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Search results - "Coele"
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ΔAK237 viewsSyria-Coele, Leucas ad Chrysoroas, Balanea Leucas. Trajan 103 A.D. (Year 55). AE-21 mm, 7.67 grs. AV: AU KAI NER - TRAIANOC, Laur. head to right, within dotted border, Rectangular CM: ΔAK, Howgego 529 (43 pcs). RV: [LEU]KAD[EwN], Emperor with szepter in quadriga to right, in the field: EN (Year 55), within dotted border. Note: The CM (ΔAK) refers to Trajan's title "Dacicus". Interestingly, the title is already present on the coin. It has therefore been suggested by H.Seyrig that its application was a means for raising money for a gift for the emperor. Collection: Mueller.Automan
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ΔAK in rectangular punch178 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. Æ 22. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: (AY)KAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, holding sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30°. Weight: 9.16 g. CM: ΔAK in rectangular punch, 6 x 3 mm. Howgego 529 (43 pcs). Note: Interestingly, the title Dacicus is already part of the inscription of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
chrysoroas_res.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS20 views177 - 192 AD
AE 17 X 18 mm; 3.70 g
O: Laureate bearded head right
R: River god Chrysoroas reclining right, holding cornucopia and grain ears; XPYCO_ beneath
Damascus, Coele-Syria; cf Lindren III 1256
laney
septimius_heliopolis_eagles.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS16 views193-211 AD
AE 20 mm; 7.17 g
O: Laureate head right
R: COL/HEL in two lines between two legionary eagles, all within wreath
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis; cf Lindgren III 1269; SNG Munich 1030
laney
sept_sev_coel_blk.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (HELIOPOLIS)42 views193 - 211 AD
AE 24 X 26 mm, 9.84 g
O: Radiate head right
R: GETA - ANT Geta and Caracalla in togas, facing each other and clasping hands; CO/EL between
Heliopolis, Coele-Syria Lindgren III, 71, 1274; very rare
laney
caracalla_helio_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA28 views198 - 217 AD
Æ 23 mm max. 5.28 g
O: Radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: COL/HEL in two lines between two legionary eagles, pellet between eagles, all within wreath
Coele-Syria, Heliopolis
(rare)
laney
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(0198) CARACALLA29 views198 - 217 AD
AE 16 mm; 2.94 g
O. Laureate head of Caracalla, right.
R: Hermes, nude except chlamys standing facing, head left, holding purse in his outstretched right and kerykeion (caduceus) in left arm.
Syria (Coele-Syria), Heliopolis (Baalbek)
cf. SNG Cop. 430
laney
coele_quadriga_res.jpg
(0217) MACRINUS29 views218 AD
AE 18.5 mm 5.81 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Diety or Macrinus driving galloping quadriga right; DNC above horses.
SYRIA, Leucas
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sev_al_coele_thrace.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER31 views222-235 AD
AE 18 mm; 2.56 g
O:Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: AEL MVNICIP COELA Prow left, cornucopia above.
Thrace, Coela; Varbanov 1928
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gallien_heliop_blkres.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS31 views253-268 AD
AE 26 X 29 mm, 12.30 g
O: IMP CAES P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right
R: COL IVL AVG FEL HE, three agonistic urns containing palm branches, CERTSACR CAP OECV ISE HEL in three lines in exe
Coele-Syria, Heliopolis SNG COP. 441
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(0253) VALERIAN I30 views253 - 260 AD
Capitolene games issue
AE 26.5 mm, 19.34 g
O: IMP CAES P LIC VALERIANVS [PF AVG], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: CER SACR CAP OEC ISEL HEL, COL-HEL across fields, male athlete standing facing, head right, holding palm branch, right hand in a selection urn.
Coele Syria, Heliopolis
Cohen 329
laney
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001a. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony50 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalcis ad Libanum. Mark Antony, with Cleopatra VII. 36-31 BC. Æ 19mm (5.45 g, 12h). Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra (32/1 BC). Draped bust of Cleopatra right, wearing stephane / Bare head of Mark Antony right; dates in legend. RPC I 4771; Rouvier 440 (Berytus); SNG München 1006; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia). Near Fine, green patina.

