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Search results - "Christ,"
IMG_7008.jpg
45 viewsprobably a Byzantine trachy of the Latin occupation (1204-1261). Obv: Bust of Christ. Rev: Standing emperor holding scepter cruciger and globus cruciger. Dumbarton Oaks Vol IV, pl. XLIX, 4, and Sear 2024.+Alexios
IMG_7010.jpg
64 viewsBulgarian trachy of Constantine Tich Asen (1257-1277). Obv: Bust of Christ. Rev: Czar on horseback, holding scepter topped with patriarchal cross. Dumbarton Oaks Vol IV, pl. XLVIII B (3). +Alexios
IMG_7000.jpg
54 views Bulgarian trachy of Constantine Tich Asen (1257-1277). Obv: Bust of Christ, + in left and right fields. Rev: Standing czar holding labarum-headed scepter and globus. Reference: Dumbarton Oaks Vol IV, pl. XLVIII B (1), and Radushev p.171.
+Alexios
coin412.jpg
40 viewsAnonymous Class C Follis, attributed to Michael IV.
Obverse: +EMMANOVHA. Christ Antiphonetes,
nimbate, standing facing / IC-XC-NI-KA divided by
jewelled cross. Coin #412

cars100
Byzantine_follis.JPG
224 views
An Anonymous Follis Class A 2 coin, type 21
Obverse: Christ facing, holding book of gospels IC to left XC to rightEmmanovha IC XC (God with us)
Reverse: +IhSYS XRISTYS bASILEY bASILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Sear attributes it to the joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII 1020-1028 AD
Grierson in DOC says Romanus III and into Michael IV's
1 commentsJon the Lecturer
Romanus_III,_Class_B_Follis,_Constantinople,_1028-1034_AD~0.JPG
44 viewsRomanus III, Class B Follis, Constantinople, 1028-1034 AD

IC to left, XC to right
Christ, bust facing, square in each limb of nimbus cross,
holding book of gospels
IS-XS / BAS-ILE / BAS-ILE
cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
SB 1823
11.8g / 27mm
Antonivs Protti
Deutsches_Reich_Friedrich_Schiller_100_Geburtstag_Seidan_1859_Verein_(2).jpg
24 viewsMedaillen

Deutsches Reich

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller war ein bedeutender deutsche Dichter, Dramatiker, Philosoph und Historiker (*1759 in Marbach am Neckar, + 1805 in Weimar)

Zinnmedaille

Signiert W.S (Wenzel Seidan)

Undatiert (1859)

Auf den 100. Geburtstag Schillers gewidmet vom Prager Schiller-Verein





Vs: Umschrift, darin bekleidetes Brustbild nach rechts.

Rs: Sieben Zeilen Schrift zwischen zwei Lorbeerzweigen

7,5 g ; 26,0 mm

Kleine Randunebenheiten, Vorzüglich _1193
Antonivs Protti
Dänemark_Christian_IX_2_Öre_1886_Kopenhagen_Delfin_Ähre_Krone_Bronze.jpg
15 views
Dänemark

Christian XI. 1863-1906

2 Öre

1886

Münzstätte: Kopenhagen

Vs.: Gekröntes Monogramm

Rs.: Nominal flankiert von Delfin und Ähre

Zitat: KM# 793.1

Erhaltung: Kratzer, ansonsten sehr schön - fast vorzüglich

Metall: Bronze

21 mm, 3,79 g _399
Antonivs Protti
TAMAR___DAVIT_Regular_Coinage.jpg
77 viewsGEORGIAN KINGDOM, QUEEN TAMAR, (1184-1213 AD) K'ORONIKON, 420 = 1200 AD; Obv.: Bagratid royal emblem in the form of a standard, to left and right: Initials for T'amar and David; in the corners, Georgian date formula, K'K Ví K (420 of the Paschal cycle = AD 1200). Two Counterstamps. Rev.: Christian inscriptions in arabic script, which reads: 1st line: Malekat al-Malekaat(s) / 2nd line Jellal Al-Dunya Wal Din / 3rd line : Tamar Ibnat Kurki / 4th line : Zahir Al-Massih. Translation: Queen of Queens Glory of the World and Faith T'amar daughter of Giorgi Champion of the Messiah. Reference: LANG # 11.

Reverse inscriptions read :
ملكة الملكات
جلال الدنيا و الدين
تمار ابنة كوركى
ظهير المسيح
dpaul7
30599.jpg
34 viewsanonymous (attributed to Alexius I). Ca. 1081-1118. AE follis (25.96 mm, 5.26 g, 12 h). anonymous class J. Constantinople mint. Facing bust of Christ, cross behind his head with 5 pellets in each limb; wearing pallium and colobium; raising hand and holding book of Gospels; / IC - C / XC / Crosss with globule and two pellets at each extremity; beneath, large crescent; around, four globules, each surrounded by pellets. SBCV 1900. Overstruck on a class I anonymous follis SBCV 1889 1 commentsQuant.Geek
4050632.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (14mm, 0.38 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / Facing busts John and St. Demetrius, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC –; SB –; NAC 56, lot 830 (hammer 800 CHF). VF, dark green patina, obverse struck with worn die, ragged flan. Extremely rare.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-1966.jpg
28 viewsManuel I Comnenus. 1143-1180. BI Aspron Trachy (30mm, 2.62 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck 1167-1183(?). Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing; star to either side / Manuel standing facing, wearing loros, being crowned by the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing left. DOC 13d; SB 1966Quant.Geek
Constantine_II_J_Q_Adams_-_RIC_VII_Trier_539.jpg
71 Constantine II Ex John Quincy Adams Collection27 viewsAE Follis, Trier Mint

RIC VII Trier 539, Sear (2014) 17314


Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale, 5-6 March 1971, Lot # 948
Bought by Christian Blom, then sold to Smithsonian Institution underwater archaeologist Mendel Peterson, then to D.C. coin dealer Gene Brandenburg, then to me.
Sosius
Licinius_JQ_Adams_RIC_VI_Thessalonica_59.jpg
8 Licinius45 viewsAE Follis, Thessalonica Mint, 312-313 AD

RIC VI Thessalonica 59


Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale, 5-6 March 1971, Lot # 944
Bought by Christian Blom, then sold to Smithsonian Institution underwater archaeologist Mendel Peterson, then to D.C. coin dealer Gene Brandenburg, then to me.
1 commentsSosius
aeeu.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia, RIC X 104 Antioch16 viewsAelia Eudoxia, AE3, 400-404 CE
Obverse: AEL EVDO_XIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing pearl necklace and earrings, hair elaborately weaved with long plait up the back of head and tucked under diadem, hand of God holding wreath above head.
Reverse: SALVS REI_PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, inscribing Christogram on shield set on a column
ANTG in exergue Antioch, Officina 3. 17.05mm., 1.4 g.
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
bizan321.jpg
Alexius III AE Trachy S-201210 views
Alexius III AE Trachy S-2012 DOC 3

Beardless, nimbate bust of Christ, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll in l. hand. Pellet s in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV Full length figure of Emperor on l. and of St. Constantine nimbate, holding between then Globus crucgier. Emperor and Saint wear stemma,divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of simplified type; both hold labarum headed scepter
Britanikus
john.jpg
Basil II & Constantine VIII, (976-1028 A.D.)53 viewsÆ “Anonymous” Follis
Class A2
O: EMMANOVHΛ, Nimbate bust of Christ facing, wearing pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels; IC – XC in fields to left and right.
R: + IhSЧS / [X]RISTЧ[S] / bASILЄЧ / bASILЄ / ·, legend in four lines.
8.68g
26mm
SBCV 1793
5 commentsMat
Sear-1889a.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64)30 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
SpongeBob
hand2s.jpg
Divus Constantine I, Posthumous commemorative AE4, 337-341 CE26 viewsObverse: DN CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG, veiled head right.
Reverse: No legend, the deified Constantine driving quadriga right, hand of god reaching down from above, star at upper left.
SMANS in ex. Antioch mint, 2nd officina. RIV VIII 37, 16.6 mm, 1.4 g.

It is ironic that Constantine, who tradition tells us was the first Christian emperor (although he only actually became one on his death bed), should have been honored with pagan deification and commemorated posthumously with traditional pagan symbolism as found on this coin. He was the last emperor to be so honored.
NORMAN K
20110425-205933-1sb2046.jpg
Latin trachy type C small module Sear 2046193 viewssmall module as SB 2023

Obverse:MP_OV barred in upper fields. Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne with back;holds beardless nimbate head of Christ on breast.
Reverse. Emperor seated on throne without back, collar-peice and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter, and in l., anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper rt. field.
Mint:?Constantinople
Date 1204-
SB 2046, DOC LIII,32
15mm
wileyc
sb1964_clipped_18mm_165gjpg.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196416 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
18mm 1.65 gm
wileyc
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
hugues-france-denier-orelans~0.JPG
Hugh Magnus: denier (Orléans)12 viewsHugh Magnus (Hugues de France in french) (1007-1025)
Denier (Orléans)

Billon, 1.28 g, diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 12h
O/ +D-I DEXTRA BE; city gate with an H on the left, a V below, a G on the right and a O on the top
R/ +AVRELIANIS CIVITAS; cross pattée

Hugh was the elder son of Robert II (the Pious), second capetian king of the Franks (996-1031). Hugues was crowned as an associate king in 1017. However, he died before his father and consequently he never ruled. No other son of a king of France had been called Hugh.

The obverse legend is a Christian one: dei dextra benedictus (blessed on God's right). As usual for Orléans mint, the I after the L in Avrelianis is in the angle.
Droger
louis1-obole-2xlegchret.JPG
D.abs Louis the Pious (obol, class 3)19 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (unknown mint in the south-east of France?, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 0.77 g, 15 mm diameter, die axis 5 h

O/ +PISTIΛNΛ PI; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +OPISTIΛNΛ PE; cross pattée

This obol may be due to a double reverse error because of the absence of the sovereign's name and the legend repetition on both sides. However several dies were used to strike this type (I could find 3 obverse and 3 reverse dies), one side always bears 4 pellets as the other does not. One of the reverse dies is associated to the more typical obverse legend +HLVDOVVICVS I. Consequently an error does not seem to be likely. Because of hoard localizations, these obols seem to come from a single mint, in the south-east of France (Lyon, Arles?).
1 commentsDroger
louis9-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.190C Louis IX (Saint Louis): Gros tournois57 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Gros tournois (1266-1270)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.94 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

The full transcription of the obverse is: benedictvm sit nomen domini nostri dei Jesu Christi, which means ``blessed is the name of our Lord Jesus Christ'' (XPI is in fact a mix of greek and latin letters: χρI[STI]). This choice of religious legend is not surprising for a king as pious as Louis IX.

The value of the denier had become too small for use in commerce. So Louis IX introduced the Gros Tournois in 1266, with a value of 12 deniers tournois (12 is the number of lis, and also of letters of the obverse and reverse legends !). Gros means ``big'' or``thick'', and tournois ``of Tours'' (Tours is a french city). The inner part of a Gros tournois is similar to a denier tournois. An outer circle has been added with the christian legend on the obverse and 12 fleur-de-lis (symbol of French kingship) on the reverse.

Gros tournois were struck in France and entire Europe during one century.
Droger
constans_prow_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS30 views337-350 AD
(struck 348 - 350 AD)
AE 18 mm; 3.12 g
O: D N CONSTA_NS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO Emperor in military dress standing facing, head left, phoenix on globe in right hand, labarum inscribed with Christogram on banner in left hand, all within galley piloted by Victory; TESB in exergue
Thessalonica mint; RIC VIII, 120
laney
delmatius_2_res.jpg
(0335) DELMATIUS31 views335 - 337 AD
AE 16.5 mm 1.64 g
O: FL DELMA TIVS NOB C Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: GLOR-IA - EXERC-ITVS Two soldiers standing facing, heads confronted, each holds a spear in outer hand and rests inner hand on shield, flanking a labarum (Christogram standard)
PCONST in ex
Arles mint
RIC VII 399; very scarce (RIC R3)
laney
VALENS_1.jpg
(0364) VALENS89 views364 - 378 AD
AE 18 mm 2.98 g
O: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: GLORIA RO-MANORUM
EMPEROR FACING HOLDING LABARUM WITH CHRISTOGRAM AND DRAGGING CAPTIVE AT LEFT
SISCIA
laney
theod_11_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I29 views379 - 395 AD
AE 8 mm; 1.16 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left, trophy in right over shoulder, dragging captive with left, christogram left, CONSA in ex
Constantinople mint;
laney
arcadus_salus.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS15 views388-392
AE 13 mm, 1.44 g
O: DN ARCADIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed and draped bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing l. carrying trophy and dragging captive; Christogram in l. field
laney
AELIA_EUDOXIA.jpg
(0401) AELIA EUDOXIA66 views(wife of Arcadius)
401 - 404 AD
STRUCK 401-4-3
AE 16X17.5 mm 2.96 g
O: AEL EVD[OXIA AVG], DRAPED BUST R, HAND OF GOD HOLDING WREATH ABOVE HEAD
R: VICTORY SEATED R INSCRIBING CHRISTOGRAM ON SHIELD SET ON COLUMN
ART GAMMA IN EXE
ANTIOCH, OFFICINA 3 RIC X 104
laney
connstantine_x_a.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X26 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 27 mm 4.17 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
laney
constantine_x.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X27 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 31 mm max. 6.92 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
(gouges on obverse are the result of overstriking on an earlier issue that appears to be a class D anonymous follis (Sear 1836).
laney
romanus_iv_1.jpg
(1068) ROMANUS IV DIOGENES35 views1068 - 1071 AD
AE Follis 26.5 mm 3.42 g
o: Bust of Christ facing
R: C-R/P-Delta in quarters of cross, pellets at ends
laney
romanus_iv_2.jpg
(1068) ROMANUS IV DIOGENES21 views1068 - 1071 AD
AE Follis 27 mm 4.08 g
o: Bust of Christ facing
R: C-R/P-Delta in quarters of cross, pellets at ends
laney
john_ii_comnenus_b.jpg
(1118) JOHN II COMNENUS37 views1118-1143 AD
Billon Aspron Trachy. 30.5 mm max. 2.78 g
Constantinople Mint
O: Bust of Christ
R: Bust of John II facing, wearing loros and crown with pendilia, holding sceptre and globus cruciger
Sear 1944
laney
John_II_Comnenus.jpg
(1118) JOHN II COMNENUS37 views1118-1143 AD
Billon Aspron Trachy. 27 mm 4.97 g
Constantinople Mint
O: Bust of Christ
R: Bust of John II facing, wearing loros and crown with pendilia, holding sceptre and globus cruciger
Sear 1944
laney
man_ii_comn_trachy.jpg
(1143) MANUEL I COMNENUS34 views 1143-1180 AD
Billon Aspron Trachy 28 mm 3.39 g
Obv. Christ seated facing on throne without back
Rev. The Virgin, nimbate (on right) standing, crowing Manuel, standing facing
laney
alexius_iii.jpg
(1195) ALEXIUS III ANGELUS COMNENUS44 views1195 - 1203 AD
BILLON ASPRON TRACHY 26 mm 3.05 g
O: BUST OF CHRIST, FACING
R: ALEXIUS III (ON LEFT) AND ST. CONSTANTINE (ON RIGHT) STANDING, FACING
SEAR 2012

