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Search results - "Celtic"
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15 viewsoa
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15 viewsoa
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15 viewsoa
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17 viewsoa
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13 viewsoa
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45 viewsareich
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24 viewsCeltic, Bastarnae Tribe, Thrace, c. 220 - 160 B.C., Imitative of Macedonian Kingdom Type

The Bastarnae were an important ancient people of uncertain, but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian, ethnic origin, who lived between the Danube and the Dnieper (Strabo, Geography, VII, 3,17) during the last centuries B.C. and early centuries A.D. The etymology of their name is uncertain, but may mean 'mixed-bloods' (compare 'bastard'), as opposed to their neighbours the East Germanic Scirii, the 'clean-' or 'pure-bloods.'

32899. Bronze AE 16, imitative of SNG Cop 1299 (Macedonian Kingdom, time of Philip V and Perseus, 221 - 168 B.C.), Fair/Fine, 2.168g, 16.3mm, obverse Celtic-style bust of river-god Strymon right; reverse Trident
Patrick O3
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Celtic Coinage25 viewsContinental Celts & Tribes of Britannia
Gaul: Northwest Gaul: Aulerci Eburovices, Carnutes, Coriosolites, Redones, Senones, Veneti. Northeast Gaul: Ambiani, Remi, Suessiones (Cricironus), Treveri.
Central Gaul: Aediu, Arverni. Sequani (Turonos & Cantorix). Southern Gaul: Massalia (Marseilles), Tolostates, Volcae-Arecomici. Uncertain: Volcae Tectosages, Leuci, Senones.
Britain: Atrebates & Regni (Verica), Cantii (Amminus), CantuvellauniCorieltauvi (Volisios Dumnocoveros), Cunobelin, Dobunni, Durotriges, Epaticcus, Iceni, Trinovantes, Cantuvellauni & Trinovantes (Addedomaros, Caratacus).
Lower Danube: Geto-Dacians. Middle Danube: Hercuniates. Central Europe: Boii. Danubian Celts are also referred to as being from the Carpathian Region, in which there were various tribes, many unknown.
1 commentsChristian T
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Celtic imitation of Thrace. Odessos. AE 19mm.56 viewsCeltic imitation of Thrace. Odessos.
Late 3rd century BC.
Obv. Laureate head of Zeus right
Rev. Horseman riding right, OΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ ,
1 commentsLee S
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Macedon9 viewsCoins of the ancient Greek cities and Kings of Macedon, and some celtic imitations thereof. Includes the Hellenistic kings of Macedon and Roman successors. Principal mints: Akanthos, Amphipolis and Pella. 1 commentsAnaximander
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LT abs, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 385-310 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.67 g, 10 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, right, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A in two quarters

Marseille was founded by the Phocean Greeks circa 600 BC. This obol has obviously more greek than celtic origins.
Droger
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LT 681, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 225-100 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.59 g, 11 mm largest diameter, die axis 11h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, left, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A with small bullets in two of the quarters
Droger
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"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa31 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
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01. Durotriges stater.29 viewsStater, 58-45 BC, possibly minted at Hengistbury Head.
Obverse: devolved head of Apollo.
Reverse: devolved horse.
5.04 gm., 19 mm.
VA #1235-1; Seaby #367.

From the Blandford Forum Hoard, 1998.
Callimachus
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03. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC671 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.64gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
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05. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC472 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.12gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
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06. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC443 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.35gms, 21mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
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1 tessera roman Cohen 134 viewsAE tessera
2.41 g, 17.3 mm, 6 h.
Obv. Two horse shoes side by side within celtic torque.
Rev. TRI-VMP. Laurel tree with IO IO in field.
Cohen 1. Ex. Mabbott (1969), 5265.
cckk
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14. Celtic AR tetradrachm - GALLIERKOPF / SCHNURRBART type - 2nd-1st century (?)486 viewsobv: Apollo head (?) with a mustache right
rev: Rider left, under the horse is rosette with a central point
ref: Göbl OTA 349 (Gallierkopf/Schnurrbart), Pink 349 (Gallischer Einflus); Dessewffy 1224; Dembski 1273-1278 (Kopf mit Schnurrbart); Kostial -; LaTour 9866;
mint: unknown
9.87gms, 24mm

The obverse is one of the most beautiful and the most characteristic product of the (east) celtic coinage. The tipical gallic (or Apollo ?) head without beard and the thick pleated hair belongs to celtic coins of Noricum, and this motive probably got to the Munkács area with transmit of Boii. Maybe that's why Pink is classified in category of Western influence coins (unter Westlichem Einfluss).
Reverse rider holds a zickzack line (lightning?) in right hand, while with his left hand is based on the horse (see: LaTour 9866)
Other description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
2 commentsberserker
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1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
Blindado
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1db Saloninus37 views259

Son of Gallienus

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Sacrificial implements, PIETAS AVG

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded Saloninus' fate: After this, Posthumus, who commanded the Celtic army, was also inclined towards innovation, and accompanied some soldiers that revolted at the same time to Agrippina, which is the principal city on the Rhine, in which he besieged Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, threatening to remain before the walls until he was given up to him. On this account the soldiers found it necessary to surrender both him and Silvanus, whom his father had appointed his guardian, both of whom Posthumus put to death, and made himself sovereign of the Celtae.
Blindado
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1ei Constans21 views337-350

AE3

RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
Blindado
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1el Nepotianus27 viewsJune 351

Centenionalis

Laurel & rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, FL NEP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Roma seated holding victory VRBS ROMA

RIC 202

He seized power in Rome after the death of Constans but was killed by troops of Magnentius after 28 days. Zosimus recorded, "While he was forming these resolutions, and was very intent on warlike preparations, Magnentius still remaining in Gallia Celtica, Nepotianus, nephew to Constantius, by his sister Eutropia, collected a band of persons addicted to robbery and all kinds of debauchery, with whom he came to Rome, and appeared in an imperial dress. Anicetius, whom Magnentius had made prefect of the court, armed some of the common people, and led them out of the city to engage with Nepotianus. A sharp conflict ensued between them. The Romans being undisciplined, and observing no order, were easily routed; and when the prefect saw them fly, he shut the gates, for fear the enemy should follow them into the city. The troops of Nepotianus pursued them, and as they had no way of escape, killed every man. In a few days after, Magnentius sent an army under the command of Marcellinus, and Nepotianus was put to death."
Blindado
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1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
Blindado
ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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GratianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1es Gratian38 views367-383

AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
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ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
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TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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100_0710.JPG
2 Soldiers and Banner10 viewsIn style of Anonymous bust of Cyzicus mint.

* Please not the tear-drop eyes of the bust; you could argue the Celtic style of Briton was still strong when creating this coin
simmurray
szentendre_romkert_02.jpg
2009-Szentendre - roman cemetery20 viewsThis area lived the celtic eravisc tribe as inhabitants, they had these stone reliefs.berserker
szentendre_romkert_03.jpg
2009-Szentendre - roman cemetery47 viewsThe wagon scene stone relief shows the busts of the dead, where the men and children usually wore roman clothes, but women wore inhabitant –celtic- clothes. The wagon scene means the travellings of the dead in the other world. berserker
RIC_0264b.jpg
202. CARACALLA254 viewsCARACALLA. 198-217 AD.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at the Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.

AR Denarius (19mm, 3.11 gm). Struck 215 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P XVIII COS IIII PP, Sol standing left, radiate, raising right hand and holding globe. RIC IV 264a; BMCRE 139; RSC 288. EF
Ex - CNG
2 commentsecoli73
caracalla_RIC225.jpg
213 AD - CARACALLA denarius35 viewsobv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT (laureate head right)
rev: PROFECTIO AVG (Caracalla in military dress standing right, holding spear; behind two standard)
ref: RIC IVi 225 (S), RSC 508 (10frcs)
mint: Rome
2.57gms, 19mm
Scarce

This coin is commemorate the departure for a short visit to Gallia and a campaing along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia.
Historical backround: During the German war (213 AD), the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus.
In classical Celtic polytheism, Grannus was a deity associated with spas, the sun, fires and healing thermal and mineral springs. He seems to have embodied the notion of therapeutic heat. One of the god’s most famous cult centres was at Aquae Granni (now Aachen, Germany). Aachen means ‘water’ in Old High German, a calque of the Roman name of "Aquae Granni".
berserker
22-Celtic-Alex-tet.jpg
22. Celtic Alexander Tetradrachm (?)42 viewsTetradrachm, ca 2'nd century BC, Danube region.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Tripod at left.
17.25 gm., 28 mm.

In researching this coin, I found five coins which are from the same pair of dies as this one. These are the only examples of this type (tripod on reverse) that I've been able to find.

1. Palladium sale #10 (Nov. 1995), attributed to the mint at Pella and catalogued as Muller #146.

2. Palladium sale #11 (April 1996), described as "unlisted in Price, and apparently unknown before a recent hoard find. Variant of Price 633."

3. CNG sale #54, lot 99, described as a Celtic imitation of Alexander's coinage from the Danube region, ca 2'nd century BC. c.f. Goble, OTA, 566. This is the coin pictured above.

4. CNG sale #72, lot 13, described as "Celtic, Lower Danube, uncertain tribe, early 3'rd century BC . . . . Unpublished in the standard references . . . . By virtue of its style, fabric, and weight, this Alexander imitation is certainly an early issue, probably struck during the first decades of the third century BC."

5. Harlan J Berk 156th Buy or Bid Sale (Oct. 2007), lot 75, described as "Possibly unpublished . . . Somewhat unusual style on the obverse."

Five coins from the same pair or dies, five different attributions. I will agree, though, with the last statement of coin #4 above, that this appears to be an early issue. This coin is on a thick flan resembling coins minted during Alexander's lifetime and immediately thereafter and is made from good silver. There is something a bit barbaric about the style of this coin, although there are genuine Alexander coins listed and pictured in Martin J. Price's book which are more barbaric than this one. An interesting coin.
1 commentsCallimachus
OTA300-14.jpg
22. Celtic AR tetradrachm - SATTELKOPFPFERD type - c.125-75 BC435 viewsobv: stylized, laureated Lysimachos head right
rev: horse walking left with stylized rider made up of three dots and a leg. All within incuse - somewhat scyphate
ref: Göbl OTA 300-14; Slg. Lanz 648ff; Pink 305; Preda: Varteju-Bucarest type
mint: epicentre Muntenia
8.04gms, 22mm

Tetradrachm of geto-dacian tribes.
Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
OTA300-14-2.jpg
23. Celtic AR tetradrachm - SATTELKOPFPFERD type - c.125-75 BC390 viewsobv: stylized, laureated Lysimachos head right
rev: horse walking left with stylized rider made up of three dots and a leg. All within incuse - somewhat scyphate
ref: Göbl OTA 300-14; Slg. Lanz 648ff; Pink 305; Preda: Varteju-Bucarest type
mint: epicentre Muntenia
7.53gms, 21mm

Tetradrachm of geto-dacian tribes.
Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
29a_tótfalu-identify.jpg
29a. Celtic AR drachm – Boier TĂ“TFALU type413 viewsBecause of the obverse is worn enough, just some wave fragments (?) seen at the edge, it was hard enough to indentify. Of the typical Tótfalu coins only the gaul type has wavy hair figure, so I think my coin is verisimilar than the reference coin.1 commentsberserker
DSC05421.JPG
2nd Century C.E. Celtic Style Belt Mounts29 viewsCeltic style belt mounts in "trumpet" shapes 42mm length for the two complete mounts. The two complete mounts had one stud integrally cast in bronze. On the opposite ends a iron rivet was used to secure the fitting to the belt. The fragment piece has a very pronounced relief compared to the two fittings that are complete. This may also be a fragment of a belt plate.Fiorenza21
353.jpg
353.jpg31 viewsRemi in Gallia, Région de Reims, ca. 60-40 BC.,
Ć 21 (19-21 mm / 5,45 g), bronze, axes irregular alignment ↑↖ (ca. 320°),
Obv.: [AT]ISOS (downwards before) / [RE]MOS (downwards behind) , beardless head facing left, four-pointed floral ornament behind - Tęte ŕ gauche, un torque au cou. Légende devant et derričre la tęte. Fleur ŕ quatre pétales derričre la nuque, grčnetis.
Rev.: lion at bay left, dolphin below - Anépigraphe. Lion élancé ŕ gauche, la queue entre les pattes et enroulée jusqu'au-dessus du dos. Une esse au-dessus de la croupe, grčnetis.
DT. 596 ; LT. 8054 var. ; BMC Celtic 71 ; Scheers 147 ; Allen 'Coins of the Celts', illustrated as nos. 446 and 447 .

thanks to Alan ("Manzikert") for the id

Les Rčmes étaient l'un des peuples les plus puissants de la Gaule et les fidčles alliés des Romains. Le territoire des Rčmes s'étendait sur l'actuelle Champagne, le long de l'Aisne. Ils avaient pour voisins les Atuatuques, les Trévires, les Médiomatriques, les Lingons, les Suessions, les Bellovaques et les Nerviens. Ils dénoncčrent ŕ César la coalition des peuples belges de 57 avant J.-C. dont faisaient partie, les Suessions qui partageaient les męmes lois et les męmes magistrats. Leur principal oppidum était Bibrax. La capitale de la civitas ŕ l'époque gallo-romaine était Durocortorum (Reims).

The Remi were a Belgic people of north-eastern Gaul (Gallia Belgica). The Romans regarded them as a civitas, a major and influential polity of Gaul, The Remi occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa (Meuse) and Matrona (Marne), and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle.
Their capital was at Durocortum (Reims, France) the second largest oppidum of Gaul, on the Vesle. Allied with the Germanic tribes of the east, they repeatedly engaged in warfare against the Parisii and the Senones. They were renowned for their horses and cavalry.
During the Gallic Wars in the mid-1st century BC, they allied themselves under the leadership of Iccius and Andecombogius with Julius Caesar. They maintained their loyalty to Rome throughout the entire war, and were one of the few Gallic polities not to join in the rebellion of Vercingetorix.
Arminius
coins358.JPG
501. Constantine I London BEATA TRANQVILLITAS26 viewsLondon

Londinium was established as a town by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD led by the Emperor Claudius. Archaeological excavation (undertaken by the Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London now called MOLAS) since the 1970s has also failed to unearth any convincing traces of major settlement before c.50 — so ideas about Londinium being a military foundation around the Fort that protected London Bridge are now largely discounted.

The name Londinium is thought to be pre-Roman in origin although there is no consensus on what it means. One suggestion is that it derived from a personal name meaning 'fierce'. However, recent research by Richard Coates has suggested that the name derives from pre-Celtic Old European — Plowonida — from 2 roots, "plew" and "nejd", meaning something like "the flowing river" or "the wide flowing river". Londinium therefore means "the settlement on the wide river". He suggests that the river was called the Thames up river where it was narrower, and Plowonida down river where it was too wide to ford. For a discussion on the legends of London and Plowonida see [1]. The story of the settlement being named after Lud is considered unlikely.

Archaeologists now believe that London was founded as a civilian settlement by 50 AD. A wooden drain by the side of the main roman road excavated at No 1 Poultry has been dated to 47 which is likely to be the foundation date.

Ten years later, Londinium was sacked by the Iceni lead by the British queen Boudica. Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire at this date, and recently a military compound has been discovered in the City of London which may have been the headquarters of the Roman fight back against the British uprising.

The city recovered after perhaps 10 years, and reached its population height by about 120 AD, with a population of around 60,000. London became the capital of Roman Britain (Britannia) (previously the capital was the older, nearby town of Colchester). Thereafter began a slow decline; however, habitation and associated building work did not cease. By 375 London was a small wealthy community protected by completed defences. By 410 Roman occupation officially came to an end, with the citizens being ordered to look after their own defenses. By the middle of the 5th century the Roman city was practically abandoned.

RIC VII London 271 R2

ecoli
coin448.JPG
501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

ecoli
coin486.JPG
501b. Crispus BEATA Trier13 viewsTrier

The Romans under Julius Caesar subdued the Celtic Treverans in 58 to 50 BC. When the Roman provinces in Germany were reorganised in 16 BC, Augustus decided that Trier, then called Augusta Treverorum, should become the regional capital. From 259 to 274 Trier was the capital of the break away Gallic Empire. Later for a few years (383 - 388) it was the capital of Magnus Maximus, who ruled most of the western Empire.


The ruins of the Roman baths.Sacked by Attila in 451, it passed to the Franks in 463, to Lorraine in 843, to Germany in 870, and back to Lorraine in 895, and was finally united to Germany by Henry I the Fowler. The Archbishop of Trier was, as chancellor of Burgundy, one of the electors of the empire, a right which originated in the 12th or 13th century, and which continued until the French Revolution. The last elector removed to Koblenz in 1786; and Trier was the capital of the French department of Sarre from 1794 till 1814, after which time it belonged to Prussia.

RIC VII Trier 308

ecoli
coins209.JPG
502. Constantine II Siscia GLORIA EXERCITVS24 viewsSiscia

All that remains from prehistoric inhabitants on this area are small statues of idols and tools. Indigenous Illyrian tribes were conquered in the 4th century by the Celts. Celts ethically and culturally mixed with Illyric tribes and established on the right bank of the river Kupa a settlement called Segestica. Illyric and Celtic tribes succeeded in withstanding Roman pressures until the year 35 BC when Emperor Octavian with 12,000 soldiers conquered Segestica after a thirty - day siege.