Chalcis was given by Antony to Cleopatra in 36 BC. At the culmination of his spectacular triumph at Alexandria two years later, further eastern territories - some belonging to Rome - were bestowed on the children of the newly hailed “Queen of Kings” (referred to as the “Donations of Alexandria”). Shortly after, Antony formally divorced Octavia, the sister of Octavian. These actions fueled Octavian’s propagandistic efforts to win the support of Rome’s political elite and ultimately led to the Senate’s declaration of war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
Trajano_Leucas_Syria.jpg
24 - 2 - 1 TRAJANO (98-117 D.C.)54 views LEUCAS COELESYRIAE, Coele-Syria

AE 20 mm 8.3 gr

Anv: ”AV KAI NEP TPAIANOC ΔAK” – Cabeza laureada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”ΛEYKAΔIΩN KΛAYΔIEWN ΕN” – Dios Bárbaro / Trajano, portando Tridente/Cetro en la mano de su brazo izquierdo extendido, galopando hacia la derecha en una cuadriga. "EN" en el campo centro superior, es la fecha, año 55 de la era local de Leucas, aproximadamente 102/103 D.C.
RESELLO: "ΔAK", Por el título de Dacius o Dacicus (conquistador de la Dacia) que poseia Trajano.
Referencias del resello: Howgego GIC #511?

Acuñada: 102 - 103 D.C.

Referencias: Sear GICTV #1082, Pag.99; BMC Vol.XX #3 Pag.296; SNG Cop. #306
mdelvalle
SGIC_1082_Coele_Siria_Trajano.jpg
24-35 - TRAJANO (98-117 D.C.)14 views LEUCAS COELESYRIAE, Coele-Syria

AE 20 mm 8.3 gr

Anv: ”AV KAI NEP TPAIANOC ΔAK” – Cabeza laureada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”ΛEYKAΔIΩN KΛAYΔIEWN ΕN” – Dios Bárbaro / Trajano, portando Tridente/Cetro en la mano de su brazo izquierdo extendido, galopando hacia la derecha en una cuadriga. "EN" en el campo centro superior, es la fecha, año 55 de la era local de Leucas, aproximadamente 102/103 D.C.
RESELLO: "ΔAK", Por el título de Dacius o Dacicus (conquistador de la Dacia) que poseia Trajano.
Referencias del resello: Howgego GIC #511?

Acuñada: 102 - 103 D.C.

Referencias: Sear GICTV #1082, Pag.99; BMC Vol.XX #3 Pag.296; SNG Cop. #306
mdelvalle
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AΔP149 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Macrinus. Æ 26. A.D. 217 (year 254). Obv: (AVK)OΠEMA-KPEINOCCE. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (Λ)EV(KAΔIΩN), Δ N C in ex. Emperor (?) in quadriga facing. Ref: SNG Switzerland 2174 (var. obv. bust); Lindgren 2187 (?). Axis: 360°. Weight: 16.84 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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AΔP129 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Macrinus. Æ 27. A.D. 217 (year 254). Obv: (AV)KOΠEMA-KPEINO(CCE). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark behind. Rev: ΛE-VKAΔIΩN, (Δ N C) in ex. Emperor (?) in quadriga, galloping right. Ref: Sear GIC 2956. Axis: 360°. Veight: 15.97 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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AΔP165 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. Æ 20. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: AYKAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or sim.Laur. head right; CM on neck. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, hld. sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30°. Weight: 6.52 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Note: Interestingly, no coins countermarks "AΔP" are also countermarked "ΔAK". "ΔAK" is clearly the more common of the two countermarks. The meaning of "AΔP" is uncertain. There are also coins of Macrinus from Leucas countermarked "AΔP", and Howgego therefore argues that it cannot refer to Hadrian. It seems odd, though, that issues of Trajan and Macrinus (but NONE of intervening emperors) should have been countermarked at the same time. If this really were the case, one would expect coins of Trajan to be heavily worn, which is not the case. Collection Automan.Automan
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AΔP on Trajan AE21259 viewsTrajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Leucas, Coele-Syria
9239. Bronze AE 21, SGI 1082, F, 7.73g, 21.1mm, 0o, Leucas ad Chrysoroas mint, 102/103 A.D.; obverse AY KAI NEP TPAIANOC [ ... ], laureate head right, countermarked; reverse LEIKADIWN KLAYDIEWN, Trajan, holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right; date EN (year 55 of the Era of Leucas = 102/103 A.D.); $90.00
The obverse countermark appears to read ADR, Emperor Hadrian; however a nearly identical mark has been interpreted as DeltaAK, Trajan's title Dacius.
1 commentswhitetd49
Antoniniano_Numeriano_RIC_466.jpg
A104-04 - NUMERIANO (Mar.283 - Nov.284 D.C.)80 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 4.0 gr.
Hijo menor de Caro, acuñada como Co-augusto de su hermano mayor Carino

Anv: "IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AV-GG" – Emperador de pié a la izquierda vestido militarmente, recibiendo Victoriola (Victoria sobre globo) de Júpiter (ó Carus) de pié a la derecha portando en su la mano de su brazo izquierdo un largo cetro vertical. "Γ" en campo centro y "XXI" en exergo.