laney
Byz_Latin_rulers_of_Const.jpg
(1204) LATIN RULERS OF CONSTANTINOPLE48 views1204 - 1261 AD
Billon Aspron Trachy. 16 mm max., 0.55 g
O: BUST OF CHRIST FACING
R: ARCHANGEL MICHAEL STANDING FACING, HOLDING GLOBUS CRUCIGER
SEAR 2036
(STRUCK FOLLOWING THE LATIN CONQUEST OF CONSTAN5TINOPLE IN THE 4TH CRUSADE)


laney
andronicus_ii.jpg
(1282) ANDRONICUS II & MICHAEL IX17 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus with Michael IX
1282 - 1328 AD
AE Assarion 21mm, 1.99 grams
O: Nimbate and facing bust of Archangel St. Michael holding scepter and globus cruciger.
R: Facing half length figure of Christ blessing the two emperors who kneel before him.
Constantinople mint; Sear2435 // DOC677-80
laney
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Byzantine1.jpg
001 - Anonymus follis class A2 - Sear 181346 viewsObv: +EMMANOVHA, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with two pellets in each limb of cross, pallium and colobium, and holding book of Gospels, the cover ornamented with central pellet in border of dots. To left IC and to right XC.
Rev: IhSYS / XRISTYS / bASILEY / bASILE in foyr lines. Dot above and below.
This type is attributed to the joint regin of Basil II and Constantine VIII 976-1025 AD.
30.0 mm. diameter.
pierre_p77
01-Constantine-II-Sis-95.jpg
01. Constantine II / 2 soldiers and standard.58 viewsAE 4, 337 - 341, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine II.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS / Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield, one standard between them. Christogram on standard.
Mint mark: ASIS (crescent and dot)
1.70 gm., 15 mm.
RIC #95; LRBC #770; Sear #17432.

Several mints used the title MAX for all three sons of Constantine the Great for a short time after his death. It's use on coins of Constantius II and Constans was quickly dropped, and P F (Pius Felix) was used instead, reserving MAX for the senior emperor (Constantine II).
Callimachus
02-Constantius-II-Sis-086.jpg
02. Constantius II / 2 soldiers and standard.37 viewsAE 4, 337 - 341, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constantius II.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS / Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield, one standard between them. Christogram on standard.
Mint mark: ΓSIS
1.72 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #86; LRBC #780; Sear #17990.
Callimachus
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.65 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-253_C1-251_H-318_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #01 66 views022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #01
avers: +MONT GARIЄ, the bust of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two stars, two dots, and two facing heads, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,38g, axis: 10h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-318, CNH I.-251, Unger-253,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-IV_(1235-1270_AD)_AR-Denar_U-253_C1-251_H-318_Q-002_6,5h_12,5mm_0,45g-s.jpg
022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #02114 views022. H-318 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-318, CNH I.-251, U-253, AR-Denar, #02
avers: +MONT GARIЄ, the bust of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two stars, two dots, and two facing heads, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,45g, axis: 6,5h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-318, CNH I.-251, Unger-253,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Bela_IV__(1235-1270_AD),_H-319,_C1-252,_U-254,_AR-Obulus,_Q-001,_6h,_9,5-10,0mm,_0,22g-s.jpg
022. H-319 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-319, CNH I.-252, U-254, AR-Obulus, #0160 views022. H-319 Béla IV., King of Hungary, (1235-1270 A.D.), H-319, CNH I.-252, U-254, AR-Obulus, #01
avers: Head of Christ facing, with nimbus, a border of dots.
reverse: Patriarchal cross amongst two pellets above and two rosettes below, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,5-10,0mm, weight: 0,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date: 1235-1270 A.D., ref: Huszár-319, CNH I.-252, Unger-254,
Q-001
quadrans
03-Constans-Sis-099.jpg
03. Constans / 2 soldiers and standard.34 viewsAE 4, 337 - 341, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constans.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS / Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield, one standard between them. Christogram on standard.
Mint mark: BSIS (crescent and dot)
1.57 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #99; LRBC #774; Sear #18546.
Callimachus
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-485_e_C2-156_H-618_TEmPORE_IOhAnIS_m_REGnI_VnGARIE_h-cX_Q-001_7h_13-13,5mm_0,59g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,86 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,
avers: TEMPORE•IOhAnIS (legend variation), Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (h-c˟), border of dots.
reverse: ✠m•REGnI•VnGARIE, Hungarian shield with Árpadian stripes in circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/c˟//--, were srucked by Christophorus de Florentia, (by Pohl). diameter: 13-13,5mm, weight: 0,59g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date: 1446 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-485-e., CNH-2-156, Huszar-618, Pohl-175-05,
Q-001
quadrans
051_Alexius_I.JPG
051. Alexius I, 1081-1118. BI Trachy.38 viewsObv. Alexius facing
Rev. Christ seated
S1918
LordBest
052_John_II.JPG
052. John II, 1118-1143. BI Trachy.45 viewsObv. John facing
Rev. Christ
S1944
LordBest
055_Andronicus_I.JPG
055. Andronicus I, 1183-1185. BI Trachy.40 viewsObv. Mary crowning Andronicus
Rev. Christ
S1985
LordBest
056_Isaac_II.JPG
056. Isaac II, 1185-1195. BI Trachy.40 viewsObv. Isaac
Rev. Christ
S2003.
LordBest
BasIISear1813.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A213 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with probable in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

Sear 1813; probable DO A2.25
15.47g; 35.3mm; 30°
Pep
BasIIDOA2_24.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A2.2420 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

DO A2.24; Sear 1813
13.40g; 29.0mm; 180°
Pep
crus_121[1].jpg
1.3 Crusader - Jerusalem106 viewsDenier of Amuary, King of Jerusalem from 1163 to 1174.
obv. AMALRICVS REX
cross, two pellets.
rev. DE IERVSALEM
Sun shining on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. X through church, probably imprint from Cross on obverse.

hole in top, probably worn as jewlry around the neck, maybe as a Christian souvenir. Desert patina.
Zam
coin218.JPG
102. Trajan41 viewsTrajan

Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age."

Denarius. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P COS II P P, Vesta seated left, veiled, holding patera & torch. RSC 203.
1 commentsecoli
1028-1034 Anon B S 1823 2.jpg
1028-1034 - follis (Anonymous class B)62 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels ; in field IC / XC (icon of the "Pantocrator")
Cross on three steps dividing IS / XC // bAS / ILE // bAS / ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)

Sear 1823
Ginolerhino
1028-1034 Anon B S 1823.jpg
1028-1034 - follis (Anonymous class B)33 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels ; in field IC / XC (icon of the "Pantocrator")
Cross on three steps dividing IZ / XC // IAZ / ILE // IAZ / ILE (a blundered version of the previous coin's reverse)

Sear 1823
Ginolerhino
1034-1041 Anon C S 1825.jpg
1034-1041 - follis (Anonymous class C)73 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , 3/4 length figure of Christ standing (icon of the "Antiphonetes") , in field IC / XC
Jewelled cross dividing IC / XC / NI / KA ("Jesus Christ conquers").

Sear 1825
Ginolerhino
1042-1055 Anon D S1836.jpg
1042-1055 - follis (anonymous class D)41 viewsChrist facing seated on throne, holding gospels ; in field IC / XC
- + - / IS XC / bASILE / bASIL

Sear 1836
Ginolerhino
1059-1067 Constantin IX S 1853.jpg
1059-1067 Constantin IX - follis from Constantinople54 views+EMMANOVHΛ , Christ standing facing, in field IC / XC
+ KωN T ΔK EVΔK AVΓO , Eudocia and Constantine IX standing facing holding labarum (Constantine IX and Eudocia are depicted like the icon of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena holding the True Cross).

Sear 1853
Ginolerhino
1068-1071 Anon G.jpg
1068-1071 - follis (Anonymous class G)40 viewsBust of Christ facing, holding scroll ; in field IC / XC
Bust of the Virgin Mary facing, raising both hands (praying, it's why this icon is called in Latin Virgo orans) ; in field MTP / ΘV ("Mother of God")

Sear 1867
Ginolerhino
NicIIIDOI.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III (Botaniates) - Anonymous Follis, Class I11 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (Botaniates) (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class I

Obverse: No legend
Bust of Christ facing, having long, slightly forked beard and cross nimbus with one pellet in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand blessing inwards in sling of cloak, left holds book, with on cover, from beneath. In field, - .

Reverse: No legend
Latin cross with one large and two small pellets at each extremity, small cross at intersection, and pellet with floral ornaments to left and right at base. Above, crescents to left and right.

DO I; Sear 1889
5.13g; 22.9mm; 195°
Pep
NiceIIISB1889.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III - Sear 1889 - Anonymous Follis39 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis (Class I)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, ; to right, ; normal border.

Reverse: Latin cross, with X at centre, and globule and two pellets at each extremity; in lower field, on either side, floral ornament; in upper field, on either side, crescent.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1889
3.35g; 25.6mm; 180°
Pep
AlexISear1909.jpg
1081-1118 AD - Alexius I Comnenus - Follis - Thessalonica mint17 viewsEmperor: Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081-1118 AD)
Date: 1081-1092 AD
Condition: aFair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust of the Virgin facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; She holds before Her the infant Christ whose nimbate head facing is represented; to left, ; to right, ; on either side of Virgin's head, uncertain wedge-shaped object.

Reverse: - ]
Alexius standing facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1909
4.27g; 26.1mm; 165°
Pep
JohnIISB1954.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
1.67g; 15.7mm; 180°
Pep
JohnIISB1954_2.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron - 2nd Example29 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
2.14g; 16.3mm; 210°
Pep
ManISear1966.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy26 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
4.49g; 31.3mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966_2.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy - 2nd Example10 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
3.96g; 30.4mm; 180°
Pep
LatinByzSB2021.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2021 - AE Trachy69 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Virgin Mary enthroned, holding an image of Christ's face on her chest.

Reverse: unknown legend
Generic "emperor" figure; in his upraised right hand a labarum, in his left an akakia.

Sear 2021
1.31g; 21.7mm; 180°
Pep
LatinByzSB2024.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2024 - AE Trachy60 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ.

Reverse: MANHCΛ ΔECΠOTHC
Emperor standing, holding sceptre cruciger.

Sear 2024
1.39g; 16.7mm; 180?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2038.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2038 - AE Trachy35 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre/Fair
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Christ seated.

Reverse: unknown legend
Virgin Mary, orans.

Sear 2038
1.24g; 17.1mm; ?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2045.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2045 - AE Trachy50 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Christ enthroned.

Reverse: unknown legend
Generic "emperor" figure; in his right hand a sword, in his left a globus cruciger.

Sear 2045
0.87g; 17.9mm; 180°
Pep
LatinByzSB2047.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2047 - AE Trachy58 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre/Fair
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ seated.

Reverse: no legend
Half-length figure of emperor.

Sear 2047
1.12g; 19.4mm; 180°
Pep
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)94 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.59 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
JohnVIIISear2564.jpg
1423-1448 AD - John VIII Palaeologus - Stavraton - Constantinople mint13 viewsEmperor: John VIII Palaeologus (r. 1423-1448 AD)
Date: 1423-1448 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Stavraton

Obverse: -
Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator.

Reverse: / or variants in two lines around crowned facing bust of John with pellets flanking.