After Romans had conquered Segestica, they built Siscia on the left bank of the river Kupa (right below the centre of today's Sisak). Siscia was the capital town of the Province of Pannonia Savia, where 40,000 inhabitants resided. The town had the forum, basilicas, temples, an empire mint, a theatre and two ports.
Christianity was spreading unstoppably and encompassed the town of Sisak. The first known Bishop of Sisak was Kvirin from 284 AD until his martyr's death, probably in the year 303 AD.
With gradual collapse of the Roman Empire, the importance of Sisak declined and the great migration brought to Sisak Huns, Gauls, Avars and Slavs. Slav tribes remained in this area and eventually the Slav language became dominant.

RIC VII Siscia 253 R3
ecoli
titus RIC208.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AR denarius - struck 1Jan-23June 79 AD91 viewsobv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT VIII COS VII (captive kneeling right in front of trophy of arms)
ref: RIC II 208(Vespasian) (S), C.334(6 francs)
3.32gms, 18mm
Rare

This reverse probably commemorating another Agricola's victory in Britannia or reminder of the successful Jewish War. I think it's belong to the Judea Capta series, because the captive wearing a typical jewish cap, and in ancient times both jewish men and women are wearing dresses covering most of their body (arms and legs). Celtic warriors had a long hair to scary the enemy (and they wearing pants).
4 commentsberserker
merged~2.jpg
7x Varius Celtic Drachm (Moesia Superior, Danube)39 viewsVarius Celtic Drachm, 300 BCE

Found on territory of Moesia Superior.

7x Drachm, weight 12.3 gram.

Silver.
Flamur H
AE-hanging-amulet_Br-age_Q-001_80x27x21mm_91,85g-s.jpg
AE-Antic-Object, Celtic (?) hanging amulet #01117 viewsAE-Antic-Object, Celtic (?) hanging amulet #01
The object made of bronze, with 10 knob in 4 row and a ring-shape form in the end part to be hung, and a conic shape form on the other side with 4 small knob.
size: 80x27x21mm,
weight: 91,85g,
date: Br-age c.800-600 B.C. (?)
ref:
Q-001
quadrans
aedui.jpg
Aedui Tribe, Gaul26 viewsCeltic Gaul. The Aedui. After 52 B.C. AR unit.
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right.
Reverse: Rider on horse galloping right; below, [D]VBNO.
CCCBM II 472. 13 mm, 1.94 g, 4′.
Ex ACCG Benefit Auction Lot 2, August 17, 2008.
b70
Alex_tetra.jpg
Alexander III, tetradrachm; Celtic imitation57 viewsCeltic imitation of: The Macedonian Kingdom. Alexander III, the Great, 336-323 B.C. Tetradrachm, 15,43 g Sear GCV II: 6721 var., testmarks. Below eagle sigma.5 commentsPodiceps
allobroges.jpg
Allobroges Tribe, Gaul26 viewsCeltic Gaul. The Allobroges. After 52 B.C. AR unit.
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right.
Reverse: Warrior holding couched lance on horse galloping right; below, DONNVS.
CCCBM II 277. 15 mm, 1.90 g, 4′.
Ex ACCG Benefit Auction Lot 1, August 17, 2008.
1 commentsb70
CelticPotinBaldBoarMed.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 3. Pigs (Three Different Ones)26 viewsCeltic potin, Leuci tribe
80-20 BC
AE17.6, 3.43 gm
Obv: bald warrior head left
Rev: boar standing left, three half-circles below
Ref: BN 9100-9104

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
ap_broken_die_50_2.jpg
Apollonia Pontica Drachm - Thracian Imitation24 viewsAnd now I have 6 of these from the same broken reverse die. Two of these were Forum purchases, one of which Dr. Prokopov has identified this as a tribal (Celtic?) imitative.Jaimelai
014.JPG
Apollonia Pontica Topalov 45i - Silver Drachm 31 views450-424 or 410/404 B.C.
2.84 gm, 14.2 mm
Obv: Gorgon head facing, snaky ringlets circle face.
Rev.: Anchor; A to left, crayfish to right
Topalov Apollonia p. 588, 45 var.; p.348, 9
Sear 1655var; BMC Mysia p.9, 11

Topalov Type: "Full-Face Gorgon's Head – Upright Anchor, a crab on the right, the letter A on the left or the letter A on the right and a crab on the left" Main Issue (450-424 or 410/404 B.C.)
Obv.: Full-face Gorgon's head in the classical Attic style. Gorgon's features are noble in conformity with the Attic manner of portraying her and Gorgon has more human hair in addition to the snakes.
Rev.: Upright anchor with large flukes, the letter A on one side, a crab as an additional symbol viewed from above on the other side. The image in a concave circle.

Forvm purchase (GS55520) - Dr. Prokopov has identified this as a tribal (Celtic?) imitative. This is my fourth coin with from the same cracked reverse die. There appears to be three different obverse dies though.
Jaimelai
AR-Celtic_Ring_Q-001_32,8x25,2x6,8mm_15,49g-s.jpg
AR-Celtic ring ???, #01,93 viewsAR-Celtic ring ???, #01,
size: 32,8x25,2x6,8mm,
weight:15,49g,
Q-001
quadrans
iceni_2x~0.jpg
BOUDICCA17 viewsCELTIC BRITAIN, ICENI
Boudicca,
60/61 AD,
AR Unit, 14 mm, 1.18g. Van Arsdell-794-1.
Obv: Celticized head r.
Rx: Celticized horse r.
From a private Kansas City Collection mostly formed in the 1980s-1990s
Van Arsdell-794-1
ex- Harlan J. Berk
laney
Venta Silurum remains - Temple.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 09, The Temple32 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75.
The site is open to the public to walk round.

View of The Temple. This was a Romano-Celtic temple built c. A.D. 330 - deity unknown. The temple stood in a sacred courtyard enclosure.
maridvnvm
celtica_doppia_definitiva.jpg
British Celts, Corieltauvi, Boar Type, (South Ferriby, North Lincolnshire, Uk)23 viewsBritish Celts, Corieltauvi, South Ferriby Boar Type, c. 45 - 10 B.C.
Silverunit, 0.809g, 0°, 14.5mm, VF
D/ simplified boar right, pellet-in-ring, above (off flan), pellet behind, annulet below
R/ horse right, pelleted sun-ring above
Cottam ABC 1800, Van Arsdell 875, BMC 3214 ff.
Provenienza: ex FAC (agosto 2012)
NOTA: frantumata durante il trasporto postale
paolo
DSCN5020.jpg
British minim, Atrebates tribe, (under Verica ), 15 - 40 AD. AR 9mm, 30 viewsBritish minim, Atrebates tribe, (under Verica ), 15 - 40 AD.
Obv. Gods head.
Rev. Celtic horse. Monogram.

UK metal detector find. Berkshire. 2012.
Ref. Van Arsdell 480.01.
Possible die match with http://www.finds.org.uk/CCI/details.php?coin_num=91.0039
Lee S
spear_collage.jpg
Bronze Age Reworked Dagger44 viewsAn ancient European Bronze Age reworked dagger, dating to approximately 800 BC.

Of rare and unusual form, with a long ridged handle, slender blade and prominent central rib. Unusually, this piece appears to have originally been made as a spear head, subsequently broken (possibly in battle), and reworked into a dagger. Beating marks from this process of reworking are still clearly visible.
A weapon such as this would have been used in battle by the early Celtic peoples and their predecessors, indeed the period to which this artifact dates was characterized by migrations and invasions of warrior led groups across Europe. The late Bronze Age appears to have been a time of widespread warfare and social upheaval, ultimately carried on the back of weapons such as this.

Length: 8 ˝ inches.


Provenance:
Ex-Collection of Henk Huffener (1923 – 2006), a respected artist, officially honored hero of the Dutch resistance, and successful antiques dealer, with establishments in Surrey and Kensington, England.
Huffener was born in Utrecht in 1923. One of nine children, he soon became known for his artistic talents, most notably for his still lifes, portraits, and abstractionist works. Huffener, inspired by his father, also became immersed in the world of anti-fascist activism. Come the start of the war, he began traveling the Netherlands, helping Jews escape Nazi-occupied Europe by providing them with forged papers, and hiding them from their persecutors. This incredible bravery and selflessness was documented in The Other Schindlers by Agnes Grunwald-Spier (2010), and Huffener was honoured by Yad Vashem as 'Righteous Among the Nations' in 1998. His wartime contributions were also commemorated posthumously in March 2010, when Prime Minister Gordon Brown awarded him the Hero of the Holocaust medal for "the service of humanity."
Huffener eventually moved to England in the 1950s, establishing his own antiques business in 1959 in Albury, Surrey. Here, his knowledge and collections grew to encompass antiquities, ethnographic art, glass, paintings and fossils. Also noted for his restoration skills, Huffener was much respected in his field, coming to befriend Herbert Reiser, one of the world's leading collectors.
Salaethus
Bronze-Knife_Q-001_19x59mm_6,06ga-s.jpg
Bronze-Knife from the "Hallstatt culture" #174 viewsBronze-Knife from the "Hallstatt culture" #1
type: Bronze-Knife. Two holes are for rivets that attached a handle with C-shaped rim.
size: 19x59mm,
weight: 6,06g,
date: Early iron age 8th to 6th centuries B.C.,
ref: ???.
distribution: "By the 6th century BC, it spanned across territories north-south from the Main, Bohemia, the Little Carpathians, the Swiss plateau, the Salzkammergut, down to the border between Lower Styria and Lower Carniola, and from the western zone, that included Champagne-Ardenne, the Upper Rhine, and the upper Danube, to the eastern zone, that included Vienna Basin and the Danubian Lowland, for some 1000 km. " from Wikipedia.
Q-001
"The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tčne culture. It is commonly associated with Proto-Celtic and Celtic populations in the Western Hallstatt zone and with (pre-)Illyrians in the eastern Hallstatt zone." from Wikipedia.
quadrans
0524174.jpg
Castulo Ancient Celtic Spain , 2nd- 1st Century BCE9 views21.9 mm., 6.0 g. AE Semis
Obverse - Bull standing right; crescent above
Reverse - Diademed male head right
SNG BM Spain 1346-1353 var.
NORMAN K
CeltiberiaRing1.jpg
Celtiberian Ring Money14 viewsAE ring money, 41mm, 20.99g, Iberia, uncertain Celtiberian tribe, 3rd-2nd centuries BC.Neal A
bolskan.jpg
CELTIBERIANS: Bolskan. AR denarius64 viewsCELTIBERIANS: Bolskan. AR denarius (4.45 gm). Ca. 150-100 BC. Bearded head right, wearing bead necklace, Oscan word "Bolskan" contracted behind / Mounted warrior with spear right, Oscan word "Bolskan" over ground line below. SNG BM 695-704. A few scratches. Nearly very fine

ex Freeman & Sear
1 commentsareich
Celtic.jpg
Celtic10 viewsSpain - Castulo

2nd - 1st Century BC

Obverse: Male head right

Reverse: Bull standing right; Crescent moon above
Pericles J2
celtic_horse.jpg
CELTIC (CELTIBERIAN)21 views2nd-1st Century BC
AE 19.5 mm, 3.86 g
O: head right
R: horse (?) prancing right
(head looks similar to Castulo, in which case the reverse might be a prancing helmeted sphinx)
laney
Celtic-AE-Ring-coin_26mm-s.jpg
Celtic AE Ring-coin 001277 viewsCeltic AE Ring-coin 0011 commentsquadrans
Celtic-AE-Ring-coin_Q-002_26mm-s.jpg
Celtic AE Ring-coin 002277 viewsCeltic AE Ring-coin 002quadrans
Celtic-AE-Ring-coin_Q-003_21mm-s.jpg
Celtic AE Ring-coin 003277 viewsCeltic AE Ring-coin 003quadrans
Celtic-AE-Ring-coin_Q-004_23mm-s.jpg
Celtic AE Ring-coin 004276 viewsCeltic AE Ring-coin 004quadrans
Celtic-Button_Triscele_AE-Q-002_21x21x11mm_5,21ga-s.jpg
Celtic AE-Button with Triscele #184 viewsCeltic AE-Button with Triscele #1
type: AE Button Triscele on it.
size: 21x21x11mm,
weight: 5,21g,
date:1st. cent. B.C.,
ref: ???.
distribution: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic-strap_distribution_Triscele_AE-Q-001_36x36x8mm_12,67ga-s.jpg
Celtic AE-Strap-distribution with Triscele #1115 viewsCeltic AE-Strap-distribution with Triscele #1
type: AE Strap-distribution Triscele on it.
size: 36x36x8mm,
weight: 12,67g,
date:1st. cent. B.C.,
ref: ???.
distribution: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
002a.jpg
Celtic and British23 viewsClick picture to enlargemauseus
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_14mm_2_63g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, 105 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-012_h_mm_g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, #263 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Dachreiter type, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-1892, Göbl-OTA-189-23, Kostial-459,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above_Dachreiter_type-Göbl-1892_Göbl-OTA-189-23_Kostial-459_Scarce_Second-first-century-BC__Q-001_14mm_2_56g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Dachreiter type, Scarce,92 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: h,
mint: Dachreiter type, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-1892, Göbl-OTA-189-23, Kostial-459,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l_-wheel-above_Dachreiter_type-Göbl-1892_Göbl-OTA-189-23_Kostial-459_Scarce_2nd-1st_cent_BC_Q-002_axis-9h_15-15,5mm_2,74g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Dachreiter type, Scarce, #2178 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Dachreiter type, Scarce, #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-wheel-above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15-15,5mm, weight: 2,74g, axis: 9h,
mint: Dachreiter type, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-1892, Göbl-OTA-189-23, Kostial-459,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_axis-7h_14mm_1,81g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type.115 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type.
avers:- Imitation of the issues of Philip II of Macedonia. Laureate head of Zeus right, large pellet on cheek.
reverse:- Stylized Horse trotting left, some pellet behind the neck of the horse and pellet within ring above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,81g, axis: 7h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl, OTA pl. 17, 207. Kostial, Lanz 95, 507.
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-002_axis-9h_13-14mm_2,41g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #2170 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #2
avers:- Imitation of the issues of Philip II of Macedonia. Laureate head of Zeus right, large pellet on cheek.
reverse:- Stylized Horse trotting left, some pellet behind the neck of the horse and pellet within ring above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13-14mm, weight: 2,41g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl, OTA pl. 17, 207. Kostial, Lanz 95, 507.
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-022_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #370 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Eastern Celts. AR Drachm. Uncertain Tribe, 2nd-1st centuries BC. Kugelwange (Ball cheek) Type. #3
avers:- Imitation of the issues of Philip II of Macedonia. Laureate head of Zeus right, large pellet on cheek.
reverse:- Stylized Horse trotting left, some pellet behind the neck of the horse and pellet within ring above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl, OTA pl. 17, 207. Kostial, Lanz 95, 507.
Q-003
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right-large_pellet_on_cheek_Horse-trotting-left_Göbl-xxx__Kugelwange-type,_3rd__2nd_c__B_C___Q-001_15mm_2_24g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Kugelwange-type108 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 2,24g, axis: h,
mint: Kugelwange-type, date: 3rd. and 2nd. century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-001_3h_13,5mm_2,21g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele,85 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele, 2nd c. BC.
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 2,21g, axis: 3h,
mint: Kugelwangen type, date:, 2nd.c. B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Distribution : , Hungary/ n. Serbia
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-002_0h_12-14mm_2,24gax-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele, 2nd c. BC. #274 viewsCeltic AR-Drachm, Kugelwangen type, kugel-triskele, 2nd c. BC. #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
revers:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12-14mm, weight: 2,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Kugelwangen type, date:, 2nd.c. B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Distribution : , Hungary/ n. Serbia
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic_AR-fouree-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-curved_rectangle_below_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_14mm_2_14g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-fouree-Drachm, 82 viewsCeltic AR-fouree-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above, curved rectangle below,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 2,14g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-fouree-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_14mm_1_99g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-fouree-Drachm, 71 viewsCeltic AR-fouree-Drachm,
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14mm, weight: 1,99g, axis: h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Obol_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-001_2h_8-8,5mm_0,39g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Obol, East Celts, #163 viewsCeltic AR-Obol, East Celts, #1
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 8-8,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 2h,
mint: East Celts, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-, Göbl-OTA-, Kostial-,
Q-001
"One similar type was presented in Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH/Auction Numismata Wien 2011/15. Apr. 201/Lot 26/
KELTISCHE MÜNZEN/OSTKELTEN/Südserbien
(D) Obol (0,38g), Typus "Baumreiter" (?). Av.: Stilisierter Kopf n.r. Rv.: Stilisiertes Pferd n.l. Dembski - (cf 1093/1094), OTA - (cf 143), Lanz - , Slg. Flesche -.
RR"
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Obol_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__Göbl-OTA-_Pink-_BC_Q-002_6h_7,5mm_0,43g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Obol, East Celts, #269 viewsCeltic AR-Obol, East Celts, #2
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:7,5mm, weight: 0,43g, axis: 6h,
mint: East Celts, date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-, Göbl-OTA-, Kostial-,
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic-Ag-Tetradrachm-_Q-001_26mm_13,86g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Tetradrachm, #1,177 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm,
avers: Laureate head of Zeus right.
reverse: A rider is advancing to the left. Several cutting tests on the surface.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0mm, weight: 13,86g, axes: h,
mint: Celtic, date: , ref: ,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Celtic-Ag-Tetradrachm-_Q-002_23,5-24,5mm_13,91g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Tetradrachm, #2,170 viewsCeltic-Ag-Tetradrachm,
avers:-,
reverse:-,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 23,5-24,5mm, weight: 13,91g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-_Q-001_2h_22,5-26,5mm_6,40g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, Göbl-OTA-193/10, Kostial-470, #769 viewsCeltic AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, Göbl-OTA-193/10, Kostial-470, #7
avers:- Laurate Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left, circle and dot in over the horse.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5-26,5mm, weight: 6,40g, axis: 2h,
mint: Kugelwange-type, date: 3rd. and 2nd. century B.C., ref: Göbl-OTA-193/10, Kostial-470, p-89,
Q-007
quadrans
Celtic-Ag-Tetradrachm_countermark-on-the_revers-_Q-001_22mm_13,29g-s.jpg
Celtic AR-Tetradrachm, with countermark,177 viewsCeltic Ar-Tetradrachm, with countermark,
avers:-,
reverse:-,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 13,29g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
45y64_027.JPG
Celtic Barbaric Immitation of Phillip II, King of Macedonia - 359-336.16 views6,34gr. 20mm _3453
Antonivs Protti
cunobelin.jpg
Celtic Britain - Cunobelin, Catuvellauni25 viewsCunobelin
British Celts, Catuvellauni
AE unit, 1st cent. AD, before 40
Head l.
CVNOBELIN
Minter seated right, striking coin
TASCIO
Spink 342
Ardatirion
CelticBritain_Atrebatis_SCBI-Mack72.jpg
Celtic Britain, Atrebates & Regni, Commius14 viewsCeltic Britain, Atrebates & Regni, Commius. c. 55-45 BC. AV Quarter Stater (1.40 gm). Anepigraphic. Celicized and devolved head of Apollo r. / Disjointed triple-tailed horse r., wheel below, with three pellets in rings around. VF. Bt. Apollo Coins 1999. SCBI Mack 72; Van Arsdell 228; BMC 519; Bean QcTM 1-1a; CCI 67.0065. cf. Spink SCBC 65 (for type). ℞ is similar to Spink SCBC 67; Mack 83; Van Arsdell 353ff.Christian T
Screenshot_2019-08-29_15_15_44.png
Celtic Britain, Cantii Tribe, Uninscribed, Potin, Cantian D, Rounded Bull Type. UK Metal Detecting find from Tilbury in Essex.1 viewsSouth of the Thames 90-75 B.C. 1.25g - 17.7mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: Stylized head left.

