: BMC 343 (var. rev. leg.); SNG Aul -; SNG Cop 487 (var. rev. leg.). Axis: 360. Weight: 6.77 g. CM: Eagle, wings half-spread, head left, in cicular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 324 (92 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably applied at Tralles. Collection Automan.Automan
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Ear of corn180 viewsSARMATIA. Tyra. Domitian. 19. A.D. 81-96. Obv: KAICAPΔOMETI(AN)OC. Laureate head right; countermark before head. Rev: T-Y-P-A-NWN. City ethnic around club. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 15. Weight: 2.97 g. CM: Ear of corn, in rectangular punch, 4 x 8 mm. Howgego 407 (5 pcs). Note: The countermark was likely applied between the reigns of Domitian and Hadrian when no coins were struck in Tyra, this type being applied to small and medium denominations, while larger denominations were countermarked with a bunch of grapes. Collection Automan.Automan
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EB0089 Herakles / Zeus16 viewsKingdom of Macedon, Alexander III, AR tetradrachm. Posthumous issue, year 26 = 187-188 BC.
Obverse: Head of Herakles right in lionskin headdress.
Reverse: AΛEΞANΔΡOY, Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre, right leg drawn back. AΣ over date K :Csquare: in left field, rectangular Seleukid countermark of anchor to right.
References: SNG Israel 1235, Price 2901.
Diameter: 32mm, Weight: 16.55g.
1 commentsEB
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EB0222.1 Athena / Nike6 viewsSeleukia, SELEUKIA PIERIA, AE 18, after 109 BC.
Obverse: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Reverse: [], Nike advancing left. Countermark to left?
References: -.
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 7.228g.
EB
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EB0294 Athena / Nike2 viewsSeleukeia ad Calycadnum, Cilicia, AE23, 200-1 BC.
Obverse: ΣA, helmeted head of Athena right.
Reverse: (from top right, counter-clockwise) ΣEΛEYKEΩN TΩN ΠΡOΣ TΩI KAΛYKAΔNΩI around, AΘH and ΠATE monogram in left field, Nike walking left, holding wreath and palm branch.
References: BMC 6; SNG France 895-897.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 9.135g.
EB
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EB0527 Augustus / Bull / VALEAT18 viewsAugustus, AE 28, Celsa, Hispania, L. Baggius and Mn. Flavius Festus, 15-14 BC.
Obverse: AVGVSTVS DIVI F Laureate head right.
Reverse: L BAGGI(O) C V ICEL MNFESTO Bull standing right, II VIR before, with countermark anagram VALEAT.
References: RPC I 273; SNG Munich I, 87-90;
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 10.222 grams
EB
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EB0563 Macrinus / Zeus13 viewsMacrinus, AE 37, of Mallus, Cilicia, 217-218 AD.
Obv: [AVTO KAIC MAPK OPEL CEVHP MAKPEINON CEB], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Counterstamp SC to revalidate coin when Mallus received the rank of colony under Elagabalus.
Rev: [MAL IER POL QEOU AMFILOCOU], Zeus seated half left, resting left hand on staff, holding Nike in right hand. Possible countermark (male head) on Zeus.
Unpublished reverse for Macrinus.
References: cf SNG Levante 1284 (this obv. with countermarks).
Diameter: 37.5mm, Weight: 21.52 grams.
EB
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EB0576 Trajan / Astarte11 viewsTrajan, AE 22 of Gabala, Syria, 105 AD.
Obv: [NEΡ KAIC TΡAIA CEB ΓEΡ], laureate head right, uncertain countermark on neck.
Rev: ΓABAΛEΩN, date BNP above, Cω in exergue, Astarte seated left, holding poppy and corn-ears; sphinx at foot with star above its head.
References: BMC 244, 4.
Diameter: 23mm, Weight: 7.002 grams.
EB
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EB0710 Hadrian / Wreath12 viewsHadrian 117-138, Antioch ad Orontem, Syria, AE 27.
Obverse: [ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС?], Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark: laurel-branch with four leaves in rectangular punch.
Reverse: Large SC within laurel wreath; ΓΔ below.
References: Cf. RPC III, 3694; BMC Galatia 298,299, p186; McAlee 536(b). For ΓΔ meaning, see NUMERICAL LETTERS ON SYRIAN COINS by Kevin Butcher; For counterstamp see ANS Museum notes 22, pl.8 #9.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 14.595g.
EB
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EB0901 Unknown with countermarks10 viewsObverse: Unknown with countermarks.
Reverse:
References: -.
Diameter: 26.5mm, Weight: 10.632g.
EB
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EB0903 Nero Claudius Drusus / Claudius3 viewsNero Claudius Drusus, father of Claudius, AE Sestertius, Struck by Claudius, Rome mint 41-42 AD.
Obverse: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head of Nero Drusus left; counterstamp NCAPR (possibly for Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani).
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.
References: RIC I 93 [Claudius], Cohen 8, BMC 157.
Diameter: 36mm, Weight: 24.03g.
EB
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EB0912 Septimius Severus / Julia Domna3 viewsSeptimius Severus, AE 23.
Obverse: [possibly AVT KAI CЄΠT CЄOVHPOC], Laureate head of Septimius Severus right; countermarks to right.
Reverse: [possibly AYΓ ΔOMNA TYXH MHTPOΠO/ΛЄΩC], Bust of Julia Domna right within distyle temple.
References: Cf. Meyer 29; for c/m Cf. Howgego 126 and 806.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 10.56g.
EB
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EB0978 Heraclius / Large M7 viewsHeraclius, AE Follis. Sicilian mint.
Obverse: Struck on Constantinople folles of Anastasius, Justin I and Justinian I, countermarked by the bust of Heraclius, crowned, draped and cuirassed facing within circular stamp, PTh monogram at top right.
Reverse: Large M, star to left, cross above, crescent to right; mintmark large SCL in circular stamp below.
References: SB 882, DOC 241.
Diameter: 35mm, Weight: 12.524g.
EB
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Egypt, Alexandria, AD 163/164, Faustina II, Zeus21 viewsFaustina II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΦAVCTINA CEBACTH, draped bust left
Rev.: L Δ, laureate-headed and draped bust of Zeus, right (countermark)
Billon, 12.68g, 21.5mm
Ref.: Dattari-Savio Pl. 194, 9876 second (this coin), RPC online 16407 (this coin)
Ex Dattari Collection
Ex Naville Numismatics
1 commentsshanxi
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Egypt, Memphis or Aswan (?), Satrap Sabakes, 335-333 BC, AR Tetradrachm41 viewsHead of Athena right with punch mark X on cheek.
Owl standing right, head facing, crescent and olive spray to left, crescent above a stylized thunderbolt (Sabakes symbol) and Aramaic legend SWYN (Aswan) to right, punch mark X on owl.

