Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Chlorus"
CONTIUS1-1.jpg
49 viewsConstantius I Chlorus - AE Post-Reform Radiate - 294-299 AD - Alexandria mint
Obv.: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev.: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius standing right, receiving globe from Jupiter standing opposite and holding a scepte, Δ between. In ex., ALE
Gs. 3,2 mm. 20,5
Cohen 20

Maxentius
coin128.jpg
34 viewsCyzicus RIC 18a Constantius I Chlorus AE Post-
Reform Radiate. 294-299 AD. FL VAL CONSTA
NTIVS NOB CAES, radiate cuirassed bust right /
CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius standing
right receiving globe from Jupiter standing opposite
and holding a scepte, KB between. Coin #128
cars100
con30abc.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, FOLLIS RIC 30a Aquilia, 300 CE 19 viewsObverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
Reverse: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Monet standing left holding scales and cornucopia.
AQT in ex., 27.92mm., 9.4 g,
NORMAN K
c_chlorus_genio_a.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS)30 views293-305 (as Caesar)
305-306 AD
AE 27 mm 8.45 g
O: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES laureate head right
R: GENIO POPVL ROMANI Genius standing left holding patera & cornucopia; ANT in exe
Antioch
laney
constantius_i_africa.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS50 views293 - 305 AD (As Caesar)
struck 297 - 298 AD
AE 28.5 mm, 6.96 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
R: FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing left holding scepter and elephant tusk, lion over bull at feet on left, H in left field
PKT in exe
Carthage
laney
constantius_chlorus_vot_xx.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS31 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
AE 19.5 mm max. 2.22 g
O: FL V[AL CONST]ANTIVS NOB C, Radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: VOT Dot XX within wreath
laney
C_CHLORUS_GENIO_RES.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS44 views293 - 305 AD
AE FOLLIS 26.5 mm 8.0 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
LAUR CUIR BUST R
R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI,
Genius standing l., modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, r. holding patera, l. cornucopiae; R in left field
GAMMA IN EXE.
ROME RIC 67a SCARCE
laney
constantius_chlorus_vot_theta.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS31 views293 - 305 AD (as Caesar)
AE 20 mm 3.62 g
O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust r.,
R: VOT/XX/ Θ, within wreath
RIC VI 88a Rome
laney
con_chlor_2_blk_b.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS25 views293 - 306 AD
Struck 293-294 AD
AE silvered ant., 22 mm, 3.81 g
O: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C radiate, draped cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA MILITVM Constantius standing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, "A" (Officina A) between, XXI in exe.
Cyzicus
Sear RCV IV #13982 ref: Hunter iv, p. cxciv. RIC v, ii, p. 302, 672 var ( C for CAES).
laney
constantius_chlorus_genio_res.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS (as Caesar)31 views293-305 AD
AE FOLLIS 26 x 28.5 mm 7.45 g
Obv. CONSTANTIVS NOBIL C, Laureate head r.
Rev. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing l., modius on head, naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, r. holding patera, l. cornucopiae; B/STAR in fields, TR in exergue.
Treveri (Trier)

laney
const_chlor_post.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS (POSTHUMOUS)31 viewsAugustus: 305 - 306 AD
struck ca.
AE Fractional 15.5 mm 1.73 g
O: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI , laureate veiled bust right
R: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM , Constantius I seated left on curule chair
Dot TS Dot B Dot in exe
Thessalonica
RIC VII 25 a
Note: unlisted in RIC, which does not include officinae B (or A or D; the listed officinae are Rare (R5)
laney
Constantius_I_Chlorus.jpg
*SOLD*18 viewsConstantius I Chlorus AE follis

Attribution: RIC VI 213a, Trier
Date: AD 296-297
Obverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head r.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius stg. l. holding patera and cornucopiae, “A” in
l. field, Γ in r. field, TR in exergue
Size: 25 mm
Weight: 8.4 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Constantio_pio.jpg
006 - Constantius "Chlorus" (struck under Constantine I, 307-337 AD), Follis - RIC 78948 viewsObv: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO, veiled, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MEMORIA FELIX, lighted and garlanded altar; on either side an eagle.

Struck in Trier (PTR in exe) autumn 307 - end of 308. Commemorative issue struck under Constantine I.
pierre_p77
Constantius-I_AE-Quarter-Follis_FL-VAL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_4a-A_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_XX_B_I_ALE_RIC-VI-33a_p-665_Alexandria_301-AD_C2_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 033a, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #170 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 033a, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo:XX/B/I// ALE, diameter: 25,5-28,2mm, weight: 9,11g, axis: 11h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 301 A.D., ref: RIC VI 033a, p-665, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES_SACR-MONET-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NOSTR_III_AQGamma_RIC_VI_36a_p-316_Aquilea_302-303_AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 036a, AE-1 Follis, SACR MONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #164 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 036a, AE-1 Follis, SACR MONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- SACR MONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
exerg: -/VI//AQΓ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Aquilea, date:302-303 A.D., ref: RIC VI 036a, p-316,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES_FELIX_ADVENT_AVGG_NN__H_left,_PKT_RIC_VI_24a_Carthage__298_A_D__Q-001_0h_25-28,5mm_10,38ga-s~0.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 024a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVG G N N, Africa standing right, #1152 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 024a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVG G N N, Africa standing right, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- FELIX AD VENT AVG G N N, Africa standing right, head left, wearing elephant head headress, standard in right and tusk in left, lion and bull at feet left, H left, PKT in ex.
exerg: H|-//PKT, diameter: 25,0-28,5mm, weight: 10,38g, axes: 0h,
mint: Carthage, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 024a,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_SALVIS-AVGG-ET-CAESS-FEL-KART_Gamma_RIC_VI_Carthage_32a_298-299-AD_Q-001_11h_28,5-29,5mm_10,17g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 032a, AE-1 Follis, SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, #183 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 032a, AE-1 Follis, SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, #1
avers: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right. Larger portarit-head.
revers: SALVIS AVG G ET CAES S FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands.
exerg: -/-//Γ, diameter: 28,5-29,5mm, weight: 10,17g, axes:11h,
mint: Carthage, date: 298-299 A.D., ref: RIC VI 032a,
Q-001
quadrans
121_Constantius_I__Heraclea_RIC_VI_015,_AE-Follis,_FL_VAL_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES,_CONCORDIA_MILITVM,_HB,_p-531,_295-6_AD_Q-001_0h_20,5-22,5mm_3,68g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VI 015, AE-Radiate Fraction, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius and Jupiter #187 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Heraclea, RIC VI 015, AE-Radiate Fraction, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius and Jupiter #1
avers:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- CONCORDIA MILI TVM, Constantius standing facing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing opposite and holding sceptre, H B in lower centre.
exerg: HB//--, diameter: 20,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,68g, axes: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 015, p-351,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I__AR-Argenteus_CONSTAN-TIVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Z_Rome_RIC-VI-42a_P-295-7_AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #193 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: CONSTAN TIVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Z, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 42a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-Q-001-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 087a, AE-Radiate Fraction, VOT/•/XX/ Γ in wreath, #1289 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 087a, AE-Radiate Fraction, VOT/•/XX/ Γ in wreath, #1
avers:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VOT/•/XX/ Γ in three lines within wreath.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 087a, p-359,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_Gamma_SIS_RIC_VI_109a_p-467_Siscia_299-AD_Q-001_11h_28-29mm_9,26g-s~0.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 109a, -/Γ//SIS, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1126 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 109a, -/Γ//SIS, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POP VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: -/Γ//SIS, diameter: 28,0-29,0mm, weight: 9,26g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 299 A.D., ref: RIC VI 109a, p-467,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES_SACR-MONET-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NOSTR_Star-Gamma_SIS_RIC_VI_135a_p-469_Siscia_301_AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 135a, AE-1 Follis, SACR MONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #172 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 135a, AE-1 Follis, SACR MONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- SACR MONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
exerg: */Γ//SIS, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, date:301 A.D., ref: RIC VI 135a, p-469,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Quarter-Follis_IMP-C-CONSTANTIVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-POPV-LI-ROMANI_SIS_RIC_VI_167_p-475_Siscia_305-06_AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18-18,5mm_2,57g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 167, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, Rare!!, #1125 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 167, AE-Quarter-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, Rare!!, #1
avers:- IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: SIS, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 305-306 A.D., ref: RIC VI 167, p-475, Rare,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES_SACRAMONET-AVGG-ET-CAESS-NOSTR_PTdot_RIC_VI_46a_p-286_Ticinum_300-303_AD_Q-001_axis-11h_25,5-26,5mm_8,60g-s.jpg
121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 046a, AE-1 Follis, SACRAMONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #1270 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VI 046a, AE-1 Follis, SACRAMONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- SACRAMONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
exerg: -/-//PT•, diameter: 25,5-26,5mm, weight: 8,60g, axes: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date:300-303 A.D., ref: RIC VI 046a,,
Q-001
quadrans
121_Constantius-I__Chlorus_(293-305_A_D__Caesar,_305-306_A_D__Augustus),_Bi-Tetradr_-G-3349,D-6050-6055,Alexdr_-Elpis-l_-L-B_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
121p Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, G-3349, D-6050-6055, Bi-Tetradrachm, Elpis standing left, L-B across the field,62 views121p Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, G-3349, D-6050-6055, Bi-Tetradrachm, Elpis standing left, L-B across the field,
avers:- ΦΛ Α ΚωCTANTIOC K, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- Elpis standing left holding flower and hem of skirt, Δ in exergo, L-B across the field.
exerg: L/B//Δ, diameter: 21mm, weight: 9,5g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 293-294 A.D., Year 2. L-B., ref: Geissen- 3349, Dattari-6050-6055, Kapmann-Ganschow-121.14-p-358,
Q-001
quadrans
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
140-Theodora_AE-4_FL-MAX-THEO-DORAE-AVG_PIETAS-ROMANA-dot_CONS-E_RIC-VIII-36-p-449_C-4_Constantinopolis_330-AD_Q-001_11h_15,5-16mm_1,79g-s.jpg
140 Theodora (305-306 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 036, -/-//CONSE, PIETAS ROMANA•, Pietas facing, head right,65 views140 Theodora (305-306 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 036, -/-//CONSE, PIETAS ROMANA•, Pietas facing, head right,
2nd wife of Constantius I. (Chlorus).
avers:- FL-MAX-THEO-DORAE-AVG, Bust of Theodora right, wearing plain mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed.
revers:- PIETAS-ROMANA-•, Pietas facing, head right, carrying an infant at her breast.
exergo: -/-//CONSE, diameter: 15,5-16mm, weight:1,79g, axis: 11h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 330 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-36, p-449,
Q-001
quadrans
140-Theodora_AE-4_FL-MAX-THEO-DORAE-AVG_PIETAS-ROMANA_TRS-Plam_RIC-VIII-91-p-144_Trier_340-AD_Q-001_0h_13,5-14,5mm_1,71g-s.jpg
140 Theodora (305-306 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, Trier, RIC VIII 091, -/-//TRS Palm, PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas facing, head right,76 views140 Theodora (305-306 A.D.), AE-4 Follis, Trier, RIC VIII 091, -/-//TRS Palm, PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas facing, head right,
2nd wife of Constantius I. (Chlorus).
avers:- FL-MAX-THEO-DORAE-AVG, Bust of Theodora right, wearing plain mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed.
revers:- PIETAS-ROMANA, Pietas facing, head right, carrying an infant at her breast.
exergo: -/-//TRS Palm, diameter: 13,5-14,5mm, weight:1,71g, axis: 0h,
mint: Trier, date: 340 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-91, p-144,
Q-001
quadrans
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_147ac_img.jpg
147 - Constantius Chlorus - AE Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 187a13 viewsAE Follis
Obv:– IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | * / PLG). May A.D. 305 to Early A.D. 307 (Bastien 1st May A.D. 305 – 25th July A.D 306)
Reference:– Bastien XI 369 iii (71). RIC VI Lugdunum 187a.