Constantinople mint
DO 1706; Sear 2564; Bendall 348.20, sigla 18
6.59g; 23.8mm; 225°

Ex CNG
Pep
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland7 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
150.jpg
150 Honorius. AE4 1.2gm15 viewsobv: DN HONORI_VS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SALVS REI_PVBLICAE Victory adv. l. holding trophy over shoulder and dragging captive, christogram in l. field
ex: AQS
hill132
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)100 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)70 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)79 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Procopius_5h_18-19mm_3,73g-s.jpg
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 017a.1, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, object down/-//CONSB, Procopius standing, R2!!, #1108 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 017a.1, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, object down/-//CONSB, Procopius standing, R2!!, #1
avers:- D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield. Small indeterminate object down in the left field and christogram up in right field.
exe: object down/-//CONSB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 5h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX-17a.1, p-215, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Procopius_11h_17,5mm_3,34g-s.jpg
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.7, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/•//SMH Γ, Procopius standing, R2!!109 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.7, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/•//SMH Γ, Procopius standing, R2!!
avers:- D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield. Dot down and christogram up in right field.
exe: -/•//SMH Γ, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,34g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea,, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX 7.7, p-193, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Procopius_AE-2_DN-PROCOPIVS-PF-AVG_REPARATI-O-FEL-TEMP_starSMHA_RIC-IX-7var_,p-193_Heracleia_364-67-AD_R2_Q-001_0h_17,9-19,5mm_2,35g-s.jpg
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.8var., AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/-//*SMHA, Procopius standing, R2!!105 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.8var., AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/-//*SMHA, Procopius standing, R2!!
avers:- D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield, and christogram up in right field.
exe: -/-//*SMHA, diameter: 17,9-19,5mm, weight: 2,35g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea,, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX 7.8var!, p-193, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Flaccilla_AE-2_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_CON-Gamma_RIC-IX-55-p229_Constantinopolis_378-88-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1286 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//CONΓ, diameter: 22mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 55, p-229,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Flaccilla_AE-4_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_SMHA_RIC-IX-17-1_p-196_Heraclea_378-83-AD_Q-001_11h_14-14,5mm_1,18g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #191 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 14-14,5mm, weight: 1,18g, axis: 11h, R!
mint: Heraclea, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 17-1, p-196,
Q-001
quadrans
Bible.jpg
1612 Edition of the King James Bible, 1st Quarto - The Crucifixion of Christ50 viewsThis is from the so-called 'HE' edition of the 1612 Roman-Type Quatro KJB (H313). The 'HE' refers to Ruth 3:15 as the verse was written as:

Also he said, “Bring the veil that thou hast upon thee and hold it.” And when she held it, he measured six measures of barley, and laid it on her; and he went into the city.

The 'SHE' edition of 1612 has the verse written as:

Also he said, “Bring the veil that thou hast upon thee and hold it.” And when she held it, he measured six measures of barley, and laid it on her; and she went into the city.

For further information, see Norton, David, A Textual History of the King James Bible, Cambridge University Press, 2005
1 commentsSpongeBob
165_Arcadius,_Thessalonica,_RIC_IX_59c1,_AE-3,_DN_ARCARIVS_P_F_AVG_(C),_GLORIA_REI_PVBLICE,_ChiRho,_TES,_383-388_AD_,_R,_Q-001,_0h,_16,5-17mm,_1,69g-s.jpg
165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1115 views165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1
avers: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, Diademed bust left, in imperial mantle, holding mappa and sceptre. (C)
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, closed gate, 6 layers of stone, Christogram (ChiRho) above.
exergue: -/-//TES, diameter: 16,5-17,0 mm, weight: 1.69g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 059c1, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
s-l400_(52)~0.jpg
1672 KB - Hungary - 6 Krajczar, Silver, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I26 views Hungary - 1672, AR Six Krajczar coin.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I (the hogmouth) of the Hapsburg family that ruled Austria for centuries.

obv:" LEOPOLDUS.D.G.R.I.S.GE.HU.B.REX." - Laureate crowned, draped bust facing right, titles encircling designs.
Below Bust of Emperor ; Roman Numerals: "VI" encircled at 6 O'Clock, denomination, 6 Silver Krajczar.

rev:" PATRONA.HUNGARIÆ .1672. " - Madonna(Mary) holding Christ child in arms.
Coat of Arms below at 6 O'Clock.
2 commentsrexesq
hungary_1678_15-krajczar_02.JPG
1678 KB - Austria-Hungary - Hungary 1678 KB Silver 15 Krajczar201 views Hungary, 1678 - Silver 15 krajczar.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
"K B" mintmark = Kremnitz (Kormoczbanya) Mint, Hungary.

obv: LEOPOLD.D:G.R.I.S.A.G.H.B.REX - Laureate bust right.
Roman numerals 'XV' below bust; 15 Krajczar, Silver.

rev: PATRONA . HUNGARIAE 16+78 - Radiating Madonna and child. -KB- on either side. Shield/Arms below.

Titles on both sides written on scrolls. Very nice.
rexesq
RI_170bq_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE3 - RIC VIII Lugdunum 8 11 viewsAe3
Obv:– CONSTANTIVS AVG, Rosette diademed, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing a standard between them, decorated with a Christogram.
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLG). A.D. Before April 340
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 8 (C)
maridvnvm
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Saladin_A787.jpg
1701b, Saladin, 1169-1193158 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.93), al-Qahira, AH586, A-787.2, clear mint & date, double struck, some horn-silvering;VF-EF.

His name in Arabic is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"). He was born in 1137/8 A.D. in Tikrit, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq). In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved a significant success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. Unlike the notorious conquest by the Christians, who slaughtered the inhabitants of the “Holy City,” Saladin’s reconquest of Jerusalem was marked by civilized and courteous behaviour. Saladin was generous to his vanquished foes—by any measure. When he died in 1193, this man who is arguably Islam’s greatest hero was virtually penniless. After a lifetime of giving alms to the poor, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.
Cleisthenes
1722.JPG
1722 - États de Nantes6 viewsLouis XV
6,57g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste couronné à droite, en manteau d’hermine avec le collier de l’ordre du Saint-Esprit
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue .1722.
Daniel 76
PYL
louis_xv.JPG
1726 - États de Saint-Brieuc 11 viewsLouis XV
7,07g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX - CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très Chrétien"
Buste à droite en habit, avec cravate et grand cordon,
au-dessous signature DU VIVIER. F.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1726.
Daniel 79
PYL
1728.JPG
1728 - États de Rennes14 viewsLouis XV
6,69g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste à droite en habit à quatre boutons, avec cravate et grand cordon,
au-dessous signature DU VIVIER. F.
URBS RHEDONUM INCENSA RESURGENS.
"La ville de Rennes brûlée, renaissante"
La ville de Rennes tourelée à gauche,
présentant un plan au roi ;
elle pose la main gauche sur les armes de la ville ;
sous leurs pieds REST. SUO
"Sa Restauration"
à l’exergue COM. ARM./ 1728 .
"Parlement de Bretagne 1728"
Daniel 82
PYL
1734.JPG
1734 - États de Rennes 10 viewsLouis XV
6,74g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite du roi, laurée, avec un col drapé,
au-dessous signature DU VIVIER.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1734.
Daniel 87
PYL
1736.JPG
1736 - États de Rennes10 viewsLouis XV
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste à droite en habit, avec cravate et grand cordon,
non signé
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1736.
Daniel 89
PYL
1738.JPG
1738 - États de Rennes9 viewsLouis XV
7,01g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
Buste à droite en habit, avec cravate et grand cordon,
signé DU VIVIER sur le bord de la manche
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1738
Daniel 90
PYL
1740.JPG
1740 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,40g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, un bandeau dans les cheveux,
au-dessous signature cursive FM
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1740
Daniel 92
PYL
1742.JPG
1742 - États de Rennes 7 viewsLouis XV
6,66g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX - CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, un bandeau dans les cheveux,
au-dessous signature cursive FM
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1742
Daniel 93
PYL
1744.JPG
1744 - États de Rennes 14 viewsLouis XV
6,83g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, un bandeau dans les cheveux,
au-dessous signature cursive JCR en monogramme
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1744.
Daniel 95
PYL
10_-_1748_-_6,65g_-_D99.JPG
1748 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouix XV
6,65g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très Chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon, au-dessous signature D.V. et en petits caractères 1746 sur la tranche de l’épaule
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1748.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 99
PYL
1750.JPG
1750 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,89g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
et en petits caractères 1746 sur la tranche de l’épaule
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1750.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 100
PYL
1752.JPG
1752 - États de Rennes 14 viewsLouis XV
6,10g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1752 .
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 101
PYL
13_-_1754_-_6,47g_-_D102.JPG
1754 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,47g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
"Louis XV ressuscité et triomphant"
Statue du roi sur un piédestal, vêtu à l’antique, derrière, des drapeaux ; à droite la Bretagne assise, devant, les armes de la province, derrière, une ancre sortant de la mer ; à gauche Hygie et un autel allumé .
Sur le piédestal on peut lire l'inscription :
LUDOVICO XV
REGI CHRISTIANISSIMO
REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
HOC AMORIS PIGNUS
ET SALUTATIS PUBLICAE MOMUMENTUM
COMITIA ARMORICA POSUERE
ANNO M DCC LIV
au revers :
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1754.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 102
PYL
1754_2.JPG
1754 - États de Rennes5 viewsLouis XV
6,55g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
"Louis XV ressuscité et triomphant"
Statue du roi sur un piédestal,
vêtu à l’antique, derrière, des drapeaux;
à droite la Bretagne assise,
devant les armes de la province,
derrière une ancre sortant de la mer;
à gauche Hygie et un autel allumé .
Sur le piédestal on peut lire l'inscription :
LUDOVICO XV
REGI CHRISTIANISSIMO
REDIVIVO ET TRIUMPHANTI.
HOC AMORIS PIGNUS
ET SALUTATIS PUBLICAE MOMUMENTUM
COMITIA ARMORICA POSUERE
ANNO M DCC LIV
au revers :
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1754.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 102
PYL
1756.JPG
1756 - États de Rennes7 viewsLouis XV
6,47g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête laurée à droite, le col nu,
au-dessous signature cursive M
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1756.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 103
PYL
1758_2.JPG
1758 - États de Saint-Brieuc7 viewsLouis XV
6,55g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
et en petits caractères 1746 sur la tranche de l’épaule
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1758.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 107
PYL
1758_3.JPG
1758 - États de Saint-Brieuc7 viewsLouis XV
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite en habit avec le grand cordon,
au-dessous signature D.V.
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1758.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 108
PYL
1758.JPG
1758 - États de Saint-Brieuc5 viewsLouis XV
6,62g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête laurée à droite, le col nu,
au-dessous signature cursive M
JETON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE 1758.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 105
PYL
1760.JPG
1760 - États de Nantes 4 viewsLouis XV
6,64g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Buste lauré à droite avec tunique sur l’armure,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1760.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 110
PYL
1762.JPG
1762 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouis XV
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Tête laurée à droite,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1762.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 112
PYL
1764.JPG
1764 - États de Rennes 6 viewsLouis XV
6,65g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite avec tunique sur l’armure,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1764.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 113
PYL
1764_2.JPG
1764 - États de Rennes 10 viewsLouis XV
6,94g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré et cuirassé à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1764.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 115
PYL
1766.JPG
1766 - États de Rennes 7 viewsLouis XV
6,89g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
ETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1766.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 116
PYL
1766_2.JPG
1766 - États de Rennes5 viewsLouis XV
7,58g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1766.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 117
PYL
25_-_1768_-_6,54g_-_D119.JPG
1768 - États de Rennes11 viewsLouis XV
6,54g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1768.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 119
PYL
26_-_1768_-_7,41g_-_D118.JPG
1768 - États de Rennes7 viewsLouis XV
7,41g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS XV. REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste cuirassé et lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FILIUS
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1768.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 118
PYL
27_-_1770_-_6,65g_-_D120.JPG
1770 - États de Rennes12 viewsLouis XV
6,65g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec col de tunique,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1770
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 120
PYL
1772.JPG
1772 - États de Morlaix15 viewsLouis XV
6,56g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi très chrétien"
Buste lauré à droite, avec tunique,
au-dessous signature R. FIL.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1772.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et de larmes
Daniel 121
PYL
1774.JPG
1774 - États de Rennes6 viewsLouis XVI
6,57g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, avec un bandeau dans les cheveux,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1774
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 123
PYL
1_-_1774_-_D123_variante_cuivre.JPG
1774 - États de Rennes12 views

Louis XVI
8,90g
29 mm
cuivre
LUD XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, avec un bandeau dans les cheveux,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1774
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
variante du Daniel 123

voir : Gildas Salaün, "De nouveaux jetons des Etats de Bretagne en cuivre", ASBNH, 2004.
PYL
LouisXVICoronation1775.JPG
1775. Coronation of Louis XVI at Rheims143 viewsObv. Crowned bust of Louis XVI LUDOVICUS XVI REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. King kneeling at altar, an angel anointing his head DEO CONSECRATORI, exergue UNCTIO REGIA REMIS XL JUN MDCCLXXV
Signed B DUVIVIER F

AR42.

Louis XVI succeeded his grandfather Louis XV to the throne of France in 1774 and his coronation ceremony took place in Rheims the following year.
1 commentsLordBest
1776_1.JPG
1776 - États de Rennes10 viewsLouis XVI
6,56g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS.
Tête à droite, les cheveux noués derrière le cou,
au-dessous signature DU VIV.
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1776
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d'hermines
Daniel 125
PYL
1776_2.JPG
1776 - États de Rennes11 views 1776 - États de Rennes
Louis XVI
6,74g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX. CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, les cheveux noués derrière le cou,
au-dessous signature DU VIV.
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1776
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d'hermines
Daniel 124
PYL
4_-_1778_-_6,75g_-_D126.JPG
1778 - États de Rennes5 viewsLouis XVI
6,75g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
ête à gauche, les cheveux longs, drapé d’une tunique,
au-dessous signature DUV.
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1778
Écu de France et de Bretagne couronné sur un manteau fleurdelisé et herminé
Daniel 126
PYL
LouisXVI1778.JPG
1778. Louis XVI Port Commemorative .120 viewsObv. Draped bust right LUD XVI REX CHRISTIANISS
Rev. Text PIETAS REGIA AEDE AD MARLIACI PORTUM STRUCTA MDCCLXXVIII

Commemorates the construction/expansion of a port.
LordBest
1780.JPG
1780 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouis XVI
6,66g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1780
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 127
PYL
7_-_1780_-_6,24g_-_D127bis.JPG
1780 - États de Rennes14 viewsLouis XVI
6,66g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite, avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
poinçon en forme de faisceau de licteur dans le champ droit
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1780
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France, aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne, sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 127 bis
PYL
1780_2.JPG
1780 - États de Rennes12 viewsLouis XVI
6,48g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1780
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 127 ou peut être Daniel 128
PYL
1782.JPG
1782 - États de Rennes12 viewsLouis XVI
6,72g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
signé DU VIV
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1782
Écu écartelé de France et de Bretagne couronné sur un manteau fleurdelisé
Daniel 129
PYL
1784_2.JPG
1784 - États de Rennes10 viewsLouis XVI
7,07g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
signé DU VIV.
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1784.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 131
PYL
1784.JPG
1784 - États de Rennes 12 viewsLouis XVI
7,17g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1784.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 130
PYL
1786.JPG
1786 - États de Rennes 12 viewsLouis XVI
6,94g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIAN.
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
au-dessous signature DUVIV
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1786
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 136
PYL
12_-_1786_-_6,30g_-_D135.JPG
1786 - États de Rennes8 viewsLouis XVI
6,30g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIANIS
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
sans signature
JETTON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1786
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 135
PYL
1788.JPG
1788 - États de Rennes16 viewsLouis XVI
6,71g
28 mm
argent
LUDOV. XVI. REX CHRISTIAN
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Buste habillé à droite,
avec le grand cordon retenu par une barrette,
au-dessous signature DUV.
JETTON DES ÉTATS DE BRETAGNE 1788
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
Daniel 139
PYL
1789_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY_CYPHER.JPG
1789 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.120 viewsObverse: MACCLESFIELD. Ornamental cypher of “R & Co” (Roe & Company), surmounted by a beehive and six bees.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and an eight spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1789.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 13
RARE

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
1791_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.74 viewsObverse: CHARLES ROE ESTABLISHED THE COPPER WORKS 1758 • Bust of Charles Roe, facing right.
Reverse: MACCLESFIELD HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and a six spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1791.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 55

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left £200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
1813_STOCKTON_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham.36 viewsObverse: CHRISTOPHER & JENNETT * STOCKTON *, incuse letters on a raised rim. View of the bridge over the Tees being crossed by several small figures including a rider on horse, rowing boat containing two figures in river below; in field above, TEES; in field below, 1813.
Reverse: BRITANNIA * ONE PENNY TOKEN *, incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background at her feet.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm | Weight 19.7gms
Davis:6 | Withers:1109

The die engraver for this token was Peter Wyon. It was issued by Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett who were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.