Acuñada 4ta.Emisión Mar/Jul.283 D.C.
Ceca: Coele Syria – Antioch – Antioquía – Hoy Antakya –Turquía (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: Vol.V Parte II #466 Pag.202 - Cohen Vol.VI #108 Pag.380 - DVM # Pag.
mdelvalle
Ric_466_Antoniniano_Numeriano.jpg
A104-04 - NUMERIANO (Mar.283 - Nov.284 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 4.0 gr.
Hijo menor de Caro, acuñada como Co-augusto de su hermano mayor Carino

Anv: "IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AV-GG" – Emperador de pié a la izquierda vestido militarmente, recibiendo Victoriola (Victoria sobre globo) de Júpiter (ó Carus) de pié a la derecha portando en su la mano de su brazo izquierdo un largo cetro vertical. "Γ" en campo centro y "XXI" en exergo.

Acuñada 4ta.Emisión Mar/Jul.283 D.C.
Ceca: Coele Syria – Antioquía – Hoy Antakya –Turquía (Off.3ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vb #466 P.202, Sear RCTV III #12256 P.504, Cohen VI #108 P.380, DVM #21 P.264, Hunter #44 Pink p.56 serie 4
mdelvalle
Antiochus_IV~0.jpg
Antiochus III - AE5 viewsuncertain mint in southern Coele Syria
c. 198 - 187 BC
helmeted head of Athena right Nike advancing left, holding wreath; anchor left
BAΣIΛEΩΣ // ANTIOXOY
ΔI
Antiochos III, HGC 9, 492.?
Johny SYSEL
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balanea00111 viewsElagabalus
Balanea (as Leucas-Claudia), Coele-Syria

Obv: AVT K MA ANTΩN[ЄINOC C]Є, Laureate head right.
Rev: ΛЄVK Δ[IΩN], Sol, standing in facing quadriga, holding scepter and globe, date in exergue not legible.
27 mm, 14.87 gms

Lindgren-Kovacs 2188 (Note: Lindgren's description calls for a radiate bust but the plate coin shows a laureate bust.)
Charles M
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Chalkis. Ptolemaios, tetrarch. 85-40 B.C. Æ18, Zeus/ Dioskouroi8 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalkis. Ptolemaios, tetrarch. 85-40 B.C. Æ 18mm. Laureate head of Zeus right / The Dioskouroi standing facing one another, each holding a spear. VF, green and brown patina. Scarce. Ex Vauctions Podiceps
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COELE SYRIA, CHALKIS--PTOLEMAIOS13 views85 - 40 BC
Tetrarchy of Chalkis, Ptolemaios, 85 - 40 B.C.
AE 20 mm max. 6.05 g
O: Zeus (or tetrarch) right
R: Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) standing facing with spears, heads confronted, LΜΣ
Chalkis sub Libano mint, Herman 1, SNG Cop 413, HGC 9 1439 (S), BMC Galatia -
laney
chalkis_diosc_b.jpg
COELE SYRIA, CHALKIS--PTOLEMAIOS15 views85 - 40 B.C
AE 20 mm; 5.82 g
Tetrarchy of Chalkis, PtolemaiosAE
O: Zeus (or tetrarch) right, countermark on neck
R: Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) standing facing with spears, heads confronted
Chalkis sub Libano mint, Herman 1, SNG Cop 413, HGC 9 1439 (S), BMC Galatia -
laney
sept_sev_heliopolis.jpg
Coele-Syria, Heliopolis; Decastyle temple; AE 2420 viewsSeptimius Severus, Syria, Coele-Syria, Heliopolis, 193-211 A.D. AE 24.2mm, 11.77g; Obverse: Laureate head right. Reverse: Decastyle temple. Lindgren III 1270.Podiceps
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Coele-Syria. Damascus; COL Δ AMASMETRO around wreath, within which CEBA/CMIA; ram's head below. AE 2519 viewsTrebonianus Gallus. SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Damascus. A.D. 251-253. Æ 25mm (8.6g). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / COL Δ AMASMETRO around wreath, within which CEBA/CMIA; ram's head below. The Olympia Sebasmia were local games celebrated as part of the Imperial cult.Podiceps
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COELESYRIA, Damascus. Philip I.8 viewsCOELESYRIA, Damascus. Philip I. AD 244-249. Æ. Laureate and cuirassed bust left / River-god Chrysoroas seated left, leaning on overturned urn, holding two grain ears and cornucopia. De Saulcy 12; Rosenberger 32.ecoli
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Damascus24 viewsAE 23 mm
Damascus in Coele-Syria
Agonistic table with prize urn
Rosenberger (Eastern Palestine) 33, 63
mauseus
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damascus0014 viewsElagabalus
Damascus, Coele-Syria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: ΔAMACKOΥ IεΡAC KAIεNΔO[COΥ] outside wreath, CEBA/CMIA in two lines within wreath..
28 mm, 14.98 gms