Somewhat overcleaned. Let's see what it looks like in a few years time when nature has had some time to work on it.
maridvnvm
RI_147aa_img.jpg
147 - Constantius Chlorus - AE Follis - RIC VI Lugdunum 6 13 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (//LB). c. A.D. 295
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (Rated scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_147ae_img.jpg
147 - Constantius Chlorus - RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 634 17 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Pax, standing left, holding olive branch and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (//A). Emission 12, Series 2, Officina 1. A.D. 294
Reference:– Cohen -. Bastien 614 (3). RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 634
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 147s img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC V pt II 627 Bust Type C21 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– COMES AVGG, Minerva standing left, holding olive-branch and spear and resting left hand on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe). Emission 12, Officina 2. A.D. 294
References– Cohen 12. RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 627 Bust Type C. Bastien 629 (9 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 147t img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC V pt II 635 Bust Type C16 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENT DEOR, Providentia, standing left, holding baton and scepter; at foot globe
Minted in Lugdunum (Thunderbolt in exe). Emission 10, Officina 1.
References– RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 635 Bust Type C. Bastien 493 (18 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 147r img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC V pt II 635 Bust Type C25 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENT DEOR, Providentia, standing left, holding baton and scepter; at foot globe
Minted in Lugdunum (A in exe). Emission 10, Officina 1. 1st March A.D. 293 to 20th November A.D. 293
References– Cohen 237. RIC V Pt. 2 Lugdunum 635 Bust Type C. Bastien 506 (19 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 147a img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC V pt II 67381 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES, Jupiter standing right, holding long sceptre and globe, facing Hercules standing left, holding Victory, club and lion's skin
Minted in Antioch (S in centre field, XXI. in exe)
References:– RIC V part 2 673
maridvnvm
RI 147b img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Alexandria 15a note57 viewsObv:– FAL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV - L - I ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (Γ in right field, ALE in exe.) in A.D. 294
References:– RIC VI Alexandria 15a note. (FAL VAL legend variety noted in the Vienna collection)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_147ag_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Alexandria 33a12 viewsObv:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES; Laureate head right
Rev:- GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI; Genius of the Roman People standing facing, head left, holding cornucopia and pouring libation from patera
Minted in Alexandria (XX | E/I //ALE). A.D. 301
Ref:- RIC VI Alexandria 33a

10.35g, 27.21mm, 180o

Slight double strike on reverse
maridvnvm
RI 147n img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Alexandria 5329 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Laureate bust right
Rev:– HERCVLI VLTORI, Hercules standing facing with head left, right hand leaning on club, left hand holding apples and with a lions skin hanging from the elbow
Minted in Alexandria (Δ in upper left field, S in left field, in right field, ALE in exe.) A.D. 305 to A.D. 306
References:– RIC VI Alexandria 53 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_147af_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Cyzicus 11a11 viewsAE Follis
Obv:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head of Constantius right.
Rev:= GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia, KB in exergue.
Ref:- RIC VI Cyzicus 11a

10.01g, 27.82mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI 147t img~0.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI London 14a29 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera
Minted in London (No marks). c. A.D. 300 onwards
Ref:– RIC VI London 14a (R)
maridvnvm
RI 147p img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI London 1635 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera
Minted in London (No marks) c A.D. 300 onwards
References:– RIC VI London 16 (S)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 147c img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 00636 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (LA in exe). A.D. 295
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (scarce). Bastien XI 16 legend break i
maridvnvm
RI 147k img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 00622 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (LA in exe). A.D. 295
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (scarce). Bastien XI 16 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI_147z_img.JPG
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 00614 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (LB in exe). A.D. 295
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 6 (scarce)
180 degrees.

Flat strike on head of emperor and legs of Genius.
maridvnvm
RI_147q_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 017a14 viewsObv:– FL VAL CONSTNTIVS NOB C, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (-). c. A.D. 296
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 17a. Bastien XI Annex AN8
maridvnvm
RI 147e img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 053a35 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field, PL in exe). A.D. 298
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 53a. Bastien XI 68 legend break iii (9 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 147x img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 053a 22 viewsObv:– CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate bust right
Rev:– GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field, PL in exe). A.D. 298
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 53a. Bastien XI 68 legend break iii (9 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 147o img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 164a (_|A)16 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | A /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164a. Bastien XI 326 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI 147g img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 164a (_|B)28 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | B /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 164a. Bastien XI 346 legend break ii
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 147f img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 167a23 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, with sceptre over right shoulder
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | B /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167a. Bastien XI 311 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI 147y img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 167a14 viewsObverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, with sceptre over right shoulder
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | B /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167a. Bastien XI 311 legend break ii
maridvnvm
RI_147ad_img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 167a12 viewsObv:- CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust left, with sceptre over right shoulder
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (_ | A /PLC). A.D. 301-303
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 167a.
maridvnvm
RI 147m img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 187a19 viewsObverse Legend – IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (* in right field, PLG in exe). 1st May A.D. 305 – 25th July A.D 306
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 187a. Bastien XI 369 legend break iii
maridvnvm
RI 147j img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 187a20 viewsObverse Legend – IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust left
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia
Minted in Lugdunum (* in right field, PLG in exe). 1st May A.D. 305 – 25th July A.D 306
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 187a. Bastien XI 369 legend break iii
maridvnvm
RI 147i img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 25152 viewsAE Follis
Obverse Legend – DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO, Laureate, bust right
Reverse Legend – CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing up with head up and wings spread on altar
Minted in Lugdunum (PLG in exe.). Summer A.D. 307 to Summer A.D. 308
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 251 (Scarce). Bastien XI 436 (4 examples cited)

Weight 6.96 gms.
Size 22.22mm on Obv. X-Axis, 22.94mm in Obv. Y-Axis.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 147l img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Lugdunum 26469 viewsAE Follis
Obverse Legend – DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO. Laureate, veiled and cuirassed head right
Reverse Legend – MEMORIA FELIX. Lighted altar; eagle to left and right
Minted in Lugdunum (PLC). Autumn A.D. 307 - Summer A.D. 308
Reference:- RIC VI Lugdunum 264 (Scarce). Bastien XI 499

Weight:- 5.87 gms
Size:- X-Axis 26.98mm, Y-Axis 23.81mm
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 147h img.jpg
147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Treveri 160a29 views Obverse Legend –CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate, bust left
Reverse Legend – GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopia
Minted in Treveri (A in left , TR in exe). c. A.D. 295
Reference:– RIC VI Treveri 160a (Rated Scarce)

It should also be noted that the usual reverse break for these coins is PV-LI and RIC notes that the OP-VL break occurs but very rarely.

Weight 11.21 gms which is heavier than expected for this issue with RIC noting a weight range of 8.5gms to 10.5 gms.

Size 25.39mm on Obv. X-Axis, 25.46mm in Obv. Y-Axis.
maridvnvm
IMG_4545.JPG
156. Constantius I Chlorus (293-306 A.D.)27 viewsAv.: IMP C CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Rv.: CONCORDIA MILITVM
Centre: B
Ex.: ALE

AE Follis Ø19-22 / 2.7g
RIC VI 59A Alexandria
Juancho
IMG_4365~0.jpg
157. Helena (Wife of Constantius I Chlorus)16 viewsAv.: FL HELENA AVGVSTA
Rv.: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE
Ex.: dot SMH epsilon

AE Follis Ø18 / 2.5g
RIC VII Heraclea 95
Juancho
ConstantiusChlorusFollisGenio.jpg
1du Constantius I17 views305-306

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark: SIS, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

Also known as Constantius Chlorus.