The bridge shown on this token was the first bridge to serve the growing town of Stockton, it was a five arch stone bridge which was completed in 1769. Before the existence of the bridge at this location, the only way of crossing the Tees was by the Bishop’s Ferry. The bridge was subject to rent to the Bishop of Durham and the costs of building it had to be repaid, so a system of tolls was charged. These were supposed to be abolished as soon as the debt was cleared, but they remained in place until, in 1819, the local people took the law into their own hands, throwing two of the bridge gates into the river and burning the third gate in the High Street. Although the bridge was good news for Stockton’s business, it had a devastating impact on Yarm. As ships were growing in size at this time, the building of the bridge prevented many ships reaching Yarm because they were unable to navigate further up the river. This only heightened shipping in Stockton and affirmed its place as the main port on the Tees before the 1800s. The bridge also halted Yarm’s shipbuilding industry and, since Stockton was unaffected, yards sprang up east of the bridge towards the sea. By 1876 the old bridge was inadequate and in 1881 work was begun on a new bridge. This new bridge, named the ‘Victoria Bridge’ in recognition of Queen Victoria, was opened in 1887 and the old stone bridge was demolished.
*Alex
RI 188a img.jpg
188 - Arcadius - RIC IX Antioch 70a28 viewsAE4
Obv:– DN ARCADIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and curassed bust right
Rev:– SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, carrying trophy over shoulder and dragging captive; Christogram in left field
Minted in Antioch (ANTΓ in exe).
RIC IX Antioch 70a
maridvnvm
Columbian_Expo_Medal.JPG
1893 Columbian Exposition Medal14 viewsObv: COLUMBUS 1492 - 1892, bust of Christopher Columbus, facing, head turned slightly to the right.

Rev: FATHER - SAVIOUR - DEFENDER, conjoined bust of George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and Ulysses S. Grant facing left.

Diameter: 25.5 mm, Axis: 0°
Matt Inglima
2-pb-dx.jpg
1916 ALEXIUS PB Tetarteron S-Unlisted DOC 32 Constantinople mint67 viewsOBV Half length figures of John II beardless on r., and Christ holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Christ wears tunic and kolobion.

REV Half length figures of Alexius on l. and of Irene, holding between them cross on long shaft. Both wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type.

Size 19.29mm

Weight 5.8gm

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera.
DOC lists 6 examples with sizes from 17mm to 20mm and weights 4.22gm to 4. 74gm
1 commentsSimon
2pb-c.jpg
1919b ALEXIUS PB TETARTERON S-Unlisted DOC 42 CLBC 2.5.1 46 views
OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels( open) in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbate cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. Cr.

Size 17.19

Weight 3.7

These lead Tetarteron are coronation issues of John II and believed to be the origin of the series of tetartera. Thessalonica Mint

DOC lists 12 examples with weights from 3.17gm to 7.07
Simon
s-1920.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 46 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 16.55mm

Weight 4.4gm

All around very nice coin, I would consider the rarity for this coin 3/5

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
c6.jpg
1920 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 29 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 19.56mm

Weight 3.8gm

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm

CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
b1.jpg
1920a ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 63 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 18mm

Weight 3.8gm

This coin has an excellent portrait of Christ, I would grade the coin EF/F

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
o3~0.jpg
1920B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 104225 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18/21mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.
Simon
4c~0.jpg
1920C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 22 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 17/16mm

Weight 3.9 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.

This particular coin grades as aF/aVF , this has the most interesting portrait of Alexius, seems to be much older in age than other examples.

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
f6~0.jpg
1921 ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 27 views
Bust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 18mm

Weight 3.5gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

All of the Constantinople coins are uncommon but this one appears very rarely, I would mark its rarity 4/5 This example has a very dark patina in hand, I lightened this pic for a better view of the details. This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain.
Simon
s-1921c.jpg
1921c ALEXIUS Metropolitan TETARTERON S-1921 Doc 34 CLBC 2.4.2 Grierson 1043 20 viewsBust of Christ, bearded with cross behind head, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels in l. hand. UU in fields of cross.

Rev Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand jeweled scepter and in l, gl. cr.

Size 15.63mm

Weight 4.0gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC catalog lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.6gm to 3.49gm and size is universal at 18mm

This is one of the most difficult of Alexius coins to obtain. This is only the third example I have seen in twenty years, not in great condition but is a great rarity.
Simon
4i.jpg
1922 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 54 views
OBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 16.6mm

Weight 3.0 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
4m.jpg
1922A ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 40 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.9gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
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1922B ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 18 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 3.6 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This is a thick square coin, very unusual beveled edges.
Simon
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1922C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 19 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand. ( This is what it should be , coin is a brokerage of sorts.)

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 4.00gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This coin was attributed by rev alone, it is the only possible match for Alexius and it is clearly by inscription, his rule.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
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1922D ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 42 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 18.35

Weight 3.3gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash, ,HOWEVER this coin is not the norm of black silver, very grainy and hard to photograph but white silver in color, much higher than what was normal.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
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1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.437 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17.48mm

Weight 4.8

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm.
Simon
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1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 41 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 15.64mm

Weight 4.6

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm. My example is running heavy at 4.6gm
Simon
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1923 ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1923 DOC 36 CLBC 2.4.4 23 viewsOBV Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on throne without back; r. hand raised in benediction holds Gospels in l.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 3.96

Weight 17.mm

A really nice example

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.)


DOC Catalog lists 4 examples with weights fairly consistent from 3.49 gm. to 3.99gm and size from 16mm to 18mm
Simon
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1929 ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 19 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 4.2

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My example has more detail than normally seen, most of these coins have no faces recognizable on either side.
Simon
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1929A ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 15 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.5/21mm

Weight 3.3

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
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1929B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-2d.jpg
1929C ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 13 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.2gm

This coin is interesting for its details, more than most but the jagged edge flan is very unusual.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
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1929D ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 39 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.91mm
Weight 1.9gm

This is an imitation of Sear 1929, better to say it was not produced to the same standards as coins from the other mints. Interesting enough , imitations only seem to occur under Alexius rule and the Manuel's rule, I have never seen an imitation of John II coinage, that leaves me to believe these were authorized in some way by Alexius. Perhaps to help the introduction of the new coinage.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
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1929E ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 25 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18/20mm

Weight 3.5

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929c.jpg
1929F ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 15 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.
REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.80mm

Weight 3.2gm

The burnt orange to the patina of this common coin is what makes it special.
.
DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
s-1929-5c.jpg
1929g ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 47 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.11mm

Weight 2.6gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

My nicest example. Very Fine
Simon
s-1929-4c.jpg
1929h ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 36 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21.97mm

Weight 2.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
h3.jpg
1929J ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 Imitation 38 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a regional minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm

This is a strange example, Alexius side fits the norm a bit cruder but with good detail, the Christ side lacks the book and Christ's blessing. Imitations of this particular type of coin were created well into the 14th century. This coin was a very recent find in Paphos Cyprus.
Simon
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1929k ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 56 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.99mm

Weight 4.8 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
s-1929-7c.jpg
1929L ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1929 DOC 38 CLBC 2.4.5 62 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger, and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.00mm

Weight 2.66gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 9 examples with weight s running from 1.82gm to 5.10gm and size from 18mm to 22mm
2 commentsSimon
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1933 ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.40

Weight 4.9

.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

This example appears much larger and heavier than anything else listed.
Simon
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1933 ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 34 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21.94

Weight 3.6

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

This coin has a beautiful deep green Patina that hinders its photo. One of my nicest examples.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
1 commentsSimon
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1933A ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17/18mm

Weight 2.7gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
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1933B ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 16 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23/16mm

Weight 3.1gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
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1933D ALEXIUS 1/2 TETARTERON ? S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 13 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21/12mm

Weight 1.3gm

Interesting point, these coin sizes in my collection represent 1gm to 5 gm, this coin is the lightest and in the best condition. Even though it is on a small flan the coin I wouldhave to say this is the finest example known.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

I have several examples with weights from 1.3 gm to 5gm, Sommer in his catalog lists this coin as a half tetarteron? and SBCV lists it as a full tetarteron.
Simon
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1933E ALEXIUS TETARTERON S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 17 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 23mm

Weight 5.44gm

This coin and S-1934 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

Triangle shaped flan.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm
Simon
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193826 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
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1939 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 2 Constantinople Second Coinage SBCV-193924 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: r hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.
REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 32mm

Weight 4.38gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 3.73gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 30 mm to 34mm
Simon
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1940 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 3 Constantinople Third Coinage Variation B SBCV-194029 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Pellet in each limb of the cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 30.57mm

Weight 4.3gm

DOC lists 5 examples of type B with weights from 4.22gm to 4.43gm and sizes from 30 mm to 31mm
Simon
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1941 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8 Constantinople SBCV-194120 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, holds sword in l. hand.

Size 31.13 mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists several variations 4 examples total with weights from 3.56gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 32 to 34 mm.
Simon
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1942 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8c Variation II Constantinople SBCV-194218 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold patriarchal cross on a long shaft at the base of which three steps.

Size 30.47mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 9 examples total with weights from 3.11gm to 4.40gm and sizes from 30 to 33 mm.
Simon
1943~0.jpg
1943 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 9 Constantinople SBCV-194319 viewsOBV MP OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne without back; holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma,short military tunic, and sagion; holds in right hand labarum on long shaft, and in left gl.cr

Size 28.71mm

Weight 3.6gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.59gm to 3.92gm and sizes from 29 to 30 mm.
Simon
1944.jpg
1944 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 10 Constantinople SBCV-194426 viewsOBV IC XC in field
Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision,collar piece and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. gl.cr

Size 29.10

Weight 4.9gm

DOC lists 20 examples total with weights from 2.59gm to 5.00 gm and sizes from 28 to 30 mm. It has two variations A and B , both are equal in rarity , the difference is a stroke on shaft on type B.

This coin is very heavily silvered, it was part of a hoard that was once thought to be electrum, it is not, just very heavily silvered.
Simon
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1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 60 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm

I have this coin in the best of type gallery. Beautiful example.
Simon
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1945 JOHN II METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 22 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 20.14mm

Weight 4.5.gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
1945.jpg
1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 19 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm
Simon
s-1945-1c.jpg
1945A JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 20 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17.87mm

Weight 4.3gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

Interesting example because of the ancient graffiti on Christ, also the OC of the obverse gives the impression Christ is seated, he is not
Simon
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1945B JOHN II Metropolitan Tetarteron S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 18/19mm

Weight 3.8gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm

John IIs Metro tetartera are easy to come by, the do not have the same rarity as the other emperors metro issues. This one has been in my collection near the beginning , it grades as fine an evenly worn.
Simon
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1945C JOHN II METROPOLITIAN ( HALF?)TETARTERON S-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 49 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 2.18 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 27 examples with weights from 2,79gm to 4.69gm and sizes ranging from 18mm to 22mm
Simon
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1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194716 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
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1951 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8e Thessalonica SBCV-195122 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold between them labarum on a long shaft at the base of which a small globe.

Size 30.48mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.98gm to 4.12gm and sizes from 31 to 33 mm.
Simon
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1952 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 11 Thessalonica SBCV-1952 24 viewsOBV MO OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion , seated upon throne without back; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast

REV Full-Length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 27.19mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 5 examples total with weights from 2.65gm to 4.46 gm and sizes from 27 to 28 mm.
Simon
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1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 27 views
OBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19/22mm

Weight 4.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
1 commentsSimon
x4.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation92 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size

Weight

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm
3 commentsSimon
1953.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON Thessalonica SBCV-1953 DOC IV 14 CLBC 3.4.3 14 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
Simon
i3.jpg
1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 51 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17mm

Weight 3.8gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This is a smaller flan example, still has the weight of a full Tetarteron but a smaller flan than most. The details on this coin give it a grade of VF , very pleasing example.
Simon
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1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation 22 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.17mm

Weight 3.6gm

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

Simon
f3.jpg
1953B JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-1953 DOC 14 CLBC 3.4.3 22 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 21mm

Weight 6.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

This one is in the collection because of its heavy weight. I would grade it at VG/aF However this is the heaviest I have seen listed anywhere.
Simon
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1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 17 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
1953V.jpg
1953V JOHN II AE Tetarteron S-NL DOC 15 CLBC 3.4.4 12 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of a traditional type; holds in r. labarum on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.85mm

Weight 3.4gm

Not very much is known of this coin, Hendy included it in DOC because one example in a private collection. Since then at least one other example besides this has come to light. This coin is by far is in the best condition between the three known.

