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Search results - "Coop"
Oliver_Cromwell_by_Samuel_Cooper.jpg
6 views*Alex
035_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),_AE-26,_SNG-Cop_351,_Laodiceia_ad_Mare,_Turreted_bust_of_Tyche_right,_Syria,__SNG-Cop-351_Q-001_0h_24-25mm_10,43g-s.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, SNG-Cop 351, AE-26, Turreted bust of Tyche right, 62 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, SNG-Cop 351, AE-26, Turreted bust of Tyche right,
avers:- [AVTO] KAI AI ADRI ANTWNEINOC [CEB], Laureate head right.
revers:- IOVLIEWN TWN KAI LAODIKEWN, Turreted bust of Tyche right, date AKP right ( year ),
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24-25 mm, weight: 10,43g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: SNG-Coop 351, BMC 57,
Q-001
quadrans
035_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),_AE-17,_SNG-Coop_771,________________,_Dionysos_satnding_left_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Thrace, Philippopolis, SNG-Coop 771, AE-17, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΟΝ, Dionysos satnding left,67 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Thrace, Philippopolis, SNG-Coop 771, AE-17, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΟΝ, Dionysos satnding left,
avers:- ΑΥΤ-ΑΔΡΙΑ-ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟC, Laureate head right.
revers:-ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΟΝ, Dionysos satnding left faceing with Jug and Thyrsos.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18 mm, weight: 4,06g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Thrace, Philippopolis, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: SNG-Coop 771,
Q-001
quadrans
ciibh1.jpg
05 Constantius II65 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
Better Photo
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
244~0.JPG
12 - Viviez, Aveyron, France16 viewsBoulangerie Coopérative, Viviez, Aveyron
Laiton, 27 mm
A/ BOULANGERIE COOPERATIVE / VIVIEZ // 4 Kos
R/ 1931 / 250
Réfs : Elie 10.4
Gabalor
031~7.JPG
13 - Marseille, Bouches du Rhône, France11 views5 centimes, cuivre, 19 mm
A/ LADOUANIERE COOPERATIVE MARSEILLE
R/ 5 C
Réfs : - - -
Gabalor
COMMONWEALTH_HALFGROAT.JPG
1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
194.JPG
18 - Bourges, Cher, France.7 viewsCoopérative Militaire de Tivoli, Bourges, Cher
Cuivre, 24 mm
A/ COOPERATIVE MILITAIRE DE TIVOLI // 1916
R/ BOURGES (CHER) // 10 c
Réfs : Elie 30.1
Gabalor
194Hadrian_RIC253d.jpg
2019 Hadrian Denarius Roma 130-38 AD Liberalitas standing27 viewsReference.
RIC III, 2019; RIC II 253; C.935; BMCRE 665 note; Strack 248

Bust A

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG VI
Liberalitas standing left holding coinscoop and cornucopia

3.03 gr
18.5 mm
h
okidoki
912_P_Hadrian_RPC.jpg
2736A PAMPHYLIA, Side Hadrian, Athena standing left25 viewsReference.
RPC III 2736A.

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder, right

Rev. СΙΔΗΤωΝ
Athena standing facing, head left, holding palm branch and pomegranate

8.80 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
From the Steve Cooper Collection.
1 commentsokidoki
309~0.JPG
39 - Lons le Saunier, Jura12 viewsSociété Coopérative des Agents de la Cie P.L.M (fondée en 1886), Lons-Le-Saunier, Jura
Laiton, 16 mm
A/ SOCIETE COOPERATIVE / LONS-LE-SAUNIER // DES AGENTS DE LA CIE P.L.M.
R/ 5 c
Réfs : Elie 15.1
Gabalor
879_P_Hadrian_RPC4013A.jpg
4014A JUDAEA, Ascalon. Hadrian Æ 23 mm 131-32 ad Tyche-Astarte22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4014A; De Saulcy 10; Yashin, Ascalon to Raphia, 191var

Issue Year 235

Obv. СƐΒΑСΤΟС
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from rear

Rev. ACKAΛω/ LΔ / ЄΛC
Tyche-Astarte standing right on galley, holding scepter and aphlaston; to left, incense altar; to right, dove in r. field.

12.54 gr
23 mm
12h

Note.
From the Collection of Steve Cooper
1 commentsokidoki
023~5.JPG
44 - Nantes, Loire-Atlantique, France.15 views1k 500, laiton, 27 mm
A/ EMPLOYES DU CHEMIN DE FER D'ORLEANS // BOULANGERIE COOPERATIVE
R/ NANTES 1 k 500 174
Réfs : Elie 10.2a
Gabalor
253.JPG
54 - Saulnes, Merthe-et-Moselle, France11 viewsCoopérative, Saulnes, Meurthe-et-Moselle
Laiton, 26 mm
A/ UNION COOPERATIVE / SAULNES
R/ FLÛTE
Réfs : Elie 10.2
Gabalor
426Hadrian_RIC582.jpg
582 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-20 AD Hadrian seated60 viewsReference.
RIC 582c; C 930 rare.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III:
Laureate, draped bust right, seen from front.

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG III in Ex. S C
Hadrian, togate, seated left on platform, on right, extending right hand; behind, an officer standing left; in front, on his right, an attendant holding up coin counter; at foot of platform, citizen standing right, holding out fold of toga in both hands.