Nicolet-Pierre 6, D4/R-; SNG Copenhagen 3; Van Alfen Type I, O4/R-; Mitchiner 10a; Sear GCV 6232. Van Alfen (AJN 14 2002) countermark 3 on obv. & rev.

(24 mm, 16.91 g, 9h).
From LWHT Col.; HJB 166, 15 October 2009, 176.

Sabakes, to whom the issue of this coin type is attributed, was the penultimate Persian Satrap of Egypt. In 333 BC he led a contingent from Egypt to join the Persian army facing Alexander the Great at Issos, where he perished in battle. It is likely that this coin was struck under his governorship, perhaps for use as payment in preparations for the expeditionary force in support of Darius III. Counter marks are commonly present on these coins and most of the surviving examples are worn, indicating an extended period of circulation. This is consistent with the fact that the next coinage to be struck in Egypt was almost a decade later, shortly after the death of Alexander the Great.
2 commentsn.igma
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EGYPTIAN149 viewsNefertem. Faience amulet , 52mm . Late period.
Son to Sekhmet and Ptah,Nefertem (or Nefertum) completes the divine Memphite family. He is shown here in human form wearing the lotus flower as a crown with two plumes and two menyet counterpoised at its sides.He wears a shendyt kilt and braided beard .
Ex A.F.Pagnon collection. AncientArt XXXVIII # 11.
3 commentsbenito
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Egyptian late dynastic faience amulet23 viewsEgyptian late dynastic faience amulet of Thoth in the form of a seated baboon.

