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Search results - "Caligula"
NeroDrususCaesars1.jpg
163 viewsStruck under Caligula. Nero and Drusus Caesars riding right, cloaks flying, NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around S-C. Rome mint, c. AD 37-38. RIC I 34 (pg. 110).2 commentssocalcoins
AGRIPPA-1.jpg
46 viewsAS - Agrippa - 37/41 (Caligula)
Obv.: M AGRIPPA L F COS III Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev.: Neptune standing, head left, holding trident and little dolphin; S C at sides.
g. 10,7 mm. 28
Cohen 3, RIC 58, Sear RCV 1812
Maxentius
GERMANIC-1.jpg
34 viewsGERMANICVS - As minted under Caligula - 40/41 AD
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
Rev.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P around large SC.
Gs. 11 mm. 29,1
Cohen 4 RIC 50

Maxentius
Agrippa_As_2.jpg
2.75 Agrippa56 viewsAGRIPPA
Æ As. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD

M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.

Cohen 3, RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius] Fine, roughness
RI0003
Sosius
CALIGULA_TAG.jpg
4 12 viewsSosius
Caligula_As_3.jpg
4 Caligula As32 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA)
Æ As (29mm, 11.75 g, 5h) Rome mint. Struck AD 40-41.

C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left / VESTA, S-C across field, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter.

RIC I 54, Cohen 29. VF, green patina, some roughness.

Ex CNG
RI0015
Sosius
Caligula_Prov_2.jpg
4 Caligula27 viewsProvincial AE
RI0018
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_53_46_AM.png
4 Caligula15 viewsGaius Caligula. A.D. 37-41. AE quadrans. Rome mint, struck A.D. 41. Rare. Unlisted in RIC 2nd Edition. From the RJM Collection.
Gaius Caligula. A.D. 37-41. AE quadrans (17.79 mm, 3.20 g, 7 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 41. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG , legend around large S - C; Pileus or "Liberty Cap" between / PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT, legend around large RCC. RIC I unlisted; RIC I (1st edition) 41; BMCRE 79-80; BN 126-7. VF, rough, brown surfaces. Rare. Unlisted in RIC 2nd Edition.

From the RJM Collection.

Rare last year of issue, when Gaius was consol for the fourth time

Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/2017
Sosius
Caligula_Provincial_cassand.jpg
4 Caligula AE16 of Cassandrea15 viewsCassandrea, Macedonia
AE16, Time of Caligula

Standard/Vexilla with crescents above // CAS/SAN/DR within wreath

Thanks to FORVM member Quisquam for helping me attribute this little coin.
RI0017
Sosius
Germanicus_Signis_Receptis.jpg
4.5 Germanicus, father of Caligula37 viewsGERMANICUS
AE Dupondius. Struck under Caligula.

GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right / SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter.

RIC 57 [Caligula], Cohen 7, BMC 93 Fine
Ex VAuctions
RI0038
1 commentsSosius
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c.jpg
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 64 – 12 BCE27 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
antoniad.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA17 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
Caligula_prov.jpg
3 Caligula27 viewsProvincial AE
RI0016
Sosius
rjb_2017_07_11.jpg
376 viewsCaius "Caligula" 37-41 AD
AE as
Obv "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP"
Bare head left
Rev "VESTA SC"
Vesta seated left on ornamental throne holding patera and transverse sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 54
mauseus
CaliDu01-2.jpg
37 AD Dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus280 viewsorichalcum dupondius (29mm). Rome mint. Struck AD 37.
CONSENSV SENAT·ET·EQ·ORDIN·P·Q·R Gaius seated left on curule chair
DIVVS AVGVSTVS S C radiate head of Augustus facing left
RIC (Gaius) 56; Cohen (August) 87; Foss (Roman historical coins) 60:4
ex old British (Oxford) collection