24.93 gr.
33 mm.
Note.
Comment on Tablet by Curtis Clay.
The object in question was a tablet with a set number of shallow coin-size depressions drilled into it, say 50 depressions. It was dipped into the chest of coins like a scoop, and shaken until one coin had settled into each depression. Any excess coins were then swept back into the chest with the official's other hand, and the full board containing exactly fifty coins was then emptied into the outstretched toga of the recipient. So the object in question was a coin scoop/coin counter, meant to rapidly and accurately distribute the required number of coins to each recipient.
2 commentsokidoki
191~0.JPG
73 - Chambery, Savoie, France.11 viewsSociété Coopérative des Agents de la Cie P.L.M. (fondée en 1887), Chambery, Savoie
Maillechort, 25 mm
A/ SOCIETE COOPERATIVE DES AGENTS DE - LA COMPie P.L.M. CHAMBERY // 5 fr
R/ SOCIETE COOPERATIVE DE LA Cie P.L.M. - 1898
Réfs : Elie 25.6
Gabalor
047~5.JPG
81 - Castres, Tarn, France.10 viewsRestaurant Coopératif D.P.A. (Dépôt du Parc d'Artillerie du XVIe corps d'armée), Castres, Tarn
Laiton, 23 mm
A/ RESTAURANT COOPERATIF / CASTRES // D.P.A.
R/ 25 c
Réfs : Elie 25.6
Gabalor
108~1.JPG
90 - Territoire de Belfort, France.8 viewsCoopérative Alimentaire, Beaucourt, Territoire de Belfort
Laiton nickelé 27 mm
A/ COOPERATIVE ALIMENTAIRE - BEAUCOURT // UN POUR TOUS - TOUS POUR UN, contremarque "EXPOSITION"
R/ COOPERATION // 20 c
Réfs : Elie 10.6
Gabalor
1270Hadrian_RIC968.jpg
968 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian with Roma and Senate35 viewsReference.
RIC 968; Banti 193; BMC 1364; C. 352; Hill 388; Strack 632

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III / S C
Genius of the Senate, togate on the left, and Hadrian, togate on the right, holding a volumen, standing facing each other, clasping their right hands; behind them, Roma standing right, holding spear in her left hand and resting her right on the others' clasped hands.

25.00 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
The Romans often staged events in which the emperor was accompanied by actors dressed to personify symbolic personalities such as Annona, Liberalitas, Roma, et al. Here we see the emperor clasping the hand of the Senate in the presence of Roma, who stands behind them confirming their cooperative spirit by resting her hand on theirs.

This reverse type, representing "Concordia Senatus," likely commemorates the conferring of the title pater patriae upon Hadrian by the Senate in 128 AD.
1 commentsokidoki
Lincoln_WF_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Columbian Expo Medal 189322 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Medal24 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
image.jpeg
Akanthos, Macedon Obol25 viewsAR Obol
Size: 9 mm Weight: .60grams Die axis: 12h

Akanthos, Macedon
390 - 382 BCE

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo to right.

Reverse: Seven-stringed lyre, around which AKANΘION

Notes:
- Akanthos was a colony of the Aegean Island of Andros.
- Situated on the Chalkidike peninsula, Akanthos was an important and powerful city. The city was never willing to join the Chalkidian League, 430 – 348 BCE, a federation based on Akanthos’ rival Olynthos. The Chalkidian league’s famous lyre coinage is well known, and bears the name of magistrates rather than city epithets. Yet the use of the lyre on this coin, along with the inscription AKANΘION, indicates there was at one time some significant cooperative arrangement between Akanthos and the Chalkidian League.

Ex eBay USA, 2004
Pharsalos
DSC00247_40%_cut.JPG
Arizona - Coopers Hawk43 viewsCoopers Hawk cooling his feet in the birdbath.
Right out in front of my kitchen window too, all the shots are taken through the glass window, but still look great.
3 commentsrexesq
coopers-hawk_water_oct-15-2010_05.JPG
Arizona - Coopers Hawk7 viewsCoopers Hawk cooling his feet in the birdbath.rexesq
coopers-hawk_water_oct-15-2010_03.JPG
Arizona - Coopers Hawk7 viewsCoopers Hawk cooling his feet in the birdbath.rexesq
coopers-hawk_water_oct-15-2010_02.JPG
Arizona - Coopers Hawk24 viewsCoopers Hawk cooling his feet in the birdbath.7 commentsrexesq
coopers-hawk_water_oct-15-2010_01.JPG
Arizona - Coopers Hawk11 viewsCoopers Hawk cooling his feet in the birdbath.rexesq
Coal_Shovel.jpg
Brass Coal Shuttle50 viewsDate: Late 19th/early 20th century

This device was used to scoop coal easily. It has porcelain handles painted with a cobalt blue design.
1 commentsNoah
Hyria.jpg
Campania, Hyrianoi. (Circa 405-400 BC)36 viewsFourrée Nomos (20.5mm, 6.33 g)

Obverse: Head of Athena wearing crested helmet decorated with olive-wreath and owl.

Reverse: Man-faced bull standing r. on exergual line, YDINA (retrograde) above. YDINA is in Oscan script and means "Urina", another name for Hyria.

For prototype, cf. HN Italy 539.

The city, named both Nola (new city) and Hyria (which Nola likely arose from), was situated in the midst of the plain lying to the east of Mount Vesuvius, 21 miles south of Capua. While Neapolis was the focus of minting in this general area, Neapolitan designs were adopted by several new series of coins, some of them bearing legends in Oscan script referring to communities that are otherwise unknown (such as the Hyrianoi). Complex die linking between these different series indicate, at the very least, close cooperation in minting. Didrachms sharing motives (Athena/man headed bull), but with legends referring to different issuing communities on the reverse, testify to the integration into a common material culture in Campania in the late fifth to early fourth century. The die sharing and use of legends in Oscan script allow for an interpretation of these issues as indigenous coinages struck in the Campanian mileu.