Thoth's roles in Egyptian mythology were many. He served as a mediating power, especially between good and evil, making sure neither had a decisive victory over the other. He also served as scribe of the gods, credited with the invention of writing and alphabets (i.e. hieroglyphs) themselves. In the underworld, Duat, he appeared as an ape, A'an, the god of equilibrium, who reported when the scales weighing the deceased's heart against the feather, representing the principle of Ma'at, was exactly even.

The ancient Egyptians regarded Thoth as One, self-begotten, and self-produced. He was the master of both physical and moral (i.e. Divine) law, making proper use of Ma'at. He is credited with making the calculations for the establishment of the heavens, stars, Earth, and everything in them. Compare this to how his feminine counterpart, Ma'at was the force which maintained the Universe. He is said to direct the motions of the heavenly bodies. Without his words, the Egyptians believed, the gods would not exist. His power was unlimited in the Underworld and rivaled that of Ra and Osiris.

The Egyptians credited him as the author of all works of science, religion, philosophy, and magic. The Greeks further declared him the inventor of astronomy, astrology, the science of numbers, mathematics, geometry, land surveying, medicine, botany, theology, civilized government, the alphabet, reading, writing, and oratory. They further claimed he was the true author of every work of every branch of knowledge, human and divine.

Reputedly ex Florence Rossetti collection (c.1948-50)
mauseus
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ELAGABALUS31 viewsAR denarius. 221 AD. 3,35 grs. Laureate and draped bust right . IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. / Liberalitas standing left, holding counter and cornucopiae; star in right field. LIBERALITAS AVG III.
RIC 103. RSC 83.
benito
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ELAGABALUS18 viewsAR denarius. 221 AD. 3,35 grs. Laureate and draped bust right . IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG. / Liberalitas standing left, holding counter and cornucopiae; star in right field. LIBERALITAS AVG III.
RIC 103. RSC 83.
benito
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Elagabalus, SNG ANS 99727 viewsNeapolis, Samaria mint, Elagabalus 218-222 A.D. AE, 21.5mm 11.22g, SNG ANS 997
O: AVT K M AVP ANTΩINOC, Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right (* A in square punch countermark)
R: ΦΛNEACΠ CVP ΠAΛ Mount Gerizim surmounted by temple and altar; stairway leads to temple, colonnade below mountain.
* Howgego 666 is the A countermark referenced (page 237) where 32 of the 37 countermarks are on Neapolis coins of Elagabalus, the others being J.Maesa (3), J.Soaemias (1) and Macrinus (1).The A is suggested as Alexander, possibly revalidating the coins of Elagabalus in that reign after the damnatio of Elagabalus. Mauseus
casata137ec
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Elis, Olympia, 83rd-85th Olympiads, 448-440 BC, AR Stater 17 views Eagle flying right, grasping a snake with its talons and its beak; two countermarks (crab and mule's leg).
F-A Thunderbolt with volutes and wings.

Seltman 76 (same dies AS/βς Seltman pl. III); BCD Olympia 372.1 (this coin); HGC 5, 306 (R2). Zeus Mint 448-440 BC (83rd-85th Olympiads).

(24 mm, 11.71 g, 2h).
Harlan J Berk Buy or Bid Sale 175, 7 July 2011, 144; ex- BCD Collection: Leu Numismatik AG 90, 10 May 2004, 327.1.