This coin is not listed in Sear or Greirson.
Simon
i6.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h5.jpg
1954 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 16 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.59mm

Weight 2.2gm

This is a choice example easily grading EF/VF

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
sear1954.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.5 54 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.38mm

Weight 1.7mm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
h6.jpg
1954A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 13 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.


Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
Sear1954A.jpg
1954B JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 DOC 16 CLBC 3.4.553 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 16.25mm

Weight 2.5gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today�s marketplace.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 1.16 gm. to 2.52 and sizes from 15mm to 19mm
Simon
i5.jpg
1954CV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL Hand Raised Variation 14 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 19mm

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the R. hand is raised much higher than normal as if a blessing. I have seen enough examples of this coin with the variation for it to be an unlisted issue.
Simon
s-1945-2c.jpg
1954DV JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954V DOC NL CLBC NL 15 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.
This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 16mm

Weight 1.9gm
This coin even though in poor condition is also an example of the Right arm raised .l. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
ComparisonJohnIIS1945.jpg
1954E JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1954 and S-1954V65 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. labrum headed scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Bothe examples are in excellent condition, the top is S-1954 Christ hand is on book. The bottom is the variation with Christ hands raised in benediction.

Size 19mm ( Bottom coin.)

Weight 2.6 gm

Several examples of this coin have been identified, the only variation is the l. hand is raised much higher than normal. However it is of mixed consensus to this being a new variation
Simon
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1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 44 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 18/17mm

Weight 2.4gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

This is one of my two examples of this coin and would grade as only fine, few years back a small batch of these in beautiful condition were on ebay but I lacked the funding to add to my collection. To this day nice examples or any examples are rarely seen.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
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1967 MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 19mm

Weight 3.54gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

My nicest example, Both Christ and Manuel are depicted as young men.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
s1967.jpg
1967A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 49 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 17.97 mm

Weight 3.2 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Lightly nicer than my other example , the reverse would grade as aVF, the obv has an old collectors mark or museum mark on it.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
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1969A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 27 views
OBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 19.6mm

Weight 3.0


DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
1 commentsSimon
h3~1.jpg
1969B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 46 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 18.19 mm

Weight 3.6gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
s1969b.jpg
1969B MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 55 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 21.5mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm

This is my second example added to the collection, condition is a bit sad VG/ aF however it shows the other details my other example lacks. This is the hardest of the Manuel tetartera to acquire.
Simon
s-1969-2c.jpg
1969C MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 42 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 22/17mm

Weight 2.7gm


DOC lists 11 examples with weights from 2.76 to 4.14 gm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm

This coin really leads me to believe it was modified to add the X on shaft, you will notice an additional x was used on the Gl. CR , this was either double struck or the x was added to the shaft after the coin had been struck. The design is very similar to a John II coin the only main difference in design being the X on the shaft.
Simon
s-1969-1c.jpg
1969C MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1969 DOC 16 CLBC 4.4.3 Imitation?59 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; right hand raised high in benediction holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellets in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right a labrum on a long shaft. On which X and in l. globus cruciger


Size 19.84

Weight 1.8gm

Not certain but I now believe this to be an imitation, the biggest reason for this is the low weight and thin flan. Does not have the look of a Constantinople minted coin. This coin was found in Cyprus.
1 commentsSimon
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1978 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 30 views
OBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19mm
Weight 3.23gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.

This coin is a choice example Good Very Fine.
1 commentsSimon
c3.jpg
1978A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 32 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.92mm

Weight 2.3 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless.
Simon
s-1978c.jpg
1978c MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1978 DOC 21 CLBC 4.4.8 25 viewsOBV Bust of Christ beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross
.
REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 18.63mm
Weight 3.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 2.66 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes all 20mm

This coin differs from S-1981 not only by size but DOC notes a beard on Christ on S-1981 where as S-1978 is beardless , I however am finding that a difficult distinction to concur with, the beard on Christ can be a simple dot on his chin, however with this style of coins I am finding the lighter weight coins with perhaps a beard with one dot on chin in another example a series of dots making the beard, in these larger and heavier beards the dot on the chin is still there but not as distinct. Interesting to note that Hendy did not note a beard in his 1969 book but in his latter DOC works he does, the earlier catalogs such as Ratto do note a difference in the two styles because of the weight and beard.
Simon
j6~0.jpg
1981 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 11 views

OBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.8mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron.These coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Ex Forum Coin.
Simon
s1981brockc.jpg
1981A MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1981 DOC 24 CLBC 4.4.12 BROCKAGE 40 viewsOBV Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scrolls in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing uncertain dress (stemma, short military tunic, breastplate and sagion?) holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 17.37 mm

Weight 1.9 gm



DOC lists 19 examples with weights ranging from 1.28 gm to 2.75 gm with sizes from 16mm to 18mm.

Nice Brock age example, nice fill shows it off. Rare to find a brockage this nice.
Simon
r3.jpg
1986 ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 64 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 19.51mm

Weight 3.3 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

I have had this one from the early years of my collection, it far surpasses my other example
Simon
z5~0.jpg
1986 ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 4 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 20.84

Weight 4.55gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

I have had this one from the early years of my collection, it far surpasses my other example
Simon
s-1986b.jpg
1986A ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 56 views OBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 20/16mm

Weight 4.2gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

In todays marketplace this is a true rarity. This one is flawed by scrapes from time.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm


Simon
s-1986.jpg
1986C ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 34 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size

Weight

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

This is a new acquisition as par of an old collection, not great but some details not usually seen.
Simon
1c~3.jpg
1987 ANDRONICUS AE TETARTERON S-1987 DOC 6 CLBC 5.4.2 53 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 5.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

A really nice example much heaver than norm, beautiful portrait of Virgin.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 2.54 gm to 4.91 gm with sizes from 20mm to 23mm.
1 commentsSimon
f6.jpg
1987A ANDRONICUS AE TETARTERON S-1987 DOC 6 CLBC 5.4.2 27 views

OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger.

Size 21.96 mm

Weight 5.1gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 2.54 gm to 4.91 gm with sizes from 20mm to 23mm

One of my first tetartera, still a favorite.
1 commentsSimon
sear1989c.jpg
1989A ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.348 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 15.48

Weight 2.5m

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.

This is my third example of this Very rare coin, it has a chipped patina but detail is a bit better than my other examples.
Simon
b6.jpg
1989a ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.3 27 views
OBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 22 mm

Weight 3.4 gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size is off on this example but the die size is 12mm making it a half tetartera, it is aEF example, again large flan making it an excellent example.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.
1 commentsSimon
sear1989B.jpg
1989B ANDRONICUS HALF TETARTERON S-1989 DOC 8 CLBC 5.4.343 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless. Nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and sagion; holds in r hand labrum headed scepter, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 15.32

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 3 examples with weights ranging from 1.38 gm to 2.46 gm with sizes from 15mm to 18mm.

This is my third example of this Very rare coin, well worn but all three examples have a die diameter of 12mm
Simon
j6.jpg
1994 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1994 DOC 7CLBC 6.3.6A 18 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; r. hand raised in benediction. Holds gospels in l.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. ?

Size 20mm

Weight 2.39gm


DOC list 2 examples with a weight of 2.67 gm and sized at 19mm and 21mm
Simon
y3~0.jpg
1994B ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1994 DOC 7 CLBC 6.3.6A42 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; r. hand raised in benediction. Holds gospels in l.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. ?

Size  19.34mm

Weight 2.7gm


DOC list 2 examples with a weight of 2.67 gm  and sized at 19mm and 21mm
Simon
s-1998e.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A29 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 22.52mm

Weight 2.7gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.
Simon
s-1998f.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 29 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.20mm

Weight 3.4gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
1o.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 47 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.5/20mm

Weight 4.2

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire. This issue is heavier than normal, Isaac is wearing a sash at waist.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm

Really a nice example, all detail is still there , some wear but beautiful example.
Simon
1i.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6B 50 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross. The coin differs with a Circular legend

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.35mm

Weight 2.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

This coin is listed in CLBC as rare, it differs from the normal coin is the circular legend. Other variations of this coin appear in Isaacs attire. This coin brags of a beautiful green yellow Patina and an unusually detailed reverse.
Simon
s-1998.jpg
1998A ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 62 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.26mm

Weight 3.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
m5.jpg
1999 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1999 DOC 10B CLBC 6.3.7 26 views

OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on RIGHT. crowned by virgin nimbate on l.. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in L hand scepter cruciger and in r. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.72mm

Weight 2.9gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 1 examples with a weight of 2.84 gm and sized at 19mm

This issue is considered to be very rare, 5/5 , Grierson considers it to be an error of S-1998 and I must agree, still a wonderful piece to add to my collection
1 commentsSimon
ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great18 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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FaustaAE3Fausta.jpg
1ed Fausta12 viewsAE 3

Draped bust with pearl necklace, right, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Fausta Constantine II and Constantius II, FAVSTAE NOBILISSIMAE FEMINAE, mintmark: ΓSIS wreath

RIC 197

Zonaras records: When he had succeeded to his father’s realm, [Constantine] ruled Britain and the Alps, and in addition Gaul, still leaning toward the religion of the Hellenes and opposing the Christians, enticed by his wife Fausta toward ardor in the worship of the idols. Fausta was the daughter of Maximianus. . . . From Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus, the sovereign produced three sons—Constantine, Constantius, and Constans—and a daughter Helen, who later married Julian. . . . Fausta, being erotically obsessed with [her stepson Crispus], since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse. When the emperor later realized the truth, he chastened his wife both because of her unchasteness and on account of the murder of his son. For after she had been led into an exceedingly hot bath, there she violently ended her life.
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JulianIIAE3VotX.jpg
1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
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Sear-2005.jpg
2004 ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 38 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 20.36mm

Weight 3.2gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
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2004A ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.140 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 18/20.5 mm

Weight 3.2gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
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2004B ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 40 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 16./19mm

Weight 2.7gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
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2004C ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 42 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 20/17mm

Weight 3.6 gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
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2004D ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 55 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field


Size 20.mm

Weight 5.3 1gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm

Nicest example I have ever seen, just added to my collection, almost perfect except for wear on the Virgins face VF/EF
Simon
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2004E ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 38 views
OBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field


Size

Weight

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm

I have managed to acquire several of these throughout the years. This example was part of an old collection I recently acquired.
Simon
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201a. Julia Domna68 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
1 commentsecoli
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204. Elagabalus29 viewsElagabalus was and is one of the most controversial Roman emperors. During his reign he showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. Elagabalus' name is a Latinized form of the Semitic deity El-Gabal, a manifestation of the Semitic deity Ēl. He replaced Jupiter, head of the Roman pantheon, with a new god, Deus Sol Invictus, which in Latin means "the Sun, God Unconquered". Elagabalus forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating Sol invictus which he personally led.

He also took a Vestal Virgin as one of a succession of wives and openly boasted that his sexual interest in men was more than just a casual pastime, as it had been for previous emperors.

Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for eccentricity, decadence, and zealotry which was likely exaggerated by his successors. This black propaganda was passed on and as such he was one of the most reviled Roman emperors to early Christian historians and later became a hero to the Decadent movement of the late 19th century.

Elagabalus Denarius. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, and draped bust right / PM TR P IIII COS III P P, Elagabalus standing left sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar & holding branch, star left. RIC 46, RSC 196
ecoli
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210 Basil II Bulgaroktonos, AD 976-102567 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 25mm, 4.40g, aEF
Struck at Constantinople c. AD 1005-1025
+ IhS CIS REX REGNANTIhM, bust of Christ facing, wears pallium, colobium, and nimbus cruciger with crescents; raised right hand, Gospels in left; triple border / + bASIL C CONSTANT b R, facing crowned busts of Basil wearing loros of square pattern (left) and Constantine wearing jeweled chlamys; holding between them with right hands a long plain cross; manus Dei above Basil's head; triple border
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
DOC 6a; Sear 1800; Wroth 12-13
Lawrence Woolslayer
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2118 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron S- 2118 DOC IV 60 15 viewsOBV Bust of Christ , beardless and nimbate. wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand .

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma , divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type, and saigon; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft, and in l. gl.cr.

Size 17mm

Weight 1.97gm

DOC lists 4 examples with sizes 17-18mm and weights 1.66 to 2.37.
Simon
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215 Constantine VIII, AD 1025-102858 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 25mm, 4.37g, gVF
Struck at Constantinople
+IhS XIS REX REGNANThM, bust of Christ Pantocrator facing, wears tunic, himation, and nimbus cruciger with crescents; right hand raised, Gospels in left; triple border / + CWhSTAhTIh BASILEUS ROM, crowned bust facing with long beard; wears loros, holds labarum with pellet on shaft with right, akakia in left; triple border. Scarce.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
DOC 2; Sear 1815
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
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220 Romanus III Argyrus, AD 1028-103462 viewsGold histamenon nomisma, 26mm, 4.37g, VF
Struck at Constantinople AD 1028-1029
+IhS REX REGNANTINM, Christ enthroned facing, wears nimbus cruciger and colobium, raises right hand and holds Gospels with left; double border / ΘCE bOHΘ RWMANW MΘ, the figures of Romanus (left) and the Virgin standing facing; bearded Romanus wears saccos and loros, and holds globus cruciger; the nimbate Virgin wears pallium and maphorum, and with right hand crowns the emperor; double border
Ex: Harlan Berk
DOC 1d; Sear 1819; Berk 296
Lawrence Woolslayer
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24e. Constantine: Heraclea.17 viewsAE3, 327 - 329, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: CONSANTINVS AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine, "Eyes to God."
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT XXX.
Mint mark: .SMHB
3.42 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #92; LRBC #887; Sear #16231.