The influence of Athens on Hyria can be seen not only in the great number of Greek vases and other articles discovered at the old city but by the adoption of the head of Pallas with the Athenian owl as their obverse type.

This particular coin is an ancient forgery, which were quite common in Magna Graecia and typically of much higher quality than fourrees produced elsewhere. In ON THE FORGERIES OF PUBLIC MONEY [J. Y. Akerman
The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Numismatic Society, Vol. 6 (APRIL, 1843–JANUARY, 1844), pp. 57-82] it is noted that ancient forgeries tend "to be most abundantly found to belong to the most luxurious, populous, and wealthy cities of Magna Graecia...Nor is it surprising that the luxury and vice of those celebrated cities should have led to crime; and among crimes, to the forging of money, as furnishing the means for the more easy gratification of those sensual indulgences, which were universally enjoyed by the rich in those dissipated and wealthy cities. Many of the coins of the places in question having been originally very thickly coated, or cased with silver (called by the French, fourrees), pass even now among collectors without suspicion."
1 commentsNathan P
tyana_sept_severus_BMC8var.jpg
Cappadocia, Tyana, Septimius Severus, BMC 8 var.39 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 28, 11.41g
struck AD 196/7 (year 4)
obv. AVT KAI L CEV - CEOVHROC P C
head, laureate, r.
rev. TVANEWN TPT IE K ACY K A
Humped bull stg. r.
beneath ET D (yesr 4)
BMC 8 var.
very rare, about VF
Pedigree:
ex coll. R.Hecht
ex coll. P.Cooper #949
ex Baldwin/London, 1979

The solution of the rev. legend is:
TYANEWN TWN PROC TAVRW HIERAC KAI ACYLOY KAI AVTONOMOV
Jochen
anazarbos_gordianIII_Lindgren1441.jpg
Cilicia, Anazarbos, Gordian III Lindgren 144139 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 31, 17.94g
struck AD 242/3
obv. AVT KM ANTWNINOC GORDIANOC CE
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. ANAZARBO - V ENDOX MHTRO
Male figure, sitting on rocks l., head r., wearing working clothes and pointed
bonnet, resting with l. hand on the rocks, holding in raised r. hand fishing device
(kind of scoop with sieve)
B - G in field l. and r.
in ex. ET AXC
Lindgren 1441; BMC Lycaonia etc. 37, n.31
extremely rare, good F - about VF, attractive contrasting patina

G-B = capital of 3 provinces, 2 neocories (P. Weiss)
The legends are from Ziegler, Münzen Kilikiens aus kleineren deutschen Sammlungen, S.143, Nr.1114/15 (same dies).
This is a motiv of the world of the fishermen! There are a similar motiv on a coin for Valerian I.
Jochen
Tarsos.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. Tarkumuwa (Datames), Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. (Circa 378-372 BC)68 viewsAR Stater

23 mm, 10.28 g

Obverse: Diademed female head facing slightly to left, wearing pendant earrings and necklace.

Reverse: 𐡕𐡓𐡃𐡌𐡅 ('trkmw' in Aramaic) Bearded head of Ares (?) to left, wearing crested Attic helmet.

Casabonne type 1. SNG Levante 80. SNG Paris 276-277.

Datames (407-362 BC) served as a member of the Persian king's (Artaxerxes II - 405-359 BC) bodyguard before he became satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia upon his father's death in battle in 384 BC. After many successes, the Persian king placed him in charge of the second war against Egypt, along with Pharnabazos and Tithraustes, satrap of Caria.

To pay their armies for these expeditions, both satraps minted near-identical coins, distinguished only by their inscriptions. The reverse of these coins may show a representation of Ares, the Greek god of war. The facing head of an unidentifiable female deity (Aphrodite, the wife of Ares?) on the obverse is clearly influenced by the famous representations of the nymph Arethusa created by the artist Kimon for the coins of Syracuse. Both designs were probably meant to appeal to the thousands of Greek mercenaries that each Persian satrap hired for their Egyptian campaigns.

Datames was first, however, detained by a local revolt in Kataonia, a territory within his satrapy. This time, his success incurred the king's jealousy, and he was removed both from his command of the Egyptian expedition as well as the rule of his satrapy. Refusing to relinquish his authority, Datames himself revolted and became a virtually independent ruler. His initial success in this endeavor prompted the revolt of other satraps across the empire. Datames' success, however, was short-lived. Distrust among the satraps rendered them unable to cooperate, their rebellion disintegrated, and Datames himself was assassinated in 362 BC.
3 commentsNathan P
003~1.JPG
Constantius II69 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Larissa_Thessaly_Ar-Trihemiobol_Head-nymph_Larissa_slightly_left_Horseman_gallop_r__LAR-IS_AIWN_Hermann-VII-pl-VI-_1_SNG-Cop-134_C-344-337-BC_Q-001_axis-9h_11,5-12,5mm_1,36g-s.jpg
Greek, Thessaly, Larissa, (c.344-337 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, SNG Coop 134, ΛΑΡ-IΣ / AIΩN, Horseman galloping right, Rare !370 viewsThessaly, Larissa, (c.344-337 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, SNG Coop 134, ΛΑΡ-IΣ / AIΩN, Horseman galloping right, Rare !
avers: Head of the nymph Larissa facing, turned slightly to the left.
revers: ΛΑΡ-IΣ / AIΩN, Horseman - Thessalian cavalryman, wearing petasos and chlamys and holding staff, riding cantering horse to right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5-12,5 mm, weight: 1,36g, axes: 9 h,
mint: Thessaly, Larissa, date: 344-337 B.C., ref: SNG Copenhagen 134, Hermann Group VII, pl. VI, 1,
Q-001
quadrans
James_Fenimore_Cooper_1963_NYU_Hall_of_Fame.JPG
James Fenimore Cooper, 1963 NYU Hall of Fame Medal20 viewsMatt Inglima
Papia_1p_img.jpg
L Papius Denarius Serratus, Papia 1, Sym. var. RRC 01329 viewsDenarius Serratus
Obv:– Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin tied under chin. Behind head, cooking pot with hook.
Rev:– Gryphon running right; in ex., L. PAPI.; in field, triple flesh-hook
Minted in Rome from B.C. 79.
Reference:– RSC Papia 1. RRC 384/1. RCTV 311.
Symbol variety – RRC 13. Babelon 13. BMCRR 35. CNR: 1/049.