Rev: Stylized bull to left.

Van Arsdell 125-3; ABC 165; SCBC 63.
Christian Scarlioli
Durotriges.JPG
Celtic Britain, Durotriges (Circa 58 BC-45 AD)17 viewsStater, Abstract (Cranborne Chase) type

5.26g

Obverse: Devolved head of Apollo right

Reverse: Disjointed horse left; pellets above, [pellet below], pellet in lozenge above tail, [zigzag and pellet pattern between two parallel exergue lines].

Van Arsdell 1235-1; BMC 2525-54.

The Durotriges ("dwellers by the water" or, perhaps, "water-rat kings") were well known for their continental trade and hill forts. They were the only tribe who did not add inscriptions to their coins, perhaps indicative of decentralized rule among multiple hill-fort based tribes using a common currency, and the only tribe to strike a stater in silver.

The history of the Durotriges can be divided into two broad phases, an early phase, roughly 100-60 B.C. and a late phase from 60 B.C. until the Roman conquest. The early phase was a time of rapid development brought about by overseas trade, while the late phase was a time of retraction, isolation and economic impoverishment. The economic decline is dramatically portrayed by the progressive debasement of their coinage, particularly when you compare the magnificent white-gold Craborne Chase staters of ca. 50-40 B.C. with the crude cast bronze Hengistbury coins of ca. A.D. 10-43.

The Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, and the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta, then commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was already Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia.
2 commentsNathan P
Screenshot_2018-08-13_14_17_35.png
Celtic Britain, Durotriges Tribe, Silver 'Badbury Rat' Quarter Stater.1 views30 B.C. - 30 A.D. 10.08g - 12.3mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: Traces of three men in a boat.

Rev: Thunder bolt crossing field terminating in rings, pellets beside, radial sun/clam shell above, rings to left,
and to the right is a rat object.

ABC 2214; VA 1260; Spink 368.
Christian Scarlioli
Durotriges_Cranborne_Chase_type_AR_Stater_img.jpg
Celtic Britain, Durotriges, Cranborne Chase type, AR Stater17 viewsObv:- Celtic bust right
Rev:- Horse made of pellets
Minted 65-45 BC
maridvnvm
CelticBritain_Iceni_SCBC436.jpg
Celtic Britain, Iceni14 viewsCeltic Britain, Iceni. c. 10-61 AD. AR unit (1.31 gm). ECEN symbol, East Anglian type J. Anepigraphic. Sylized ecen corn ear w/ two opposing crescents & two pellets b/w, superimposed upon band of three lines / Sylized horse r. w/ long, thin legs. Three pellets on line, below gVF. Bt. Old Town Coin 1998. SCBC 436; Van Arsdell 754-1. cf. SCBI Mack 429; ABC 1681; BMC 4297ff; BIAC 4299.
Christian T
CelticBritain_Durotriges_SCBC371.jpg
Celtic Britain, the Durotriges13 viewsCeltic Britain, the Durotriges. 1st c. BC. AR BI Stater (3.25 gm) Cranborne Chase type. Uninscribed. Celicized and devolved head of Apollo r. / Abstract disjointed horse l., pellets above, pellet below, pellet in lozenge above tail, zigzag and pellet pattern below exergual line. gVF. Bt. Andy Gillis 1999. Spink SCBC 371 (or 367); SCBI Mack 317-318; Van Arsdell 1235, 1252-1254, 1290; ABC 2157.Christian T
CelticBritain_Durotriges_SCBC367.jpg
Celtic Britain, the Durotriges13 viewsCeltic Britain, the Durotriges. c. 60 BC-20 AD AR BI Stater (3.83 gm). Cranborne Chase type. Anepigraphic. Celticized Head of Apollo r. / Very abstract disjointed horse l. reduced to mostly pellets. gVF. Bt. Coral Gables, 1999. Spink SCBC 367 (or 371); Sear Greek 172; SCBI Mack 317-318; Van Arsdell 1235, 1252-1254, 1290; ABC 2157; Seaby (Sear Celtic) 60.Christian T
Proto-Money_Celtic_Propeller_Type_37.jpg
Celtic Bronze Propeller Proto-Money87 viewsDate: 500-200 BC
Size: 31 mm between prop blade tips

The Danube Celts used various styles of bronze proto-money including this scarcer propeller type. Celtic proto-money typically had holes so they could be strung for easy carrying.
2 commentsNoah
Celtic_Ring_Money.jpg
Celtic Bronze Ring Proto-Money 46 viewsAttribution: Quiggin, page 281, Plate 28, Hungary
Date: 800-500 BC
Size: 22.8 mm
(Marble statue of injured Gallic/Celtic warrior: Louvre, Paris)

Before the Celts settled in Wales, Scotland, Brittany, and Ireland, their territory extended to most of Europe. Although ancient Roman historians say the barbarian Celts had no coined money, there is evidence that they had ring-money made of bronze, silver, and gold. The rings vary in weight, but they are all exact multiples of a standard unit, showing the uniform principle regulated their size. This points to their use as current coinage.
Noah
40206_1.jpg
Celtic copy of Thrace Odessos19 viewsb70
DanubeCeltic.jpg
Celtic Danube53 viewsPhilip II of Macedon. Circa 2nd-1st centuries BC. AR Tetradrachm1 commentsAndreas G
Celtic-fouree-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_22-26mm_9,77g-s.jpg
Celtic fouree AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type,172 viewsCeltic fouree AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type,
avers:- Laurate Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left, cicle and dot in over the horse.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22-26mm, weight: 9,77g, axis: h,
mint: Kugelwange-type, date: 3rd. and 2nd. century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Remi_quarter_stater.jpg
Celtic Gaul - The Remi EL 1/4 stater45 viewsCeltic Gaul - The Remi
EL 1/4 stater - 1.48 g, 11mm
c. 100 BC
Celticized head
Celtic horse galloping r.
Castelin 516 var.

The Remi were one of the staunchest Roman allies in Belgica, fighting alongside Caesar during the Gallic Wars.
Ardatirion
Remi_potin.JPG
Celtic Gaul - The Remi potin unit, c. 100-50 BC49 viewsCeltic Gaul – The Remi
Potin unit
c. 100-50 BC
Figure with plait running right, holding torc and spear
Beast standing right, with mouth open; object in shape of fibula above, serpent(?) below
D&T 155; Depeyrot, NC VII, 29; CCCBM III 483
Ardatirion
REMI_CELTS_POTIN.jpg
CELTIC GAUL - The Remi Tribe49 viewsCELTIC GAUL - The Remi Tribe. Potin unit, c. 100-50 BC. Obv.: Figure with plait running right, holding torc and spear. Rev.: Beast standing right, with mouth open; object in shape of fibula above, serpent(?) below. References: D&T 155; Depeyrot, NC VII, 29; CCCBM III 483. Ex-Ardatirion collection.dpaul7
Screenshot_2019-08-29_10_10_22.png
Celtic Gaul, Sequani Tribe, Potin 'Grosse tęte' type.1 viewsBesançon 70-40 B.C. 4.89g - 22.3mm, Axis 3h.

Obv: Celticized head with double-headband to left.

Rev: Horned animal with S-shaped tail advancing left.

DT 3090; Allen BM, 311-312.
Christian Scarlioli
4076_4077.jpg
Celtic Gaul, Unit, Boar10 viewsPotin Unit
Celtic Gaul
1st Century BC
17.0 x 15.5mm
O: NO LEGEND; Head of warrior with six strands of flowing hair, facing right.
R: NO LEGEND; Boar, left.
DeLaTour 7445
Harlan Berk
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
128.jpg
Celtic Imitatation 26 viewsAlexander III the great
Drachm
Eastern Celtic Imitatation 1st cent b.c

Obverse:Head of Alexander III the Great right wearing lions skin
Reverse:Zeus Aetophoros on throne

18.00 mm 3.40 gm

Kostial 941
maik
Celtic,_Eastern_Europe,_Imitating_Philip_II_Tetradrachm___Dachreiter_Type_.jpg
Celtic imitating Philip II tetradrachm Dachreiter type28 views1 commentsChance Vandal
Celtic_imitating_Lysimachos_SGCV_6819.jpg
Celtic imitation of Lysimachos, King of Thrace (305-281 B.C.)8 viewsFor prototype: SGCV 6819 var; SNG Copenhagen 1153-4; Müller 76.

AE unit, 2.69 g., 16.78 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Helmeted head of Athena facing left.

Rev. Bungled BAΣIΛΕΩΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ, lion springing right, spearhead below.
Stkp
Strymon4.jpg
Celtic imitation of Macedon AE 2253 viewsoverstrike

Serdi region
? (original Macedonian issue 185-168 BC)
head of rivergod Strymon right
wide trident
type: (A?)5B
imitation of: SNG Copenhagen 1298-9 var.
8,37g 22-20mm

original coin probably is:

Thessalonica
158-31 BC
head of Dionysos with ivy wreath right
goat standing right
ΘEΣΣA_ΛO / N_IK_HΣ
(NE) / ? other monograms
Sear #1466; BMC Macedonia p. 110, 10 - 16

Head of goat and one ivy-leaf under Strymon's head are slightly visible.


Imitations from Serdi region weren't used to fool Macedonian traders but as their own currency. This coin is one of overstrikes on official Macedonian coins which prooves this theory.
Johny SYSEL
Strymon5.jpg
Celtic imitation of Macedon AE 2249 viewsoverstrike

Serdi region
? (original Macedonian issue 185-168 BC)
head of rivergod Strymon right
wide trident
MAKE / ?ΔONΩN?
H countermark
type E3A
imitation of: SNG Copenhagen 1298-9 var.
6,70g 22mm

Wave on Strymon's face is relic of original coin also there is slightly visible inscription (perpendicular to trident).

original coin probably is:

Thessalonica
158-31 BC
head of Dionysos with ivy wreath right
goat standing right
ΘEΣΣA_ΛO / N_IK_HΣ
(NE) / ? other monograms
Sear #1466; BMC Macedonia p. 110, 10 - 16

Imitations from Serdi region weren't used to fool Macedonian traders but as their own currency. This coin is one of overstrikes on official Macedonian coins which prooves this theory.
Johny SYSEL
B-thasos_01.jpg
Celtic Imitation of Thasos AR Tetradrachm52 viewsObv: Wreathed head of Dionysos right.
Rev: HPAKΛEOYΣ/ ΣΩTHPOΣ/ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ - Herakles standing facing, head right, holding club and lion's skin
Weight: 16.80g
Notes: I believe this to be a Celtic imitation, rather than a Greek original, due to a slightly slightly degraded style of both the obverse and the reverse.
oa
Macedon_PhilipIII_SNG-Cop_1086_gf.jpg
Celtic issue imitating Philip III Arrhidaios. AR Tetradrachm 1 viewsCelts, Lower Danube. Imitating Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.14 gm). Head of Herakles r. clad in lion skin headdress. / ΒΙΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ (sic), Zeus Aetophoros enthroned l., holding eagle and sceptre; two monograms in l. field, I below throne. VF. Good style for issue. SNG Cop 2 #1086; HGC 3.1 #973g; Lukanc 2; Muller plate XXVIII #93 (Philip III); Price P151 (Aradus); Gobl OTA plate 44 #579.4; Dembski KMW 1468; Kostial Sammlung Lanz p. 154 #898ff; Sammlung Flesche 740; CCCBM I #192; cf. Roma Num. E32 #27; Goldberg 93 #1501.

Anaximander
Ring_Money.jpg
Celtic Ring Money6 viewsCelts (800-500 BCE)

Thick ring.

AE18mm, 2.8grams.
Belisarius
Celts_RingMoney.jpg
Celtic Ring Money15 viewsCelts 7th-1st c. BC. Three rings (3.67 gm, 3.54 gm, 2.55 gm). Plain ring, proto-money, made of unusual material. / Similar to gold & silver proto-money rings. VF. cf van Arsdell 1-3.Christian T
Celts_Ireland_RingMoney_vanArsdell_1-3.jpg
Celtic Ring Money, Eire15 viewsCelts, Eire. 2nd c. BC. AR Ring Money (0.87 gm) of Limerick. Plain ring, proto-money. / Similar to 4-spoked wheel money (rouelles). VF. Bt. Lionheart Antiquities 1999. cf van Arsdell 1-3.
Prior to the use of regular round struck or cast coinage, the Celts employed items of various shapes and metals for trade. Although not conclusively identified as an early form of money, these rings have been found in coin hoards and do bear some resemblance to other Celtic objects accepted as "proto-money," such as small bronze or potin wheels. R.D. Van Arsdale, in his book Celtic Coins in Britain (London, 1989), notes that precious-metal rings such as this may have had multiple functions; as items of personal adornment (many were hair ornaments), as a means of displaying wealth, and as a medium of exchange. The weights and diameters vary, making it difficult to establish whether denominations existed. The authors of ABC (C. Rudd. Ancient British Coins. Aylsham. 2010), on the other hand, regard these as jewelry and ornaments, albeit some ceremonial wealth-storage value attached.
Christian T
rings.JPG
Celtic ring proto money 8th-6th Cent B.C.31 viewsDanube region, Celtic Ring proto money.Dk0311USMC
Celtic_Tet.jpg
Celtic Tetradrachm45 viewsImitation of Philipp III of Macedon Tetradrachm
3rd - 2nd centuries BC
26 mm, 16.93 g
obv: head of Herakles wearing lion skin right
rev: ΒAΣIΛEΩΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOY; Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter, two monograms in left field, Z below throne
(Lanz 899; CCCBM I 189-191)
ex Friedinger-Pranter collection
1 commentsareich
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-r__Horse-trotting-l__xxxx_type-Göbl-xx_Göbl-OTA-xxx_Kostial-_xnd-xst_cent_BC_Q-001_axis-9h_13-13,5mm_1,97g-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Drachm, Horse trotting left, Göbl OTA 503/2, Pink 505,190 viewsCeltic, AR-Drachm, Drachm types "Kapostaler" ("Kapostaler Kleingeld"=unit) from Dunátúl-Velem, late-type ca. 100 B.C.
avers: Laureate Zeus head right,
reverse: Horse trotting left,
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0-13,5mm, weight: 1,97g, axis: 9h,
mint: , date: ca. 100 B.C., ref: Göbl OTA 503/2, Pink 505,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_PHILIPOY_Horse-trotting-right-Contr_-mark-below_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #01113 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #01
avers: - Laureate Zeus head right.
reverse:- ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_PHILIPOY_Horse-trotting-right-Contr_-mark-below_Göbl-xxx_Q-002_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #02123 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #02
avers: - Laureate Zeus head right.
reverse:- ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_PHILIPOY_Horse-trotting-right-Contr_-mark-below_Göbl-xxx_Q-003_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #03139 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #03
avers: - Laureate Zeus head right.
reverse:- ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-003
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_PHILIPOY_Horse-trotting-right-Contr_-mark-below_Göbl-xxx_Q-004_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #04129 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #04
avers: - Laureate Zeus head right.
reverse:- ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-004
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_PHILIPOY_Horse-trotting-right-Contr_-mark-below_Göbl-xxx_Q-005_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #05135 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #05
avers: - Laureate Zeus head right.
reverse:- ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-005
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_PHILIPOY_Horse-trotting-right-Contr_-mark-below_Göbl-xxx_Q-006_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #06142 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #06
avers: - Laureate Zeus head right.
reverse:- ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-006
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_PHILIPOY_Horse-trotting-right-Contr_-mark-below_Göbl-_Q-012_4h_24-25,5mm_13,79ga-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #12144 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, #12
avers: - Laureate Zeus head right.
reverse:- ΦΙΛΙΠ-ΠΟΥ, Horse trotting right, control mark below, and test cutting.
exergue: , diameter: 24-25,5mm, weight: 13,79g, axes: 4h,
mint: Celtic imitation, date: , ref: ,
Q-012
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #0190 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #01
avers: - Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-002_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #0292 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #02
avers: - Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-002
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-003_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #03100 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #03
avers: - Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-003
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-004_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #04107 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #04
avers: - Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-004
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-005_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #0599 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #05
avers: - Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-005
quadrans
Celtic-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-006_axis-h_2xmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
Celtic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #0696 viewsCeltic, AR-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #06
avers: - Zeus head right.
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: , date: , ref: ,
Q-006
quadrans
Celtic-Bi-Tetradrachm_Kugelwange-type_Laur-Zeus-head-right-circle-behind_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above_Göbl-xxx_Q-001_2h_21,5-22,5mm_9,51g-s.jpg
Celtic, Billon-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #01173 viewsCeltic, Billon-Tetradrachm, Kugelwange-type, #01
avers: - Zeus head right, circle behind.
reverse:- Horse trotting left, circle above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 9,51g, axes: 2h,
mint: Kugelwange-type, date: , ref: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Atrebates_.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Atrebates, c 35-25 BC39 viewsAtrebates tribe, Britain c 35-25 BC
AR Unit
Metal: silver
Weight: 1,28 g
Size: 11 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Inscription in cross, cross made up of two lines, TINC in angles.
Rev: Lion left, S shaped tail.
Ref: VA 372-1, BMC 930-45.93b
Extremely Rare.
Jorge C
Cantii.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Cantii, 45-40 BC27 viewsCantii tribe 45-40 BC
AV Quarter Stater
Weight: 1,43 g
Size: 11 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Plain.
Rev: Stylized Roman trophy.
Ref: VA 145-1, BMC 435-44.50
Jorge C
Dubonni_Moeda_1.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Dubonni, c.15 BC - 30 AD29 viewsAR Unit Dubonni Tribe c. 15 BC - 30 AD
Obv: Celtized head right, O-X-O pattern on face.
Rev: Celtized horse left, triple tail, EL above horse, SV below horse.
Weight: 1,09 g
Size: 10 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Ref: VA 1110-1, Sear 175, BMC 376-382.53
Rarity: Scarce.
Jorge C
Dubonni_Moeda_2.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Dubonni, c.15 BC - 30 AD30 viewsAR Unit Dubonni Tribe c. 15 BC - 30 AD
Obv: Celtized head right, O-X-O pattern on face.
Rev: Celtized horse left, triple tail, EL above horse, SV below horse.
Weight: 1,03 g
Size: 6 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Ref: VA 1110-1, Sear 175, BMC 376-382.53
Rarity: Scarce.
1 commentsJorge C
Durotriges_moeda_1.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Durotriges, 45-40 BC28 viewsDurotriges tribe 45-40 BC
AR Billon Stater
Weight: 2,75 g
Size: 20 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Abstract head of Apollo right.
Rev: Disjointed horse left.
Ref: VA 1246-1, Sear 172
Jorge C
Durotriges_moeda_2.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Durotriges, 58-45 BC35 viewsDurotriges tribe 58-45 BC
AR Stater
Weight: 4,01 g
Size: 20 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Abstract head of Apollo right.
Rev: Disjointed horse left.
Ref: VA 1235-1, Sear 172
Jorge C
Cranborne-moeda1.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Durotriges, c.20BC - AD2033 viewsAR Cranborne Chase c.20BC - AD20.