RIC 167

After being names Caesar, according to Eutropius: A battle was fought by Constantius Caesar in Gaul, at Lingonae, where he experienced both good and had fortune in one day; for though he was driven into the city by a sudden onset of the barbarians, with such haste and precipitation that after the gates were shut he was drawn up the wall by ropes, yet, when his army came up, after the lapse of scarcely six hours, he cut to pieces about sixty thousand of the Alemanni. . . .

CONSTANTIUS and GALERIUS were made emperors; and the Roman world was divided between them in such a manner, that Constantius had Gaul, Italy, and Africa; Galerius Illyricum, Asia, and the East; two Caesars being joined with them. [Zosimus adds: Three years after Dioclesian died, and the reigning emperors, Constantius and Maximianus Gallerius declared Severus and Maximinus (who was nephew to Gallerius), the Caesars, giving all Italy to Severus, and the eastern provinces to Maximinus.] Constantius, however, content with the dignity of emperor, declined the care of governing Africa. He was an excellent man, of extreme benevolence, who studied to increase the resources of the provinces and of private persons, cared but little for the improvement of the public treasury, and used to say that "it was better for the national wealth to be in the hands of individuals than to be laid up in one place of confinement." So moderate was the furniture of his house, too, that if, on holidays, he had to entertain a greater number of friends than ordinary, his dining-rooms were set out with the plate of private persons, borrowed from their several houses. By the Gauls1 he was not only beloved but venerated, especially because, under his government, they had escaped the suspicious prudence of Diocletian, and the sanguinary rashness of Maximian. He died in Britain, at York, in the thirteenth year of his reign, and was enrolled among the gods.
Blindado
3290481.jpg
202. Septimius Severus53 viewsThe Caledonians are next mentioned in 209, when they are said to have surrendered to the emperor Septimius Severus after he personally led a military expedition north of Hadrian's Wall, in search of a glorious military victory. Herodian and Dio wrote only in passing of the campaign but describe the Caledonians ceding territory to Rome as being the result. Cassius Dio records that the Caledonians inflicted 50,000 Roman casualties due to attrition and unconventional tactics such as guerrilla warfare. Dr. Colin Martin has suggested that the Severan campaigns did not seek a battle but instead sought to destroy the fertile agricultural land of eastern Scotland and thereby bring about genocide of the Caledonians through starvation.

By 210 however, the Caledonians had re-formed their alliance with the Maeatae and joined their fresh offensive. A punitive expedition led by Severus' son, Caracalla, was sent out with the purpose of slaughtering everyone it encountered from any of the northern tribes. Severus meanwhile prepared for total conquest but was already ill; he died at Eboracum (modern day York) in Britannia in 211. Caracalla attempted to take over command but when his troops refused to recognise him as emperor, he made peace with the Caledonians and retreated south of Hadrian's Wall to press his claim for the throne. Sheppard Frere suggests that Caracalla briefly continued the campaign after his father's death rather than immediately leaving, citing an apparent delay in his arrival in Rome and indirect numismatic and epigraphic factors that suggest he may instead have fully concluded the war but that Dio's hostility towards his subject led him to record the campaign as ending in a truce. Malcolm Todd however considers there to be no evidence to support this. Nonetheless the Caledonians did retake their territory and pushed the Romans back to Hadrians Wall.

In any event, there is no further historical mention of the Caledonians for a century save for a c. AD 230 inscription from Colchester which records a dedication by a man calling himself the nephew (or grandson) of "Uepogenus, [a] Caledonian". This may be because Severus' campaigns were so successful that the Caledonians were wiped out, however this is highly unlikely. In 305, Constantius Chlorus re-invaded the northern lands of Britain although the sources are vague over their claims of penetration into the far north and a great victory over the "Caledones and others" (Panegyrici Latini Vetares, VI (VII) vii 2). The event is notable in that it includes the first recorded use of the term 'Pict' to describe the tribes of the area.

Septimius Severus. AD 193-211. Æ As (25mm, 11.07 g, 7h). “Victoria Britannica” issue. Rome mint. Struck AD 211. Laureate head right / Victory standing right, holding vexillum; seated captives flanking. RIC IV 812a. Near VF, brown surfaces with touches of green and red, porous. Rare.

From the Fairfield Collection.

ex-cng EAuction 329 481/100/60
1 commentsecoli
ConClVISis169a.jpg
305-306 AD - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Siscia 169a - GENIO POPVLI ROMANI38 viewsEmperor: Constantius I Chlorus (r. 305-306 AD)
Date: 305-306 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Quarter-Follis

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS AVG
Emperor Constantius
Head right; laureate

Reverse: GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI
To the Genius of the Roman Public.
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
Exergue: SIS (Siscia mint, no officina mark)

RIC VI Siscia 169a
2.38g; 18.7mm; 165°
Pep
coin508.JPG
314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
ecoli
03382z00.jpg
315. Quintillus110 viewsQuintillus, August or September - October or November 270 A.D.

Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus (d. 270) was brother of the Roman Emperor Claudius II, and became the Emperor himself in 270.

Historia Augusta reports that he became Emperor in a coup d'état. Eutropius reports Quintillus to have been elected by soldiers of the Roman army immediately following the death of his brother. The choice was reportedly approved by the Roman Senate. Joannes Zonaras however reports him elected by the Senate itself.

Records however agree that the legions which had followed Claudius in campaigning along the Danube were either unaware or disapproving of Quintillus' elevation. They instead elevated their current leader Aurelian to the rank of Augustus. Historia Augusta reports Aurelian to have been chosen by Claudius himself as a successor, apparently in a deathbed decision.

The few records of Quintillus' reign are contradictory. They disagree on the length of his reign, variously reported to have lasted as few as 17 days and as many as 177 days (about six months). Records also disagree on the cause of his death. Historia Augusta reports him murdered by his own soldiers in reaction to his strict military discipline. Jerome reports him killed, persumably in conflict with Aurelian. John of Antioch and Joannes Zonaras reported Quintillus to have committed suicide by opening his veins and bleeding himself to death. John reports the suicide to have been assisted by a physician. Claudius Salmasius pointed that Dexippus recorded the death without stating causes. All records however agree in placing the death at Aquileia.

Quintillus was reportedly survived by his two sons.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece, Claudia. who reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication to flatter Constantine the Great.

Surviving Roman records considered Quintillus a moderate and capable Emperor. He was seen as a champion of the Senate and thus compared to previous Emperors Servius Sulpicius Galba and Publius Helvius Pertinax. All three were highly regarded by Senatorial sources despite their failure to survive a full year of reign.

Bronze antoninianus, RIC 58, C-47, S 3246, EF, 3.37g, 19.9mm, 180o, Mediolanum mint, obverse IMP QVINTILLVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right; reverse MARTI PACI, Mars holding olive branch and spear, P in ex; found in England; Ex Forum
1 commentsecoli
coin200.JPG
402. Maximianus53 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. 250 - July, 310), known in English as Maximian, was Roman Emperor (together with Diocletian) from March 1, 286 to 305.

Born to a poor family near Sirmium (city in Pannonia), Maximian made a career in the army until 285, when the new emperor Diocletian, a friend of his, made him caesar (sub-emperor) and the ruler of the western part of the empire. The next year Maximian became augustus next to Diocletian, and in 293, when Diocletian introduced the Tetrarchy, Constantius Chlorus became Maximian's caesar and married Maximian's daughter Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

During his reign, Maximianus had several military successes, against the Alemanni and Burgundians in northern Germany, against the Carpi on the Danube frontier and against Carausius, who had rebelled in Britain and declared himself emperor there. He also strengthened the frontier defenses in Africa.

On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian retired together; it is clear that this was not a voluntary act of Maximian's, but that he was forced to do so by Diocletian. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus became the new emperors; Flavius Valerius Severus and Maximinus Daia became their caesars. When Constantius died the next year, Maximian's son Maxentius took the western emperorship, and named Maximian to be his augustus. Maximian resolved the conflicts around this emperorship by defeating Severus and Galerius in battle and bringing Constantius' son Constantine on his side by having Constantine marry his daughter Fausta.

However, in 308 Maximian rebelled against his own son, and marched upon Rome, but was beaten and forced to find refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In 310 he declared himself emperor for the third time, but was unable to defend himself against Constantine, who forced him to commit suicide.

For his own and his colleagues' victories, Maximian received the titles Germanicus Maximus V, Sarmaticus Maximus III, Armeniacus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus, Persicus Maximus II, Carpicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus.

Maximianus 286-305, Reform Follis - Siscia Mint
9.16g
Obv: Bust of Maximianus right "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG"
Rev: Moneta standing left holding a scale and cornucopiae "SACRA MONET AVGG E CAESS NOSTR" "SIS" in the exergue.
RIC 134b
ecoli
coin264.JPG
403. Carausius37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
ecoli
helena.JPG
405a. Helena106 viewsFlavia Iulia Helena, also known as Saint Helena, Saint Helen, Helena Augusta, and Helena of Constantinople, (c.248 - c.329) was the first wife of Constantius Chlorus, and the mother of Emperor Constantine I. She is traditionally credited with finding the relics of the True Cross.

Many legends surround her. She was allegedly the daughter of an innkeeper. Her son Constantine renamed the city of Drepanum on the Gulf of Nicomedia as 'Helenopolis' in her honor, which led to later interpretions that Drepanum was her birthplace.

Constantius Chlorus divorced her (c.292) to marry the step-daughter of Maximian, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Helena's son, Constantine, became emperor of the Roman Empire, and following his elevation she became a presence at the imperial court, and received the title Augusta.