A "Stannard" weight adjustment scoop on the reverse
maridvnvm
papia_1x_img.jpg
L Papius Denarius Serratus, Papia 1, Sym. var. RRC 2158 viewsObv:– Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin tied under chin. Behind head, base of column.
Rev:– Gryphon running right; in ex., L. PAPI.; in field, corinthian capital
Minted in Rome from . B.C. 79.
Reference(s) – RSC Papia 1. RRC 384/1. RCTV 311.
Symbol variety – RRC 21. Babelon 81. BMCRR 21. CNR 1/034

3.41 gms

Stannard weight correction scoop on reverse
5 commentsmaridvnvm
159Hadrian_Lime_Obv_.JPG
Limes 080 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Aequitas standing25 viewsReference.
RIC 80

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate head right.

Rev. P M TR P COS III.
Aequitas sttanding left, holding scales and cornucoopiae.

1.63 gr
18 mm
okidoki
berytos_elagabal_SNGcop118.jpg
Phoenicia, Berytos, Elagabal, SNG Copenhagen 11848 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 12.47g
obv. [AV KM AVR AN - TONINOC AVG]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. COL IVL A - VG FEL / BER
Poseidon, in himation, advancing r., head l., holding his trident in l. arm, raising
the nymph Beroe, kneeling l. before him, looking up to him; the nymph, in
transparent chiton, scooping water with a jar, the l. hand raised in defense.
SNG Copenhagen 118; BMC 183; Lindgren II, 120, 2268
Very rare, about EF, chocolate-brown patina

The group of statues from the rev. decorates the pedimentum of the main temple of the city of Berytos, todays Beirut in Liban. For the love of Beroe have struggled Poseidon and Dionysos until Zeus ended the battle and gave Beroe to Poseidon who gave the city the honor to win each naval battle.
For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
1 commentsJochen
Ant_Pius_AE-26_Q-001_axis-0h_24-25mm_10,43g-s.jpg
Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, 035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), SNG-Cop 351, AE-26, Turreted bust of Tyche right, 278 viewsSyria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, 035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), SNG-Cop 351, AE-26, Turreted bust of Tyche right,
avers: [AVTO] KAI AI AΔΡI ANTΩNEINOC [CEB], Laureate head right.
reverse: IOVΛIEΩN TΩN KAI ΛAOΔIKEΩN, Turreted bust of Tyche right, date AKP right ( year ),
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 24-25 mm, weight: 10,43g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: SNG-Coop 351, BMC 57,
Q-001
quadrans
Larissa_Thessaly_Ar-Trihemiobol_Head_of_Larissa_facing_Horseman_galloping_right_LAR-IS_AIWN_Hermann-VII-pl-VI-_1_SNG-Cop-134_C-344-337-BC_Q-001_9h_11,5-12,5mm_1,36g-s.jpg
Thessaly, Larissa, (c.344-337 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, SNG Coop 134, ΛΑΡ-IΣ / AIΩN, Horseman galloping right, Rare !206 viewsThessaly, Larissa, (c.344-337 B.C.), AR-Trihemiobol, SNG Coop 134, ΛΑΡ-IΣ / AIΩN, Horseman galloping right, Rare !
avers: Head of the nymph Larissa facing, turned slightly to the left.
revers: ΛΑΡ-IΣ / AIΩN, Horseman - Thessalian cavalryman, wearing petasos and chlamys and holding staff, riding cantering horse to right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5-12,5 mm, weight: 1,36g, axes: 9 h,
mint: Thessaly, Larissa, date: 344-337 B.C., ref: SNG Copenhagen 134, Hermann Group VII, pl. VI, 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
035_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),_AE-17,_SNG-Coop_771,________________,_Dionysos_satnding_left_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
Thrace, Philippopolis, 035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), SNG-Coop 771, AE-17, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΟΝ, Dionysos satnding left,61 viewsThrace, Philippopolis, 035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), SNG-Coop 771, AE-17, ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΟΝ, Dionysos satnding left,
avers:- ΑΥΤ-ΑΔΡΙΑ-ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟC, Laureate head right.
revers:-ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΟΝ, Dionysos satnding left faceing with Jug and Thyrsos.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18 mm, weight: 4,06g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Thrace, Philippopolis, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: SNG-Coop 771,
Q-001
quadrans
Carac1stCaes.jpg
[1004a] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.29 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 2, gF, Rome, 2.662g, 17.2mm, 0o; type from his first issue as Caesar., 196 A.D. Obverse: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, boy's bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SECVRITAS PERPETVA (Security Everlasting), Minerva with aegis on breast, standing left, holding spear in left and resting right on shield on the ground; well centered on a tight flan; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
CaracallaRIC108.jpg
[1004b] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.30 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 108, RSC 510, VF, 2.967g, 19.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III, Emperor on horseback right, captive at feet; scarce. Ex FORVM.