Rosenberger 29, Lindgren-Kovacs 2144, BMC21
Charles M
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damascus001_29 viewsElagabalus
Damascus, Coele-Syria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: [ΔAMACKOΥ] IεΡAC KAIεNΔOCOΥ outside wreath, CEBA/CMIA in two lines within wreath..
28 mm, 14.00 gms

Rosenberger 29, Lindgren-Kovacs 2144, BMC21
Charles M
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damascus0027 viewsElagabalus
Damascus, Coele-Syria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: ΔAMA[CKOΥ IεΡAC KAIεNΔOCOΥ] outside wreath, CEBA/CMIA in two lines within wreath..
23 mm, 8.38 gms

Rosenberger 29, Lindgren-Kovacs 2144, BMC21
Charles M
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damascus002_29 viewsElagabalus
Damascus, Coele-Syria

Obv: Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rev: [ΔAMACKOΥ IεΡAC KAIεNΔOCOΥ] outside wreath, CEBA/CMIA in two lines within wreath..
23 mm, 9.18 gms

Rosenberger 29, Lindgren-Kovacs 2144, BMC21
Charles M
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Elagabalus, Damascus 5 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Damascus. Elagabalus. AD 218-222. Æ Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / CЄBA/CMIA in two lines within wreath. SNG München 1018 var. (bust seen from front); Lindgren II 2144 var. (same).ecoli
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Julia Domna, Laodiceia ad Libanum35 viewsJulia Domna,
Æ 21mm (5.97 g); SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Laodiceia ad Libanum

IVLIA AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

LAODIK PROC LIB
Turreted and veiled bust of Tyche right.

BMC -; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG München -; Lindgren I 2174 var.
Ex-CNG, Auction: 162. Lot # 267
arizonarobin
Lucius_Verus_Heliopolis_Coele_-_Syria_Mint.JPG
Lucius Verus Heliopolis Coele - Syria Mint31 viewsLucius Verus 161 - 169 AD
Heliopolis Coele - Syria Mint
Bronze 22 mm 9.1 gram
Obverse: Bust Right
Reverse: Bust of Tyche of Heliopolis Left
Antonivs Protti
IMG_9695.JPG
Otacilia Severa10 viewsCOELESYRIA, Damascus. Otacilia Severa. Augusta, AD 244-249. Æ (29mm, 15.58 g, 12h). Draped bust right, set on crescent, wearing stephane / River-god Chrysorrhoas reclining left in grotto, holding branch and cornucopia; above, Marsyas standing left within tetrastyle temple; star and crescent flanking upper portion of grotto, [altar] to lower left of grotto, [ΠΗ]ΓAI in exergue. De Saulcy 9; Rosenberger 40; Price & Trell fig. 413. VF, thick red-green patina. Rare type.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 660.

This highly interesting type explicitly states that the reverse scene depicts the temple located at the source (πηγή) of the Chrysoroas (Barada) River. A related type struck under Macrinus shows the same temple seen in perspective (De Saulcy 2).
ecoli
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Philip I; Heliopolis, Coele-Syria37 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis. Philip I. AD 244-249. Æ (29mm, 19.32 g, 6h). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Tyche of Heliopolis standing facing, holding rudder and cornucopia; two Nikes on columns flanking, each holding end of billowing veil; small figure (Kabeiros ?) between Tyche and either Nike. Sawaya 483-6 (D88/R191); SNG München 1037-9; SNG Copenhagen 434. VF, brown patina.