She is considered by the Orthodox and Catholic churches as a saint, famed for her piety. Eusebius records the details of her pilgrimage to Palestine and other eastern provinces. She is traditionally credited (but not by Eusebius) with the finding of relics of the True Cross (q.v.), and finding the remains of the Three Wise Men, which currently reside in the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral. Her feast day as a saint of the Orthodox Christian Church is celebrated with her son on May 21, the Feast of the Holy Great Sovereigns Constantine and Helen, Equal to the Apostles. Her feast day in the Roman Catholic Church falls on August 18.

At least 25 sacred wells currently exist in Britain that were dedicated to her. She is also the patron saint of Colchester.

Helena Follis. FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand; PTR(crescent) in ex.
1 commentsecoli
coin409.JPG
405b. Theodora23 viewsFlavia Maximiana Theodora (known as Theodora) was the step-daughter of Maximian. Her parents were Afanius Hannibalianus and Eutropia, later wife of Maximian. Theodora's father was consul in 292, and praetorian prefect under Diocletian. In 293, Theodora married Flavius Valerius Julius Constantius (later known as Constantius Chlorus), after he had divorced from his first wife, Helena, to strengthen his political position.

Copper AE4, RIC 36, S 3911, VM 1, VF, 1.4g, 15.2mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 337-340 A.D.; obverse FL MAX THEODORAE AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas standing right holding child in her arms;Ex Forum
ecoli
coin225.JPG
409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
ecoli
56167.jpg
504. CONSTANTIUS II148 viewsFlavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty

Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (in Illyricum) and named Caesar by his father. When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives decended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving adult males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East.

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans become sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to Caesar. As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on November 3, 361, and Julian was hailed Augustus in the whole of the Roman empire.

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church, frequently taking the side of the Arians, and he called the Council of Rimini in 359.

Constantius married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter, Faustina Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

CONSTANTIUS II. 337-361 AD. Æ 18mm (2.41 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears conical hat; at right, shield on ground; ASIS. RIC VIII 350. Good VF, green patina. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli73
coin278.JPG
505. Constantius Gallus51 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (c. 325/326 - 354), better known as Gallus Caesar, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Eastern Roman Empire (351-354). Gallus was consul three years, from 352 to 354.

Son of Julius Constantius by his first wife Galla, Gallus' paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Julius Constantius was also a half-brother of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and thus Gallus was a first cousin of Roman Emperors Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.

Born in Massa Veternensis, Italia, young Gallus saw his father killed by order of his cousin Constantius II.

Gallus became Caesar of the East on March 15 351, added the name of Constantius to his own, and set up residence in Antioch. In order to create a loyality bond with his Caesar, Constantius gave him his elder sister Constantina as wife. Gallus ruled the city in such a severe way that people complained to Constantius, who had him arrested. On the way to his summons he was executed.

His youger half-brother Julian became later Emperor.

Constantius Gallus. 351-354 AD. DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare head bust right, draped & cuirassed / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, ASIS in ex. RIC 351
2 commentsecoli
Constantinus_Caesar.jpg
51 Constantius I Chlorus RIC 055a30 viewsConstantius I Caesar 293-305. Æ Follis. Antioch Mint. 300-301 AD. (26mm,12.29g,7h) Obv: F L VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right. Rev: Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia; K-Γ/V//ANT.
RIC 55a
1 commentsPaddy
12509977_971701676246844_1250419116_o.jpg
51 Constantius I Chlorus RIC 59a24 viewsConstantius I Chlorus (293-305 AD as Caesar)305-306 AD. AE Large Follis. Antioch Mint. 304-305 AD. (28mm, 11.02g) Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right. Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopia.
RIC 59a

Ex: Holding History, Agora Auction
1 commentsPaddy
Follis Constancio I RIC Antiochia 55a.jpg
A112-20 - CONSTANCIO I Como Cesar de Maximiano (293 - 305 D.C.)78 viewsAE Follis 24 x 25 mm 9.1 gr.

Anv: "FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido, de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "ANT" en exergo, "K" en campo izquierdo y "A/V" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 300 - 301 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.1ra)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Antiochia) #55a Pag.620 - Cohen Vol.VII #89 Pag.66 - DVM #25 var Pag.280 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7121.m Pag.61
mdelvalle
Follis Constancio I RIC 95a.jpg
A112-22 - CONSTANCIO I Como Cesar de Maximiano (293 - 305 D.C.)65 viewsAE Follis 29 x 27 mm 10.2 gr.

Anv: "CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda. "T * " en exergo.

Acuñada 299 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.3ra)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Roma) #95a Pag.361 - Cohen Vol.VII #61 Pag.65 - DVM #25 Pag.280 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7121.f.3. Pag.61
mdelvalle
constantiusI AElaureate.jpg
AE laureate CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS) - 305-306 AD85 viewsbv:CONSTANTIVS.AVG
rev:GENIO.POPVLI.ROMANI (Genius of the Roman People standing holding a cornucopia and pouring a sacrifice from a patera) / SIS
ref:RIC VI-Siscia169a (R2)
2.41gms, 18mm
Very rare
The coinage reform of 294 AD had been issued several new coins. One of them called the AE laureate or denarius communes.
denarius communes = 1/5 follis = 1/25 denarius argenteus
berserker
constantius postreform.jpg
AE radiate CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS) - 305-306 AD40 viewsobv:IMP.C.CONSTANTIVS.PF.AVG (radiate, draped bust right)
rev:CONCORDIA.MILITVM (Constantius standing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter) / B / ALE
ref:RIC VI-Alexandria59a, C.22
3.19gms, 20mm
berserker
coin511.JPG
Alexandria, Egypt; Constantius I Chlorus 16 viewsConstantius I Chlorus Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria. Year 3 = 295 AD. FL A KWNCTANTIOC K, laureate cuirassed bust right / L-G, Elpis standing left holding flower & hem of skirt.ecoli
Claudius_Gothicus_(commemorative_struck_under_Constantine)_half-follis_(AE).png
Claudius Gothicus (commemorative struck under Constantine, reigned 268-270) half-follis (AE)13 viewsObv.: DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP (Veiled and laureate head of emperor) Rev.: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM (Emperor seated on curule chair, one arm raised, holding sceptre in other) Diameter: 15,92 mm Weight: 0,96 g Exergue: SIS RIC VII 43

The fact that Claudius Gothicus is commemorated on Constantinian coinage is rather interesting. According to the Historia Augusta, Claudius was the maternal great-uncle of Constantius Chlorus. This linked the Constantinian line with a well-loved emperor and may even be a case of genealogical fabrication.
Nick.vdw
constantius_chlorus.jpg
CONCORDIA MILITVM, Cyzicus RIC 18a12 viewsConstantius I Chlorus AE Post-Reform Radiate. 294-299 AD. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, radiate cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius standing right receiving a small Victory on globe from Jupiter standing opposite and holding a sceptre, KB between. Cyzicus RIC 18a. Podiceps
092006_03.jpg
Constantius Chlorus72 viewsI think it is:
Constantius Chlorus
305-306 AD
Siscia RIC 167
Constantius I AE Denarius or quarter follis.
Ob: IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Rv: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI SIS, Genius standing left with modius on head with clamys over shoulder, holds patera and cornucopuia
Ex: SIS
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
00376q00.jpg
Constantius Chlorus6 viewsAE-Quinarius
CONSTANTIVS NOB CAE; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
PRINCIPI IVVENTVT; Emperor standing left, holding standard in his right hand and spear in his left.
Ex: -
Rome
RIC -- ; King 68A
Note: Flan fault on obverse
Julianus of Pannonia
constantius_I-RIC_35a.jpg
Constantius Chlorus 30 viewsAlexandria 302-303 AD.
25 mm, 10.5 g.
FL VAL CONSTANTIUS NOB CAES
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI STR
ALE in ex.

xokleng
1.jpg
Constantius Chlorus52 viewsRoman Empire
Constantius Chlorus (the Pale)
(Reign as 54th Emperor of the Roman Empire May 305-July 306AD) (Ruled the Western part of the Empire while Galerius was Augustus of the Eastern part)
(b. 250 AD, d. 306 AD)


Obverse: IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG, Laureate and Cuirassed bust of Constantius facing left

Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing facing left, sacrificing over altar and holding cornucopia

Mintmark * PLG


Bronze Follis
Minted in Lugdunum May 305-July 306 AD



Translations:

IMP CONSTANTIVS AVG = Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Constantius Emperor
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI = Protector of the Roman People
* PLG = The first officina in Lugdunum (Lyons, France)


References:
RIC 187a
2 commentsSphinx357
00324q00.jpg
Constantius Chlorus7 viewsAE-Antoninianus
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
VIRTVS AVGG; Hercules in the garden on the Hesperides, holding club and apple, standing r. under apple tree around which a serpent is entwined.
Ex: XXIT
Ticinum
RIC 670
Julianus of Pannonia
00318q00.jpg
Constantius Chlorus4 viewsAntoninianus
CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate. draped and cuirassed bust right.
COMES AVGG; Minerva standing left, spear in right hand, left hand resting on shield
Ex: B
Lugdunum
RIC 627
Julianus of Pannonia
00316q00.jpg
Constantius Chlorus5 viewsAE-Antoninianus
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
PROVIDENT DEOR; Providentia stg. left holding long sceptre, pointing with staff on globe at her feet.
Ex: Thunderbolt
Lugdunum
RIC 635 / Bastien 493 (18 ex.)
Julianus of Pannonia
00322q00.jpg
Constantius Chlorus6 viewsAE-Antoninianus
CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
SECVRIT AVGG; Securitas stg. left, leaning on column.
Ex: A
Lugdunum
RIC -; B.649 pl. XLVI (16 ex.)
Julianus of Pannonia
00329q00.jpg
Constantius Chlorus7 viewsAE-Antoninianus
CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
ORIENS AVGG; Sol, stg. left right hand raised, holding whip.
Ex: B
Lugdunum
RIC 631; Bastien 640 (24 ex.)
Julianus of Pannonia
Constantius_Chlorus_(293-305_as_caesar)_follis_(AE).png
Constantius Chlorus (293-305 as caesar) follis (AE)15 viewsObv.: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C (Laureate bust of emperor) Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI (Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopia, wearing modius on his head, chlamys draped over his shoulder) Field: R Exergue: Γ Diameter: 26 mm Weight: 7,96 g RIC 66a

The genius is a very old Roman concept. Originally, the genius represented something like the lifeforce and procreative power of a man (the female version being the iuno). It later turned into a guardian spirit of sorts. It is unknown when exactly the genius of the Roman people as a whole appeared, but the concept of the genius was expanded to a variety of things like guilds, armies and even provinces. A good example is the coinage of Traianus Decius which features types like the genius of the army in Illyria and the province of Illyria.
Nick.vdw
Constantius_18a.jpg
Constantius Chlorus - AE reduced antoninianus24 viewsHeraclea
295-296 AD
radiate, cuirassed bust right
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Constantius I standing right on left, holding scepter,
receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter
CONCORDIA MILI_TVM
HB
RIC VI Heraclea 15
2,1 g 21-20,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
constance_chlore.jpg
Constantius Chlorus, Follis14 viewsMint of Trier
DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO - Veiled, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
MEMORIA FELIX // PTR - Altar; eagle on either side.