This coin refers to the departure of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition. Our dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
JohnHyrcanusAntiochos7Lily.jpg
[18H451] Judaean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C., for the Seleukid King Antiochos VII106 viewsJohn Hyrcanus [for Antiochos VII]; Lily, AE, Hendin 451, 15mm, 2.92 grams; VF, Jerusalem; 182-180 B.C. This interesting coin was the precursor to the "prutah" which would subsequently be minted in Israel. Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes). Ex Zuzim Judaea.

Johanan [John] Hyrcanus
(d. 104 BCE)

Grandson of Mattathias of Modein and chief architect of Judean dominance of Palestine. The youngest and only surviving son of Simon Thassi succeeded his father as high priest in 134 BCE. He was the fourth Hasmonean to rule Jerusalem. But his tenure began with a year-long Syrian siege that forced him to agree to tear down the city's fortifications and renew a tribute to the Greek emperor [133 BCE].

Within a few years, however, he took advantage of political turmoil in Syria following the death of Antiochus VII [129 BCE] to rebuild his forces, reclaim independence and extend Judean control over Palestine and Jordan. On the southern front he forced Judah's neighbors in Idumea [descendents of the Edomites] to accept Judaism and on the northern front he destroyed the rival temple at Shechem in Samaria.

Such triumphs made him the probable subject of messianic tributes by his fellow Judeans. But his own preference for Greek culture made him controversial in Jerusalem. When Pharisees challenged his right to be high priest, he switched his allegiance to the aristocratic Sadducee [Zadokite] party. Still, the Dead Sea Scrolls suggest that other Zadokites probably rejected his leadership and left Jerusalem, labeling him the "wicked priest," who persecuted the priest whom they regarded as the "Teacher of Righteousness."

Copyright 2007, The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Published on The Jewish Virtual Library; http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/index.html


John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BCE - 104 BCE, died 104 BCE) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name "Hyrcanus" was taken by him as a regnal name upon his accession to power. His taking a Greek regnal name was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule, and a more pragmatic recognition that Judea had to maintain its position among a millieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture and communicated in Greek.

Life and work
He was the son of Simon Maccabaeus and hence the nephew of Judas Maccabaeus, Jonathan Maccabaeus and their siblings, whose story is told in the deuterocanonical books of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, and in the Talmud. John was not present at a banquet at which his father and his two brothers were murdered, purportedly by his brother-in-law Ptolemy. He attained to his father's former offices, that of high priest and king (although some Jews never accepted any of the Hasmoneans as being legitimate kings, as they were not lineal descendants of David).

His taking a Greek regnal name - "Hyrcanus" - was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule. It reflected a more pragmatic recognition that Judea, once having attained independence, had to maintain its position among a milieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture. All subseqent Hashmonean rulers followed suit and adopted Greek names in their turn.

Achievements
John Hyrcanus apparently combined an energetic and able style of leadership with the zeal of his forebears. He was known as a brave and brilliant military leader. He is credited with the forced conversion of the Idumeans to Judaism, which was unusual for a Jewish leader; Judaism was not typically spread by the sword. He also set out to resolve forcibly the religious dispute between the Jews and the Samaritans; during his reign he destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim (although their descendants still worship among its ruins), which served further to deepen the already-historic hatred and rivalry between the two groups. Many historians believe that the apocryphal book of Jubilees was written during his reign; some would suggest even at his behest. Some writers, particularly Christian ones, have dated the division of Judaism into the parties of Pharisees and Sadducees to his era; most Jewish writers and some Christian ones suggest that this split actually well predates him. Some historians would go so far as to identify him, as a priest, predominantly with the Sadducee party, which was closely associated with the Temple worship and the priestly class.

Peak and decline of the kingdom
John Hyrcanus represented in some ways the highest point of the Hasmonean Dynasty. The restored Jewish "kingdom" approached its maximum limits of both territory and prestige. Upon his death, his offices were divided among his heirs; his son Aristobulus succeeded him as high priest; his wife as "Queen regnant". The son, however, soon came to desire the essentially unchecked power of his father; he shortly ordered his mother and his brothers imprisoned. This event seems to mark the beginning of the decline of the Hasmonean Dynasty; in just over four decades they were removed from power by the Roman Republic and none of them ever began to approach the level of power or prestige that had pertained to John Hyrcanus or his predecessors.

Modern Commemoration
Tel Aviv has a Yochanan Hyrcanus Street (רחוב יוחנן הורקנוס), as do several other cities in contemporary Israel. In the ealy decades of the 20th century, the Zionist historical perception of the Jewish past tended to approve of and revere strong warrior kings of both Biblical and later periods, and Hyrcanus' exploits earned him a place in that pantheon.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hyrcanus


John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of the folk hero Judah Maccabee. Not long after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. The Seleukid king, Antiocus VII, and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian king. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=922&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PhiletairosMyFirstCoinPortrait250408.jpg
[2400d] Pergamene Kingdom, Mysia, Western Asia Minor, Philetairos I, 282 - 263 B.C.47 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 3000, SNG Paris 1603 var, SNG Von Aulock -, SNG Cop -, VF, Pergamon mint, 16.629g, 28.1mm, 0o, c. 265 - 263 B.C. Obverse: head of Philetaerus right in taenia; Reverse: FILETAIROU downward on right, Athena enthroned left, right hand on shield before her, spear over shoulder in left, leaf above arm, bow right; high relief portrait; very rare. Ex FORVM. Photo by jpfjr.