Ex-CNG eAuction 314, 110/100
1 commentsecoli
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Philip II4 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Damascus. Philip II. As Caesar, AD 244-247. Æ. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / Marsyas standing right before cypress. Rosenberger 51; SNG München 1022; BMC -; SNG Copenhagen -.ecoli
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Provincial, Heliopolis, Coele-Syria, AE25, COL HEL17 viewsAE25
Roman Provincial
Heliopolis, Coele-Syria
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 196 - 198AD
25.0 x 22.5mm 8.16gr 0h
O: [IMP] L SEPT SE-V PERT AV[G]; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: COL HEL; Turreted, draped and veiled bust of Tyche, facing left, palm branch and cornucopiae behind.
BMC 1; SNG Cop 428; Samaya 80 var. (obv. legend).
adamfrisco 123031447154
3/28/18 4/4/18
Nicholas Z
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Ptolemaios, Tetrarch; AE21, Zeus/ Eagle flying right33 viewsSyria, Coele-Syria, Chalkis. Ptolemaios, Tetrarch circa 85-40 B.C., AE 21mm (5.16g) Laureate head of Zeus right; unclear countermark below. ΠTOΛEM[AIOY] / TETPAP[XOY]; Eagle flying right, monogram to left. Lindgren III 1230; Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
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Ptolemy IV Philopater AE41 64.05g 221-204 BC. Struck 212 BC76 viewsPtolemaic Kings of Egypt, Ptolemy IV Philopater AE41 64.05g 221-204 BC. Struck 212 BC.
O: Head Zeus with Horn of Ammon r, centering dimple evident.
R: Eagle with closed wings stg. l., Filleted Cornucopia in l. field, BASILEWS PTOLEMAIOU around, LI symbol between legs.
Svoronos 1126, SNG Cop 200v(DI between legs).
32500 sold

Ptolemy IV Philopater reigned 221–205 BCE, son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt. Under the reign of Ptolemy IV, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began.
His reign was inaugurated by the murder of his mother, and he was always under the dominion of favourites, male and female, who indulged his vices and conducted the government as they pleased. Self-interest led his ministers to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III the Great on Coele-Syria including Judea, and the great Egyptian victory of Raphia (217), where Ptolemy himself was present, secured the northern borders of the kingdom for the remainder of his reign.

The arming of Egyptians in this campaign had a disturbing effect upon the native population of Egypt, leading to the secession of Upper Egypt under pharaohs Harmachis (also known as Hugronaphor) and Ankmachis (also known as Chaonnophris), thus creating a kingdom that occupied much of the country and lasted nearly twenty years.

Philopator was devoted to orgiastic forms of religion and literary dilettantism. He built a temple to Homer and composed a tragedy, to which his favourite Agathocles added a commentary. He married (about 220 BC) his sister Arsinoë III, but continued to be ruled by his mistress Agathoclea, sister of Agathocles. In late c. 210 BC, Agathoclea may have given birth to a son from her affair with Ptolemy IV, who may had died shortly after his birth.

Ptolemy is said to have built a giant ship known as the tessarakonteres ("forty"), a huge type of galley. The forty of its name may refer to its number of banks of oars. The only recorded instance of this type of vessel, in fact, is this showpiece galley built for Ptolemy IV, described by Callixenus of Rhodes, writing in the 3rd century BCE, and by Athenaeus in the 2nd century AD. Plutarch also mentions that Ptolemy Philopater owned this immense vessel in his Life of Demetrios. The current theory is that Ptolemy's ship was an oversize catamaran galley, measuring 128 m 420 ft.

Ptolemy IV is a major protagonist of the apocryphal 3 Maccabees, which describes purported events following the Battle of Raphia, in both Jerusalem and Alexandria.
3 commentsAntonivs Protti
L2162.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, GETA as Caesar, LINDGREN and KOVACS, Ancient Bronze Coins of Asia Minor and the Levant - # 2162150 viewsGETA, COELE-SYRIA, Heliopolis mint, AD 192-209
GETA CA-ESAR, Bareheaded bust of Geta right
COL HE(L), Turreted and veiled bust of Tyche of Heliopolis left
9.92 gr, 21.6-22.9 mm