Weight: 3.51g
Ř: 17 mm

Obv: Crown of the Durotrigan Tribe.

Rev: Stilicized Horse facing left.

Was found in England near Gloucester, ex Cotswold collection.

Condition: gF/gF

Ref: VA 1235-7 , BMC 2637-40.
Jorge C
SpreadTail.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Durotriges, Spread Tail Silver Stater70 viewsCELTIC, Britain. Durotriges

Circa 65 BC-AD 45. AR Stater; Struck 58-45 BC

Obverse: Abstract head of Apollo right
Reverse: Disjointed horse left.

Van Arsdell 1238


From Isle of Wight Hoard (19 Oct. 2005)
1 commentsAnemicOak
Iceni_moeda_1.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Iceni, 35-25 BC29 viewsIceni tribe 35-25 BC
AR Unit
Weight: 1,78 g
Size: 13 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Boar right.
Rev: Celtized horse right.
Ref: VA 653-3, Sear 431 var, MBC 3455
Very Rare
Jorge C
Iceni_moeda_2.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Iceni, Boudicca, 61 AD29 viewsIceni tribe, Queen Boudicca 61 AD
AR Unit
Weight: 1.19 g
Size: 15 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Celtized head right.
Rev: Celtized horse right.
Ref: VA 790-1, Hobbs 3556ff
Jorge C
Addedomaros.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Trinovantes, King Addedomaros, 40-37 BC45 viewsTrinovantes tribe King Addedomaros 40-37 BC
AE Stater
Weight: 3,50 g
Size: 20 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Crossed wreaths.
Rev: Celtized horse right, ADDEDIIDOM above horse.
Ref: VA 1605-1, Spink 200, BMC 2390-94.148
Jorge C
FlatLinearPotinAllenA_2_Close.jpg
Celtic, Britain. Cantii. Uninscribed. Class I Flat Linear potin. Allen A.12 viewsCeltic, Britain. Cantii. Uninscribed, ca. 100 BC. Class I Flat Linear cast potin, 16.14mm x 19.89mm; 2.31 g, 3h.
Obverse: Celticized head of Apollo left; design scribed in mold with stylus.
Reverse: Celticized bull charging right; same comment.
References: Allen A; VA 104
Ex Leslie Ross, 4-19-2011. Found near Rochester, in Kent, England, in March or April of 2011.
Mark Fox
Strymon40.jpg
CELTIC, Celtic imitation - AE 22195 viewsoverstrike

Serdi region
? (original Macedonian issue 185-168 BC)
head of rivergod Strymon right
wide trident
type: (A?)5B
imitation of: SNG Copenhagen 1298-9 var.
8,37g 22-20mm

original coin probably is:

Thessalonica
158-31 BC
head of Dionysos with ivy wreath right
goat standing right
ΘEΣΣA_ΛO / N_IK_HΣ
(NE) / ? other monograms
Sear #1466; BMC Macedonia p. 110, 10 - 16

Head of goat and one ivy-leaf under Strymon's head are slightly visible.

Imitations from Serdi region weren't used to fool Macedonian traders but as their own currency. This coin is one of overstrikes on official Macedonian coins which prooves this theory.
Johny SYSEL
Strymon30.jpg
CELTIC, Celtic imitation - AE 22176 viewsoverstrike

Serdi region
? (original Macedonian issue 185-168 BC)
head of rivergod Strymon right
wide trident
MAKE / ?ΔONΩN?
type: type E3A
imitation of: SNG Copenhagen 1298-9 var.
6,70g 22mm

Wave on Strymon's face is relic of original coin also there is slightly visible inscription (perpendicular to trident).
original coin probably is:

Thessalonica
158-31 BC
head of Dionysos with ivy wreath right
goat standing right
ΘEΣΣA_ΛO / N_IK_HΣ
(NE) / ? other monograms
Sear #1466; BMC Macedonia p. 110, 10 - 16

Imitations from Serdi region weren't used to fool Macedonian traders but as their own currency. This coin is one of overstrikes on official Macedonian coins which prooves this theory.
Johny SYSEL
EF-celtic-imm.jpg
CELTIC, Celtic Imitation of Roman Republican Semis101 viewsObverse-Bust of Saturn
Reverse-Galley prow, S above, OMA below.

I think the R in the exergue may be off center. The A is about 30 degrees tilted left.
CoinScrubber
GRK_celtic_drachm_imitating_Alexander_III,_OTA_Table_43,_Type_577-578.jpg
Celtic, Danube Region, Uncertain Tribe. Imitating Type of Alexander III of Macedon77 viewsCCCBM I 215; Göbl, OTA Table 43, Type 577-578; Sammlung Lanz 896-897

AR drachm; struck in the Danube region circa second to first centuries B.C.; 3.24 g., 18.48 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Stylized head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress.

Rev: Stylized Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; amphora in inner left field.
3 commentsStkp
Celtic,_Danube_Region__c2nd-1st_Century_BC__AR_Drachm_imitating_Philip_III_of_Macedon_.jpg
Celtic, Danube Region. c2nd-1st Century BC. AR Drachm imitating Philip III of Macedon. 25 viewsObv. Head of Herakles right, in lion-skin
Rev. Zeus seated left, holding eagle & scepter.
Gцbl 591/2.
15,5mm., 1,92g
Antonivs Protti
Celtic,_AR_Drachm_imitating_Philip_III.jpg
Celtic, Danube Region. c2nd-1st Century BC. AR Drachm imitating Philip III of Macedon. 48 viewsObv, Head of Herakles right, in lion-skin
rev. Zeus seated left, holding eagle & scepter
Gцbl 591/2.
18mm, 2,80g., VF _6179
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
Danubian-drachm.jpg
CELTIC, Danubian Celt drachm269 viewsCeltic Imitative drachm of Alexander & Seated Zeus holing Staff & EagleForrest H
AC-Danube_Celts-3~0.jpg
CELTIC, DANUBIAN CELTS51 viewsA drachm In the style of Alexander III
3rd Century BC or later
3.79 grams
Kostial 947
Obv. Head of Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress
Rev. Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and scepter, trident head and pseudo-monogram before.
Richard M10
Danubian_Bassin.jpg
CELTIC, Danubian imitation of Philip III Drachm 3rd c. BC27 viewsDanube Basin imitating Philip III Drachm.
Metal: silver
Date: 3rd c. BC
Weight: 3,59 g
Size: 21 mm
Condition: EF/EF
Obv: Head of Herakles right.
Rev: Zeus seated left, holding eagle and scepter, monogram in left field, Z below throne.
Ref: BM 207

1 commentsJorge C
Danubian.jpg
CELTIC, Danubian Imitation of Philip III of Macedon 3rd-1st century BC24 viewsDanubian Imitation of Philip III of Macedon 3rd-1st century BC
AR Tetradrachm
Weight: 14,13 g
Size: 30 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Faint head of Heracles.
Rev: Zeus enthroned left.
Ref: De La Tour 9640, Ferrer 336, Sear 212
Jorge C
f1.jpg
CELTIC, Drachm, Imitating Istros208 viewsCELTIC, Uncertain Eastern Europe. Uncertain tribe. 3rd-2nd centuries BC. Drachm (17mm, 4.75 g, 12h). Imitating Istros. Two male heads facing, the right inverted / Sea-eagle on dolphin rightAndreas G
db_file_img_102385_544x262.jpg
CELTIC, Eastern Europe, Imitating Philip II of Macedon, c.4th-3rd century B.C. 39 viewsCelts in Eastern Europe AR Tetradrachm. Late 4th-early 3rd century BC. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon. Dachreiter Type.
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right.
Reverse: Horse advancing left.
Cf. Lanz 450. 12.47g, 20mm, 4h.
chance v
KMW-1468.jpg
Celtic, Eastern Europe: Imitation of Philip III of Macedon (ca. 3rd-2nd century BCE) AR Tetradrachm, Mint in the lower Danube region (OTA 579; KMW 1468)18 viewsObv: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ in semi-corrupt form; Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; two monograms in left field, Greek Z below throne
Quant.Geek
celta-moeda1.jpg
CELTIC, Eastern Tribe ?27 viewsAR Tetradrachm of a Eastern Tribe ? 100BC

Weight: 8.44g
Ř: 24mm

Obv: Bust of ?

Rev: Saddle Head Horse.

Condition: gF/gVG

Ref: Pink 302, Kostial/Lanz 620.
Jorge C
Fibula-027_Q-001_46x28mm_5,31g-s.jpg
Celtic, Fibula #027 AE Celtic Fibula,228 viewsFibula #027 AE Celtic Fibula,
type: Celtic Fibula,
size: 46x28mm,
weight: 5,31g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Fibula-067__fibula_Q-001_22x24,5mm_2,67g-s.jpg
Celtic, Fibula #067, AE Celtic (Greek ???) fibula,108 viewsFibula #067, AE Celtic (Greek ???) fibula,
type: Celtic (Greek ???) fibula,
size: 22x24,5mm,
weight: 2,67g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
moedacelta.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Ambiani, 58 - 55 BC33 viewsDenomination: AV Stater
Location: North of France/Belgium, Tribe Ambiani.
Date: 58-55 B.C.
Weight: 6,18 g
Size: 20 mm
Obv: Uniface.
Rev: Stylized horse right.
Ref: VA 50-1 ; Mack 27a ; De la Tour 8592
Condition: EF/EF
Jorge C
Aulerci_Eburovices_electrum_stater___.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Aulerci Eburovices electrum Hemistater (60-50 BC)177 viewso/ Stylized human head left, hair represented by three parallel lines; behind, a serie of dots and a little cross; below, a jewel; beaded cord around the cheek and a small boar upside down at the base of the neck
r/ Stylized horse leaping left, with the remains of the auriga above the horse, a boar left between the legs, a sort of Y before the horse's chest.
Titulature avers : Anépigraphe.
Description avers : Tęte humaine stylisée ŕ gauche, les cheveux figurés par trois lignes parallčles ; derričre, séries de globules et une croisette ; au-dessous, un fleuron ; cordon perlé entourant la joue ; un petit sanglier ŕ l’envers ŕ la base du cou.
Titulature revers : Anépigraphe.
Description revers : Cheval stylisé bondissant ŕ gauche, avec les restes de l'aurige au-dessus du cheval ; un sanglier ŕ chauche entre les jambes ; une sorte de Y devant le poitrail du cheval.
Extremely rare (horse left).
19mm. 2.79g
DT 2406
1 commentsAugustin Caron
Potin.jpg
Celtic, Gaul, Aulerci Eburovices. Circa 50-30 B.C. Potin 16mm; Head/ Boar14 viewsCELTIC, Northwest Gaul. Aulerci Eburovices. Circa 50-30 B.C. Potin 16mm (3.09 g). Abstract head left / Boar standing right; three pellets below. D&T 2479; Depeyrot, NC V -; CCCBM III -. VF, dark brown patina with some pitting on both sides. Rare. Ex VauctionsPodiceps
bpCelticCorrSilver.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Boii tribe, AR half-unit.165 views.9 gm 9.3 mm
Struck 200-150 BC.
Blank obverse.
Reverse: Horse prancing left, pellet above, torque below.
Listed in the Celtic Coin Atlas of Henri de la Tour, but only as a line drawing.
Three similar coins auctioned in CNG 31, 1994, lots 8-10.
The Boii were a Celtic tribe that settled in Northern Italy bounded to the south by the Rubicon river. Considered by Julius Caesar to be the "good" Gauls. Area was annexed as Rome's third Provence after Sicily and Corsica. Merged into Italia by Octavian in 42 BC as part of his 'Italicisation' program during the second Triumvirate.
1 commentsMassanutten
Carnutes_Tribe_Potin.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Carnutes Tribe, Potin23 viewsCondition: F/F
Attribution: Mon XV 609
Date: 60-40 BC
Obverse: Celtic bust right
Reverse: Eagle facing, wings spread
Size: 18.7 mm
Weight: 3.9 grams
Description: A decent and scarcer potion
Jorge C
Lingones.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Lingones tribe, 100-50 BC28 viewsLingones tribe 100-50 BC
AE Potin
Weight: 3,54 g
Size: 17 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Stylized janiform bust.
Rev: Boar left.
Ref: De La Tour 8319
Jorge C
potin~0.jpg
Celtic, Gaul, Lingones, 1st Century B.C. Cast potin; heads/ boar5 viewsCeltic, Gaul, Lingones, 1st Century B.C. Cast potin, BMC Celtic III S472, VF, edge defect, 2.063g, 16.3mm, 90o, obverse revolving male heads, left and right, the left inverted; reverse, boar left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Meldi.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Meldi tribe, 60-40 BC24 viewsMeldi tribe 60-40 BC
AE Potin
Weight: 3,77 g
Size: 17 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Celtic bust left.
Rev: Horse galloping left, bird riding.
Ref: De La Tour 7817, BMC102
Jorge C
Sequani.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Seguani tribe, 60-50 BC46 viewsSeguani tribe 60-50 BC
AE Potin
Weight: 2,56 g
Size: 17,21 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Celtic style bust left.
Rev: Horse left.
Ref: De La Tour 5527

Jorge C
potin~1.jpg
Celtic, Gaul, Senones, 1st Century B.C. Cast potin; head/ horse & pellets5 viewsCeltic, Gaul, Senones, Potin, AE17, 1st Century B.C. 4.41g. Obv: Head r., with wild hair. Rev: Horse galloping l., pellets around. De La Tour-7417. Fine. Ex H.J.BerkPodiceps
7__Potin.jpg
CELTIC, Gaul, Senones, Potin50 viewsPotin, des Senones (Région de Sens), avant 52 avant J.-C (Bronze)
Avers : Tęte d’indien.
Revers : Cheval au galop stylisé.
Roger D2
carteia_dolphin_b.jpg
CELTIC, IBERIAN (CARTEIA)16 views2nd - 1st Century BC
AE 18.5 mm, 5.9 g
O: Turreted head of Tyche right
R: Dolphin swimming right, DD below
laney
celtic_imit_maced_res.jpg
CELTIC, IMITATIVE (OF ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON)14 viewsAE 15 mm; 2.62 g
O: Head of Herakles wearing lionskin headdress knotted at throat, right
R: Club and bowcase (reverse is slightly concave)
laney
bpPannonianCelt.jpg
CELTIC, Imitative Greek silver drachm of Philip III.149 views2.6 gm 17 mm Struck 100-50 BC.
Anepigraphic obverse with stylized head of Philip III, right.
Reverse: Zeus seated left on backless throne, his legs parallel; holding eagle and sceptre. Inscription to right.
Attibuted to Pannonian (Thracian) Celts.
Massanutten
AC-GAUL__Armorica-3~0.jpg
CELTIC, Issue in Northwest Gaul in the area of Armorica48 viewsc. 1st century BC.
D&T 2341
BI stater
5.94 gm
Obv.: Celticized male head right, with hair in spiral curls.
Rev.: Deconstructed biga right; ornaments around; boar right below.