This coin bears the first portrait of Philetairos, the founder of the Pergamene Kingdom, 282 -263 B.C. Hoard evidence and recent studies indicate it was struck at the end of his reign. Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I, then Seleukos and Herakles (see coin 309p) portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly this type with his own portrait. This same reverse was used for the Seleukos I portrait types. Philetairos' coinage is known for its magnificent realistic portraits and this coin is an excellent example. Very rare and absent from most major collections (Joseph Sermarini).

Attalid Dynasty(270-133 BC) - capital at Pergamum

Founded by Philetairos, the Greek secretary of Alexander the Great's general Lysimachus.

In his monograph "The Pergamene Mint Under Philetaerus" (The American Numismatic Society, No.76, 1936), Edward T. Newell notes, "The event which precipitated the end of Lysimachus' empire and resulted in the rise to power of the Attalid Dynasty, was the execution in 286-5 B.C. of his son, the heir apparent Agathocles. For Philetareus the situation had now become impossible. He belonged to the faction which had gathered about that able and much beloved young man--in opposition to the party headed by Lysimachus' wife, the ambitious Arsinoe, scheming for the preferment of her own children. So after having functioned for many years as the governor of Pergamum and the trusted guardian of the great treasure there deposited, Philetaerus was now forced to take steps for his own safety. Sometime between 284 and 282 B.C. many of the Asiatic cities and certain officers of Lysimachus openly rebelled and called upon Seleucus for aid. Philetaerus also wrote to the Syrian king, placing himself, and the treasure under his care, at the latter's disposal. Seleucus led his army, together with a large contingent of elephants, into the Asiatic provinces of Lysimachus. On the plain of Corupedium in Lydia there occurred the final and decisive battle in which, as is well known, Lysimachus lost both life and empire" (3-5).

When [Lysimachus] fell fighting Seleucus, Philetairos (a eunuch) withdrew with his commander's military war chest to a mountain fortress that ultimately became his palace acropolis of Pergamum. He gained royal recognition through his successful efforts at repulsing the Gallic invasion of western Anatolia in 270-269 BC. Philetairos drove the Gauls into the Phrygian highlands where they settled in the region thereafter known as Galatia. He became recognized by the Greek cities of the coastal region as a liberator and savior and established his hegemony over them. Since he had no children, his domain passed to the four sons of his brother, Attalus I. Normally, so many rival dynasts would have spelled disaster (as it eventually did in Syria and Egypt), but the Attalids became celebrated for their cooperation at state building. They handed the royal authority from one to another in succession and managed to elevate their realm into the top echelon of Mediterranean states.

Particularly skillful diplomacy with Rome enabled the Attalids to enjoy further success during the early second century BC. At their peak under Eumenes II, c. 190-168 BC, they controlled the entire western seaboard of Anatolia and much of Phrygian highland as well. In direct competition with the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, the Attalids succeeded at establishing Pergamum as a leading cultural center, its library second only to that of Alexandria, its sculpture, woven tapestries, and ceramics prized throughout the Mediterranean. An expressive, highly baroque style of sculpture known as the Asian school, set important trends in the Greek world and profoundly influenced artistic development at Rome. The Attalids likewise competed for control of the eastern luxury trade, relying on the overland route of the now ancient Persian Royal Road across Anatolia.

When a dynastic dispute threatened to undermine the stability of Pergamum at the end of the second century BC, King Attalus III (138-133) left his royal domain to the people of the Roman Republic in his will. His nobles were concerned about security after his passing, and to prevent a dynastic dispute (which ultimately did arise) he wrote this into his will as a form of "poison pill." At his demise in 133 BC, ambassadors brought the report of his bequest to Rome, where it was accepted and secured by military intervention. By 126 BC the royal territories of Pergamum became the Roman province of Asia, the richest of all Roman provinces.

Abusive exploitation by Roman tax collectors (publicans) induced a province-wide revolt in Asia in 88 BC (encouraged by Mithridates VI Eupator), culminating in the massacre reportedly of some 80,000 Romans, Italians, their families, and servants throughout the province. L. Cornelius Sulla restored order in 84 BC just prior to his assumption of the dictatorship at Rome. Indemnities imposed by Sulla remained burdensome throughout the following decade, but the resilience and economic vitality of the province ultimately enabled impressive recovery.

In 63 BC the Roman orator and senator, M. Tullius Cicero, stated that approximately 40% of tribute raised by the Republican empire came from Asia alone. The merger of Greco-Roman culture was probably most successfully achieved here. In the imperial era, cities such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis, and Miletus ranked among the leading cultural centers of the Roman world.

http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:n9hG5pYVUV0J:web.ics.purdue.edu/~rauhn/hellenistic_world.htm+Philetairos&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=29

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1stPhiletairosTet.jpg
[2400d] Pergamene Kingdom, Mysia, Western Asia Minor, Philetairos I, 282 - 263 B.C.53 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 3000, SNG Paris 1603 var, SNG Von Aulock -, SNG Cop -, VF, Pergamon mint, 16.629g, 28.1mm, 0o, c. 265 - 263 B.C. Obverse: head of Philetaerus right in taenia; Reverse: FILETAIROU downward on right, Athena enthroned left, right hand on shield before her, spear over shoulder in left, leaf above arm, bow right; high relief portrait; very rare. Ex FORVM.