Although the tip of the beak of the eagle is off-flan, it remains a portrayal with a great deal of elegance. Seltmans obverse die AS was used to strike 8 emissions Seltman 75-82. This is the fourth known example of Seltman 76 and the only one outside a museum collection.
n.igma
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Elymais -- Kamnaskires III. and Anzaze, ca. 82/1 - 73/2 BC7 viewsAR tdr., 13,85gr, 28mm;
mint: Seleukia on the Hedyphon, axis: 12h;
Alram: 454, Van't Haaff: 7.1.1-3var. or 7.1.1-6, Sunrise 470;
obv.: jugate busts of Kamnaskires III. and Anzaze, Kamnaskires w/diadem and ribbons; short hair w/frontal fringe, mustache and long pointed beard; earring and torque w/pellet finial; cuirass; Anzaze wearing stephane and necklace; in right lower field rectangular countermark w/Nike or Tyche standing left presenting diadem;
rev.: old god (Zeus?) on throne, left, w/Nike offering diadem on his outstretched left arm, the right arm holding scepter.; 4-line legend: (B)ACIΛEΩ(C)
KAMNACKIPOY (mostly off flan) KAI BACIΛICCHC (left line mostly illegible from obv. countermark) ANZAZE; in exergue date: HΠ or HIT?
Schatz
Elymais,_Orodes_II_,_AE-Drachme,_Arsacid_dynasty,___BMC_plate_XL,10,_Q-001_h,_14-15mm,_3,4gx-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II. (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward, 128 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II. (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward,
avers: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.
revers: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-15,0mm, weight: 3,4g, axes: h,
mint:Elymais, (Under Parthian Authority), date: early-mid 2nd century A.D. (undated), ref: van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, De Morgan 44-45, BMC plate XL, 10, Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
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Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)24 viewsvan't Haaff 13.2.1-1B; De Morgan 44-45; BMC plate XL, 10; Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478

AE drachm, 3.78 g., 14.10 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with double crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_GICV_5904_Orodes_II_1_Bar.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)21 viewsvan't Haaff 13.2.1-2B; De Morgan 44-45, BMC plate XL, 10; Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478

AE drachm, 3.66 g., 16.40 mm. max., 180

Obv: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_13_1_1-1_Orodes_II.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)20 viewsvan't Haaff 13.1.1-1; De Morgan 49; BMC plate XLI, 2; Sear GICV 5908-5909; Alram 485

AE drachm, 4.14 g., 16.80 mm. max., 0

Obv: Diademed bust facing forward, with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in three vertical rows of dots; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars; pellet border.

Rev: Radiate bust of Belos facing forward, with large hair tufts to each side, two horns and tied hair on top of the head; Aramaic legend around (WRWD MLK' BRY WRWD = King Orodes, Son of Orodes), starting after six o'clock, reading counter-clockwise; pellet border.

According to van't Haaff, the side tufts on the coins with two crossbars above the anchor are comprised of two vertical rows of dots, yet this coins has three irregular rows of dots.
Stkp
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Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Probably a contemporary regional counterfeit struck during the reign of Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), or later.54 viewsvan't Haaff --; De Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 2.51 g., 12.59 mm. max., 0

Obv.: Bust facing left, side whiskers as double row of dots.

Rev.: Plain diadem of two bands with fine lines, pellet border.

The obverse bust most closely resembles Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, whereas the reverse mirrors Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), van't Haaff 14.4.1-2). Due to the decades between these rulers, the coin is probably not a mule. The coins of Phraates may have remained in circulation during the reign of Prince A, and beyond. The coin is probably a contemporary regional counterfeit inspired by the Phraates reverse. However, the diadem on the reverse is a reference to sky god Bel, and the possibility that the coin is an unrecorded official coin, issued by Prince A with the revived iconography of Phraates, cannot be excluded.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Pieter Anne van't Haaff (thanks to Robert L3), and Robert L3.
2 commentsStkp
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emesa001i6 viewsElagabalus
Emesa, Syria