307-308AD.

Ref:RIC 789 (VI, Treveri)
1 commentsbyzancia
Costanzo_Cloro~0.jpg
Constantius Chlorus, frazione radiata post riforma (Boyd collection)46 viewsCostanzo Cloro, frazione radiata post riforma, zecca di Ticinum (299 d.C.)
AE, 3.04 gr., 21 mm, qBB (qVF), S
D/ FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, busto radiato, corazzato e drappeggiato a dx
R/ VOT X T in una corona
RIC 42a
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (14 ottobre 2008, numero catalogo 25), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2005), ex Baldwin's Auctions 42 (London, 26 settembre 2005), ex W.C. Boyd collection (London, febbraio 1903), ex Spink (London, prima del 1903).
paolo
constantius-I-ricVI-214a.jpg
Constantius Chlorus- RIC VI 214a11 viewsTrier 296-297 AD.
25 mm, 8g.
CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES \\H
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI \\B\\G
TR in ex.
xokleng
constantius_clhrus-ric_28a_.png
Constantius Chlorus- RIC VI 28a21 viewsCarthago 298-299 AD.
25 mm, 7.7g
CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
SALVS AVG ET CAESS AVCTA KART
G in ex.
xokleng
Constantius I (16) 1 D.jpg
Constantius I86 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, as Caesar, AE Antoninianus. FL VAL CONSTIVS NOB CAES, radiate bust right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, Contantius receiving Victory from Jupiter.

Sear 3665
Tanit
CONSTANTIUS_CHLORUS_GENIO.JPG
Constantius I39 viewsConstantius I - Ticinium Mint - Officina 2 - AE Follis - RIC VI 35a

O: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right

R: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius standing left with modius on head,naked but for chlamys over shoulder, patera & cornucopiae, star left, ST dot in exergue

8.5g, 27/28mm, 180 degree die axis, 298-299AD
BiancasDad
1ConstantiusI.JPG
Constantius I 'Chlorus' (as Caesar)49 views293-305 AD
AE Antoninianus (pre-reform) (21mm, 2.74g)
O: Radiate and draped bust right; FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES.
R: Constantius standing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left; HA in field beneath, CONCORDIA MILITVM.
RIC 672 / Cohen 20 / Sear 3665
ex Jack H. Beymer
Enodia
08008AB.jpg
Constantius I 'Chlorus', 305-306 A.D., 21mm, 3.65g22 viewsBronze Antoninianus 21mm (3.65 grams) Cyzicus mint circa 305-306 A.D.

O - FLVALCONSTANTIVSNOBCAES - Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
R - CONCORDIAMILITVM Exe: HΓ - Constantius I standing right on left, holding scepter, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter.

Reference: RIC 18a (VI, Cyzicus)
robertpe
chlorus.jpg
Constantius I "Chlorus"19 viewsAE Follis, 7.9g, 29mm; Antioch mint: AD 300-301
Obv.: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES; Laureate bust right.
Rev.: Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera (from which liquor flows), left cornucopiae, epsilon / K - V // ANT
Reference: RIC VI 55a (p. 620)
John Anthony
constantiusI follis.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS) AE follis - 298-299 AD33 viewsobv: CONSTANTIVS.NOB.CAES (laureate head right)
rev: GENIO.POPV-LI.ROMANI (Genius standing left with modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, patera & cornucopiae) / A-* / TR
ref: RIC VI-Treveri343a
8.96gms, 25mm
berserker
constantiusI follis2.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS) AE follis - 302-303 AD30 viewsobv: FL.VAL.CONSTANTIVS.NOB.CAES (laureate head right)
rev: GENIO.POPV-L-I.ROMANI (Genius standing left with modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, patera & cornucopiae) / Δ/ TS•
ref: RIC VI-Thessalonica26a
8.42gms, 27mm
berserker
constantiusI fract-.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I (CHLORUS) fraction AD29970 viewsobv:FL.VAL.CONSTANTIVS.NOB.C
rev:VOT X / T
ref:RIC VI-Ticinum39a
mint:Ticinum, 2.69g, 20mm
Scarce
berserker
Constantius_Chlorus_Karthago__RIC_30a.jpg
Constantius I Carthage26 viewsAE (29mm- 10.2g)
obv. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
laureate head right
rev. SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Carthage standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands;
in ex. Γ
mint Carthage
RIC 30a
HG
Constantius I -1.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus42 viewsConstantius I as Caesar, AD 293-305, AE fraction, Carthage, 303.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev: VOT X FK in wreath.

RIC 35a.
Scarce
Tanit
Constantius~0.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus45 viewsConstantius I, as Caesar, Æ Follis. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate & cuirassed bust right / GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae.

London RIC 20
Tanit
constantius.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus43 viewsConstantius I as Caesar, AD 293-305, AE fraction, Carthage, 303.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev: VOT X FK in wreath.

RIC 35a.
Scarce
Tanit
Const_16.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus37 viewsConstantius I as Caesar, AD 293-305, AE fraction, Carthage, 303.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev: VOT X FK in wreath.

RIC 35a.
Scarce
Tanit
Constantius_Moneta_T_club.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus - AE follis9 viewsRome
300-301 AD
laureate head right
CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Moneta standing slightly left, holding scales and cornucopia
SACRA MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN
T club
RIC VI Rome 102a
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Constantius_Alexandria_Elpis_LD.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus - Alexandria5 viewsBI tetradrachm
1 Mar 293 - 28 Aug 293 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
ΦΛA KWCTANTIOC K
Elpis standing left, holding flower and raising skirt
L_A
A
Geissen 3347; Milne 5089; Dattari 6049; Emmett 4185 (R3); Kampmann-Ganschow 121.6
7,9g
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
ConstantiusI RIC 602a.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus - follis RIC 602a26 viewsFollis, RIC 602a, 11.04g; minted in Trier; obverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate cuirassed bust right; reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chalmys over left shoulder, right holding patera over altar, left cornucopia, S in left field, F in right field, PTR in ex.

Notes: Ex Martin Griffiths (Maridvnvm) collection.

Priscian
gtry.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus 305-306 C.E.15 viewsConstantius I chlorus Agustus 1/4 Follis
Obverse - CONSTANTIVS AVG. Bust right with laurel wreath
Reverse - GENO POP VLI ROMANI. Genius standing left, nude with chlamys over shoulders and modius on head paterain right hand cornucopia in left hand
Mintmark SIS RIC 169a
18.6 mm., 1.9 g
NORMAN K
roman16.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus AE Follis39 views301-303 AD. Lyons mint.
Obv.: CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera over altar and cornucopiæ. PLC in ex..
RIC 167a.
2 commentsMinos
constantius.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus AE fraction.21 viewsCONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust r.,

VOT XX , Θ.



RIC VI 88a Rome
GaiusCaligula
Constantius I +.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus Antoninianus22 viewsAE Antoninianus
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Rev: CONCORDIA MILITVM ; Constantius receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter.
Tanit
ConstantiusI RIC 35a.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus as Caesar - radiate RIC 35a26 viewsRadiate, RIC 35a, 3.01g; minted in Carthage, 293-305 A.D.; obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, radiated & draped bust right; reverse: VOT X FK in wreath. Priscian
201909098FKGAZ8VGvwQ5TfF_mwL0r_large.jpeg
Constantius I Chlorus as Caesar. AE Large Follis. 300-303 AD.8 viewsTicinum mint. (30 mm, 11.90 g).
Obv. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Rev. SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, right holding scales, left cornucopiae.
Ex. TT(dot).
RIC 46a
Ruslan K
Constantius I D.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus Divus A316 viewsAE3
Posthumous issues
Obv: DIVO ONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIP ; laur. and veiled hd. r.
Rev: REQVIES OPTIMOR MERIT ; Constantius std. l. on curule bench
Tanit
Divus Constantius  8 D~0.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus Divus A436 viewsAE 4

Obv.: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINC
Rev.:MEMORIAE AETERNAE ; lion walking r.
RIC VII (Rome) 121
Very rare.
Tanit
Constantius I D 1.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus Follis52 viewsAE Follis. Obv.: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES ; Rev.: SACRA MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN ; Moneta stg. l.Tanit
Constantine I Follis.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus Follis28 viewsConstantius I AE Follis. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, A to left, G to right, TR in ex.

Trier RIC VI 213a
Tanit
Constantius Chlorus.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus Follis29 viewsConstantius I AE Follis. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate bust right / GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, A to left, G to right, TR in ex.