This coin bears the first portrait of Philetairos, the founder of the Pergamene Kingdom, 282 -263 B.C. Hoard evidence and recent studies indicate it was struck at the end of his reign. Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I, then Seleukos and Herakles (see coin 309p) portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly this type with his own portrait. This same reverse was used for the Seleukos I portrait types. Philetairos' coinage is known for its magnificent realistic portraits and this coin is an excellent example. Very rare and absent from most major collections.

Attalid Dynasty(270-133 BC) - capital at Pergamum

Founded by Philetairos, the Greek secretary of Alexander the Great's general Lysimachus.

In his monograph "The Pergamene Mint Under Philetaerus" (The American Numismatic Society, No.76, 1936), Edward T. Newell notes, "The event which precipitated the end of Lysimachus' empire and resulted in the rise to power of the Attalid Dynasty, was the execution in 286-5 B.C. of his son, the heir apparent Agathocles. For Philetareus the situation had now become impossible. He belonged to the faction which had gathered about that able and much beloved young man--in opposition to the party headed by Lysimachus' wife, the ambitious Arsinoe, scheming for the preferment of her own children. So after having functioned for many years as the governor of Pergamum and the trusted guardian of the great treasure there deposited, Philetaerus was now forced to take steps for his own safety. Sometime between 284 and 282 B.C. many of the Asiatic cities and certain officers of Lysimachus openly rebelled and called upon Seleucus for aid. Philetaerus also wrote to the Syrian king, placing himself, and the treasure under his care, at the latter's disposal. Seleucus led his army, together with a large contingent of elephants, into the Asiatic provinces of Lysimachus. On the plain of Corupedium in Lydia there occurred the final and decisive battle in which, as is well known, Lysimachus lost both life and empire" (3-5).

When [Lysimachus] fell fighting Seleucus, Philetairos (a eunuch) withdrew with his commander's military war chest to a mountain fortress that ultimately became his palace acropolis of Pergamum. He gained royal recognition through his successful efforts at repulsing the Gallic invasion of western Anatolia in 270-269 BC. Philetairos drove the Gauls into the Phrygian highlands where they settled in the region thereafter known as Galatia. He became recognized by the Greek cities of the coastal region as a liberator and savior and established his hegemony over them. Since he had no children, his domain passed to the four sons of his brother, Attalus I. Normally, so many rival dynasts would have spelled disaster (as it eventually did in Syria and Egypt), but the Attalids became celebrated for their cooperation at state building. They handed the royal authority from one to another in succession and managed to elevate their realm into the top echelon of Mediterranean states.

Particularly skillful diplomacy with Rome enabled the Attalids to enjoy further success during the early second century BC. At their peak under Eumenes II, c. 190-168 BC, they controlled the entire western seaboard of Anatolia and much of Phrygian highland as well. In direct competition with the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, the Attalids succeeded at establishing Pergamum as a leading cultural center, its library second only to that of Alexandria, its sculpture, woven tapestries, and ceramics prized throughout the Mediterranean. An expressive, highly baroque style of sculpture known as the Asian school, set important trends in the Greek world and profoundly influenced artistic development at Rome. The Attalids likewise competed for control of the eastern luxury trade, relying on the overland route of the now ancient Persian Royal Road across Anatolia.

When a dynastic dispute threatened to undermine the stability of Pergamum at the end of the second century BC, King Attalus III (138-133) left his royal domain to the people of the Roman Republic in his will. His nobles were concerned about security after his passing, and to prevent a dynastic dispute (which ultimately did arise) he wrote this into his will as a form of "poison pill." At his demise in 133 BC, ambassadors brought the report of his bequest to Rome, where it was accepted and secured by military intervention. By 126 BC the royal territories of Pergamum became the Roman province of Asia, the richest of all Roman provinces.

Abusive exploitation by Roman tax collectors (publicans) induced a province-wide revolt in Asia in 88 BC (encouraged by Mithridates VI Eupator), culminating in the massacre reportedly of some 80,000 Romans, Italians, their families, and servants throughout the province. L. Cornelius Sulla restored order in 84 BC just prior to his assumption of the dictatorship at Rome. Indemnities imposed by Sulla remained burdensome throughout the following decade, but the resilience and economic vitality of the province ultimately enabled impressive recovery.

In 63 BC the Roman orator and senator, M. Tullius Cicero, stated that approximately 40% of tribute raised by the Republican empire came from Asia alone. The merger of Greco-Roman culture was probably most successfully achieved here. In the imperial era, cities such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis, and Miletus ranked among the leading cultural centers of the Roman world.

http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:n9hG5pYVUV0J:web.ics.purdue.edu/~rauhn/hellenistic_world.htm+Philetairos&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=29

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
42576q00.jpg
[303a] Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I, 312 - 280 B.C.123 viewsSilver drachm, Houghton and Lorber 131(8), Newell ESM 91a-b (same obv die), gVF, Seleukeia mint, weight 4.239g, maximum diameter 17.1mm, die axis 270o, obverse laureate head of Zeus; reverse Athena driving quadriga of horned elephants right, anchor above, BASILEWS on left, SELEUKOU in ex; ex CNG auction 82, lot 713. Ex FORVM.

Seleukos (often spelled Seleucus) I Nikator, Founder of a Hellenistic Dynasty in the Orient
Born into a well-placed family in Macedon, trained as a royal page to King Philip II, trusted companion and chief of the élite bodyguard of Alexander the Great, he spent half his life in the shadow of more ambitious soldiers. Yet he eventually rose above all of them, and the kingdom he founded rivalled Ptolemaic Egypt in brilliance and almost in longevity, for Cleopatra VII ended her life, surrendering Egypt to Octavian, only a generation after Rome reduced what remained of the Seleukid Empire to the Province of Syria.
http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/908680

Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, Greek: Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, i.e. Seleucus Victor) (ca. 358 BCE–281 BCE), was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. In the wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire.