Eusebius stated that Constantine had himself depicted in the attitude of prayer on his coins. Since early Christians prayed looking up to Heaven, this obverse portrait is the one which Eusebius saw. Thus the phrase "Eyes to God" became associated with this portrait. We have no proof that Eusebius' statement is true; indeed the portrait could have been based on the way various Hellenistic kings portrayed themselves on their own coins. However, Eusebius' statement likely reflected the popular opinion of his time.

The "Eyes to God" portrait was used intermittently on gold and silver coinages from 324 to 337. It's use on the bronze coinage is limited to just three mints: Constantinople (Daphne coinage, 328), Cyzicus (Campgate coinage 328-29), and Heraclea (VOT XXX coinage, 325-26, 327-329).
Callimachus
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24i. Constantine: Constantinople.20 viewsAE3, 328 - 329, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine.
Reverse: CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE / Victory seated, holding palm branch, in each hand, trophy and kneeling captive in front. B in left field.
Mint mark: CONS*
3.39 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #38; LRBC #1002; Sear #16192.

The traditional interpretation of this reverse type is that it commemorates the building of a fortress and bridge over the River Danube at Dafne (now called Oltenita, Romania). A different interpretation is more allegorical. Since this is the first coinage from the mint of a new Christian city, it is appropriate that it shows Constantine (represented by Victory/Dafne) turning away from the old gods (the captive and standard) to Christianity (palm branches).
Callimachus
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25. Danelaw: Vikings of East Anglia: St Edmund Memorial Coinage.22 viewsPenny, ca 890-905.
Obverse: +SC EADMVN RI / Large A with small crosses on each side.
Reverse: +DAEMOND MOTI / Large cross.
Moneyer: Daemond.
1.29 gm., 18 mm.
North #483; Seaby #960.

There are over 60 moneyers with Germanic or Norse names found on the St Edmund coins in the Cuerdale Hoard (c. 905). This number suggests there were quite a few mints producing this coinage. Several of the moneyers are also found on coinage of Edward the Elder and Athelstan from other parts of the country. This suggests that this issue, although in the name of the martyred East Anglian king, extended beyond East Anglia, and perhaps continued until East Anglia was regained by the English in 917-18. For more information, see A New History of the Royal Mint by Christopher E. Challis (Cambridge University Press, 1992).
Callimachus
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26. Danelaw: Vikings of York.19 viewsPenny, ca 897-903, York mint.
Obverse: CRTENXV (CNVT REX) / Patriarchal cross.
Reverse: +CVNNETTI / small cross.
1.28 gm., 20 mm.
North #501; Seaby #993.

The inscriptions on this coin are somewhat of a mystery. Over the last 150 years there have been many theories as to their meaning. At various times Cvnetesford (Knutsford, Cheshire), Cvnetio, (the Latin name of Marlborough,Wiltshire), and Counde, Shropshire (Cuneet in the Domesaday Book) have been proposed as the city where the CVNNETTI coinage was minted. Still others saw a French origin for the CVNNETTI coinage: similar coins are inscribed with two known locations in France -- QVENTOVICI (no longer exists) and EBRAICE (Evreux, Normandy).

Today it is fairly certain the CVNNETTI coinage was minted in York. The inscriptions on this coin are thought to be Latinized versions of Knutr and Hunedeus, two Viking war leaders who operated in northern England in the late ninth century.

The name Cnut is arranged on the arms of the cross in the manner Christians cross themselves during prayer. This shows that "King Cnut," whoever he was, thought of himself as a Christian. He is not to be confused with the Cnut who was King of England from 1016-1035.
Callimachus
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3 Innocent XII 1693 Half Piastre M 3437 viewsAn interesting half piastre featuring a pelican as a symbol of self sacrifice. Early church fathers believed the blood on the bird was result of the pelican pecking her own breast to feed her young, as shown on the reverse. Combined with the inspirational legend "not for self, but for others" this was an obvious reference to Christ as model for believers to follow. Lovely and powerful sentiment, but unfortunately the blood is actually the result of captured fish which the pelican had broken up to feed to her chicks. Still, powerful imagery and a great example of the minters art at the end of the 17th century. stlnats
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304. Philip I26 viewsPhilip I

Philip the Arabian remains an enigmatic figure because different authors evaluated his reign with wildly divergent interpretations. Christian authors of late antiquity praised the man they regarded as the first Christian emperor. Pagan historians saw Philip as indecisive, treacherous and weak. Our lack of detailed knowledge about the reign makes any analysis highly speculative. Nonetheless, Philip's provincial and administrative background represents continuity with features of Severan government. His career has its closest parallel with that of Macrinus, an equestrian from the provinces who, a quarter of a century earlier, capped an administrative career by moving from the office of praetorian prefect to that of emperor. Unfotunately, they also shared the same fate - Philip only lasted half a decade.

AR Antoninianus. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopia. RIC 27b, RSC 9
ecoli
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306. Trebonianus Gallus28 viewsGaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (206 - August, 253), was Roman emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.

Gallus was born in Italy, in a family with respected ancestry and a senatorial background. He had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana: the future emperor Gaius Vibius Volusianus and a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was typical with several appointments, both political and military. He was suffect consul and in 250 was nominated governor of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of emperor Trajan Decius in him. In Moesia, Gallus was a key figure in repelling the frequent invasion attacks by the Gothic tribes of the Danube and became popular with the army.

On July 1, 251, Decius and his co-emperor and son Herennius Etruscus died in the battle of Abrittus, at the hands of the Goths they were supposed to punish for raids into the empire. When the army heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius' surviving son, ascending the imperial throne in Rome. Gallus did not back down from his intention to became emperor, but accepted Hostilian as co-emperor, perhaps to avoid the damage of another civil war. While Gallus marched on Rome, an outbreak of plague struck the city and killed the young Hostilian. With absolute power now on his hands, Gallus nominated his son Volusianus co-emperor.

Eager to show himself competent and gain popularity with the citizens, Gallus swiftly dealt with the epidemic, providing burial for the victims. Gallus is often accused of persecuting the Christians, but the only solid evidence of this allegation is the imprisoning of Pope Cornelius in 252.

Like his predecessors, Gallus did not have an easy reign. In the East, king Shapur I of Persia invaded and conquered the province of Syria, without any response from Rome. On the Danube, the Gothic tribes were once again on the loose, despite the peace treaty signed in 251. The army was not pleased with the emperor and when Aemilianus, governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia, took the initiative of battle and defeated the Goths, the soldiers proclaimed him emperor. With a usurper threatening the throne, Gallus prepared for a fight. He recalled several legions and ordered reinforcements to return to Rome from the Rhine frontier. Despite these dispositions, Aemilianus marched onto Italy ready to fight for his claim. Gallus did not have the chance to face him in battle: he and Volusianus were murdered by their own troops in August 253.
ecoli
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313 - 2013 Edictum Mediolanense - Edict of Milan 28 viewsIn February 313, Emperor Constantine I, who controlled the western part of the Roman Empire, and Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan and, among other things, agreed to treat the Christians benevolently.

When I, Constantine Augustus, as well as I, Licinius Augustus, fortunately met near Mediolanurn (Milan), and were considering everything that pertained to the public welfare and security, we thought, among other things which we saw would be for the good of many, those regulations pertaining to the reverence of the Divinity ought certainly to be made first, so that we might grant to the Christians and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred; whence any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens may be propitious and kindly disposed to us and all who are placed under our rule. And thus by this wholesome counsel and most upright provision we thought to arrange that no one whatsoever should be denied the opportunity to give his heart to the observance of the Christian religion, of that religion which he should think best for himself, so that the Supreme Deity, to whose worship we freely yield our hearts) may show in all things His usual favor and benevolence. Therefore, your Worship should know that it has pleased us to remove all conditions whatsoever, which were in the rescripts formerly given to you officially, concerning the Christians and now any one of these who wishes to observe Christian religion may do so freely and openly, without molestation. We thought it fit to commend these things most fully to your care that you may know that we have given to those Christians free and unrestricted opportunity of religious worship. When you see that this has been granted to them by us, your Worship will know that we have also conceded to other religions the right of open and free observance of their worship for the sake of the peace of our times, that each one may have the free opportunity to worship as he pleases; this regulation is made we that we may not seem to detract from any dignity or any religion. Moreover, in the case of the Christians especially we esteemed it best to order that if it happens anyone heretofore has bought from our treasury from anyone whatsoever, those places where they were previously accustomed to assemble, concerning which a certain decree had been made and a letter sent to you officially, the same shall be restored to the Christians without payment or any claim of recompense and without any kind of fraud or deception, Those, moreover, who have obtained the same by gift, are likewise to return them at once to the Christians. Besides, both those who have purchased and those who have secured them by gift, are to appeal to the vicar if they seek any recompense from our bounty, that they may be cared for through our clemency. All this property ought to be delivered at once to the community of the Christians through your intercession, and without delay. And since these Christians are known to have possessed not only those places in which they were accustomed to assemble, but also other property, namely the churches, belonging to them as a corporation and not as individuals, all these things which we have included under the above law, you will order to be restored, without any hesitation or controversy at all, to these Christians, that is to say to the corporations and their conventicles: providing, of course, that the above arrangements be followed so that those who return the same without payment, as we have said, may hope for an indemnity from our bounty. In all these circumstances you ought to tender your most efficacious intervention to the community of the Christians, that our command may be carried into effect as quickly as possible, whereby, moreover, through our clemency, public order may be secured. Let this be done so that, as we have said above, Divine favor towards us, which, under the most important circumstances we have already experienced, may, for all time, preserve and prosper our successes together with the good of the state. Moreover, in order that the statement of this decree of our good will may come to the notice of all, this rescript, published by your decree, shall be announced everywhere and brought to the knowledge of all, so that the decree of this, our benevolence, cannot be concealed.
From Lactantius, De Mort. Pers., ch. 48. opera, ed. 0. F. Fritzsche, II, p 288 sq. (Bibl Patr. Ecc. Lat. XI).
Bohemian
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34a. Aethelred II.47 viewsPenny, 979-985, First Hand type, York mint.
Obverse: +ÆÐELRED REX ANGLOX / Diademed bust of Aethelred, right.
Reverse: +ZTYR M-O EOFER / Hand of Christ between A and ω .
Moneyer: Ztyr.
1.42 gm., 21 mm.
North #766; Seaby #1144.

The moneyer Ztyr is not listed as being a moneyer for Aethelred's First Hand type from York. However, there is a moneyer named Styr at York who coined for Edward the Martyr, 975-978. Ztyr is probably the same man.
2 commentsCallimachus
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35375 viewsRevolt of Poemenius, 353 AD
AE Maiorina
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVG NOSTRI
Christogram between alpha and omega
[TRP *]
Trier mint
RIC VIII Trier 332/5
mauseus
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36. Basil I Fouree Solidus13 viewsByzantine Empire
Basil I, the Macedonian.
867 - 886 AD.
Plated Solidus. 19.86mm, 2.00g.

O: Christ seated facing.

R: Busts of Basil and Constantine facing.

S.1704. Fine.

Ex Ancient Treasures
Sosius
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37. Constantius II / Emperor and 2 standards.27 viewsMaiorina (Larger AE 2), 350-351, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constantius. A behind bust.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM / Emperor standing, star above, holding two standards, each with a Christogram. III in left field.
Mint mark: ASIS (crescent)
5.16 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #301; LRBC #1187; Sear #18085.

The CONCORDIA MILITVM reverse type was not one of the original reverse types in the coinage reform of 348. Each reverse type was personal (or belongs) to one emperor, but was used on coins of all the emperors. CONCORDIA MILITVM was Vetranio's reverse type, but it was also used on coins of Constantius II while Vetranio was emperor, and immediately following his abdication.

Vetranio was proclaimed emperor in the Balkans in March of 350 about the same time the usurper Magnentius gained control of the western part of the Empire. This was apparently done at the suggestion of a sister of Constantius II, who was off fighting the Persians at the time, so that a legitimate emperor could deal with Magnentius. Vetranio was apparently loyal to Constantius II, and when Constantius II was able to get to the Balkans several months later, Vetranio abdicated on Christmas Day and was allowed to live out the rest of his life in retirement. While he was emperor, Vetranio minted coins in his own name and that of Constantius II with this reverse type.

RIC suggests a date of December 25, 350 - August 351 for this coin. This is the time period immediately following Vetranio's abdication.
Callimachus
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40. Magnentius.12 viewsAE 1, Sept. 353 - Aug. 353, Ambianum mint.
Obverse: DN MAGNENTIVS P F AVG / Bust of Magnentius.
Reverse: SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES / Large Christogram between small A and ω .
Mint mark: AMB
7.16 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #34; LRBC #19; Sear #18774.

The large Christogram is made up of X and P, the first two letters of "Christ" in Greek. It is placed between the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. This is an allusion to Revelation 22:13 where Christ says "I am the Alpha and the Omega, The Beginning and the End, the First and the Last." It is interesting that these symbols would appear on the coins of Magnentius since he is generally considered to have been a pagan. See RIC, vol. VIII, page 43 for a discussion of this reverse type.
Callimachus
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405a. Helena106 viewsFlavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta, and Helena of Constantinople, (c.248 - c.329) was the first wife of Constantius Chlorus, and the mother of Emperor Constantine I. She is traditionally credited with finding the relics of the True Cross.

Many legends surround her. She was allegedly the daughter of an innkeeper. Her son Constantine renamed the city of Drepanum on the Gulf of Nicomedia as 'Helenopolis' in her honor, which led to later interpretions that Drepanum was her birthplace.

Constantius Chlorus divorced her (c.292) to marry the step-daughter of Maximian, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Helena's son, Constantine, became emperor of the Roman Empire, and following his elevation she became a presence at the imperial court, and received the title Augusta.