Trier RIC VI 213a
Tanit
Chlorus_GENIO_ITR_k.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus, AD 293-305 7 viewsÆ Follis, 29mm, 9.6g, 12h; Trier mint, AD 303
Obv.: CONSTANTIVS NOBIL C, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, wearing modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae; S-F // ITR
Reference: RIC VI 508a, p.196
From the YOC Collection, 17-004-65
John Anthony
Constantius_I_2_opt.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, AE Follis RIC VI 32a, Carthago32 viewsOBV: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right (large head type)
REV: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART, Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands. Mintmark Gamma
7.41g, 28mm

Minted at Carthage, 298-99 AD
1 commentsLegatus
Constantius_I_1_opt.jpg
CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, AE Fraction RIC VI 35a, Vota29 viewsOBV: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: VOT X FK within wreath
2.3g, 20mm

Minted at Carthage, 303 AD
1 commentsLegatus
6002_6003.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus, Antoninianus, IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES1 viewsAE Antoninianus
Constantius I Chlorus
Caesar: 293 - 305AD
Augustus: 305 - 306AD
Issued: 293AD
24.0mm 3.58gr
O: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES; Jupiter standing right, holding globe and scepter, facing Hercules, standing left, holding Victory on globe, club and lion's skin.
Exergue: S, above line; XXI, below line.
Antioch Mint
Aorta: B44, O30, R49, T73, M2.
Cohen 164; RIC V-2, 673.
Agora Auctions for Holding History Lot 04-243
2/25/16 1/26/17
Nicholas Z
constantiusI_carthago_32.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus, RIC VI, Carthago 32(a)17 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, AD 293-305, father of Constantin I the Great
AE - Follis, 27mm, 8.48g
Carthago, AD 298/9
obv. CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Head, laureate, r.
rev. SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Personification of Carthago, wearing long robe, stg. facing, head l., holding fruits
in each hand.
in ex. Gamma
RIC VI, Carthago 32(a), C. 271
VF, rev. with thick green patina

The rev. legend is the famous ablativus absolutus meaning 'The emperors are well, Carthago is happy'.
Jochen
CONTIUS1-1-ROMAN.jpg
Constantius I Chlorus, Siscia RIC VI-090a(Γ)82 viewsAE Follis
Siscia mint, 295 A.D.
11.42g, 28mm
RIC VI-90a

Obverse:
CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Γ in right field
* SIS
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
2 commentsrubadub
Constantius I follis, 305-306 AD, Serdica.JPG
Constantius I follis, 305-306 AD, Serdica39 viewsConstantius Chlorus
AE – Follis
Serdica, 305-306 AD
laureate head r.
IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Genius stg. l., modius on hd., naked but for chlamys over l. shoulder, holding patera in r. hand & cornucopiae in l.
GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI
B in r. field, SM dot SD in exergue
RIC VI Serdica 12a
C
Ardatirion
Constantius_I_Genius_RIC_169a.JPG
Constantius I Genius RIC 169a17 viewsCONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, (Flavius Constantius Valerius), co-Emperor, AD 305-306, RIC VI, pg., 475 169a (R2),
OBV: CONSTANTIVS AVG, laureate bust right.
REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head,
naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding cornucopia and patera
SIS in exergue

RARE (R2)
Romanorvm
constantiusI_673var.jpg
Constantius I RIC VI, 673 var.100 viewsConstantinus I Chlorus, Caesar 293 - 305, father of Constantin I
AR - Antoninianus, 4.45g, 22.4mm
Antiochia AD 293
obv. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
draped, cuirassed bust, seen from behind, radiate head r.
rev. IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES
Jupiter standing r., holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules standing l.,
holding victory, club and lion's skin.
field: dot above S
exergue: XXI
RIC V/2, 673 var., unlisted in RIC
R5(?); about EF
added to www.wildwinds.com
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

1. These Antoniniani are very scarce in anticipation of the currency reform AD 294. Coins in circulation were withdrawn and melted down (Forum)
2. This type is known for Diocletian (A - Z) and Galerius (Gamma) and was expected for Constantius too (S), but not yet known (Curtis Clay)
Jochen
Constantius_I_Chlorus_Kaiser_Jupiter_Victoria.jpg
Constantius I. Chlorus als Caesar, 293 - 305 n. Chr.15 viewsAE Follis, 294 n. Chr., Heraclea
Vs: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Panzerbüste mit Strahlenkranz n. r.
Rs.: CONCORDIA MILITVM / HΔ, Caesar l. erhält Viktoria auf Globus von Jupiter r.
2,74 gr 21 mm
RIC VI,15. _e24

Antonivs Protti
costanzo_cloro_divo~0.jpg
Divus Constantius Chlorus, half follis (Boyd collection)44 viewsDivus Constantius Chlorus, mezzo follis o 1½ scripula (317-318, Costantino I), Roma
AE, 2.00 gr, mm 15,0, MB (F), RR
D/: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINC, testa laureata a dx
R/: MEMORIAE AETERNAE, aquila ad ali spiegate in piedi che guarda a sinistra
RIC 111 VII Rome
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (17 gennaio 2008, numero catalogo 39), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, Londra New York, 2005), ex Baldwin's auctions 42 (London, 26 settembre 2005, nel lotto 724), ex W.C. Boyd collection (London, dicembre 1901), ex Edgar Lincoln collection (London, prima del 1901).
paolo
divus_chlorus.jpg
Divus Constantius I. Chlorus10 viewsDivus Constantius I. Chlorus, from 306 AD, AE 1 / 2 Follis 307 - 308 AD 1,5 g, 17 mm. Thessaloniki mint. Obv.: DIVO PIO CONSTANTIO PRINCIPI, veiled head with laurel wreath right. Rev: REQVIES OPTIM-ORVM MERITORVM / disguised Constantius with elevated right and scepter in left curulis sella seated. RIC VII S. 503. 25.Podiceps
121_Constantius-I__Chlorus_(293-305_A_D__Caesar,_305-306_A_D__Augustus),_Bi-Tetradrachm,_G-3349,_D-6050-6055,_Alexandria.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 121 Constantius-I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3349, D-6050-6055, L/B//Δ, Elpis standing left, #1109 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 121 Constantius-I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Bi-Tetradrachm, G-3349, D-6050-6055, L/B//Δ, Elpis standing left, #1
avers: ΦΛ Α ΚωCTANTIOC K, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Elpis standing left holding flower and hem of the skirt, Δ in exergue, L-B across the field.
exergue: L/B//Δ, diameter: 21mm, weight: 9,5g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 293-294 A.D., Year 2. L-B., ref: Geissen- 3349, Dattari-6050-6055, Kapmann-Ganschow-121.14-p-358,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius_Chlorus_3.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 294/295, Constantius Chlorus, Homonoia 23 viewsConstantius Chlorus (as Caesar)
Tetradrachm, Egypt, Alexandria
Obv.: ΦΛA KωNCTANTIOC K, laureate bust right
Rev.: Homonoia standing left, raising arm and holding cornucopia, L - Γ = year 3 (294/295)
Billon, 7.73g, 19mm
Ref.: Kampmann/Ganschow 121.24, Dattari 6070
Ex Dionysos Numismatik
shanxi
Constantius_Chlorus.JPG
FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES24 viewsBohemian
Coin1001_quad_sm.jpg
Galerius Concordia Militum Ӕ post-reform radiate fraction (295 - 299), Cyzicus mint6 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped (?) and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MI-LITVM + KB in lower centre, Prince (the left figure) standing right in military dress, holding parazonium or baton of imperium, receiving small Victory with a wreath and palm branch on globe from naked Jupiter (the right figure) standing left holding tall scepter.

Ӕ, 20mm, 2.36g, die axis 6h, base metal seems red, high copper content.

Galerius ruled as Caesar from 293 to 305, but most sources give minting years for this type of coin as 295-299.

RIC VI Cyzicus 19b (18b?), Sear 3713. 19b has cuirassed and draped bust, 18b -- only cuirassed. I think the edge of the military cape on the shoulder means it is draped in this case, but distinction seems very vague to me. Looking at coins identified as 18b and 19b I cannot see any clear pattern, it seems that many are confused in this respect just like myself.

GALerius VALerius MAXIMIANUS NOBilitas CAESar (in this era the title of "junior" emperor while Augustus was a "senior" one), CONCORDIA MILITVM = [Dedicated to] harmony with the soldiers, K = Kysikos (Cyzicus) mint, B = officina Beta (workshop #2). The figure to the right is naked except for a cape, so it is a god, the sceptre points to him being Jupiter, the ruler of gods. Jupiter is also typically associated with Victory, he was often depicted with Victory in the right hand and sceptre in the left. The line across his head probably designates a wreath, also a common feature of Jupiter. Victory holds her common attributes, the triumphal wreath and a palm branch, the orb she stands on represents the world (thus meaning dominion over it). Round Earth was a firmly established concept in Roman times. The left figure, the prince (Galerius in this case) is identified by his full battle dress and the hand-held short elongated shape, which is either the ivory baton of imperium (the high command) or, more likely, a parazonium, a long triangular dagger, typically cradled in the bearer's left arm. A Roman parazonium blade tended to be leaf shape and approximately 15"-19" long. It was a ceremonial weapon, a mark of high rank, used to rally the troops.

GALERIUS, * c. 250, near Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) or in a Dacian place later called Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) † late Apr or early May 311 (aged ~60), Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) ‡ 1 Mar or 21 May 293 – 1 May 305 (as Eastern Caesar, under Diocletian), 1 May 305 – late Apr or early May 311 (as Eastern Augustus with many co-emperors).

Galerius was born of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by Diocletian, the supreme ruler of the empire, to help him govern the East. Galerius divorced his wife and married Diocletian’s daughter, Valeria. After ruling from Egypt from 293 to 295, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanians in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence with Diocletian. Galerius next proceeded to the Balkans and won numerous victories in the region. A staunch pagan, he persuaded the emperor to initiate the persecution of the Christians at Nicomedia in 303.