Many Celtic tribes lived within this area including the Coriosolites to which this coin is attributed.
Richard M10
Ostkelten_Drachme_Kugelwange.jpg
CELTIC, Kugelwange, Ostkelten, Drachme15 viewsNumis-Student
celt.jpg
Celtic, Lower Danube, Uncertain tribe. 2nd century B.C.19 viewsAR Drachm
Imitating Philip III of Macedon
O: Head of Herakles wearing lions skin headdress knotted at throat, right.
R: Zeus enthroned holding eagle.
19mm
3.61g
Lanz 939; CCCBM I 203-4

Die crack at 1 O'Clock
Mat
SCBC-343.jpg
Celtic, Trinovantes & Catuvellauni: Cunobelin (ca. 10-43 CE) Ć Unit (Van Arsdell 2099-1; ABC-2972; SCBC-343)8 viewsObv: CV-NO; Pegasos flying right
Rev: TASCI; Bull right, being stabbed by Victory standing right in background
SpongeBob
Fibula-028_Q-001_37x28mm_8,22g-s.jpg
Celtic, Trumpet Style Openwork Plate Fibula #028, Celtic trumpet style openwork plate fibulae.,218 viewsFibula #028, Celtic trumpet style openwork plate fibulae.,
type: Variety of the Celtic trumpet style openwork plate fibulae.,
size: 37x28mm,
weight: 8,22g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
CeltMassTetrobol-Kent1.jpg
Celtic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?), imitating Massalian drachm. Potentially unrecorded.30 viewsCeltic, Unknown tribe of southern Gaul(?). Circa 2nd century BC. AR Drachm, 16mm (4.42 g.), 6h. Imitating Massalia.
Obverse: Wreathed head of nymph right; her pendant earring having possibly been reinterpreted as hair(!).
Reverse: ΜΑΣΣΑ, lion walking right; diamond-shaped symbol below.
References: Cf. Triton IX, lot 666, for likely prototype.
Comments: Found in Whitfield, in Kent, England, probably in early or mid January of 2011. A very heavy, early imitation that is superior to the average work of the Insubres and/or Salluvi. Cut in antiquity for possible recycling. The bright silvery interior indicates the coin is silver through and through.
Ex solidv-x2, 1-29-2011.
Mark Fox
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Celtic-Iberian: Castulo41 viewsAE unit, 27.16mm (12.66 gm).

Male head right, hand before / Helmeted Sphinx standing right, star before; Iberian legend in exergue.

1 commentssocalcoins
VA11475LG.jpg
CELTIC. Danube Region. Imitating Philip III. Circa 2nd-1st Century BC. AR Tetradrachm42 viewsCELTIC. Danube Region. Imitating Philip III. Circa 2nd-1st Century BC. AR Tetradrachm (27mm - 16.44 g). Head of Herakles right, wearing lion's skin headdress / Zeus seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; monograms in inner left field; I under throne. Kostial 907; CCCBM I 189; Göbl, OTA 579.9. VF, weak reverse.

ex Vauctions
areich
Celts.jpg
Celts - AE ring money5 viewsThese rings may or may not be a Celtic proto-money.Johny SYSEL
28175_Celts,_Danube_Region,_Imitative_of_Thasos,_1st_Century_B_C_.jpg
Celts, Danube Region, Imitative of Thasos, 1st Century B.C. Silver tetradrachm16 viewsCelts, Danube Region, Imitative of Thasos, 1st Century B.C. Silver tetradrachm, SGCV I 215, ICG F15, obverse head of Dionysos right, wreathed in ivy and grapes; reverse “ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΟΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ”, Hercules, nude, standing half left, resting right on grounded club, lion's skin on left arm, HM monogram inner left; Imitates an issue of Thasos, Thrace under Roman rule, 146 - 45 B.C. This example is close to the original. Some of the Celtic imitations are so abstract that they hardly resemble the original type from Thasos. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41325_Celts,_Gaul,_Leuci,_c__70_-_52_B_C_.jpg
Celts, Gaul, Leuci, c. 70 - 52 B.C. Cast potin; head left/ boar left 7 viewsCelts, Gaul, Leuci, c. 70 - 52 B.C. Cast potin, BMC Celtic III 418 (or similar), F, Boviolles? mint, 4.386g, 17.1mm, 270o, c. 70 - 52 B.C.; obverse crude stylized head left with three locks of hair, wearing wreath; reverse , boar left, fleur-de-lis ornament below. The Leuci were between the Mediomatrici on the north and the Lingones on the south, in the valley of the Upper Mosel. One of their chief towns was Tullum. They are mentioned once in Caesar; the Leuci, Sequani and Lingones were to supply Caesar with grain. Pliny gives them the title of Liberi. Lucan celebrates them in his poem as skilled in throwing the spear: 'Optimus excusso Leucus Rhemusque lacerto.' Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Celtic_PhilipIII_SNG-Cop_1086_bg.jpg
Celts, Lower Danube. Imitating Philip III Arrhidaios1 viewsImitation of Philip III Arrhidaios. 323-317 BC. AR Tetradrachm (17.14 gm) of Celts in the Lower Danube. Head of Herakles r. clad in lion skin headdress. / ΒΙΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ (sic), Zeus Aetophoros enthroned l., holding eagle and sceptre; two monograms in l. field, Ɪ below throne. Num. E32 #27; Goldberg 93 #1501. VF. Good style for issue. SNG Cop 2 #1086; HGC 3.1 #973g; Lukanc 2; Muller plate XXVIII #93 (Philip III); Price P151 (Aradus); Gobl OTA plate 44 #579.4; Dembski KMW 1468; Kostial Sammlung Lanz p. 154 #898ff; Sammlung Flesche 740; CCCBM I #192; cf. Roma Num. E32 #27; Goldberg 93 #1501.Anaximander
armorica_quart.jpg
Coriosolite Bi "boar" stater, region: Armorica (Brittany and Channel Islands), c. 56 BC24 viewsSlightly oval shape, obverse convex, reverse a bit concave. 19-20+mm, 2+mm thick, 5.05g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: stylized head of a god right (Celtic "Apollo", most probably a Sun or sky god) with three plaits of curly hair forming the triskelion-like spiral pattern, reverse: stylized charioteer driving a chariot right with a boar right under the horse and a curl and leaf device in front of it.

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo right on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) right on reverse.

ID: since the obverse is worn off, it is impossible to determine exactly the variety of this coin. but the reverse features such as no reins, chariot driver's head has no long "nose" and even the weak obverse and strong clear reverse all point to series Y. The pellet eye of the pony, no ears, characteristic shape of the pony's head, "weird" driver and the leaf and curl rather than the quadrilateral banner all point to class I (roman numeral), most probably its middle group I (letter), but earlier group H or later transitional groups J or even K of class III are also possible (only the shape of the eye and nose on the obverse would have allowed to tell definitely). This is a well-developed middle chronological type, minted somewhere west of the river Rance.

Mythological and symbolic connotations of this design are very complex. The spirals (here present in the god's hair and as the device before the horse) were one of the most important Celtic symbols, with its main meaning related to the Sun and life (e. g. the Sun's "growing" from winter to summer solstice and then dwindling back, growing from child to adult, leaves and vines unfolding etc.) The double spiral meant life and death or death and rebirth, the cycle of seasons, that sort of thing. The triple spiral or triskelion was probably of the biggest mystical significance, connected to the godhead, with meaning like past+present+future = eternity or morning + day + evening = time. It definitely had to do with the change of seasons, flow of time, power over life and death. Thus the god's hear all made out of spirals with three main spiral branches. The charioteer also probably represents a deity, probably the same deity representing light and life, hunting the boar representing darkness and death. The boar symbol (if one looks closely, there is a rising or setting sun symbol -- a pellet within a circle over a line -- between the boar's legs) is connected to the darkness because boars are dark and their tusks look like crescent moons. They are also parts of many myths, e. g. Greek darkish stories of the Calydonian Boar hunted by Meleager and his many hero comrades or the Erymanthian boar killed by Heracles as his fourth (by some counts) labor: Celts shared the Greek mythological tradition, but probably imbued it with many of their own mythological connotations. God hunting the boar probably symbolizes the same as the spirals in the obverse: changing of seasons, passing of time, life and rebirth etc.

Coriosolites were a Gallic tribe. In the 1st century BC they were living in the so called "Armorica" (ar mor = by the sea) -- a region of modern Brittany around the river Rance roughly to the south of Jersey. They probably migrated there from Rhineland, running away from the Germanic expansion, since they share some cultural features with the Celtic tribes of the Rhine. This tribe on its own was hardly of much significance compared to the other neighboring Gallic tribes (Unelli, Osismii, Veneti, Redones, Abrincatui etc.), but their coin making is among the best studied of all the Celts because several huge hoards of their coins were discovered in Brittany and Jersey, and studied in detail. When Romans led by Julius Caesar came to conquer Gaul, Coriosolites were actively resisting, first on their own, then as a part of the local tribal union and, finally, contributed to Vercingetorix's war effort. The minting of these coins and hoarding them was probably related to these war activities and subsequent defeat, so since series Y is in the middle of the chronology, it can probably be dated around the middle of the Gallic wars (58 - 50 BC), but since the main event in Armorica, the stand off with Viridovix, happened in 57-56 BC, that's probably the best guess.

In addition to Caesar himself, two other Roman generals who fought Coriosolites should be mentioned: Publius Licinius Crassus (86|82? - 53 BC), a son of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesar's co-triumvir, who led the initial assault on Armorica, and Quintus Titurius Sabinus, who defeated the union of three Gallic tribes (Unelli, Curiosolitae, and Lexovii) under the chieftain Viridovix in 56 BC. Ironically to our discussion, when Crassus went back to Rome, his first office there was a monetalis, i. e. a Republican official with authority to issue coins.

A lot more about this type of coins can be learned here:
http://www.writer2001.com/exp0002.htm
Yurii P
Crispus_Ae4_vot_x.jpg
Crispus Ae311 viewsAE 3
Crispus, Caesar 316-326 CE
Diameter: 19 mm, Weight: 3.06 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM VOT X
Laurel wreath encircling VOT X.

Mint: STR U: Trier, second mint house

Notes:
- The German region of Treveri takes its name from a Celtic tribe who occupied the area.

Ex Boswell Books & Coins Brisbane, 2003
Pharsalos
crispus_type_celtic_imitation.jpg
Crispus type, celtic imitative15 viewsCeltic imitative of Crispus type, mid. 4th - 5th century
AE 3, 1.75g, max. diameter 18.1mm, 315°
tribal mint
obv. laureate bust left, illiterate blundered imitation of a legend
rev. blundered VOT X within wreath, illiterate blundered limitation of a legend around
ref. for prototypes see RIC VII p. 379 ff. (official Roman, Ticinum mint, c. 320 - 325 A.D.)
VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This type was minted by and used as currency in by tribes outside the Roman empire in Thrace. It copied a Roman votive type issued under Constantine the Great. While the obverse is somewhat more similar to the Roman prototype, the reverse inscriptions are made up of only illiterate imitations of letters (FAC).
1 commentsJochen
ecimittetORweb.jpg
Danube Region, Celtic, Imitating Thasos. ca 1st Century BC130 viewsCeltic, Danube Region. Imitating Thasos. ca 1st Century BC. AR Tetradrachm. 33mm 16.47g
O: Wreathed head of Dionysos right
R: HPAKLEOYE EWTHPOE THAEIWN, nude Herakles standing left with club & lion skin; M to left.
5 commentscasata137ec
freienstein_tetra.jpg
Danubian Celtic 19 viewstetradracmaantvwala
freienstein_stater.jpg
Danubian Celtic 31 viewsstaterantvwala
celtic_03.jpg
Danubian Celtic AR "Kugelwange" Drachm27 viewsObv: Diademed head of Zeus right.
Rev: Horse trotting left; dot in ring above.
Date: 150 - 100 BC
Mint: Syrmia region
Ref: Pink 198
2 commentsoa
celtic_02.jpg
Danubian Celtic AR "Kugelwange" Drachm32 viewsObv: Diademed head of Zeus right.
Rev: Horse trotting left.
Date: 100 - 80 BC
Ref: Pink 203
Notes: Abstracted late specimen.
2 commentsoa
celtic_01.jpg
Danubian Celtic AR "Kugelwange" Drachm30 viewsObv: Diademed head of Zeus right.
Rev: Horse trotting left; dot in ring above.
Date: 150 - 100 BC
Mint: Syrmia region
Ref: Pink 198
2 commentsoa
Celts_Danube_GöblOTA204.jpg
Danubian Celts15 viewsCelts, Danubian, Hungarian. 2nd-1st c. BC. AR Drachm (1.92 gm). Kugelwange type of Pannonia (Syrmia?) in imitation of Philip II. Laureate and bearded head of Zeus r. / Celticized prancing horse l., pellet in anulet above and pellet below tail. Mane of dots. gVF. Bt. Coral Gables 1999. Kostial Lanz 506-509; CCCBM I S134; KMW 1122; Göbl OTA pl 17 204-205.2.Christian T
Celts_Danube_GöblOTA488.jpg
Danubian Celts17 viewsCelts, Middle Danube (Velem, Hungary). 2nd c. BC. AE Stater (6.87 gm). Kapostal Type of the Hercuniates Imitating Philip II Celticized laureate head of Zeus r., arc of pellets before / Celticized horseman with large crest above head, riding l.; crescent to l. & ∞ below. VF. Bt. Gables Coin, 1999. Cf Göbl OTA 488/7; Kostial Lanz 777 or 780ff; CCCBM I 85 or 90; KMW 1413; Pink 500; Dessewffy 250; BMCC 98.Christian T
Celts_Danube_ImitatingThasos_GöblOTAClassV.jpg
Danubian Celts, Carpathian Region33 viewsCelts, Danubian, Carpathian Region, Uncertain Tribe. 1st c. BC. AR Tetradrachm (14.83 gm). Imitating Thasos Celticized and degraded head of Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath / Celticized Herakles, standing facing, holding club and lionskin. Legend degraded to mere dots. VF. CNG 51 #19. Göbl OTA Class V; cf Kostial Lanz 983-994.2 commentsChristian T
46705q00.jpg
Danubian Celts, Serdi Region, 168-31 B.C.17 views"Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V or Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C. The choice was appropriate for the Serdi Celts as the river Strymon runs through the Serdi region."

Bronze AE 22, Malloy Danubian Celts type H1A; imitative of a Macedonian Kingdom (Philip V or Perseus) type, 187 - 168 B.C., SNG Cop 1299, gF, nice olive green patina, 4.759g, 22.4mm, 180o, obverse reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon right; reverse trident, stylized dolphin ornaments between the prongs and flanking shaft, blundered inscription similar to MAKEDONWN; scarce;
jimmynmu
Belt_7.jpg
Decorative Belt Plate 2nd century AD. 78 viewsThis so-called "celtic" or "trumpet" style belt plate is Roman military circa mid- to late-2nd century AD. Parallels are found in Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 88, #5, Antonine era, from Curle Newstead UK; and at the Carnuntum Museum in Bad Altenbach.otlichnik
celtic1.jpg
Drachm imitating Alexander III, eastern Celts (or Thraco-Getae), from danube region, 2.-1. century BC. AR 19mm40 viewsDrachm imitating Alexander III, eastern Celts (or Thraco-Getae), from danube region, 2.-1. century BC.
Obv. head of Herakles right
Rev. Zeus Aetophoros with sceptre on throne left, Amphora
Ref. Göbl OTA 577
Dembski coll. KHM Vienna 1463
Lee S
convex_quad_sm.jpg
Durotrigan Bi "Durotrigan E" or "Cranbourne Chase" type stater, region: South Britain (Dorset), c. 58 BC - 43 AD11 viewsFlan roughly circular, obverse convex, reverse concave.
18.5mm, 1.5+mm thick, 2.82g
Die axis: ~3h (Greek), assuming traditional diagonal wreath position with "eyes" right
Material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: devolved head of a god (Celtic "Apollo") right , reverse: disjointed horse / chariot left with 12 pellets above and 1 below (possibly indicating 12+1 lunar months in a solar year)

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) on reverse.

References: Durotrigan E, Cranbourne Chase type, BMC 2525-2731, Mack 317-318, Sp 367, RDVA 1235-1237 etc.

Peculiarities in this case: small flan, so most of design does not fit onto it, probably indicating very late production, no usual correspondence between the "crook" crossing the "wreath" and the "left eye", pellets large and flat, obverse significantly off center, ornaments left to "cheek" clearly visible.