Minted under Caligula on the occasion of the dedication of a temple to Divus Agustus; the identity of the seated person is uncertain but probably Gaius. The legend 'ET EQ' refers to 'EQVES' (pl. EQVITES), 'horseman'. In the early empire, they were the holders of administrative posts of a class second only to the senators.
In the picture the obverse and reverse have accidentally been switched around.
Charles S
fc17.jpg
Divus Augustus. Died AD 14. Æ Dupondius (31mm, 17.46 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula),28 viewsJOE GERANIO COLLECTION- Divus Augustus. Died AD 14. Æ Dupondius (31mm, 17.46 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-41. Radiate head left / Augustus(?) seated left on curule chair, holding branch. RIC I 56 (Gaius).Joe Geranio
FC2.jpg
LYDIA, Philadelphia. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ (17mm, 3.83 g, 12h). Epikrates, magistrate. Bare head of Caligula right / Jugate laureate busts of the Dioscuri right.20 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- LYDIA, Philadelphia. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ (17mm, 3.83 g, 12h). Epikrates, magistrate. Bare head of Caligula right / Jugate laureate busts of the Dioscuri right. RPC I 3022. Anyone May Use as Long as Credit is Given.Joe Geranio
FC20.jpg
Nero & Drusus Caesar. Died AD 31 and 33, respectively. Æ Dupondius (28mm, 16.30 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-38. Nero and Drusus on horseback21 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- (Anyone may use as long as credit is given-(Joe Geranio JCIA) Nero & Drusus Caesar. Died AD 31 and 33, respectively. Æ Dupondius (28mm, 16.30 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-38. Nero and Drusus on horsebackJoe Geranio
antonia.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA55 views(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
antoniadx.jpg
(0010) ANTONIA7 viewsANTONIA
(daughter of Mark Antony; mother of Claudius; grandmother of Caligula)
b. ca. 36 BC, d. 37 AD
AE ORICHALCUM DUPONDIUS 28.5 11.98 g
STRUCK BY CLAUDIUS, ca. 50 - 54 AD
O: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare-headed bust right, hair in long plait
R: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P) S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum
RIC 1 104
laney
caligulacombinedhoriz.jpg
(04) CALIGIULA38 viewsCALIGULA
37 - 41 AD
Struck Ca 37/38 AD
AE As
O C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT Barehead left, dated TR POT
R: VESTA S C Vesta seated left, pouring from a patera
Rome RIC 38
laney
caligula.jpg
(04) CALIGULA41 viewsSTRUCK 37 - 38 AD
AE As 25.5 mm 11.85 g
O: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
BARE HEAD LEFT
R: VESTA/SC
VESTA SEATED L HOLDING PATERA & SCEPTER
ROME
laney
CALIG_QUAD_RES.jpg
(04) CALIGULA20 views37 - 41 AD

AE QUADRANS 18mm 2.21 g
(STRUCK 39 - 40 AD)

OBV: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG
AROUND PILEIUS BETWEEN S - C
REV: PON M TR P III PP COS [TER T]
AROUND LARGE RCC

RIC 45
laney
caligula_aezanis.jpg
(04) CALIGULA 20 views37-41 AD
AE 20 mm, 6.85 g
(Aristarchos, magistrate)
O: Laureate head right
R: Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter.
PHRYGIA, Aezanis. RPC I 3079; SNG Copenhagen 76.
laney
caligula_vesta.jpg
(04) CALIGULA27 views37-41 AD
Struck 37-38 AD
AE as 26 mm. 9/7 g
O: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left.
R: VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
Rome; Cohen 27. RCV 1803.
1 commentslaney
caligula_pegasos_corinthc.jpg
(04) CALIGULA23 views37-41 AD.
Struck 37-38 AD
AE21 (6.69 g)
Obv. C CAESAR AVG, Bare head to right.
Rev. P VIPSANIO AGRIPPA IIV CO, Pegasus flying to right.
Achaea, Corinth. RPC 1172; BCD Korinth 402.
laney
caligula_denarius_augustus_bbb.jpg
(04) CALIGULA21 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm, 3.53 g
37 - 41 AD
Struck 37-38 AD
O: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT [COS] Bare head of Caligula right
R: Radiate head of Divus Augustus right, flanked by stars
Rome; RIC 2; RSC 11; BMCRE 4
ex. Roma Numismatics Auction
2 commentslaney
Caligula.jpg
*SOLD*25 viewsCaligula AE/AS

Attribution: RIC 38, Cohen 27, BMCRE 46
Date: AD 37-38
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head l.
Reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated l., holding patera and scepter, large S-C in across fields
Size: 27.4 mm
1 commentsNoah
coin289.JPG
002b. Livia48 viewsLivia, as history most often knows her, was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome. Although certainty about their inner lives and proof for what we would consider a loving relationship is necessarily lost to us, we can infer genuine loyalty and mutual respect between the two. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Livia's position as first lady of the imperial household, her own family connections, her confident personality and her private wealth allowed her to exercise power both through Augustus and on her own, during his lifetime and afterward. All the Julio-Claudian emperors were her direct descendants: Tiberius was her son; Gaius (Caligula), her great-grandson; Claudius, her grandson; Nero, her great-great-grandson.