When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia. Since Galerius had arranged the appointment of two of his favourites, Maximinus (his nephew) and Flavius Valerius Severus, to be Caesars in both East and West, he was in effect the supreme ruler. When Constantius Chlorus died in 306, Galerius insisted that Severus govern the West as Augustus, but he grudgingly conceded the subordinate title of caesar to Chlorus’s son, Constantine, who was correctly suspected of Christian sympathies. Galerius’s supremacy was, however, short-lived. Severus was soon overthrown (306) and killed by Maxentius (son of the former emperor Maximian). Galerius invaded Italy but was forced to retreat. In 308 he induced Diocletian and Maximian to meet him at Carnuntum on the Danube and to declare Maxentius a usurper. On November 11, Galerius proclaimed as Augustus of the West his friend Licinius, who had effective control only in the region of the Danube.

A ruthless ruler, Galerius imposed the poll tax on the urban population and maintained the persecution of the Christians. In the winter of 310–311, however, he became incapacitated with a horrible disease. Fearing, perhaps, that his illness was the vengeance of the Christian God, he issued on April 30, 311, an edict grudgingly granting toleration. Shortly afterward he died. He was succeeded by his nephew Maximinus Daia.

Diocletian's money reform of 293.

Trying to fight the runaway inflation that he did not understand and to return people's faith in Roman coins, Diocletian did a complete overhaul of the Roman monetary system. He introduced a new theoretical base monetary unit called the denarius communis or d.c. (only rarely represented by actual coins, one example being old pre-Aurelian antoniniani still in circulation, valued now at 1 d. c., another – minted only on a small scale 1.5g coin with the reverse legend VTILITAS PVBLICA, "for public use"). Then he started minting new types of coins including a gold aureus of new purity and weight standard (1/60 pound of pure gold), a quality silver coin, argenteus, roughly similar to the early imperial denarius in size and weight, a new billon coin, of a copper alloy but with a small fraction of silver mostly in the form of coating, roughly similar to the old antoninianus when it was just introduced, however bearing now a laureate rather than a radiate bust. This type of coin is now commonly referred to as a follis or a nummus. Finally, a new radiate bronze coin, now referred to as a "radiate fraction" or a radiatus was introduced, similar to the early imperial aes in value, but much smaller in weight and size. There were also rare issues of ½ and ¼ nummus coins, mostly in connection to some celebration. Interestingly, the obverses of these new coins were chosen to represent some identical "generic" image of a "good emperor" independent of the actual likeness of the August or Caesar in whose name they were issued, thus affirming the unity of all the tetrarchy rulers. Very roughly one may think of a new radiatus as a price of one loaf of bread, a new argenteus as a very good daily wage, and a new aureus as a price of a good horse. An approximate relationship between these units was as follows: 1 aureus ≈ 20 argentei ≈ 1000 d.c. (some scholars prefer 25 argentei and 1250 d.c.); 1 argenteus ≈ 5 nummi ≈ 50 d.c.; 1 nummus ≈ 5 radiati ≈ 10 d.c.; 1 radiatus ≈ 2 d.c. Of course we know that this reform was ineffective and inflation continued, so all these values were constantly shifting due to changing markets. Diocletian himself stopped minting argenteus in c. 305, and Constantine in his monetary reforms only re-established a new and highly successful gold standard, solidus (1/72 pound of pure gold, surprisingly actually first introduced also by Diocletian in 301, but only as a pilot version). As for billon and bronze coins, "folles" or "nummi", they were minted in all shapes and sizes all over the 4th century, often horribly debased by inflation, and their values at each point can only be guessed. It seems that in later times up to 1000 small bronze coins were sealed in a leather pouch to produce a reasonable unit of payment, thus giving rise to the name follis (lit. "bag" in Latin), which is now anachronistically applied to many billon and bronze coins of the late 3d and 4th century.
Yurii P
PC200061_mod_frag.jpg
Generic Emperor of Late Diocletian Era7 viewsEnlarged bust from http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-155064

Although taken from a coin bearing the name of Galerius, this is in fact a "generic good emperor" portrait, that has nothing to do with the actual likeness of Galerius. To emphasize the universality of his tetrarchy, Diocletian minted the same portraits on all coins all over the empire, were they issued in his name, his co-Augustus Maximian, or their two junior co-emperors, Galerius and Constantius Chlorus.
Yurii P
Constantius_I_Bronze_quarter-follis.jpg
GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, RIC 169a Siscia20 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D. Bronze quarter-follis, RIC VI 169a, VF, Siscia mint, 1.575g, 18.1mm, 180o, 305 - 306 A.D.; obverse CONSTANTIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius of the Roman people wearing modius, holding cornucopia in left and patera in right, SIS in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVM
Podiceps
Constantius Chlorus.jpg
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI34 viewsAE1 Follis, 9.60 g, 27 mm, 6 h, 298-299 AD

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Laureate head right

Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI
Genius standing left, modius in head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, right hand holds patera and left hand hold cornucopiae. */-/-

Exergue: ST

Ticinum mint

RIC VI 35a
drjbca
RIC_Helena_RIC_VIII_Constantinople_49.JPG
Helena (mother of Constantine I & first wife of Constantius I Chlorus)18 viewsRIC VIII Constantinople 49, Sear RCV 3910, Cohen 4

AE4, 15 mm, die alignment 180°

Constantinople mint, struck posthumously, 337-340 A.D.

Obv: FL IVL HE—LENAE AVG, bust facing right, ornamental mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed.

Rev: PAX PV—BLICA, CONS theta in exergue, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse scepter.


Stkp
Helena,_SECVRITAS_REIPVBLICE,_Rome,_r1.JPG
Helena, RIC Rome 29112 viewsHelena, Augusta, struck 324-325 AD, I wife of Constantius I Chlorus. 19mm, 2.5g. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right. Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing half left, branch pointed down in right, raising pallium with left, R wreath S in ex. RIC VII Rome 291, r1. ex areich, photo credit areich

Podiceps
maximvict.JPG
Maximian AE Antoninianus, Siscia Mint 291 AD55 viewsObv: IMP C M A VAL MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate head rt.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGG, Maximian facing left, holding sceptre receiving Victory on globe from Diocletian, facing rt, B between; XXI in exergue (Wildwinds) RIC v.2 586 Rated Rare
Added to the Wildwinds database
A pre-reform radiate.

Issued between the time that Maximian was made co-Augustus of the Western Empire (286 AD) and the time that the Tetrarchy was formally set up by Diocletian appointing Galerius and Constantius Chlorus as Caesars of East and West in 293 AD.
daverino
theodora_pietas.jpg
PIETAS ROMANA 6 viewsTheodora, II wife of Constantius I Chlorus. Treveri (Trier) Mint, Officina 1, 337-340 AD. 15x16 mm, 1.68 g. 
Obverse: Bust right in plain mantle and necklace, hair elaborately dressed. 
FL MAX THEO-DORAE AVG 
Reverse: Pietas standing facing, head right, holding an infant to her breast. 
PIETAS ROMANA 
Exergue: (probably) TRP dot. 
Reference: RIC VII Trier 56. Ex MoremothPodiceps
Constantius_Chlorus_2.jpg
RIC 6, p.188, 329 - Constantius I Chlorus, Genius14 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, Genius
Æ Follis, Trier mint
Obv.: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius with modius, cornucopia and patera, B and star, TR in ex
Æ, 9.49g, 27.2mm
Ref.: RIC 329
Ex Dionysos Numismatik
shanxi
Constantius_Chlorus_1.jpg
RIC 6, p.427, 32 - Constantius I Chlorus, Carthage 23 viewsConstantius I Chlorus as Caesar
Æ Follis, Carthage mint
Obv.: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev.: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART / Γ, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding fruits in both hands
Æ, 11.32g, 28mm
Ref.: RIC VI 32 (a)
Ex Gitbud & Naumann
shanxi
14622q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS134 viewsCopper post-reform radiate, RIC 19a, S 3665, VF, 3.611g, 21.2mm, 180o, Cyzicus mint, 295 - 299 A.D.; obverse FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius standing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, KB in centerdpaul7
U4379F1WRZKBNWS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS25 viewsCONSTANTIUS I. AE follis, 30 mm., 8.99 grams. Rome mint, ca. 303-305 A.D. CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right/ SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN, Moneta standing right, balance in right hand, cradling cornucopia in left arm. R[cresecent] T in exergue. RIC 106, C. 263, Sear 3675.
dpaul7
ROME_CONSTANTIUS_I_RIC33a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS35 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS (292-305 Caesar; 305-306 Augustus). AE Folles, minted 301 AD. Obv.: Laureate bust right. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES Rev.: GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI Genius standing left, modius on head, naked, chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left. XX in left field; Δ in right field. In exergue: ALE = Alexandria mint. Reference: RIC VI Alexandria 33a.dpaul7
constantius_1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus12 viewsConstantius
AE 24mm

obv: head of constantius right
rev: VOT X F K
seaotter
Constantius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus (as Caesar) Follis, Cyzicus92 viewsConstantius I Chlorus - Billon Follis - Cyzicus
297-299 A.D.
Obv : FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
Rev : GENIO AVGG ET CAESARVM N N, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquor flowing from patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left, KB in ex.
28 mm - 9.5 g
(Cyzicus RIC 9a)
1 commentsAvita
constantius_concordia_militvm.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- CONCORDIA MILITVM154 viewsObv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Rev: CONCORDIA MI-LITVM
KB in center

RIC Cyzicus 18a

Listed as a Radiate Fraction AE
roscoedaisy
constantius_unlisted_off_qq22.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- Genio Populi Romani Unlisted Officina167 viewsCONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI
.SISC.
Gamma in right field
RIC 106a unlisted officina

Though a very popular reverse type for the Tetrarchs, this coin is only recorded for officina B and is listed as Rare, as are all 6 types in this rare issue (blank|A,B,Gamma / .SISC.). Curtis Clay surmises that all 6 of them were produced by all 3 officinae , making 18 variants. RIC records 8 of them, mine adds a 9th and there should be 9 more out there, though very rare indeed!
roscoedaisy
constantius_left_field-check_qq22.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- GENIO POPVLI ROMANI346 viewsObv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Rev: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI
Exe: ANT
Left Field: Delta over K
Right Field: Epsilon over V
Officina: DE

RIC Antioch 55a
4 commentsroscoedaisy
constantius_rate_qq22.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR853 viewsObv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Rev: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR
Exe: ST.
RIC Ticinum 46a
8 commentsroscoedaisy
constantius_kart.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART205 viewsObv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART
Exe: Gamma

RIC Carthage 32b
roscoedaisy
constantius_votive_2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- VOT X FK182 viewsObv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Rev: VOT / X / FK
RIC Carthage 35a

Noted in RIC simply as a Fraction, these coins seem fairly scarce for Constantius.