She is considered by the Orthodox and Catholic churches as a saint, famed for her piety. Eusebius records the details of her pilgrimage to Palestine and other eastern provinces. She is traditionally credited (but not by Eusebius) with the finding of relics of the True Cross (q.v.), and finding the remains of the Three Wise Men, which currently reside in the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral. Her feast day as a saint of the Orthodox Christian Church is celebrated with her son on May 21, the Feast of the Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen, Equal to the Apostles. Her feast day in the Roman Catholic Church falls on August 18.

At least 25 sacred wells currently exist in Britain that were dedicated to her. She is also the patron saint of Colchester.

Helena Follis. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand; PTR(crescent) in ex.
1 commentsecoli
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406. Galerius40 viewsChristians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to the influence of Galerius. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.

Detail of the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and (Maximinus II Daia), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. Having Constantius' son Constantine as guest at Galerius' court in the east helped to secure his position.

His schemes, however, were defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) upon the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and his son Maxentius, who were declared co-Augusti in Italy.

After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307, he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and moderating his ambition, he retired to the city Felix Romuliana (near present day Gamzigrada,Serbia/Montenegro)built by him to honor his mother Romula, and devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

It was at the instance of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.

Galerius as Caesar, 305-311AD. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse type with Genius standing left holding scales and cornucopia
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406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
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409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
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410. Licinius I43 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

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4238 viewsIohannes 423-5 AD
AE4
Rome mint
Obv: DN IONANNES PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped bust right
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory advancing left, holding trophy over shoulder and dragging captive; christogram in left field.
RIC X, 1916 (?)

mauseus
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44. Vetranio.14 viewsAE 2, Mar. - Dec. 250; Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN VETRANIO PF AVG / Diademed bust of Vetranio. Star in front of bust, A behind.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM / Emperor standing, star above, holding two standards, each with a Christogram. A in left field.
Mint mark: . ASIS .
4.37 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #285; LRBC #1162; Sear #18903.
Callimachus
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501. Constantine I 104 viewsIn the year 320, Licinius, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began another persecution of the Christians. This was a puzzling inconsistency since Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius, was an influential Christian. It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324. The armies were so large another like these would not be seen again until at least the 14th century. Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries, represented the past and the ancient faith of Paganism. Constantine and his Franks marched under the Christian standard of the labarum, and both sides saw the battle in religious terms. Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious. With the defeat and death of Licinius (Constantine was known for being ruthless with his political enemies: Constantine had publicly promised to spare his life, but a year later he accused him of plotting against him and had him executed by strangulation), Constantine then became the sole emperor of the entire Roman Empire.[

RIC VII Siscia 235 c3

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501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
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501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a title of Christ[2].

The date for Christmas may also bear a relation to the sun worship. According to the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi, writing in the twelth century:

"It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." (cited in "Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries", Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p155])
Christianity designated Sunday as the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest, rather than Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.


CONSTANTINE I

RIC VII Siscia 32 R3

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501a. Fausta47 viewsFausta Flavia Maxima was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307.

It is suspected that Fausta was fiercely anti-Christian and plotting the Roman empire's return to paganism behind her husband's back. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine eventually put her to death along with Crispus, his eldest son by a previous marriage to Minervina, in 326. Eusebius of Caesarea suspected step-mother and step-son to be lovers to each other.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. Variety of sources, of more or less reliability, attest that she bore daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Gallus Caesar, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e they were of the same generation).

Fausta, wife of Constantine I. 325-326 AD. Æ Follis

OBVERSE: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
REVERSE: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
19mm - 3.1 grams

RIC VII Thessalonica 161 R3

Sear 3903
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502. CONSTANTINE II156 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine II, (316 - 340) was Roman Emperor (337 - 340). The eldest son of Constantine I and Fausta, he was born at Arles, and was raised as a Christian.

On March 1, 317, Constantine was made Caesar, and at the age of seven, in 323, took part in his father's campaign against the Sarmatians.

At the age of ten became commander of Gaul, after the death of his half-brother Crispus. An inscription dating to 330 records the title of Alamannicus, so it is probable that his generals won a victory over Alamanni. His military career continued when Constantine I elected his son field commander during the 332 campaign against the Goths.

Following the death of his father in 337, Constantine II became Emperor jointly with his brothers Constantius II and Constans. His section of the Empire was Gaul, Britannia and Hispania.

At first, he was the guardian of his younger brother Constans, whose portion was Italia, Africa and Illyricum. As Constans came of age, Constantine would not relinquish the guardianship and in 340 he marched against Constans in Italy, but was defeated at Aquileia and died in battle. Constans came to control his deceased brother's realm.

CONSTANTINE II, as Caesar. 317-337 AD. Æ Reduced Follis (18mm, 2.74 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 321-324 AD. Laureate head right / VOT / X in two lines across field; all within wreath; SIS sunburst. RIC VII 182. Ex-CNG
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502. Constantine II Siscia GLORIA EXERCITVS24 viewsSiscia

All that remains from prehistoric inhabitants on this area are small statues of idols and tools. Indigenous Illyrian tribes were conquered in the 4th century by the Celts. Celts ethically and culturally mixed with Illyric tribes and established on the right bank of the river Kupa a settlement called Segestica. Illyric and Celtic tribes succeeded in withstanding Roman pressures until the year 35 BC when Emperor Octavian with 12,000 soldiers conquered Segestica after a thirty - day siege.

After Romans had conquered Segestica, they built Siscia on the left bank of the river Kupa (right below the centre of today's Sisak). Siscia was the capital town of the Province of Pannonia Savia, where 40,000 inhabitants resided. The town had the forum, basilicas, temples, an empire mint, a theatre and two ports.
Christianity was spreading unstoppably and encompassed the town of Sisak. The first known Bishop of Sisak was Kvirin from 284 AD until his martyr's death, probably in the year 303 AD.
With gradual collapse of the Roman Empire, the importance of Sisak declined and the great migration brought to Sisak Huns, Gauls, Avars and Slavs. Slav tribes remained in this area and eventually the Slav language became dominant.

RIC VII Siscia 253 R3
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504. CONSTANTIUS II148 viewsFlavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty

Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (in Illyricum) and named Caesar by his father. When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives decended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving adult males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East.

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans become sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to Caesar. As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on November 3, 361, and Julian was hailed Augustus in the whole of the Roman empire.

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church, frequently taking the side of the Arians, and he called the Council of Rimini in 359.

Constantius married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter, Faustina Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

CONSTANTIUS II. 337-361 AD. Æ 18mm (2.41 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears conical hat; at right, shield on ground; ASIS. RIC VIII 350. Good VF, green patina. Ex CNG
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504. Constantius II Campgate Nicomedia18 viewsNicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I dedicated the city anew, gave it his name, made it his capital, and adorned it with magnificent monuments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public edifices of the city — a senate house, an aqueduct which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora by a canal which should follow the river Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost destroyed the town. From Nicomedia perhaps, he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his community warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who opposed the sect of the Ophites (P.L., LIII, 592), seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia was the favorite residence of Diocletian, who built there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an arsenal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop Anthimus and a great many Christians were martyred. The city was then half Christian, the palace itself being filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, delivered a discourse in the presence of the judge before he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly during the fourth century from an invasion of the Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Constantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its ramparts, parts of which are still preserved.

RIC VII Nicomedia 158 R2

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504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch18 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

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507. Magnentius36 viewsMagnentius (ruled AD January 18, 350–August 11, 353), was a Roman usurper.

Dissatisfaction amongst the ranks of the Roman army with Constans came to a head with the elevation of Magnentius at Autun on January 18, 350. Constans was abandoned by all except a handful of retainers, and he was slain shortly afterwards by a troop of light cavalry near the Pyrenees.

Magnentius quickly attracted the loyalty of the provinces in Britain, Gaul, and the rest of western Europe, in part because he proved to be far more tolerant towards both Christians and pagans.

The remaining emperor of the family of Constantine the Great, Constantius II broke off his war in the east with Persia, and marched west. Their armies met in the Battle of Mursa Major in 351; Magnentius led his troops into battle, while Constantius spent the day of battle praying in a nearby church. Despite Magnentius' heroism, his troops were defeated and forced to retreat back to Gaul.

As a result of Magnentius' defeat, Italy ejected his garrisons and rejoined the loyalist cause. Magnentius made a final stand in 353 in the Battle of Mons Seleucus, after which he committed suicide.

Following the suppression of Magnentius' rebellion, Constantius commanded an investigation be made to find his followers. The most notorious agent in this search was the primicerius notorarum Paulus Catena.


Magnentius AE 16mm Half Centenionalis. D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, A behind / VICTORIAE NN AVG ET CAE, two Victories holding shield marked VOT V MVLT X.
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507a. Decentius86 viewsMagnus Decentius (d. 18 August 353) was a Roman usurper against Roman Emperor Constantius II.

Probably brother of Magnentius, Decentius was made Caesar by him in winter 350/351, and was consul in 352 and 353. When Magnentius was defeated by Constantius at the Battle of Mons Seleucus and killed himself, Decentius, who was leading reenfocement, hanged at Senonae.

Decentius as Caesar, AD 350-353, AE Double Cententionalis (25mm, 8.11g)
O: DN DECENTIVS NOB CAES; Cuirassed bust facing right.
R: SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES; Large Chi-Rho flanked by A and w; LSLG in exergue.
RIC 155 (Scarce), VM 6.
This is a full weight AE1 size of this Christogram series.

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508. Julian II33 viewsJulian II, the Apostate. 361-363 AD.

...Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.

28mm (8.57 gm). Siscia mint. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Bull standing right, two stars above; ASISC. RIC VIII 419; LRBC--. VF. Ex-CNG
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508. Julian II VOTA Sirmium9 viewsSirmium

Sirmium was one of the oldest cities in Europe. Archaeologists have found a trace of organized human life dating from the 5000 BC.

When the Romans conquered the city in the 1st century BC, Sirmium already was a settlement with a long tradition.

In the 1st century, Sirmium gained a status of a colony of the citizens of Rome, and became a very important military and strategic location in Pannonia province. The war expeditions of Roman emperors Traian, Marcus Aurelius, and Claudius II, were prepared in Sirmium.

In 103, Pannonia was split into two provinces: Upper Pannonia and Lower Pannonia, and Sirmius became the capital city of Lower Pannonia.

In 296, Diocletian operated a new territorial division of Pannonia. Instead of previous two provinces, there were four new provinces established in former territory of original province: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda. Capital city of Pannonia Secunda was Sirmium.

In 293, with the establishment of tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts; Sirmium become one of the four capital cities of Roman Empire, the other three being Trier, Mmediolanum, and Nicomedia. During the tetrarchy, Sirmium was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium. Sirmium was capital of this prefecture until 379, when the prefecture was divided politically into Eastern and Western Illyricum. The western part (including Sirmium) was included into prefecture of Italia. The eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture with the capital in Thessalonica.

The city also was an important Christian centre. Several Christian councils were held in Sirmium.

008. Julian II Sirmium

RIC VIII Sirmium 108 ASIRM???

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509. Jovian21 views09. Jovian39 viewsJovian was born at Singidunum in A.D. 330, the son of the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards. He also joined the guards and by A.D. 363 had risen to the post that his father had once held. He accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the disastrous Mesopotamian campain of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian had been mortally wounded during the retreat and Jovian seized his chance. Some accounts have it that on Julian's death Jovian's soldiers called out "Jovianus!" The cry was mistaken for "Julianus", and the army cheered Jovian, briefly under the illusion that the slain Emperor had recovered from his wound.

Shapur pressed his advantage and Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for peace on very unfavourable terms. In exchange for safety he agreed to withdraw from the provinces east of the Tigris that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisbis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. the King of Armenia, Arsaces, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires, and was forced to cede some of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity.

After arriving at Antioch Jovian decided to hurry to Constantinople to consolidate his position.

Jovian was a Christian, in contrast to his predecessor Julian the Apostate, who had attempted a revival of paganism. He died on February 17, 364 after a reign of eight months.

Jovian AE3. D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVLT X inside wreath
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510. Valentinian I55 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
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515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ælia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallæcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menæa and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
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517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
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601, Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, assassinated 15 March 44 B.C.55 viewsJulius Caesar AR Denarius 40 B.C. 20 mm, 3.6 gm; aVF; Moving mint. 49-48 BC. Obverse: Pontifical emblems culullus, aspergillum, axe, and apex. Reverse: elephant right trampling dragon; CAESAR in exergue. Ex Windsor Antiquities.


It is not possible to adequately discuss Gaius Julius Caesar within the constraints of this gallery. He was born on either the 12th or the 13th of July in 100 B.C. [most scholars agree upon this date, but it is debated], and he was assassinated on 15 March 44 B.C.

Caesar is arguably the most important figure in Roman history; only Augustus and, perhaps, Constantine the Great made contributions of equivalent magnitude. Caesar was a truly gifted writer, orator, politician and soldier .

Library and book store shelves are crowded with a variety of biographies on the great man. Christian Meier, professor of Ancient History at the University of Munich, has written a scholarly as well as intriguing biography of Caesar. It is simply titled Caesar. It was first published in Germany in 1982, and a recently published paper back translation by David McLintock is now available from Fontana Press (a subsidiary of HarperCollins Publishers).

Caesar is fascinating.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
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602. Theodosius II30 viewsFlavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East.

He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards Eastern Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving power behind the emperor and many of her views became official policy. These included her anti-Semitic view which resulted in the destruction of synagogues.

On the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he became Emperor. In June 421 Theodosius married the poet Aelia Eudocia. They had a daughter, Licinia Eudoxia, whose marriage with the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III marked the re-unification of the two halves of the Empire, even if for a short time. Theodosius created the University of Constantinople, and died in 450 as the result of a riding accident.