Tiberius and Livia- Thessalonica, Macedonia/Size: 22.5mm/Reference: RPC 1567
Obverse: TI KAISAR SEBASTOS, bare head of Tiberius right Reverse: QESSALONIKEWN SEBASTOU, draped bust of Livia right.

Ex-Imperial Coins
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003b. Nero & Drusus Caesars33 viewsNero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula.

There father Germanicus was Heir Apparent to his own adoptive father Emperor Tiberius, but Germanicus predeceased the Emperor in 19. He was replaced as heir by Julius Caesar Drusus, son of Tiberius and his first wife Vipsania Agrippina. But he too predeceased the Emperor on July 1, 23.

Nero and his younger brother Drusus were the oldest adoptive grandsons of Tiberius. They jointly became Heirs Apparent. However, both were accused of treason along with their mother in AD 32. Nero was exiled to an island and Drusus in a prison where they either starved to death or was murdered by order of the emperor in AD 33.

Dupondius. Rome mint, struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
Cohen 1. RIC 34

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Agrippa_AE-As_M_AGRIPPA_L_F_COS_III_S-C_RIC_58_(Caligula),_Cohen_3,_BMC_161_(Tiberius)_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
004 Agrippa (63-12 B.C.), RIC I 058 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.84 views004 Agrippa (63-12 B.C.), RIC I 058 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.
avers:- M•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•III, head left wearing rostral crown.
revers:- Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 27-29mm, weight: 10,82 g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: Struck under Caligula, 37-41 A.D., ref: RIC 58 (Caligula), Cohen 3, BMC 161(Tiberius),
Q-001
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004. Caligula 41 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior.

Æ As (28mm, 10.19 gm). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; Cohen 27. Near VF, dark brown surfaces. Ex-CNG
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004a. Caesonia43 viewsSpain, Carthago Nova. Gaius Caligula, with Caesonia. A.D. 37-41. Æ 26.6 mm (11.5 g). Cn. Atellius Flaccus and Cn. Pompeius Flaccus, duovirs. Laureate head of Caligula right / Draped bust of Caesonia, as Salus, right. RPC 186.

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004b. Agrippina Senior51 viewsAgrippina Senior. Died AD 33. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 24.10 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 40-41. Draped bust right / Carpentum drawn left by two mules. RIC I 55 (Gaius); Trillmich Group I. Good Fine, dark gray-brown patina, rough surfaces.

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From the Ronald J. Hansen Collection. Ex Noble 79 (26 July 2005), lot 3590.

Ex-CNG printed sale 94 320/300
1 commentsecoli
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm193 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
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005a. Antonia35 viewsAntonia

she exposed a plot between her daughter Livilla and Sejanus, Tiberius's Praetorian Prefect. This led to Sejanus's downfall and to the death of Livilla. Claudius, her biggest disappointment (she once called him a "monster") was the only one of her children to survive her.

She committed suicide in 37 AD on Caligula's orders after expressing unhappiness over the murder of her youngest grandson, Tiberius Gemellus. There is a passage in Suetonius's "Life of Gaius" that mentions how Caligula may have given her poison himself. Renowned for her beauty and virtue, Antonia spent her long life revered by the Roman people and enjoyed many honors conferred upon her by her relatives.

Æ Dupondius (10.61 gm). Struck by Claudius. Draped bust right / Claudius standing left, holding simpulum. RIC I 92 (Claudius); BMCRE 166 (same); Cohen 6. Ex-CNG

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005b. Britannicus126 viewsBritannicus (son of Claudius) AE17. Ionia, Smyrna

Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. His original name was "Germanicus" but was changed in honor of his father's conquest of Britain in 43 AD.

Nobody is sure why Claudius made Nero his successor and not Britannicus, although the fact that Britannicus may have been Caligula's son is a factor. Britannicus was killed by (partisans of) his step-brother (and brother-in-law) Nero so that Nero could become emperor of Rome.

His sister Octavia is the heroine of the play written at some time after the death of Nero. It's title is titled her name, but its central message is the wrong done to the Claudian house because of the wrong done to its last male member and its last hope.

Britannicus. Before 54 AD. AE 17mm (4.31 g), Minted at Ionia, Smyrna. Bare head right 'ZMYP' below bust / Nike flying right. cf S(GIC) 516. Scarce. Some dirt and patina chipping.

ecoli73
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005c. Germanicus48 viewsGermanicus

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16.