The Durotriges were one of the Celtic (possibly even pre-Celtic) tribes living in Britain prior to the Roman invasion. The tribe lived in modern Dorset, south Wiltshire, south Somerset and Devon east of the River Axe and the discovery of an Iron Age hoard in 2009 at Shalfleet, Isle of Wight gives evidence that they lived in the western half of the island. After the Roman conquest, their main civitates, or settlement-centred administrative units, were Durnovaria (modern Dorchester, "the probable original capital") and Lindinis (modern Ilchester, "whose former, unknown status was thereby enhanced"). Their territory was bordered to the west by the Dumnonii; and to the east by the Belgae.

Durotriges were more a tribal confederation than a tribe. They were one of the groups that issued coinage before the Roman conquest, part of the cultural "periphery" round the "core group" of Britons in the south. These coins were rather simple and had no inscriptions. The Durotriges presented a settled society, based in the farming of lands surrounded and controlled by strong hill forts that were still in use in 43 AD. Maiden Castle is a preserved example of one of these hill forts.

The area of the Durotriges is identified in part by coin finds: few Durotrigan coins are found in the "core" area, where they were apparently unacceptable and were reminted. To their north and east were the Belgae, beyond the Avon and its tributary Wylye: "the ancient division is today reflected in the county division between Wiltshire and Somerset." Their main outlet for the trade across the Channel, strong in the first half of the 1st century BC, when the potter's wheel was introduced, then drying up in the decades before the advent of the Romans, was at Hengistbury Head. Numismatic evidence shows progressive debasing of the coinage, suggesting economic retrenchment accompanying the increased cultural isolation. Analysis of the body of Durotrigan ceramics suggests that the production was increasingly centralised, at Poole Harbour. Burial of Durotriges was by inhumation, with a last ritual meal provided even under exiguous circumstances, as in the eight burials at Maiden Castle, carried out immediately after the Roman attack.

Not surprisingly, the Durotriges resisted Roman invasion in AD 43, and the historian Suetonius records some fights between the tribe and the second legion Augusta, then commanded by Vespasian. By 70 AD, the tribe was already Romanised and securely included in the Roman province of Britannia. In the tribe’s area, the Romans explored some quarries and supported a local pottery industry.

The Durotriges, and their relationship with the Roman Empire, form the basis for an ongoing archaeological research project (https://research.bournemouth.ac.uk/project/the-durotriges-project/) directed by Paul Cheetham, Ellen Hambleton and Miles Russell of Bournemouth University. The Durotriges Project has, since 2009, been reconsidering the Iron Age to Roman transition through a detailed programme of field survey, geophysical investigation and targeted excavation.
Yurii P
flat_quad_sm.jpg
Durotrigan Bi "Durotrigan E" or "Cranbourne Chase" type stater, region: South Britain (Dorset), c. 58 BC - 43 AD 11 viewsFlan oval, flat, pellets well defined, sharp.
18x16mm, 1+mm thick, 2.01g
Die axis: ~3h (Greek), assuming traditional diagonal wreath position with "eyes" right
Material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: devolved head of a god (Celtic "Apollo") right , reverse: disjointed horse / chariot left with 12 pellets above and 1 below (possibly indicating 12+1 lunar months in a solar year)

Peculiarities in this case: small flan, so most of design does not fit onto it, probably indicating very late production, flatness (possibly due to later damage?), left "eye" well corresponds to "crook", but "crook" is not well defined, more like a "brow".

For more info on this type see:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-152028
Yurii P
P1019220.JPG
DUROTRIGES Wessex, cap. Durnovaria (Dorchester). C.30BC-10AD. AE Stater. 18mm14 viewsDUROTRIGES Wessex, cap. Durnovaria (Dorchester). C.30BC-10AD. AE Stater.

Obv. Wreath motif.

Rev. Celticized horse right.

Ref. van Arsdell 1290-1; Mack 318
Lee S
Celtic_AR-Tetradrachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-_Göbl_OTA_300-14_Q-001_22mm_5,46g-s.jpg
EAST CELTS, AR-Tetradrachm, Sattelkopfpferd type. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon. 71 viewsEAST CELTS, AR-Tetradrachm, Sattelkopfpferd type. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon.
avers:- Stilyzed Laureate head of Zeus right.
reverse:- Stilyzed horseman riding left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 5,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: EAST CELTS. Sattelkopfpferd type. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon. Tetradrachm., date: B.C., ref: Göbl OTA 300/14, Lanz 649, Castelin 1317 / Pink 304
Q-001
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-021_3h_12,2mm_2,59g-s.jpg
East-Celtic AR-Drachm, #21126 viewsEast-Celtic AR-Drachm, #21
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2mm, weight: 2,59g, axis: 3h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-021
quadrans
Celtic_AR-Drachm_Laur-Zeus-head-right_Horse-trotting-left-circle-above-dot-with-in_Göbl-xxx_Q-022_3h_14-15mm_1,54g-s.jpg
East-Celtic AR-Drachm, #22121 viewsEast-Celtic AR-Drachm, #22
avers:- Laur-Zeus-head-right,
reverse:- Horse-trotting-left-
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14-15mm, weight: 1,54g, axis: 3h,
mint: , date: Second-first century B.C., ref: Göbl-xx, Göbl-OTA-xx, Kostial-xx,
Q-022
quadrans
db_file_img_186468_478x230.jpg
Easter Europe. Roman or Celtic Imitative of Thasos off Thrace. (Circa late 2nd to 1st Centuries BC)42 viewsTetradrachm

33 mm, 16.76 g

Obverse: Stylized wreathed head of Dionysos right

Reverse: Stylized Heracles standing facing, head left, holding club, with lion skin draped over arm; M in inner left field. Legend is ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟYΣ / ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ / ΘΑΣΙΩΝ (Of Herakles, Savior of the Thasians)

Göbl OTA Class III; cf. HGC 6, 359 (for prototype)

Thasos issued huge numbers of tetradrachms with the garlanded head of Dionysus, which circulated as international means of payment mainly beyond the island, from the Balkans to Dacia, today's Hungary. Along with the young god of wine the Thasian tetradrachms depicted the hero Heracles, leaning naked on his club, a lion's skin over his left arm. It was the skin of the Nemean lion, a powerful creature of Greek mythology that Heracles had killed. The hero then tailored a cloak from the lion's skin that made him almost invulnerable.

The Dionysos / Herakles type was first struck by Thasos itself on the island and in its continental territories in the South of the Balkans, c. 168 - 148 B.C. After Rome took control of the area, `Thasian` types were struck by Roman authorities, c. 148 - 80 B.C., mainly in Macedonia but also, perhaps, by mobile military mints on campaigns to make local payments. Imitatives were also struck by at least several tribal groups (mainly Celtic or mixed enclaves) from as early as 120 - 100 B.C. to about 20 - 10 B.C.
Nathan P
odessos_horseman.jpg
Eastern Celtic imitation of; Thrace, Odessos. Horseman; AE 2039 viewsEastern Celtic imitation of; Thrace, Odessos. Late 3rd century B.C. Ć 20mm, 7.4g. Laureate head of Zeus right / Horseman wearing kausia riding right; ΟΔΗΣΙΤΩΝ, EL monogram below horse. AMNG I 2207; SNG BM Black Sea 290 var.; SNG Stancomb 265. Podiceps
EASTERN_CELTS.jpg
EASTERN CELTS, DACHREITER TYPE AR Drachm7 viewsOBVERSE: Celticized head of Zeus right
REVERSE: Celticized horseman riding left; wheel of four spokes above
Struck by the Skordoski in Syrmia, 2d Century BC
1.87g, 14mm
OTA 188/2-3
Legatus
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Eastern Celts, Imitation of a Alexander III AR Drachm.6 viewsUncertain Mint 310-275 B.C. 2.35g - 16.3mm, Axis 2h.
Obv: Celticized head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin.
Rev: Celticized Zeus seated left on throne, holding sceptre and eagle. Control: monogram in left field.
Lanz 943.
Christian Scarlioli
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Eastern Celts, Imitation of a Alexander III AR Drachm.7 viewsUncertain Mint 1st Century B.C. 3.65g - 17.6mm, 12h.
Obv:Celticized head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin.
Rev: ΔΙΘ - Zeus Aetophoros seated left, holding eagle and sceptre; crayfish below.
Cf. OTA 57.
Christian Scarlioli
279144_l.jpg
Eastern Europe. Imitation of Philip II of Macedon (Circa 200-0 BC)116 viewsTetradrachm (Kugelwange or "ball cheek" type)

20 mm, 11.46 g

Obverse: Stylized laureate head of Zeus right

Reverse: Stylized horse prancing left, pellet-in-annulet above, pelleted cross below.

Lanz 468-9; OTA 193/9.

Around the end of the 3rd century B.C., the Celtic Scordisci tribe started issuing their own local coinages imitating the types of Philip II of Macedon. These coinages had a limited volume of production and a restricted area of circulation, so their finds are not numerous and occur mostly in their own territory and in the neighboring territories of other Celtic or Celticized tribes. The Scordisci were originally formed after the Celtic invasion of Macedonia and Northern Greece (280-279 BC) which culminated in a great victory against the Greeks at Thermopylae and the sacking of Delphi, the center of the Greek world. The Celts then retreated back to the north of the Balkans (suffering many casualties along the way) and settled on the mouth of the Sava River calling themselves the Scordisci after the nearby Scordus (now Sar) mountains. The Scordisci, since they dominated the important Sava valley, the only route to Italy, in the second half of the 3rd century BC, gradually became the most powerful tribe in the central Balkans.

From 141 BC, the Scordisci were constantly involved in battles against Roman held Macedonia. They were defeated in 135 BC by Cosconius in Thrace. In 118 BC, according to a memorial stone discovered near Thessalonica, Sextus Pompeius, probably the grandfather of the triumvir, was slain fighting against them near Stobi. In 114 BC, they surprised and destroyed the army of Gaius Porcius Cato in the western mountains of Serbia, but were defeated by Minucius Rufus in 107 BC.

From time to time they still gave trouble to the Roman governors of Macedonia, whose territory they invaded, even advancing as far as Delphi for a second time and once again plundering the temple; but Lucius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus finally overcame them in 88 BC and drove them back across the Danube. After this, the power of the Scordisci declined rapidly. This decline was more a result of the political situation in their surrounding territories rather than the effects of Roman campaigns, as their client tribes, especially the Pannonians, became more powerful and politically independent. Between 56 and 50 BC, the Scordisci were defeated by Burebista's Dacians (a Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes), and became subject to him.
5 commentsNathan P
EB0001_scaled.JPG
EB0001 Celtic16 viewsGALLIC CELTS?, billon Tdrm. , circa 150 BC,
Obverse: barbarized head (ear replaced by 8) right
Reverse: stylized fragmented horse right
References: SG 110, De la Tour, pl. XXVII
Diameter: 25mm, Weight: 5.711 g
EB
EB0002_scaled.JPG
EB0002 Celtic Face / Horse24 viewsCeltic billon stater , 58-56 BC
Obverse: Head right.
Reverse: Horse and rider right.
Weight: 6.36 g
Notes (courtesy of Yurii P):
This seems to be class II stater of Unelli (group N of series Z in John Hooker's classification) -- imitation of Coriosolite staters by a neighboring Armorica tribe. Just like other billon staters of this type it was probably minted c. 58-56 BC, before or during Viridovix stand off with Roman invaders of Julius Caesar. http://www.writer2001.com/exp0012.htm
1 commentsEB
FAKE2b.JPG
Fake RIC 1642 viewsThis is the commonest Otho fake nowdays. Said to come from the Lipanoff studios, it pops out in different grades, metals and patinations over and over again. Unfortunately it was illustrated in ERIC I as the real thing. The obverse is cut imitating a real existing die, alhough the lettering is clearly off. The reverse is unlike the goddess on authentic coins, with what one might call a "celtic touch" Victory´s legs are in a wrong position and reveal the nature of this coin.
A thing to remember is that the person who cut these dies could easily have made a really convincing job - the "errors" are certainly intentional.
3.74 gr, max 19.5 mm, die-axis 6.
jmuona
Fibula-Silver-253_-AD_Q-001_32x14x12mm_6,86g-s.jpg
Fibula #253, AR- Equal-ended (???) fibula,214 viewsFibula #253, AR- Equal-ended (???) fibula,
type: Celtic (Greek ???) fibula,
size: 32x14x12mm,
weight: 6,86g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
AE-finger-ring-Snake_Q-001_26x26x4mm_4,29g-s.jpg
Finger-ring_AE-Snake shape #19 136 viewsFinger-ring_AE-Snake shape #19
Celtic Scythian copper trade ring, scarce! (by Kevin, "Mayadigger" thank you Kevin!)
size:26x26x4mm,
weight: 4,29g,
distribution: Black Sea Crimean Celtic Scythian,
date: ca. 1st - 2nd Century A.D.,
ref:???,
Q-001
quadrans
leucibmccelticiii422OR.jpg
Gaul, Leuci cast potin, BMC Celtic III 42238 viewsBoviolles(?) Mint, Celtic Gaul, Leuci cast potin, c. 70-52 B.C. Potin, 18.6mm 2.99g, BMC Celtic III 422
O: Crude stylized head l. with three locks of hair, wearing wreath
R: Boar left, fleur-de-lis ornament below
casata137ec
Coriosolites.JPG
Gaul, Northwest. Coriosolites (57-52 BC)32 viewsBI Stater

5.36 g

Obverse: Celticized head right, hair in large spiral curls, S-like ear; pearl strings flowing around

Reverse: Devolved charioteer driving biga right; ornaments around; below, boar right.

DT 2329; Slg. Flesche - (vgl. 198)

The Coriosolites (one among a number of tribes in the area) inhabited a region called Armorica in what is now northwest France. They were a mixture of Celts who had fled Germanic incursions across the Rhine and the original inhabitants of Armorica, a place where customs and beliefs of the megalithic age still lingered on.

The Coriosolite coinage appears to have constituted a confederate currency, manufactured at the time of the Gallic Wars between 57 BC, the date of the revolt of the Armoricans and 51 BC, the end of the war of the Gauls. For the Armoricans, the war began with invasion by the Roman General Crassus, who subjugated the tribes by fighting each individually and taking hostages. The Celts then formed an alliance to more effectively fight Rome and captured envoys sent by Rome to serve as their own hostages.

Aware of their efforts, Caesar sent three legions under Sabinus who routed the Celts. No more battles were fought in Armorica, but the Armorican resistance continued; some of the population, unwilling to live under Roman rule, banded together and hid in remote areas. Twenty thousand Armoricans (including many Coriosolites) were among the forces that attempted to relieve Vercingetorix at the siege of Alesia in 52 BC.

J.-B. Colbert de Beaulieu defined six classes of Coriosolite coinage. This coin is in Class VI, defined by a nose shaped like a backward 2 on the obverse and, on the reverse, a symbol resembling a ladder on its side in front of a pony with a boar underneath. John Hooker identifies five coin types within Group VI. The coin above is most likely the fifth type (evidenced by the placement of the curl at the bottom of the horse's mane on the reverse). While 1-3 types in Class VI are among the earliest Coriosolite coins (perhaps even preceding the Gallic wars), Hooker asserts that, based on the style of the driver's body on the reverse, types 4 and 5 may have been minted just prior to the forming of the Celtic coalition and capture of the Roman envoys.
1 commentsNathan P
sensdelatour7417OR.jpg
Gaul, Senones Tribe, De La Tour 741722 viewsCeltic, Senones Tribe, Gaul (Area of Sens, France), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
Cast potin, 16mm 2.95g, De La Tour 7417
O: head of 'wild man warrior' right, six locks of hair
R: Celtic horse galloping left, pellet below and in left field

The coin was struck during the time period that Caesar was conquering Gaul. The Senones were involved in the famous Battle of Gergovia against Caesar in 52 B.C.

*pop cultural note - The battle is recalled by Mascius in HBO's Rome (TV series),
when Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus are interrogating him. He claims to have taken an arrow saving the lives of his comrades.
casata137ec
philipIII AR drachm.jpg
greek - AR Drachm - Philip III, 323-317 BC (prototype of celtic coins)53 viewsobv: (head of Herakles right wearing lions skin)
rev: ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ΓΑ monogram below (Zeus enthroned left holding eagle and sceptre)
ref: SG 6751
Rare

berserker
alexclet.JPG
GREEK, Alexander III the Great - Celtic imitation 105 viewsAlexander III the Great - King of Macedonia 336-323 B.C.Celtic Gaul or Britain Barbarous AR Drachm
Dimensions: 18 mm Weight: 4 grams

Struck - 336-250 B.C. Obv./ Head of Hercules right, wearing lion skin headdress.Rev./ AΛEΞANΔΡOY, Zeus seated left, holding eagle and scepter, monogram in left field and under chair.
Struck during the lifetime of Alexander the Great and beyond circa 336-250 B.C. by the Celts of Gaul or Britain for trade with the Greeks.
superflex
philip_ii.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, AR Tetradrachm, 315-295 BC (Possibly Barbarous)49 viewsKINGDOM OF MACEDONIA. Philip II (359-336 BC). Tetradrachm. Amphipolis. Approx. 315-295 BC
Obv: Head of Zeus with laurel wreath right.
Rev: Naked young man with palm leaf on horseback riding right, in the field under the horse thunderbolt on Η and dolphin.
Le Rider pl 48/4. 13.26g 25mm. Pecunem 13 lot 24

CNG 209 lot 59 and cng coin shop 765853 (which are the same type Le Rider 48/4) make this observation: These late issues attributed to Amphipolis may actually be the earliest Celtic imitations of Philip II's tetradrachms. They exhibit a more formalized style, and Philip's name is sometimes, as on this particular issue, broken after the second instead of the first.
CNG 320 lot 232 is also a good match to this coin. EASTERN EUROPE, Imitations of Philip II of Macedon. 3rd century BC. AR Tetradrachm OTA Type 10; Lanz –; CCCBM I S1 var. (symbol under foreleg); KMW 1015.
chance v
2a.jpg
Imitation 217 viewsNote the Celtic style decomposition of the image into separate elements. Pseudo-legend on the reverse.djmacdo
Unknown_Fourré.jpg
Imitative denarius serratus subaeratus55 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; female jugate heads (?) right, front head laureate.
Rev: two horses galloping right, desultor on front horse, [..]NS in exergue.
Serrate subaerate denarius, 1,9 mm; 2,74 g

There does not seem to be a model for this subaerate, which might be a Dacian or Celtic imitative, based on the counterfeiters vague recollection of Republican coins from the period between 75-50 B.C. (thanks to Andrew McCabe for the information). It also features serration, interpreted by some as an anti-counterfeiting device (if an unsuccessful one).
Syltorian
AC-GAUL__Armorica-3.jpg
Issue in Northwest Gaul in the area of Armorica8 viewsc. 1st century BC. D&T 2341

BI stater (5.94 gm)

Grade AU: Strike 4/5: Surface 4/5

Obv.: Celticized male head right, with hair in spiral curls.