Bronze AE4, S 4297, VG, .96g, 12.3mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 408-450 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse no legend, cross in wreath, obscure mintmark in exergue; ex Forum
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604. Leo I387 viewsImperator Caesar Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus or Leo I of the Byzantine Empire (401–474), reigned from 457 to 474, also known as Leo the Thracian, was the last of a series of emperors placed on the throne by Aspar, the Alan serving as commander-in-chief of the army. His coronation as emperor on February 7, 457, was the first known to involve the Patriarch of Constantinople. Leo I made an alliance with the Isaurians and was thus able to eliminate Aspar. The price of the alliance was the marriage of Leo's daughter to Tarasicodissa, leader of the Isaurians who, as Zeno, became emperor in 474.

During Leo's reign, the Balkans were ravaged time and again by the West Goths and the Huns. However, these attackers were unable to take Constantinople thanks to the walls which had been rebuilt and reinforced in the reign of Theodosius II and against which they possessed no suitable siege engines.

Leo's reign was also noteworthy for his influence in the Western Roman Empire, marked by his appointment of Anthemius as Western Roman Emperor in 467. He attempted to build on this political achievement with an expedition against the Vandals in 468, which was defeated due to the treachery and incompetence of Leo's brother-in-law Basiliscus. This disaster drained the Empire of men and money.

Leo's greatest influence in the West was largely inadvertent and at second-hand: the great Goth king Theodoric the Great was raised at the Leo's court in Constantinople, where he was steeped in Roman government and military tactics, which served him well when he returned after Leo's death to become the Goth ruler of a mixed but largely Romanized people.

Leo also published a New Constitutions or compilation of Law Code[1], Constitution LV concerned Judaism: "JEWS SHALL LIVE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE RITES OF CHRISTIANITY. Those who formerly were invested with Imperial authority promulgated various laws with reference to the Hebrew people, who, once nourished by Divine protection, became renowned, but are now remarkable for the calamities inflicted upon them because of their contumacy towards Christ and God; and these laws, while regulating their mode of life, compelled them to read the Holy Scriptures, and ordered them not to depart from the ceremonies of their worship. They also provided that their children should adhere to their religion, being obliged to do so as well by the ties of blood, as on account of the institution of circumcision. These are the laws which I have already stated were formerly enforced throughout the Empire. But the Most Holy Sovereign from whom We are descended, more concerned than his predecessors for the salvation of the Jews, instead of allowing them (as they did) to obey only their ancient laws, attempted, by the interpretation of prophesies and the conclusions which he drew from them, to convert them to the Christian religion, by means of the vivifying water of baptism. He fully succeeded in his attempts to transform them into new men, according to the doctrine of Christ, and induced them to denounce their ancient doctrines and abandon their religious ceremonies, such as circumcision, the observance of the Sabbath, and all their other rites. But although he, to a certain extent, overcame the obstinacy of the Jews, he was unable to force them to abolish the laws which permitted them to live in accordance with their ancient customs. Therefore We, desiring to accomplish what Our Father failed to effect, do hereby annul all the old laws enacted with reference to the Hebrews, and We order that they shall not dare to live in any other manner than in accordance with the rules established by the pure and salutary Christian Faith. And if anyone of them should be proved to, have neglected to observe the ceremonies of the Christian religion, and to have returned to his former practices, he shall pay the penalty prescribed by the law for apostates."

Leo died of dysentery at the age of 73 on January 18, 474.

Bronze AE4, RIC 671, S 4340 var, VG, 1.17g, 10.3mm, 180o, Alexandria mint, obverse D N LEO P F AVG (or similar), pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Lion standing left, head right, cross above, ALEA in ex; very rare (R3); ex Forum
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64. Procopius.17 viewsAE 3, Sept. 365 - May 355, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: DN PROCOPIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Procopius, facing left.
Reverse: REPARATIO FEL TEMP / The emperor standing, holding labarum and shield, a small indeterminate object at foot. Christogram at upper right, palm branch at left.
Mint mark: CONSS
3.88 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #17 var.; Sear #19882/83.

This coin is not listed in RIC. The description of the types would indicate RIC 17a. However the branch at left indicates RIC 17b. But RIC 17b does not have the "indeterminate object" at the emperor's feet. Also, the officina number (S) is not listed for RIC 17a or 17b.
Callimachus
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641-668 Constans II - follis from Constantinople37 viewsProbably minted in Constantinople. Circular countermark with christogram on reverse.Ginolerhino
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68. Charles I.11 viewsShilling, 1643-1644; York mint.
Obverse: CAROLVS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX / Crowned bust, left; XII to right.
Reverse: CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO / Crowned oval garnished shield, with EBOR below.
Mint mark: lion on both sides.
5.80 gm., 30 mm.
North #2319; Seaby #2873.
Callimachus
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701a, Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, assassinated 15 March 44 B.C.192 viewsJulius Caesar

Of the great man, Joseph Sermarini states,"Gaius Julius Caesar is one of the most famous men in history. At the end of his brilliant military and political career he had gained control of the Roman state. His puppet senate heaped more and more honors upon him. In February 44 B.C. the senate named him dictator for life. Many senators, however, feared that he wished to become king, ending the Republic. On the 15th of March 44 B.C., 63 senators attacked him with knives they had hidden in the folds of their togas. This most famous of assassinations plunged the Roman Republic into 17 years of civil war, after which it would re-emerge as the Roman Empire."

It is not possible to adequately discuss Gaius Julius Caesar within the constraints of this gallery. He was born on either the 12th or the 13th of July in 100 B.C. [most scholars agree upon this date, but it is debated], and he was assassinated on 15 March 44 B.C.

Caesar is arguably the most important figure in Roman history; only Augustus and, perhaps, Constantine the Great made contributions of equivalent magnitude. Caesar was a truly gifted writer, orator, politician and soldier .

Library and book store shelves are crowded with a variety of biographies on this historical giant. Christian Meier, professor of Ancient History at the University of Munich, has written a scholarly as well as intriguing biography of Caesar. It is simply titled Caesar. It was first published in Germany in 1982, and a recently published paper back translation by David McLintock is now available from Fontana Press (a subsidiary of HarperCollins Publishers).

Caesar is fascinating.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.37 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
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703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia107 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.101 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
John_Comenus-Ducas_Sear_2208.jpg
75. John Comenus-Ducas, Kingdom of Thessalonica21 viewsKingdom of Thessalonica.
John Comenus-Ducas
AE 17mm small module trachy
1237-1244 AD.

O: IC-XC to left and right of Christ, bust facing

R: IW.., John, no beard, half length figure, standing, holding labarum-headed sceptre and akakia.

SB 2208; DOC 23.

ID'ed with help from FORVM member OrthdoxCoins. Thanks!
Sosius
Eudoxia-Con-101.jpg
76. Eudoxia.24 viewsAE 3, 401 - 403, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: AEL EVDOXIA AVG / Diademed bust of Eudoxia, hand of God above, holding a wreath.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE / Victory pointing to shield inscribed with a Christogram.
Mint mark: CONSA
2.46 gm., 17.5 mm.
RIC #101; LRBC #2213; Sear #20892.

RIC vol. X says (p. 71) that "this is the last bronze coinage in the Roman series to maintain the generally high standard of design and engraving characteristic of the fourth century."
Callimachus
John_VIII_Palaeologus_DOC_1647.jpg
89. John VIII Palaeologus. 21 viewsJohn VIII Palaeologus.

1425-1448.
AR Stavraton (25mm, 4.78 g, 6h).
Constantinople mint.

O: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; lis in right field

R: Crowned facing bust of John; pellets flanking.

DOC 1647-8; PCPC 348.9; LBC 1051-2; SB 2563. VF, area of weak strike, deposits.

Ex-CNG
1 commentsSosius
976-1025 Anon A2 S1813.jpg
976-1025 - follis (Anonymous class A2)60 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , bust of Christ facing, holding gospels ; in field IC / XC
+ IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE

Sear 1813
Ginolerhino
Strange Byzantine Obverse and Reverse.jpg
976-1025 A.D. - follis (Anonymous class A2)22 viewsThis coin has Christ on the obverse and the reverse contains the inscription +IhSUS, XRISTUS, bASILEU, bASILE. This would mean Jesus Christ, King of Kings. Thanks for all the I.D. help I received.cwonsidler
Valens_33.jpg
A127 viewsValens AE3

Attribution: RIC IX, 12b, Antioch
Date: AD 364-378
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm, ANTH in exergue
Size: 18 mm

Approximately one month after his ascension, Valentinian I appointed his younger brother, Valens, joint Augustus and placed him in charge of the eastern provinces including the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. As a dedicated Christian and anti-intellectual, Valens chose those close to him as his officers and ministers. He did not follow the traditional aristocratic ways. The Visigoths along the Danube frontier were being pushed towards the borders of the empire by the Huns. They requested asylum, which was not entirely granted by the emperor. Valens left a small group of riparian commanders to oversee the entry of a small group of Visigoths, but the barbarians crossed into the empire by the tens of thousands. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early AD 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. Interestingly, but AD 378, the Visigoths were actually joined by the Ostrogoths, Alans, and Huns, to form a formidable force which the Romans now had to contend with. The emperor of the West, Gratian, pleaded with his uncle, emperor Valens, to wait for his reinforcements to arrive prior to engaging the barbarians. In an act of superciliousness, Valens decided to take care of the problem himself due to his jealousy of his nephew’s successes. Valens sallied forth to the confrontation which would later be called the Battle of Adrianople. Here the hasty emperor met his fate. There are two accounts of his death given by Ammianus. The first states that he was mortally wounded by an arrow and died on the battlefield. The second account tells of how the wounded Valens fled to a wooden hut which was then burned down by Gothic troops who were unaware of his presence inside. Still a third account of his death was specified by the church historian Socrates (see quote below). The Romans never recovered from this debacle; this marked the beginning of the end for the empire. Gratian, only 19 at the time, chose a Spanish officer named Theodosius to take the position vacated by his uncle Valens.

“Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit.” – Church Historian Socrates The Ecclesiastical History VI.38
1 commentsNoah
Charles I H-C Img.jpg
A.D. 1625-1649 - Charles 1st - Tower Mint - Half Crown44 viewsObv:- CAROLVS : D. G. : MAG : BRI : FRA : ET : HIB : REX , Charles riding horse left, with upright sword, cloak flies from king's shoulder
Rev:- CHRISTO . AVSPICE . REGNO, Round garnished shield
Minted in London (Tower Mint), mintmark R in brackets both sides, A.D. 1644-1645
Reference:- S. 2778
maridvnvm
Charles I VI Triangle Img.jpg
A.D. 1625-1649 - Charles 1st - Tower Mint - Sixpence51 views
Obv:- CAROLVS : D. G. : MAG : BRI : FRA : ET : HIB : REX , Crowned, draped bust left, VI in right field
Rev:- CHRISTO . AVSPICE . REGNO, Shield
Minted in London (Tower Mint), mintmark Triangle both sides, A.D. 1639-1640
Reference:- TBD
maridvnvm
P3028729.jpg
A2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD. AE 25-30mm11 viewsA2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD..
Basil II + Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger,
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
DSCN5002.jpg
A2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD. AE 27-30mm 8 viewsA2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD.
Basil II + Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger,
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
DSCN4999.jpg
A3 Anonymouse Follis , 1023-1028 AD . AE 26-28mm9 viewsA3 Anonymouse Follis , 1023-1028 AD .
Basil II & Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
elis~0.JPG
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Elis. Circa 88-30 BC.83 viewsAR hemidrachm. Laureate head of Zeus right/Achaian League monogram. 14 mm 2.2g. FA DWE XE monograms across fields. Thunderbolt below. All within wreath tied at bottom. BCD 680-1; Clerk 259; Benner-Elis-52. Toned. ex. Christopher Morcom collection. ex CNG auction 173 lot 219.CGPCGP
Clipboard01~0.jpg
AE Anonymous follis of Christ, cCass B, Romanus III or Michael IV.41 viewsEMMANOVHΛ, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC

Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)

SBCV 1823.
Will Hooton
Arrowhead_1.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0122 viewsNorthwestern Iran
1200-800 BC
12.5cm (4.9”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390

Ex- Axel Guttmann Collection, Lot 27 (part of) Christies Sale 5524, Axel Guttman Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour, Part 2, 28 April 2004.

From Ancientresource.com:
“Axel Guttmann was the most famous collector of ancient militaria in the modern era, actually creating his own museum in Berlin to display his enormous collection.”

Description:
This arrowhead was part of lot 27 in Christies Sale 5524, Axel Guttman Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour, Part 2, London, April 2004. The lot (“A LARGE COLLECTION OF NORTH-WEST PERSIAN BRONZE ARROWHEADS. 2ND/EARLY 1ST MILLENNIUM B.C.”) consisted of an ancient bronze bowl with sculptural handles, filled to the brim with arrowheads of this type. A number of the arrowheads have since appeared on the market. Each is similar, with elongated deltoid head and long tang.
Robert L3
sb_2436.jpg
AE assarion Andronicus II and Michael IX41 viewsObverse: Andronicus l., and Michael r., holding labarum between them.
Reverse: KVPIE CWCON TUCBCIAEIC around bust of Christ
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1295-1320 CE
Sear 2436
12/16mm 1.00 gm
1 commentswileyc
2010-12-8_SB_2428.jpg
AE assarion Andronicus II and Michael IX clipped20 viewsObverse: Andronicus l., and Michael r., holding patriarchal cross between them.
Reverse: KVPIE BOH"O"V TOVC BACI"A" around bust of Christ
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1295-1320 CE
Sear 2428
10/14 mm .83 gm
wileyc
sb210128mm250.jpg
AE billion trachy John III SB 2101 type M 28 viewsObverse: IC XC barred, Full length figure of Christ, standing on dais?, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.
Reverse: IW OO, KW or IW barred O KW, full length figure of emperor on L., and of St Constantine nimbate, holding between them sword, half sheathed point downwards. Emperor and saint wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of simplified type. Emperor and saint rest hand on shield, emperor r. hand, saint l. hand.
Mint: Magnesia
Date: 1221-54 CE