Germanicus died in Alexandria, Egypt. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius.

AS, struck under Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC. Cohen 1.

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005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_S-dot-C_RIC-50_BMC-74_C-4_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_30mm_11,12g-s.jpg
009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,560 views009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 050, Rome, AE-As, C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Around large S•C,
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N, Bare head of left.
revers:- C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 11,12g, axis:- h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC-50 (Caligula), BMC-74 (Caligula), C-4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Germanicus_AE-Dup_GERMANICVS-CAESAR_SIGNIS-RECE-DEVICTIS-GERM_S-C_RIC-57_-7_BMC-94_40-41-AD_Q-001_27mm_12,77g-s.jpg
009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 057, Rome, AE-Dupondius, SIGNIS RECEPT/DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus advancing left, 676 views009 Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 057, Rome, AE-Dupondius, SIGNIS RECEPT/DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus advancing left,
"My Father received the title as conqueror of Germany from the Senate and people of Rome".
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right.
revers:- SIGNIS-RECEPT/DEVICTIS-GERM, large S-C across field, Germanicus advancing left holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
date: Struck under Caligula 40-41AD.
mint: Rome
diameter: 27mm
weight: 12,77g
ref: RIC-57, C-7, BMC-94,
Q-001
12 commentsquadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMP_P_P_S-dot-C_RIC_106(Claudius)_Cohen_9,_BMC_241_Rome-41-43-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #186 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #1
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 9,87g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-001
quadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_GERMANICVS-CAESAR-TI-AVG-F-DIVI-AVG-N_TI_CLAVDIVS_CAESAR_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_IMPPP_S_C_RIC_106(Cl)_C_9,_Rome-41-3AD_Q-001_6h_30,5mm_11,03ga-s.jpg
009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2141 views009a Germanicus (15 B.C.-19 A.D.), RIC I 106 (Claudius), Rome, AE-As, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Around large S•C, #2
Germanicus Father of Caligula. Died 19 AD. AE-AS, (15 BC.-19 CE.) posthumous commemorative minted under Caligula.
avers:- GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head right
revers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P, Legend around large S•C.
exerg: S•C//--, diameter: 29,5-30,5mm, weight: 11,03g, axis: 6h,
mind: Rome, date: 40-41 A.D., ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius), Cohen 9, BMC 241,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
0107.jpg
0107 - As Caligula 37-38 AC28 viewsObv/ C CAESAR AVG GERMANIC IMP PM TR P COS, laureate head of C. r.
Rev/ PM CN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q VINC, Salus (Cesonia?) r.; SAL - AVG in field.

AE, 29.0 mm, 14.76 g
Mint: carthago Nova.
APRH/185
ex-Numismática Hinojosa – eBay, art. #290555714886
dafnis
321356_513921868644729_989151575_n.jpg
011 Agrippa74 viewsAgrippa, Æ As. Agrippa. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius]