Ref: Lindgren I #2162 (this coin), BMC 13
Pekka K
Antiochus_III.jpg
Seleucid - Antiochus III (The Great) (222-187 BCE)33 viewsMetal/Size: AE18; Weight: 5.08 grams; Denomination: Bronze Unit; Mint: Military Mint in Coele-Syria; Date: 202-187 BCE; Obverse: Macedonian shield with gorgan in central boss. Reverse: Elephant walking right, anchor above, monogram below; counter marked horse head in center of elephant - BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ (King Antiochus) below, control mark under belly. References: SC #1089; HGC #9, 490.1 commentsmuseumguy
62570p00.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 113 - 95 B.C21 viewsBronze AE 15, Houghton Lorber 2378.1, VF, 1.973g, 14.9mm, 0o, Uncertain N. Syria, Phoenicia, or Coele Syria mint, 135 - 95 B.C.; obverse helmeted head of Athena right; reverse BASILEWS / ANTIOCOU above, FILOPATOROS below, prow right; rare;1 commentsMagisterRiggs
antiochos_III_elephant.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(03) ANTIOCHOS III The Great60 views223 - 187 BC
AE 17 mm 4.79 g
O: Macedonian shield, gorgon in center
R: Elephant walking R
Coele-Syria, after 202 BC
(ex Sarasota Rare Coins)
1 commentslaney
20180925_122534.jpg
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos III ‘the Great’. 222-187 BC. 15 viewsObv. Facing gorgoneion on Macedonian shield.
Rev. Elephant advancing right; above, anchor lying right.
SC 1089.1; SNG Spaer -. Near VF.
Uncertain military mint in Coele-Syria. Struck circa 202 BC or later.
17mm, 4 grams
Canaan
septhelio.jpg
Septimius Severus Heliopolis75 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis. Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Æ 24mm (10.50 g, 6h). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Aerial perspective of the temple of Zeus Heliopolitanus. SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 2; Price & Trell 702. VF, dark green patina, earthen deposits. ex. CNG1 commentsfordicus
20534q00.jpg
Septimius Severus, Heliopolis, Coele-Syria, two Herakles, AE2323 viewsBronze AE 23, SNG Cop 428, Lindgren II 2160, F, 8.454g, 23.4mm, 0o, Heliopolis mint, obverse IMP L SE[...], radiate head right; reverse COL HEL, two naked Herakles standing facing, heads left and upward, each with club in right and deer in left; green patina; rare

ex FORVM

dealer's picture
areich
chalkis_lysanias.jpg
SYRIA (COELE), CHALKIS SUB LIBANO26 viewsTetrarchy of Chalkis, Coele Syria, Lysanias
AE 21.5 mm; 5.17 g
O: Diademed female bust [(Artemis ?) with features of Cleopatra VII)?]
R: Double cornucopia.
Chalkis sub Libano mint
cf. RPC.4769; Lindgren III 1243; HCG 9 1444

laney
double_corn_res.jpg
SYRIA (COELE), CHALKIS SUB LIBANO26 views1st Century BC
AE 20 mm 4.40 g
Chalkis under Mt Libanos: HGC 9 #1444.
O:Bust of Artemis, bow and quiver over shoulder
R: Double cornucopia,
monograms in variable positions
Chalkis under Mt Libanos: HGC 9 #1444 (R1)
laney
chalkis_sub_lib_1.jpg
SYRIA (COELE), CHALKIS SUB LIBANO18 views1st Century BC
Lysanias?
AE 20 mm 4.40 g
O:Female bust right
R: Double cornucopia,
monograms in variable positions
Coele Syria, Chalkis under Mt Libanos: cf. HGC 9 #1444; RPC 4769; Lindgren III 1243.
laney
chalkis_octavian_RPC4775.jpg
Syria, Coele-Syria, Chalkis ad Libanum, Octavian, RPC 47745 viewsOctavian, 31 BC - AD 14
AE 22, 6.46g, 22.26mm, 330°
struck 27-26 BC (= year 286)
obv. L ZΠ NE - KAI (from upper l.)
Bare head of Octavian r.
rev. ZHNOΔOPOV TETPAPXOV KAI APXIPEΩC (from upper r.)
Bare head of Zenodoros l.
ref. RPC 4774; BMC 7; SNG Copenhagen 417; SNG France 9-10
rare, F+
Jochen
heliopolis_valerianI_BMC28.jpg
Syria, Coele-Syria, Heliopolis, Valerian I, BMC 2850 viewsValerian I, AD 253-260
AE 28, 16.0g
obv. IMP CAES P LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassd, laureate, r.
rev. COL IVL AVG FEL HEL
Price-urn with two palmbranchs between two price-urns with one palm-branchs
in ex. CERT.SACR / CAP.OECV / ISE.HEL (in 3 lines)
BMC 28; SNG Copenhagen 440; Lindgren III, 1284
rare, VF