Seleucus was the son of Antiochus from Orestis, one of Philip's generals, and of Laodice. In 333 BC, as a young man of about twenty-three, he accompanied Alexander into Asia and won distinction in the Indian campaign of 326 BC. In 324 BCE Seleucus took as wife Apama, with whom he had four children: two daughters, Apama and Laodice, and two sons, Antiochus & Achaeus.

When the Macedonian empire was divided in 323 BC (the "Partition of Babylon"), Seleucus was given the office of chiliarch, which attached him closely to the regent Perdiccas. Subsequently, Seleucus had a hand in the murder of Perdiccas during the latter's unsuccessful invasion of Egypt in 321 BC.

At the second partition, at Triparadisus (321 BC), Seleucus was given the government of the Babylonian satrapy. In 316 BC, when Antigonus had made himself master of the eastern provinces, Seleucus felt himself threatened and fled to Egypt. In the war which followed between Antigonus and the other Macedonian chiefs, Seleucus actively cooperated with Ptolemy and commanded Egyptian squadrons in the Aegean Sea.

The victory won by Ptolemy at the battle of Gaza in 312 BC opened the way for Seleucus to return to the east. His return to Babylon was afterwards officially regarded as the beginning of the Seleucid Empire and that year as the first of the Seleucid era. Master of Babylonia, Seleucus at once proceeded to wrest the neighbouring provinces of Persia, Susiana and Media from the nominees of Antigonus. A raid into Babylonia conducted in 311 BC by Demetrius, son of Antigonus, did not seriously check Seleucus' progress. Over the course of nine years (311-302 BC), while Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus brought the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus Rivers under his authority.

In 305 BC, after the extinction of the old royal line of Macedonia, Seleucus, like the other four principal Macedonian chiefs, assumed the title and style of basileus (king). He established Seleucia on the Tigris as his capital.

In the year 281 B.C., at the age of 77, Seleukos was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus (the eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter). All of the "principal" Diadochi; Antigonas Monophthalmos, Antipater, Kassander, Ptolemy, Lysimichus and Seleukos; had now joined their great king, Alexander, in death.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_I_Nicator

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
5 commentsCleisthenes
SeleukosISNGSpaer23.jpg
[303b] Seleucid Kingdom, Seleukos I, 312 - 281 B.C.83 viewsBronze AE 19, WSM 925, SNG Spaer 23, VF, Antioch mint, 7.994g, 19.2mm, 225o; Obverse: winged Gorgon head right; Reverse: BASILEWS SELEUKOU, bull butting right, X in exergue.


Seleukos I Nikator, Founder of a Hellenistic Dynasty in the Orient
Born into a well-placed family in Macedon, trained as a royal page to King Philip II, trusted companion and chief of the élite bodyguard of Alexander the Great, he spent half his life in the shadow of more ambitious soldiers. Yet he eventually rose above all of them, and the kingdom he founded rivalled Ptolemaic Egypt in brilliance and almost in longevity, for Cleopatra VII ended her life, surrendering Egypt to Octavian, only a generation after Rome reduced what remained of the Seleukid Empire to the Province of Syria.
http://www.ancientworlds.net/aw/Article/908680

Seleucus I (surnamed for later generations Nicator, Greek: Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, i.e. Seleucus Victor) (ca. 358 BCE–281 BCE), was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great. In the wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire.

Seleucus was the son of Antiochus from Orestis, one of Philip's generals, and of Laodice. In 333 BC, as a young man of about twenty-three, he accompanied Alexander into Asia and won distinction in the Indian campaign of 326 BC. In 324 BCE Seleucus took as wife Apama, with whom he had four children: two daughters, Apama and Laodice, and two sons, Antiochus & Achaeus.

When the Macedonian empire was divided in 323 BC (the "Partition of Babylon"), Seleucus was given the office of chiliarch, which attached him closely to the regent Perdiccas. Subsequently, Seleucus had a hand in the murder of Perdiccas during the latter's unsuccessful invasion of Egypt in 321 BC.

At the second partition, at Triparadisus (321 BC), Seleucus was given the government of the Babylonian satrapy. In 316 BC, when Antigonus had made himself master of the eastern provinces, Seleucus felt himself threatened and fled to Egypt. In the war which followed between Antigonus and the other Macedonian chiefs, Seleucus actively cooperated with Ptolemy and commanded Egyptian squadrons in the Aegean Sea.

The victory won by Ptolemy at the battle of Gaza in 312 BC opened the way for Seleucus to return to the east. His return to Babylon was afterwards officially regarded as the beginning of the Seleucid Empire and that year as the first of the Seleucid era. Master of Babylonia, Seleucus at once proceeded to wrest the neighbouring provinces of Persia, Susiana and Media from the nominees of Antigonus. A raid into Babylonia conducted in 311 BC by Demetrius, son of Antigonus, did not seriously check Seleucus' progress. Over the course of nine years (311-302 BC), while Antigonus was occupied in the west, Seleucus brought the whole eastern part of Alexander's empire as far as the Jaxartes and Indus Rivers under his authority.

In 305 BC, after the extinction of the old royal line of Macedonia, Seleucus, like the other four principal Macedonian chiefs, assumed the title and style of basileus (king). He established Seleucia on the Tigris as his capital.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucus_I_Nicator

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
     
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