It's a bit glossy and hard to get a great shot
7 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Caligula_AE-As_C-CAESAR-AVG-GERMANICVS-PON-M-TR-POT_VESTA_S-C_RIC-38_BMC-46_C-27_Rome-40-41-AD_Q-001_27mm_10,34g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 038, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne, #1364 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 038, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne, #1
avers: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 10,34g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 40-41, ref: RIC I 038, BMC-46, C-27,
Q-001
quadrans
011_Gaius_(Caligula),_AE-Quadrans,,_BMC_64,_Cohen_7,_RIC(2),_52,__Rome,_40-41_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_17,5-18,5mm,_3,11g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 052, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT around R C C, #1106 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 052, Rome, AE-Quadrans, PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT around R C C, #1
avers: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG around pileus flanked by large S C.
reverse: PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT around R C C.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,11g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 40-41, ref: RIC I 52, BMC 64, C 7,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Germanicus_AE-AS_C-CAESAR-DIVI-AVG-PRON-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IIII-P-P_VESTA_S-C_RIC-54_BMC-73_C-29_Rome-39-40-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_26-28mm_10,25g-s.jpg
011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,301 views011 Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 A.D.), RIC I 054, Rome, AE-As, VESTA, S-C, Vesta seated left on throne,
avers: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, Bare head left.
reverse: VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter. S-C across the field,
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 26-28mm, weight: 10,25g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 39-40, ref: RIC I 054, BMC-73, C-29,
Q-001
quadrans
011_Caligula_and_Antonia,_(37-41_A_D_),_AE22,Thessalonika,Macedon,Q-001_22mm_9,07g-s.jpg
011p Gaius (Caligula) and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,73 views011p Gaius (Caligula) and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), Macedonia, Thessalonica, RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,
avers: Γ.KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Gaius Caligula left,
reverse: ΓEPMANIKOΣ C(?)E.ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, Head of Antonia left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonica, date: 37-41 A.D., ref: RPC 1573 ???,
Q-001
quadrans
13a.jpg
013a Caligula. AE AS 11.3gm49 viewsobv: C AESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT bare head l.
rev: VESTA/SC Vesta veiled and drp., seated l. on ornamental throne,
holding petera l. long scepter
hill132
13b_copy.jpg
013b Caligula. AE AS 10.86gm38 viewsobv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANCVS PON M TR POT bare head l.
rev: VESTA/SC vesta veiled and drp. seated l. on ornamental throne,
holding patera, l. long sceptre
1 commentshill132
13c.jpg
013c Caligula. AE23 8.86gm24 viewsobv: bust of Arados and Caligula r.
rev: spring stier
hill132
16a.jpg
016a Aggrippina jr. AE14 2.1gm26 viewsobv: drp. bust r.
rev: cult statue of Artemis
"mother of Nero, doughter of germanicus,
sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius"
hill132
0197.jpg
0197 - Quadrans Tiberius 33-34 AC41 viewsObv/ TI CAESAR DIV AVG F, laureate head of Tiberius l.
Rev/ C CAESAR Q(VINQ) (IN VIN)K bare head of Caligula l.

AE, 17.5 mm, 3.08 g.
Mint: Carthago Nova.
RPC I/184 [3-4 dies]
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e11, lot 182
dafnis
Personajes_Imperiales_2.jpg
02 - Personalities of the Empire58 viewsCalígula, Claudius, Britannicus , Agrippina jr., Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Domitila, Titus, Domitia and Julia Titi1 commentsmdelvalle
IMG_4932.JPG
020. Gaius "Caligula" (37-41 A.D.)39 viewsAv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Rv.: VESTA / S - C

Ae As Ø28 / 10.9g
RIC 38 Rome, Cohen 27
Juancho
0220_RICI_58.jpg
0220 - As Caligula 37-41 AC20 viewsObv/ Bust of Agrippa l., wearing rostral crown; around, M AGRIPPA L F COS III.
Rev/ Neptune standing l., wearing cape and holding trident and dolphin; SC on field.

AE, 28.5 mm, 11.46 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC I/58 [C] – BMCRE I/161 (Tib.)
ex-Artemide Aste, auction XLVII, lot 255
1 commentsdafnis
Caligula-RIC-40.jpg
023. Caligula.14 viewsQuadrans, 40 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG / Liberty cap between SC
Reverse: COS TERT PON M TR P IIII P P / R C C
2.68 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #40; Sear #1804.

The letters R C C signify "remissa ducentesima," referring to the abolition of a tax by Caligula in 39 AD. It was a tax of one percent levied on all commodities sold by auction, the vectigal rerum venalium.
Callimachus
caligula 1.jpg
03 Caligula151 viewsCaligula (Gaius) & Augustus AR Denarius. C. CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right / Augustus head, radiate, r., between two stars. BMC 4, RIC 2, RSC 11, BMC 10. Weight 3.56. Die Axis 4 hr.
5 commentsmix_val
RIC_I_58_AS_Agripa.jpg
03-01 - AGRIPA (27 - 12 A.C.)15 viewsAE AS 28 mm 8.3 gr.
(Emisión Póstuma realizada por Gaius (Calígula), Tiberio es también responsable por esta extensa emisión)

Anv: "M AGRIPPA · L · F · COS · III" - Busto con Corona Rostral viendo a izquierda.
"Corona Rostral" de oro (corona de laureles adornada con proas y popas de barcos, que se concedía por haber capturado una nave enemiga o bien por un gran acto de valor en combate naval)
Rev: "S C " - Neptuno de pié a izquierda, portando delfín en mano derecha y tridente en izquierda.