The solution of the ex. is Certamina Sacra Capitolina Oecumenica Iselastica Heliopolitana. In total this inscription describes the holy games (certamina sacra) held at Heliopolis (heliopolitana) in honor of Jupiter Capitolinus (capitolina). The ludi iselastica were games in which the victors had the privilege of a triumphal entry into their home cities. Baalbek-Heliopolis was famous for its temple of Jupiter.
2 commentsJochen
HeliopolisGallienus.jpg
Syria, Coele-Syria, Heliopolis. Gallienus AE24.25 viewsObv: IMP CAES P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL IVL AVG FEL HEL, Astarte seated facing on throne, vexillum on each side.
ancientone
Chrysoroas.jpg
Syria, Coele-Syria, Leucas ad Chrysoroas. Septimius Severus AE21.36 viewsObv: AVT KAI ...... / Laureate bust r.
Rev: LîUKADIwN / Emperor in quadriga r., above date DLC, 234 of the local era.
Also called Balanea-Claudia Leucas.
ancientone
Libanon.jpg
Syria, Coele-Syria. Chalkis ad Libanon. 1st century BC. Æ 21mm.44 viewsObv: Helmeted and draped bust of Athena right.
Rev: The Dioskouroi standing vis-à-vis, each holding spear; monograms around.
SNG Copenhagen -; BMC -; SNG München -; Lingren III 1232.
ancientone
SYRIA,_Coele-Syria__Chalkis__Ptolemaios,_tetrarch___Year_240_(73_72_BC).JPG
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalkis. Ptolemaios, dioskouroi34 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalkis. Ptolemaios, tetrarch. Year 240 (73/72 BC)
18 mm, 6.15g. Obverse: laureate head of Zeus right. Reverse: the Dioskouroi standing facing one another, each holding a spear; L MS right SNG Copenhagen 413, ex areich, photo credit areich
Podiceps
F575CF29-73CF-426C-BB7E-99CD4DD70DF0.jpeg
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Damascus. Otacilia Severa5 views
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Damascus. Otacilia Severa. Augusta, AD 244-249. Æ (28mm, 21.48 g, 12h). Draped bust right, wearing stephane / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling twins; in background, vexillum inscribed LEG/ VI F R/R in two lines; in exergue, ram’s head right. De Saulcy p. 44 (Julia Mamaea) = BMC 25; Rosenberger var. (legends, bust set on crescent).
ecoli
DEE7B434-1C2A-4241-A550-18828196DFE1.jpeg
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis . Valerian I10 views SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis . Valerian I. AD 253-260. Æ. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Agonistic urn with three palms set on table. SNG München 1043 var. (rev. legend); SNG Copenhagen 439 var. (same); SNG Hunterian -; BMC -.ecoli
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SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis. Divus Septimius Severus31 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis. Divus Septimius Severus. Died AD 211. Æ (26mm, 11.41 g, 12h). Laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind / Bird’s eye view of the temple of Zeus Heliopolites. SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 3. Fine, green-brown patina.

Ex - CNG eAuction 239, Lot: 383 70/100
ecoli
gal.jpg
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis. Gallienus. AD 253-26812 viewsÆ21, 8.24 g, 6h
Obv.: IMP CAES P LIC GALLIENIVS avg; Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: COL IVL AVG FEL; Caduceus between crossed cornucopias // HEL
Reference: Sawaya – (D110/R280 [unlisted die combination]).
Notes: CNG 357 Lot 270, 8/12/15, tu.
John Anthony
E3B927D1-802B-4D4D-BD54-AAE17F71964A.jpeg
Syria, Coelesyria, Damascus8 views
COELESYRIA, Damascus. Philip II. AD 247-249. Æ. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / Turreted and draped bust of Tyche right within tetrastyle temple; below, ram’s head right. De Saulcy 2;
ecoli
philadelphia_commodus_spijkerman32.jpg
Syria, Dekapolis, Philadelphia, Commodus, Spijkerman 3253 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 22, 7.52g
obv. L AVR KOM - MODOC KAIC
bust, draped and cuirassed, bare head, r.
rev. FIL K CV - THEA ACTERIA
Bust of Asteria, veiled and draped, r.; star above
Spijkerman 32
rare, about VF

FIL K CV is the abbreviation of FILADELFEWN KOILHC SVRIAC, Philadelphia Coele-Syria.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
1 commentsJochen
IMG_0266.JPG
Trebonianus Gallus15 views
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Damascus. Trebonianus Gallus. AD 251-253. Æ (25mm, 7.03 g, 12h). Laureate bust right, slight drapery / Doe standing right, suckling Telephus, in exergue, ram’s head right. De Saulcy 7; Rosenberger 59.