Rev.: Deconstructed biga right; ornaments around; boar right below.

Many Celtic tribes lived within this area including the Coriosolites to which this coin is attributed.
Richard M10
00763.jpg
Julius Caesar (RSC I 49, Coin #763)3 viewsRSC I 49, AR Denarius, Rome, 44 BC
OBV: CAESAR; Elephant walking right trampling on a carnyx (a Celtic war trumpet) ornamented to look like a dragon.
REV: Implements of the pontificate: culullus (cup) or simpulum (ladle), aspergillum (sprinkler), securis (sacrificial ax), and apex (priest's hat).
SIZE: 17.6mm, 3.62g
MaynardGee
Kavaros_Tetradrachm.jpg
Kabyle Thrace Tetradrachm -- 230-218 BC14 views16.62 g, 29 mm, 30°
Minted in Kabyle
Silver Tetradrachm; Lightly Toned, Struck from Worn Dies, Minor Porosity
In the Name and Style of Alexander the Great; Celtic Design
Price 882; Draganov 874-875 (Variation); Peykov F2010

Obverse: Head of Herakles Wearing Nemean Skin Headdress Right.
Reverse: BΑΣΙΛΕΛΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (Of King Alexander), Zeus Aëtophoros Enthroned Left Holding Eagle and Staff. Artemis Phosphoros (Lightbringer) Standing Left, Holding Torches.

Alexander III the Great, the King of Macedonia and conqueror of the Persian Empire is considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He became king upon his father’s death in 336 BCE and went on to conquer most of the known world of his day. He is known as 'the great' both for his military genius and his diplomatic skills in handling the various populaces of the regions he conquered. Kabyle was an ancient Thracian city in modern South Eastern Bulgaria which was conquered by Philip II in 341 BC. Following the Celtic Invasion of Thrace, the royal Odrysian power was replaced by city rule. Kavaros was a Gallic King of Thrace, the only of them to strike coins.
__________________________________
My #1 or #2 favorite. I love the look that results from the worn dies often used on this style and the addition of Artemis. The flan has a slight bend that's apparent on the left side of the reverse, but I think it gives the coin more character rather than taking away from anything. The reverse also has a slight toning that I've heard referred to as "classic coin cabinet toning" or "gunmetal toning" that makes it look great. In hand, the overall presentation of this coin is just amazing in my opinion.
Hydro
Celtic_drachm_Kaposthaler_Zeus_Horse_AR15_1_93g.jpg
Kaposthaler drachm, Zeus/horse, AR1572 views15mm, 1.93g
struck 120-50 BC
3 commentsareich
celt_imit_phil_v_res.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--PHILIP V AND PERSEUS, CELTIC IMITATIVE31 views2nd - 1st Century B.C.
AE 21.5 mm 7.01 g
Danube Celts
O: reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon, right
R: trident, stylized dolphin ornaments between the prongs and flanking shaft, blundered inscription mimicking MAKEDONWN; scarce
(Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V and Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.)
cf. SNG Cop 1299
laney
celt_phil_v.jpg
KINGS OF MACEDON--PHILIP V AND PERSEUS, CELTIC IMITATIVE22 views2nd - 1st Century B.C. (struck ca. 168 - 31 BC)
AE 16.5 mm, 3.06 g
Danube Celts
O: reed-wreathed head of the river god Strymon, right
R: trident, stylized dolphin ornaments between the prongs and flanking shaft, blundered inscription mimicking MAKEDONWN; scarce
(Celtic imitative of a rare Macedonian issue struck under Philip V and Perseus, 187 - 168 B.C.)
cf. SNG Cop 1299
laney
L_COSCONIUS_MF.jpg
L COSCONIUS MF ROMAN REPUBLIC AR Denarius Serratus10 viewsOBVERSE: Helmeted head of Roma right, L . COSCO . M . F around, X behind
REVERSE: naked Celtic warrior (Bituitus), brandishing a spear & holding a shield & carnyx, driving a racing biga right, L LIC CN DOM in ex.
Struck at Rome, 118 BC
3.72g, 19.13mm
Cosconia.1. Cr.282 / 2
Legatus
Fibula-065_fibula_Q-001_62x20mm_9,96g-s.jpg
La Tene AE Celtic fibula, Fibula #065,87 viewsFibula #065, AE Celtic fibula,
type: Celtic fibula, A bronze celtic fibula of the La Tene period. Pin and half the spring broken off in antiquity. Fat body narrowing down to weak catch. Strong spring.
size: 62x20mm,
weight: 9,96g,
date: 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
La-Tene-Celtic-fibula_Q-001_43x10x8mm_2,31g-s.jpg
La Tene AE Celtic fibula, Fibula #113,110 viewsLa Tene AE Celtic fibula, Fibula #113,
type: Celtic fibula, A small bronze celtic fibula of the La Tene period.
size: 43x10x8mm,
weight: 2,31g,
date: 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
La-Tene-II_Celtic-fibula_Q-003_26x9x2mm_1,18ga-s.jpg
La Tene-II. AE Celtic fibula, Fibula #116,94 viewsLa Tene-II. AE Celtic fibula, Fibula #116,
type: Celtic fibula, A small bronze celtic fibula of the La Tene-II. period.
size: 26x9x2mm, weight: 1,18g,
date: 1st century B.C. to 1st century A.D., ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
IMG_0758.JPG
Lead celtic imitation of Ituci tribe 20mm23 viewsObv. Ear of corn
Rev. Tuna fish under cresent moon, all over ITVCI between parallel lines.
Similar to http://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=135810
Lee S
DSC01617.JPG
Lead Votive Axe18 viewsLead votive item of either Celtic, Roman, or Post-Roman time period. 68mm length.Fiorenza21
leuci.jpg
Leuci, Gallia86 viewsCeltic Potin-coin from the Leuci in Gallia, 2.-1. Cent. B.C.
Obverse- Head left.
Reverse- Boar standing left.
De la Tour Number 9078.
1 commentsb70
celtic_k.jpg
Lower Danube Celts5 viewsAR drachm, 20mm, 2.9g, 12h; 2nd-1st centuries BC.
Obv.: Stylized head of Herakles with wild hair, right.
Rev.: Stylized Zeus seated left holding an eagle, amphora to left.
Reference: CCCBM I 217, Kostial 896 / 16-424-69
John Anthony
senons-indien-cheval.JPG
LT 4717var, Gaul, Senones, potin20 viewsSenones tribe (near Sens, Bourgogne, France)
Circa 100-50 BC

Cast potin, 2.98 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ head of an Indian warrior right, six locks of hair
R/ horse galopping left, one bullet below and one on the left, one bullet at the end of the horse's tail

This coin is supposed to have been struck during Gallic wars, when Caesar was conquering Gaul. It is maybe the most common gallic coin.
Droger
senons-grosse-tete-cheval.JPG
LT 7396, Gaul, Senones, potin16 viewsSenones tribe (near Sens, Bourgogne, France)
Circa 100-50 BC

Cast potin, 3.12 g, 18 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ helmeted head left
R/ stylized horse left, with bullets

This coin is supposed to have been struck during Gallic wars, when Caesar was conquering Gaul.
Droger
remes-guerrier-courant.JPG
LT 8124, Gaul, Remi, potin14 viewsRemi tribe (near Reims, northeast of France)
Circa 100-50 BC

Cast potin, 4.66 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 9h

O/ warrior with plait running right, holding torc and spear
R/ beast standing right, with mouth open; object in shape of fibula above; serpent (?) below

This coin is supposed to have been struck during Gallic wars, when Caesar was conquering Gaul.
Droger
leuques-indien-sanglier.JPG
LT 9078, Gaul, Leuci, potin9 viewsLeuci tribe (in Lorraine, northeast of France)
Circa 75-50 BC

Cast potin, 3.16 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 3h

O/ head of an Indian warrior left, 3 locks of hair
R/ boar standing left with a symbol below

This coin is supposed to have been struck during Gallic wars, when Caesar was conquering Gaul.
Droger
carnute-aigle-face.JPG
LT abs, Gaul, Carnutes, potin 6 viewsCarnutes tribe (Beauce, south of Paris, France)
Circa 100-50 BC

Cast potin, 4.04 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ head with hair left
R/ standing eagle, head right
Droger
GRK_Macedon_Traglios_SGCV_1473.gif
Macedon. Tragilos11 viewsSear 1473, SNG ANS 904-905, AMNG 2-5, Weber 1984
AE unit, ca. 450-400 B.C.; 3.28 g., 15.72 mm. max, 90°.

Obv.: Head of Hermes right, wearing petasos.

Rev.: T-P/A-I within four part incuse square.

Tragilos was a small Greek settlement in Bisaltia, which was destroyed either by Thracians or during the great Celtic invasion and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C.
Stkp
Capture_00075.JPG
Mesembria, Thrace38 views3rd - 1st Century B.C.
Bronze AE19 Celtic Imitation
4.32 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Diademed female head right, border of dots
Rev: Athena Alkidemos standing left holding shield and hurling thunderbolt,
METAM – [B]PIANΩN to either side
BMC 3 p.133, 8-10; Sear 1676
Jaimelai
celtic_bracelet_with_dragon-head.jpg
miscellaneous - celtic bracelet 30 viewsbronze celtic bracelet with dragon-head
diameter: 70mm
berserker
41605_Myrina,_Aeolis,_c__2nd_Century_A_D__telesphoros.jpg
Myrina, AE11, Athena/ MVPEI NAIΩN, Telesphoros standing facing12 viewsMyrina, Aeolis, 2nd Century A.D. Bronze AE 11, BMC Aiolis p. 138, 38, gF, reverse encrusted, Myrina mint, weight 1.470g, maximum diameter 14.8mm, die axis 0o, c. 2nd century A.D.; obverse helmeted bust of Athena right; reverse MVPEI NAIΩN, Telesphoros standing facing, hooded and draped; Telesphorus, a dwarf who always wore a hood or cap, was a son of Asclepius and brother of Hygieia. He symbolized recovery from illness. Originally a Celtic god, he was probably introduced to the Greeks by Galatians in Anatolia in the 3rd century B.C. His influence spread to the West under the Roman Empire, in particular during the 2nd century A.D. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Parion_imitative.jpg
Odrysian Kingdom - AR hemidrachm13 viewsImitation of Parion hemidrachm
early 5th - middle 4th century BC
Gorgoneion facing
incuse square with cross and pellet
cf.SNG France 1347; cf.SNG Copenhagen 256
1,71g

Forum note: "This type has traditionally been attributed to Parion, Mysia or as a Celtic imitative of the Parion type. Based on find locations in the area of Plovdiv, Haskova, Stara Zagora and Yambol in Bulgaria, Topalov has reattributed this imitative type to the Thracian Odrysian Kingdom. He notes they may have been struck by a tribal mint or by one of the Greek cities within Odrysian territory to pay their annual tax to the tribe."
Johny SYSEL
dolphin.JPG
Olbia, Sarmatia, cast dolphin 6th Century B.C.18 views12mm Celtic cast Dolphin, casted before the use of coins. First used as sacrificial object and later as currency. 1 commentsDk0311USMC
76349q00.jpg
Pannonian Celts, Syrmia Region, Kugelwange (Ball Cheek) Type, c. 2nd Century B.C.10 viewsPannonian Celts, Syrmia Region, Kugelwange (Ball Cheek) Type, c. 2nd Century B.C., Bronzetetradrachm, cf. Göbl OTA 197, Lanz 465; derived from the Macedonian Kingdom tetradrachms of Philip II. This type normally has a prominent raised round (ball) cheek, but on this example, the cheek is less prominent than most.

Syrmia is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, between the Danube and Sava rivers. Today, it is divided between Serbia in the east and Croatia in the west.
CE76349. Bronze tetradrachm, cf. Göbl OTA 197, Lanz 465; derived from the Macedonian Kingdom tetradrachms of Philip II, VF, tight flan, porous, Syrmia mint, weight 6.239g, maximum diameter 22.2mm, die axis 270o, c. 2nd century B.C.; obverse devolved laureate head of Zeus right, hair in arcs on both sides of central point, broad laurel wreath; reverse devolved horse trotting left, pellet in circle above
2 commentsMark R1
celtic.jpg
Philip II drachm, Middle and Lower Danube Celtic imitation 30 viewsMiddle and Lower Danube Celtic imitation of Philip II drachm (Herakles/ Zeus & eagle). 3,3g, 19mm.Podiceps
Philip_II_Arrhideus_tetradrachm_Amphipolis,_solidus_13_lot_24,_Feb_16_2014,_€425_,total_€477(_653_49).jpg
Philip II style Kassander or Demetrios tetradrachm29 viewsAmphipolis. "Struck under Kassander or his son, Antipater, 316/5-295/4 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Youth, holding palm, on horseback right; below, thunderbolt above Z; dolphin below horse's raised foreleg." or "Demetrios I Poliorketes. 306-283 BC. In the name and types of Philip II." or "These late issues attributed to Amphipolis may actually be the earliest Celtic imitations of Philip II's tetradrachms. They exhibit a more formalized style, and Philip's name is sometimes, as on this particular issue, broken after the second." Le Rider pl. 48. SNG ANS 812.Chance Vandal
celtic~0.jpg
Philip III of Macedon, 2nd Century B.C. Silver tetradrachm; Danube Region Celtic Imitation36 viewsCelts, Danube Region, Imitation of Philip III of Macedon, 2nd Century B.C. Silver tetradrachm, SGCV I 212, Forrer 336, VF, 13.421g, 28.4mm, 0o, obverse head of Herakles right in lion's head headdress; reverse “LILLII ”(blundered “FILIPPOU”), crude figure of of Zeus enthroned left, eagle in right, long vertical scepter in left; scyphate fabric. Ex FORVMPodiceps
phil2_AE19_6_34g.jpg
Philipp II, AE19 (celtic imitation)57 views19mm, 6.34g
obv: diademed head right
rev: XIΛIΠ...; horseman right, retrograde C below

ex H.D. Rauch
2 commentsareich
gaul.jpg
Potin, Leuci Gaul, 40-60 B.C. 34 viewsObverse: Head of Gaul facing left.
Reverse: Boar facing left. 3 celtic crescents in pyramid shape below.