And no I did not clean this coin myself, bought this one as-is.
roscoedaisy
constantius_votive_1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- VOT XX Gamma174 viewsObv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Rev: VOT / XX / Gamma
RIC Rome 88a

Noted simply as a Fraction in RIC, these coins seem fairly scarce for Constantius.
roscoedaisy
bot19.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus AE Follis125 views301-303 AD. Lyons mint.
Obv.: CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate and cuirassed bust left, holding sceptre over left shoulder.
Rev.: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera over altar and cornucopiæ. PLC in ex..
RIC 167a.
3 commentsMinos
CONSTANTIUS_I_FIDES_MILITUM.JPG
Roman Empire, CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Aquileia. Struck c.A.D.305 - 306. 34 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN. Fides standing facing left holding two standards; in exergue, AQS.
RIC VI : 60a. Weight 8.9gms.
*Alex
constantiusI_673var~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantius I Chlorus RIC V, 673 var.540 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, Caesar 293 - 305, father of Constantin I
AR - Antoninianus, 4.45g, 22.4mm
Antiochia AD 293
obv. FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
draped, cuirassed bust, seen from behind, radiate head r.
rev. IOVI ET HERCVLI CONS CAES
Jupiter standing r., holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules standing l.,
holding victory, club and lion's skin.
field: dot above S
exergue: XXI
RIC V/2, 673 var., unlisted in RIC
Rarity?; about EF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
added to www.wildwinds.com

From Curtis Clay: This type is known for Diocletian from officinae 1-2, 4-5 and 7. For Galerius there are coins from officina 3 (added: 'Known also for Maximian, RIC'!). For Constantius coins from officina 6 (S) were expected but not yet known.This can be changed when more coins are coming out of Turkey or Syria
1 commentsJochen
Constantius_AR_Argenteus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus, AR Argenteus50 viewsThe coin is much better at hand than it looks on the picture; it has a marvellous golden patina.Optimus
Constantin_Chlorus_.JPG
Roman Empire, Constantius I Chlorus, Follis50 viewsConstantius Chlorus, als Cäsar, 293-305 n.C.
AE-Follis - Ticinum.

Vs.: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES Bel. Büste des Kaisers nach rechts.
Rs.: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR Moneta steht nach links, hält Waage und Füllhorn, im Feld Stern, im Abschnitt ST.
Maße: 11,32g, 26-29mm.
Kamp.: 121.42.
1 commentsM. V. Celerinus
cstii~0.jpg
Roman Empire, CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, FOLLIS RIC 30a Aquileia, 300 CE 76 viewsObverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right.
Reverse: SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Monet standing left holding scales and cornucopia.
AQT in ex. 9.4 g, 36 mm
2 commentsNORMAN K
Constantius I RIC VI Antioch 45a obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus, RIC 45a48 viewsConstantius I
AE Follis
Antioch Mint. 294-295 A.D.
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES - Laureate bust right.
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left with modius on head, cornucopiae and chlamys pouring liquid from patera.
Ref: RIC Antioch 45a
seraphic
CONTIUS1-1-ROMAN~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus, Siscia RIC VI-090a(Γ)146 viewsAE Follis
Siscia mint, 295 A.D.
11.42g, 28mm
RIC VI-90a

Obverse:
CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
Laureate head right.

Reverse:
GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Γ in right field
* SIS
Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, right holding patera, left cornucopiae.
rubadub
chlorus02LG.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I, Cyzicus - RIC IV 18a, 2nd officina124 viewsCONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS AE antoninianus
Struck at Cyzicus, 294-299 AD.
obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, radiate cuirassed bust right.
rev: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius standing right receiving globe from Jupiter standing opposite and holding a scepte, KB between.
21mm, 3.9g.
RIC IV 18a, 2nd officina
3 commentsJericho
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS_NOB_CAES_FELIX_ADVENT_AVGG_NN__H_left,_PKT_RIC_VI_24a_Carthage__298_A_D__Q-001_0h_25-28,5mm_10,38ga-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 24a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing right, #1377 views121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Carthage, RIC VI 24a, AE-1 Follis, FELIX ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing right, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- FELIX-AD-VENT-AVG-G-N-N, Africa standing right, head left, wearing elephant head headress, standard in right and tusk in left, lion and bull at feet left, H left, PKT in ex.
exerg: H|-//PKT, diameter: 25-28,5mm, weight: 10,38g, axes: 0h,
mint: Carthage, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 24a,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
Constantius-I_AE-Follis_CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES_GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI_Gamma_SIS_RIC_VI_109a_p-467_Siscia_299-AD_Q-001_11h_28-29mm_9,26g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 109a, -/Γ//SIS, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1340 views121 Constantius-I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VI 109a, -/Γ//SIS, AE-Follis, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, #1
avers:- CONSTANTIVS-NOB-CAES, Laureate head right.
revers:- GENIO-POP-VLI-ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergo: -/Γ//SIS, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 9,26g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 299 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-109a, p-467,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
Helena AE4 Pax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Helena, AE427 viewsRIC 33
AE4, 13mm.
Rev: PAX PVBLICA, Pax standing left holding olive branch & sceptre.
Mint: Constantinople (CONSG)

Helena was the 1st wife of Constantius I Chlorus and the mother of Constantine I.
E Pinniger
Theodora AE4 Pietas.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Theodora, AE428 viewsRIC 43
AE4, 14-15mm approx.
Rev: PIETAS ROMANA, Pietas standing right holding child in arms.
Mint: Trier (TRP)

Theodora was the 2nd wife of Constantius I Chlorus.

This coin has a very nice patina + almost no wear, but an extremely ragged flan.
E Pinniger
Screenshot_2017-05-10_13_57_34.png
Roman Imperial, Constantius I Chlorus as Caesar, AE Follis.14 viewsCarthage 298-299 A.D. 10.64g - 27.7mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES - Laureate head right.

Rev: SALVIS AVGG ET CAESS FEL KART - Carthago standing facing, head left, in long robe, holding fruits in both hands. Mintmark Γ.

RIC VI 32a.
1 commentsChristian Scarlioli
Constantius-I__AR-Argenteus_CONSTAN-TIVS-CAES_VIRTVS-MILITVM_Z_Rome_RIC-VI-42a_P-295-7_AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
Rome, 121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #165 viewsRome, 121 Constantius I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), RIC VI 042a, AR-Argenteus, -/-//Z, VIRTVS MILITVM, #1
avers: CONSTAN TIVS CAES, Laureate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS MILITVM, The Four Tetrarchs sacrificing over the tripod, City gate in the background.
exergue: -/-//Z, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd.off., date: 295-97 A.D., ref: RIC VI 42a,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
Rome, RIC VI 87a, 121 Constantius-I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), AE-1 Fractions, VOT/•/XX/ Γ in wreath,63 views121 Constantius-I. Chlorus (293-305 A.D. Caesar, 305-306 A.D. Augustus), AE-1 Fractions, RIC VI 87a, Rome, VOT/•/XX/ Γ in wreath,
avers:- FL-VAL-CONSTANTIVS-NOB-C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VOT/•/XX/ Γ in three lines within wreath.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, date: 298 A.D., ref: RIC VI 87a, p-359,
Q-001
quadrans
Chlorus.jpg
Silvered Follis of Constantius I Chlorus25 viewsA Silvered Follis of Constantius I Chlorus minted in Rome between 302-306 AD. 28 mm, 9.54 g.

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right

Reverse: SAC MON VRB AVGG ET CAESS NN, Moneta standing left with scales and cornucopia; star in right field, AT in ex

Attribution: RIC VI 106a
chuy1530
Constantius-1_Caesar_CONC-MIL_KB.JPG
Struck A.D.293 - 305. CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Caesar. AE Post-reform radiate of Cyzicus8 viewsObverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES. Radiate and draped bust of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Constantius standing facing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing facing left; in field between figures, KB.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 2.1gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 18a
*Alex
CONST_1_FOLLIS_AQS.JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 306. CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Aquileia. 11 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN. Fides standing facing left holding two standards; in exergue, AQS.
Diameter: 27mm | Weight: 8.9gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 60a
*Alex
CONSTANTIUS-1_AUG_GEN-POP-ROM_SLS__(2).JPG
Struck A.D.305 - 306. CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Augustus. AE Quarter Nummus of Siscia8 viewsObverse: IMP C CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI. Genius standing facing left, modius on head, holding patera in right hand and cornucopiae in left; in exergue, SIS.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 2.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC VI : 167 var.
VERY RARE
*Alex
 
183 files on 1 page(s)