Obv: AVT K M A..., laureate draped and cuirassed bust right. Countermark, Tyche in circle.
Rev: MHTPO-KOЄMIC around, ΠVΘIA below, Agnostic urn between two palm fronds, above horizontal Є in circle of dots.
24 mm, 7.98 gms

BMC---; Lindgren---; acsearch.com---. Countermark: Howgego 201
Charles M
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Empress, AVKTP(?) and ΠPY168 viewsBITHYNIA. Prusias (?). Domitian (?). 26. A.D. 81-96 (?). Obv: Laureate (?) bust right; 2 countermarks, (1) on shoulder, (2) before face. Rev: Countermark (3). Poor/worn smooth, brown patina with very minor traces of green encrustation. Weight: 9.05 g. Note: All coins noted by Howgego with these countermarks are from Domitian and are attributed to Prusias or Bithynia in Genere (which, in turn, may have been from Prusias also. CM(1): Head of empress, in oval punch, 7 x 8 mm. Howgego 217 (1 pcs). CM(2): Monogram of AVKTP (?), in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 608 (8 pcs). CM(3): Monogram of ΠPY, in rectangular punch, 8 x 5 mm. Howgego 630 (3 pcs). Note: Since all coins countermarked with (1) are countermarked also with (2) and (3), while all coins countermarked with (2) are also countermarked with (3), the order of application (3)-(2)-(1) may be implied (also consistent with (1) being a portrait of Faustina Jr. and (2) referring to Trajan). Collection Automan.Automan
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Empress, AVKTR(?) and ΠPY115 viewsBITHYNIA. Prusias (?). Domitian (?). 27. A.D. 81-96 (?). Laureate bust right (?); 2 countermarks: (1) to left, (2) to right. Countermark (3). Weight: 8.18 g. Note: All coins noted by Howgego with these countermarks are from Domitian and are attributed to Prusias or Bithynia in Genere CM (1): Head of empress, in oval punch, 7 x 8 mm. Howgego 217 (1 pcs). CM(2): Monogram of AVKTP (?), in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 608 (8 pcs). CM(3): Monogram of ΠPY, in rectangular punch, 7 x 6.5 mm.Howgego 630 (3 pcs). The order of application appears to have been (3)-(2)-(1) may be implied (also be consistent if (1) is Faustina Jr., and if (2) reads AVTOKPATWP TPAIAN). Collection Automan.Automan
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ENGLAND - GEORGE III70 viewsENGLAND - GEORGE III (1760-1820) 1/2-Penny -1787- CONTEMPORARY COUNTERFEIT! Britian did not make an officical issue this year. Many counterfeits circulated in this era alongside regular coinage. Obv: ARmored bust right, GEORGIUS III REX/Reverse: Brittania seated left with shield, holding branch. "BRITAN-NIA" around, date 1787 in exurge. Counterfeit of KM #601.1 commentsdpaul7
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England; ½ GUINEA. 177227 viewsCoin Weight, GUINEA. 3.8g, 17mm. Obv. GIIIR . Rev. Dw.Gr/2:16/1772 in three lines, coffee pot countermark.Podiceps
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England; GUINEA27 viewsCoin Weight, GUINEA. 8.4g, 20mm. Obv. S/21/5.9 in three lines all within decorative border. Rev. As obverse with lion countermark.Podiceps
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Euboia, Histiaia, BMC 30ff. #21 viewsEuboia, Histiaia, 196-143 BC
AR - Tetrobol, 1.32g, 13.91mm, 315
obv. Bust of nymph Histiaia, draped, with necklace and earring, hair rolled in sphendone, wreathed with winegrapes
rev. [ISTI] - AIEWN (from lower right counterclockwise)
Nymph Histiaia in long garment, std. r. on stern of galley decorated with wing, resting with r. hand on ship's rail
and holding with extended l. hand stylis
ref. BMC 128, 30ff.; SNG Copenhagen 517 var.
VF/F+, small irregular flan
Jochen