Leuci, Gaul was mentioned by Julius Caesar as one of the locations supplying bread, and other supplies to his legions during the conquest of Gaul (present day France) This coin was minted within the period of Julius Caesar's Gaul campaign.
Dk0311USMC
celti_premoneta.JPG
Premoneta celtica, area danubiana, (800-500 a.C.)129 viewsProto moneta ad anello celtica (800-500 a.C.). Area danubiana.
AE, 3.7 gr, 19 mm (diametro)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (6 dicembre 2007, numero catalogo 108), ex dr. Alexander Fishman collection (Ancient Coins, Richmond Hill, Ontario Canada, fino al 2007)
NOTA: origine da hoard ungherese. Presentato sul sito lamoneta.it nel maggio 2008
paolo
bpCelticRing6Knobs.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic62 views3.6 gm 23.3 mm Six knobbed base metal ring.
Measurement was taken without the knobs. The variety presented here with three double knobs is considered common.
Massanutten
bpRing25Knobs2.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, 400 - 200 B.C.53 views27.1 gm 43 mm. Produced circa 400-200 BC. Base metal ring with 25 knobs.
A monster ring example in terms of weight and size. The measure was taken without the knobs. Most certainly it must have been an object of greater 'value' than lesser rings, but how that relationship could be quantified is a mystery.
This example would be considered very rare.
Massanutten
bpCelticRingPlain.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, 400 - 200 B.C.91 views2.4 gm 17.5 mm Produced circa 400-200 BC.
Very little is known about the how these interesting objects were used in ancient times by the Celtic peoples. Theories range from trade goods to religious donatives. It most certainly had a value, however, that could be used as a form of a primitive 'money'. The example presented here, a plain base metal ring without knobs is considered very common.
Massanutten
bpCelticRing5Knobs.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, 400 - 200 B.C.72 views4.9 gm 24.4 mm Produced circa 400-200 BC Five knobbed base metal ring.
Measurement was taken without the knobs. The meaning of the knobs is not understood in modern times. The most obvious theory would be that they are related to the value of the ring money. However, a quick scan of the rings presented here clearly demonstrates that whatever value was represented could not be based on either dimension or weight. My own guess is that the value was controlled by dictum, perhaps by the priestly class. This particular example is considered scarce.
Massanutten
bpRing79Knobs.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, 400 - 200 B.C.63 views14.3 gm 36 mm Produced circa 400-200 BC. Base metal ring with 79 knobs.
The text-book definition of why knobs and value are related to neither weight nor dimension when compared to the ring shown just previous. To my mind it must solidify the theory that the relative value of these rings (coins) were dictated by a social class recognized and respected by the Celtic peoples, which I believe (without fact) were the priestly caste. This coin is considered extremely rare.
Massanutten
bpCelticRingSilver.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, before 300 B.C.88 views1.7 gm 13.3 mm Silver ring with three knobs.
Measure was taken without the knobs. Very likely produced prior to 300 BC. This coin is very interesting in that it is theorized that most of these were melted down to provide the silver for Greek imitative coinage.
It is highly prized and considered rare.
Massanutten
10233.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Ring money, Celtic, c.800-500 B.C.81 viewsThis is a piece of ancient Celtic ring money, c. 800-500 B.C. it is very nice and measures about 19 millimeters.ancientcoins
potin-roulle.jpg
PROTO-COINAGE, Wheel money, Celtic, Gaul, Potin 15 viewsGALLIA
1. century BC
16mm
1,9g
Laurentius
100_0705~0.JPG
Radiate Bust11 viewsRadiate bust with Celtic style bust and crude reversesimmurray
Fibula-056_Celtic_Q-001_60x24x4mm_4,23ga-s.jpg
Roman (Celtic ???) Plate, Geometric Plate, Complex Shape Fibula #056,68 viewsType:Roman (Celtic ???) Plate, Geometric Plate, Complex Shape Fibula #056,
size: 60x24x4mm
weight: 4,23g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
quadrans
Fibula-003_Q_50x26mm_7,12g-s.jpg
Roman Bow, Aucissa Fibula #003197 viewsFibula #003
type: Aucissa type, variant,
It is actually an Aucissa variant as the bow differs from the regular Aucissa one. It is not another type under the Aucissa group, like Bagendon, it is clearly Aucissa type but a variant. The bow appears to be U-shaped in cross-section not the standard flatish bow with central ridge.
Some Aucissa fibulae have a word moulded on the head, above the hinge. These are thought to be the name of the manufacturer, as is the case with the name found on the base of Roman oil lamps. The most famous name is "AVCISSA" from which the type-name is derived. The AVCISSA workshop was located somewhere in northern Italy though is likely a Celtic-derived name. Other names are found, especially on Aucissa Fibulae from Pannonia.
In addition to the standard type with flat ribbon bow with several parallel rides running down it there are variants with half-round cross-section bow usually with a single line down the middle, with a very narrow half-round cross-section bow, and with a fully round cross-section bow. However, all of thee variatios share the same form of head and foot and the high arch of the bow.
size: 50x26mm,
weight: 7,12g,
date: 1st century A.D.,c. 30/10 B.C. - A.D. 50 (Augustan to Claudian period), though some were used into the Flavian period or later (they are found in Dacia where they likely came after Trajan's invasion).
ref: Hattatt 831.,
distribution: Origin in north Italy. Used throughout the Empire and in Barbaricum. Used by the Roman military.,
Q-001
quadrans
Fibula-081__fibula_Q-001_32x22x20mm_7,20g-s.jpg
Roman Bow, Knee Fibula, #081 AE Fibula with silver decoration,84 viewsRoman Bow, Knee Fibula, #081 AE Fibula with silver decoration,
type: Celtic Fibula,
size: 32x22x20mm,
weight: 7,20g,
date: A.D.,
ref: .,
distribution: ,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
celticopy.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Unknown AE 17389 viewsThe reverse is a crude pictograph with a central figure being attacked by a figure to left, third figure observes in upper right. Below the central figure is a foot print and horse head.
The coin is 17mm. AR
It appears to be an imitation of the "Fallen Horseman" FEL TEMP REPARATIO type struck by Constantius II, among others. The person cutting the die apparently didn't realize that he had to cut the mirror image of the coin into the die. He ended up with a left-facing bust on the obverse, while the reverse has the soldier on the left and the fallen horseman on the right instead of the usual horseman on the left, soldier on the right.
whitetd49
Imitiative_Fourré.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Fourre Imitiative145 viewsObv: Anepigraphic; female jugate heads (?) right, front head laureate.
Rev: two horses galloping right, desultor on front horse, [..]NS in exergue.
Serrate subaerate denarius, 1,9 mm; 2,74 g

There does not seem to be a model for this subaerate, which might be a Dacian or Celtic imitative, based on the counterfeiters vague recollection of Republican coins from the period between 75-50 B.C. (thanks to Andrew McCabe for the information). It also features serration, interpreted by some as an anti-counterfeiting device (if an unsuccessful one).
Syltorian
Romano-Celtic3_copy.jpg
Romano-Celtic Radiate16 viewsBarbarous British Romano Celtic Radiate, ca. 300 AD, Obv: Ruler right; Rev: Figure stg., traces of inscription. Excellent example of this type.Molinari
Romano-Celtic1_copy.jpg
Romano-Celtic Radiate18 viewsBarbarous British Romano-Celtic Radiate, ca. 300 AD, Obv: Ruler right; Rev: Figure stg. Nice green patina, well struck.Molinari
series-z-a.jpg
S.782 Anglo-Saxon sceat31 viewsPrimary (?) phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Series Z
Type 66
S.782
N.145
Abramson 102-60
O: Haunted-appearing (almost ghostly) face (?Christ)
R: Hound or wolf standing with curled tail

This unusual sceatta was probably produced in Kent or East Anglia, and the bearded face is probably Christ. The reverse is a skinny quadriped, with a curled tail circling through its legs.

The origin of this design seems to have heavy Roman and Byzantine influences. The obverse bust parallels similar images of Christ found on contemporary Byzantine coins and Christian tokens that pilgrims would have brought back from the Holy Land. The face has a fairly haunted appearance, and is expressionless.

The reverse is a little more tricky. Anna Gannon (Coins, Images, and Tales from the Holy Land, in Studies in Early Medieval Coinage vol 2) suggests that it represents a stag, which would have had a religious meaning. In my opinion, however, even with the primitive art of the time, it's hard to call that a stag, as the small linear "horns" really look more like ears. Other scholars call the creature a hound or wolf, with origins in Celtic imagery (such as the "Norfolk wolf", which is also of East Anglian origin). Alternatively it has been suggested (Charles Wood, private correspondence) that the creature might be a crude copy of the Roman wolf, nursing Romulus and Remus, as appears on many earlier Roman coins. This imagery occurs on a later East Anglian coin, that of Aethelberht II. The East Anglian ruling dynasty in the 7th century was the Wuffingas, a name that probably means "kin of wolves", and the wolf may have been a representation of the dynasty.

This coin probably dates from the early 8th century. The legends are illegible, and could be erroneous copies of Greek, of which the Anglo-Saxons would have presumably known little.

Ex- Charles Wood
Nap
5055.jpg
Sequani Tribe Potin / Celtic Bull51 viewsAttribution: Monnaies II 422, DLT 5368
Date: 100-50 BC
Obverse: Stylized head l.
Reverse: Bull butting l.
Size: 20 mm
Weight: 3.1 grams
icos
5993.jpg
Sequani Tribe Potin / TOC Horse53 viewsAttribution: DLT 5611/5538v, Mon XV 911
Date: 58-50 BC
Obverse: Celtic style bust l.
Reverse: Horse galloping l., TO above C below
Size: 17.76 mm
Weight: 3.1 grams
icos
u1~0.JPG
Spain, Obulco39 viewsObulco, Spain, AE26.

Laureate head right(Celtic)
Bull standing right, head facing, crescent above.

Check
ecoli
Belt_3.jpg
Sword Belt Plate Fragment 1st century BC to 1st century AD.111 viewsThe left hand 1/3 of a large sword belt plate. The edge of the central medallion design can just be made out. According the Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military equipment, 2nd edition, figure 33, #2, this design dates from the Republican era. Similar items were found in Castillejo Spain. Mills Celtic and Roman Artefacts notes that these were attached with rivets and indeed a single rivet remains on the reverse of this plate fragment. otlichnik
CELT_IMIT_BLK.jpg
THASSOS (DANUBIAN CELT IMITATION)21 viewsAfter 148 BC
AR Tetradrachm 33 mm, 16.77 g
O: Crude head of young Dionysus, right, wearing wreath of leaves and grapes and band across forehead
R: ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ, Hercules naked standing left holding club, lion skin draped over arm, monogram in field left Herakles standing left holding club
BMC Celtic 221; Lanz 967; S 215
laney
CELT_IMIT_BLK~0.jpg
THASSOS (DANUBIAN CELT IMITATIVE)50 viewsAfter 148 BC
AR Tetradrachm 32 mm, 16.77 g
O: Crude head of young Dionysus, right, wearing wreath of leaves and grapes and band across forehead
R: ΗΡΑΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΘΑΣΙΩΝ, Hercules naked standing left holding club, lion skin draped over arm, monogram in field left Herakles standing left holding club
BMC Celtic 221; Lanz 967; S 215
laney
GRK_Bastarnae.JPG
Thrace, Celtic, Bastarnae Tribe46 viewsAE 18 mm., struck ca. 220-160 B.C.

Obv: Crude head of the river-god Strymon facing right.

Rev: Trident with pseudo-legend.

Note: The Bastarnae were of uncertain, but probably mixed Germanic-Celtic-Sarmatian, ethnic origin, and lived between the Danube and the Dnieper during the last centuries B.C. and early centuries A.D. This coins is imitative of the Macedonian issues of Philip V of Macedon (221-179 B.C.), SNG Cop. 1299.
Stkp
celtic_imit.jpg
THRACE, ODESSOS (CELTIC IMITATIVE)22 views3rd - 2nd Century BC
17 mm 3.02 g
CELTIC, Eastern Europe
O: Laureate head of Zeus right
R: Horsemanriding right; pseudo-legend below
laney
zeus_rider_res_copy.jpg
THRACE, ODESSOS (CELTIC IMITATIVE)17 views3rd- 2nd Century BC
AE 19 X 20 mm, 5.74 g
O: Laureate head of Zeus right
R: (ODE)SIT(WN) Horseman right
Celtic imitation Thrace Odessos
laney
GRK_Parion.JPG
Thracian. Odrysian Kingdom24 viewsTopalov Thrace p. 230, 55

AR unit (12 mm.), struck early 5th - middle 4th century B.C.

Obv: [Gorgoneion]

Rev: Cruciform incuse square with pellet at center.

Imitative of a drachm or hemidrachm from Parion, in Mysia (Sear 3917-3918, cf. SNG Copenhagen 256, cf. SNG Delepierre 2527).

This type has traditionally been attributed to Parion, Mysia or as a Celtic imitative of the Parion type. Based on find locations in the area of Plovdiv, Haskova, Stara Zagora and Yambol in Bulgaria, Topalov has reattributed this imitative type to the Thracian Odrysian Kingdom. He notes they may have been struck by a tribal mint or by one of the Greek cities within Odrysian territory to pay their annual tax to the tribe.
Stkp
Imitating_types_of_Alexander_the_Great,_AR_Drachm.jpg
Thraco-Getae, Imitating types of Alexander the Great, AR Drachm.36 viewsObv. Stylized head of young Heracles right in lion skin headdress
Rev. Stylized Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle & scepter, amphora in left field.
BMC Celtic 215. Kostial 896.
16mm,.2,76g _sold :o(((
Antonivs Protti
T104a.jpg
Titus RIC-10481 viewsAR Denarius, 3.15g
Rome Mint, 80 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P; Captives, two, back to back, seated either side of trophy (man on l., woman on r.)
RIC 104(R). BMC 40. RSC 306a. BNC -.
Ex Lanz, eBay, October 2017.

Rare variant of the two captives type with the male and female captives swapping places. The reverse commemorates an Agricolan British victory, perhaps the occasion when his legions reached the river Tay garnering Titus his 15th imperial acclamation. Some scholars in the past have attributed the reverse as a 'Judaea Capta' type, this is incorrect. The two captives echoes a Gallic victory type struck for Julius Caesar. The shields, like those on Caesar's denarii, are Celtic not Judaean in form. Additionally, H. Mattingly in BMCRE II correctly proposed the reverse alluded to a British victory.


Even though the coin is a bit worn it still has good eye appeal. Even wear and well centred.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
Mesembria Tracia - Yelmo.jpg
TRACIA - MESEMBRIA42 views Mesembria (griego Μεσημβρία) fue una importante ciudad griega de la costa de Tracia en el mar Negro al pie de los montes Hemos (Haemus) cerca de Moesia. Fue colonia de Megara según Estrabón y su nombre original fue Menebria. (Μενεβρὶα) de su fundador Menas. Esteban de Bizancio dice que su nombre original fue Melsembria (Μελσημβρία) de su fundador Melsas; los dos dicen que el sufijo "bria" era el nombre tracio para ciudad. El autor anónimo del Periplo del Ponto Euxino dice que fue fundada por los calcedonios al tiempo de la expedición de Darío I a Escitia, pero Herodoto dice que fue fundada un poco después, una vez dominada la revuelta jónica (hacia 494 adC) por los calcedonios fugitivos; es posible que simplemente la antigua colonia fuera refundada.
Mesembria formó una Pentápolis griega en el Euxino con otras ciudades: Odesos, Tomis, Istriani y Apolonia del Euxino. No fue teatro de ningún hecho especialmente destacado en su historia antigua. En 71 adC pasó a Roma como ciudad libre y permaneció en poder de romanos y bizantinos hasta el 812 cuando fue ocupada por los búlgaros, que la devolvieron en el 864, pero que la recuperaron pocos ańos después.

AE 19 x 20 mm 4.2 gr.

Anv: Yelmo (Casco) tracio con protectores de mejilla de perfil a derecha.
Rev: ”MEΣAMB / ΡIANΩN” - Rueda de cuatro rayos ó escudo céltico ovalado.

Acuńada: 300 - 250 A.C.
Ceca: Mesembría en Tracia

Referencias: SNG Cop. Vol.6 #658 - Moushmov #3984 – B.M. Black Sea #276 var. - SNG Vol: XI #229/230 (William Stancomb Collection) - Monede autonome inedite di Dionysopolis sin cronologia relativa Vol: 1 Article Pages: 61-78 Type: Journal Article Auth/Ed: Canarache, V. Publication Year: 1957 In Publication: 1036 Pages: 276
mdelvalle
DSCN5024.jpg
Unknown Celtic coin AR. 8mm x 10mm. 13 viewsUnknown Celtic coin AR. 8mm x 10mm. Lee S
Carac1stCaes.jpg
[1004a] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.29 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 2, gF, Rome, 2.662g, 17.2mm, 0o; type from his first issue as Caesar., 196 A.D. Obverse: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES, boy's bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SECVRITAS PERPETVA (Security Everlasting), Minerva with aegis on breast, standing left, holding spear in left and resting right on shield on the ground; well centered on a tight flan; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
CaracallaRIC108.jpg
[1004b] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.30 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 108, RSC 510, VF, 2.967g, 19.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III, Emperor on horseback right, captive at feet; scarce. Ex FORVM.

This coin refers to the departure of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition. Our dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AttalosISNGvanAulock1358.jpg
[2402] Kingdom of Pergamon, Attalos I AR Tetradrachm. 241-197 BC.89 viewsAttalos I, AR Tetradrachm. SNG von Aulock 1358. 28mm - 16.8 grams. aVF. Obverse: Laureate & diademed head of Philetairos right; Reverse: FILETAIROU, Athena enthroned left, holding wreath in right hand, left elbow resting on shield set on ground behind, spear below; grape bunch to outer left, A to inner left, bow to outer right. Ex Nemesis.

Attalus I

Attalus I (in Greek Attalos) Soter (Greek: "Savior"; 269 BC – 197 BC) ruled Pergamon, a Greek polis in what is now Turkey, first as dynast, later as king, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the second cousin (some say the grand-nephew) and the adoptive son of Eumenes I, whom he succeeded, and was the first of the Attalid dynasty to assume the title of king in 238 BC. He was the son of Attalus (in Greek Attalos) and wife Antiochis, Princess of Syria.

Attalus won an important victory over the Galatians, newly arrived Celtic tribes from Thrace, who had been, for more than a generation, plundering and exacting tribute throughout most of Asia Minor without any serious check. This victory, celebrated by the triumphal monument at Pergamon, famous for its Dying Gaul, and the liberation from the Gallic "terror" which it represented, earned for Attalus the name of "Soter", and the title of "king."

A courageous and capable general and loyal ally of Rome, he played a significant role in the first and second Macedonian Wars, waged against Philip V of Macedon. He conducted numerous naval operations, harassing Macedonian interests throughout the Aegean, winning honors, collecting spoils, and gaining for Pergamon possession of the Greek islands of Aegina during the first war, and Andros during the second, twice narrowly escaping capture at the hands of Philip.

He died in 197 BC, shortly before the end of the second war, at the age of 72, having suffered an apparent stroke while addressing a Boeotian war council some months before. He enjoyed a famously happy domestic life, shared with his wife and four sons. He was succeeded as king by his son Eumenes II.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalus_I

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.






Cleisthenes
     
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