Nice story, except the doe is a stag(see the nice rack)...oops.
2 commentsecoli
Tryphon.jpg
Tryphon, 142-138 BC16 viewsTryphon, 142-138 BC, Ae18mm. Weight 5.39g. Obv: Diademed head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΡΥΦΩΝΟΣ ΑΣK/AYTOKPATOPOY, spiked Macedonian helmet, with horn. Diodotus Tryphon was king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. As a general of the army, he promoted the claims of Antiochus VI Dionysus, the infant son of Alexander Balas, in Antioch after Alexander's death, but then in 142 deposed the child and himself seized power in Coele-Syria where Demetrius II Nicator was unpopular for his oppressive treatment of the Jews. Finally, in 138 Diodotus was attacked and defeated in Antioch by Antiochus VII of Side. Diodotus committed suicide after his defeat. In 138 BC, Diodotus claimed that his charge, the young Antiochus VI, had contracted an illness and required surgery, during which he died - presumably disguising his murder at his supposed benefactor's bequest. SNG Spaer 1838.ddwau
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Antiochos1ARTetPhiletairos.jpg
[2400c] Pergamene Kingdom: Attalid Dynasty: Philetairos: 282-- 263 B.C. 53 viewsPergamene Kingdom, Attalid Dynasty; AR Tetradrachm (17.10 gm, 29 mm), VF, Struck in Pergamon under Philetairos, in the name of Seleukos I, circa 279-274 BC. Obverse: head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress; Reverse: Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; helmeted head of Athena in left field; crescent under throne. SC 308a. Nicely toned and scarce. Ex Eukratides. Photo by Eukratides.

Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I (such as this specimen), then Seleukos portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly a type with his own portrait.

The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the rump state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus' officers, Philetaerus, took control of the city in 282 BC. The later Attalids were descended from his father, and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians. The Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis.

On the interior of the Pergamon Altar is a frieze depicting the life of Telephos, son of Herakles, whom the ruling Attalid dynasty associated with their city and utilized to claim descendance from the Olympians. Pergamon, having entered the Greek world much later than their counterparts to the west, could not boast the same divine heritage as older city-states, and had to retroactively cultivate their place in Greek mythos.

The Attalid Dynasty of Pergamum

Philetaerus (282 BC–263 BC)
Eumenes I (263 BC–241 BC)
Attalus I Soter (241 BC–197 BC)
Eumenes II (197 BC–158 BC)
Attalus II Philadelphus (160 BC–138 BC)
Attalus III (138 BC–133 BC)
Eumenes III Aristonicus (pretender, 133 BC–129 BC)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalid_dynasty


The Relationship between the Attalids and the Seleucids

September 281 A.D.: death of Seleucus I; accession of Antiochus I; Philetaerus of Pergamon buys back the corpse of Seleucus I (the father of Antiochos I and a member of the Diodochi: the period of the Diadochi is said to end with the victory of Seleucus I over Lysimachus at the battle of Corupedion in 281, fixing the boundaries of the Hellenistic world for the next century).

Antiochus I Soter (Greek Ἀντίoχoς Σωτήρ, i.e. "Saviour"; 324/​323-​262/​261 B.C.), was an emperor of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He reigned from 281 - 261 B.C. He was half Persian, his mother Apama being one of the eastern princesses whom Alexander the Great had given as wives to his generals in 324 B.C. In in 294 B.C., prior to death of his father Seleucus I, Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness.

On the assassination of his father in 281 B.C., the task of holding together the empire was a formidable one, and a revolt in Syria broke out almost immediately. Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace with his father's murderer, Ptolemy Keraunos, abandoning apparently Macedonia and Thrace. In Asia Minor he was unable to reduce Bithynia or the Persian dynasties that ruled in Cappadocia.

In 278 BC the Gauls broke into Asia Minor, and a victory that Antiochus won over these hordes is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Gr. for "saviour").

At the end of 275 B.C. the question of Coele-Syria, which had been open between the houses of Seleucus and Ptolemy since the partition of 301 B.C., led to hostilities (the First Syrian War). It had been continuously in Ptolemaic occupation, but the house of Seleucus maintained its claim.

About 262 B.C. Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards. His eldest son Seleucus, who had ruled in the east as viceroy from 275 BC(?) till 268/267 BC, was put to death in that year by his father on the charge of rebellion. He was succeeded (261 BC) by his second son Antiochus II Theos

263 A.D.: Eumenes I of Pergamon, successor of Philetaerus, declares himself independent.

262 A.D.: Antiochus defeated by Eumenes.
http://www.livius.org/am-ao/antiochus/antiochus_i_soter.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
   
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