Acuñada 37 - 41 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #58 Pag.112 (Gaius) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1812 Pag.358 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #161 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.175/6 - DVM #4 Pag.74 - CBN #77
mdelvalle
AS Agrippa RIC 58.jpg
03-01 - AGRIPPA (27 - 12 A.C.)85 viewsAE AS (Emisión Póstuma realizada por Gaius (Calígula), Tiberio es también responsable por esta extensa emisión) 28 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: "M AGRIPPA · L · F · COS · III" - Busto con Corona Rostral viendo a izquierda.
"Corona Rostral" de oro (corona de laureles adornada con proas y popas de barcos, que se concedía por haber capturado una nave enemiga o bien por un gran acto de valor en combate naval)
Rev: "S C " - Neptuno de pié a izquierda, portando delfín en mano derecha y tridente en izquierda.

Acuñada 37 - 41 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #58 Pag.112 (Gaius) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1812 Pag.358 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #161 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.175/6 - DVM #4 Pag.74 - CBN #77
mdelvalle
027.JPG
030 Caligula35 viewsGaius Caligula Æ As. Struck 37-8 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. Cohen 27.RIC 38 sear5 #1803

New photo
Randygeki(h2)
002~3.JPG
031 Germanicus59 viewsAE AS
Germanicus AE As. Struck under Caligula, 39-40 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P around large SC. Cohen 4 var.

RIC 43 (Caligula) ex Zizum
Fine+, 27.5mm, 10.18gram
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA10 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
CalI38.jpg
037-041 AD - Caligula - RIC I 38 - Vesta Reverse47 viewsEmperor: Caligula (r. 37-41 AD)
Date: 37-38 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Consul Caesar Augustus Germanicus Chief Priest Tribune
Bare head left

Reverse: VESTA (above)
The Emperor looks after the state.
S - C to left and right
Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, right holding patera, left long transverse sceptre.

Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 38; VM 9
5.61g; 26.0mm; 180°
Pep
gaius_RIC_I_14.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 014120 viewsGaius (Caligula). 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 37-38 A.D. (3.55g, 19.1m, 5h). Obv: [C CAE]SAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, laureate head right. Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM, Agrippina, bust, draped right, hair falling in queue down her neck. RIC I 14 (R), RSC 2. Ex personal collection Steve McBride.

Agrippina “the elder” was Gaius’ mother. Falsely accused of wrongdoing by Tiberius, Agrippina was exiled and died of starvation, whether self-imposed or at the orders of Tiberius, is not clear. Upon ascending the throne, Gaius, recovered his mother’s ashes, and restored her name. This coin commemorates the veneration of his mother.
10 commentsLucas H
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2221 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
caligulacombinedhorizmargin.jpg
04. CALIGULA25 views37 - 41 AD
Struck Ca 37/38 AD
AE As
O C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT Barehead left, dated TR POT
R: VESTA S C Vesta seated left, pouring from a patera
Rome RIC 38
laney
011~1.JPG
041 Germanicus15 viewsGermanicus, Caesar
Died 10 Oct 19 A.D.

Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C

Fair, 8.138g, 27.4mm, 180*, Rome min, 42 A.D., S 1905, RIC 106, BMC 215 ex Forvm ex Bill D.

"Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor, but died of and unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula ontain the throne after Tiberius died."

-----

"Such virtuous conduct brought Germanicus rich rewards. He was so deeply respected and loved by all his kindred that Augustus - I need hardly mention his other relatives - wondered for a long time wether to make him his successor, but at last ordered Tiberius to adopt him."
Randygeki(h2)
007~1.JPG
041 Germanicus 18 viewsGermanicus Æ As struck under Claudius. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head right / TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around S-C



"Germanicus, Father of Gaius Caesar(Caligula), son of Drusus and Antonia the Younger, was adopted by Tiberius, his paternal uncle."
Randygeki(h2)
Claudius_RIC_I_58.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 58249 viewsClaudius 41-54 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 50-51 A.D. (3.58g, 18.4mm, 8h). Obv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P X PP IMP XVIII, laureate head right. Rev: PACI AVGVSTAE, Pax-Nemesis advancing right, holding winged caduceus pointed at snake. RIC I 58, RSC 66a. Ex CNG 258, Lot: 348.

Claudius was a capable, yet unlikely emperor. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter. After Caligula's murder the Praetorian Guard proclaimed him emperor. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, mother of Nero. It was very difficult for me to find a denarius of Claudius, and I love this reverse.
8 commentsLucas H
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
AS_Caligula_VESTA_RIC_38.jpg
06-01 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)115 viewsAE AS 26,25 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_38_AS_Caligula.jpg
06-10 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)19 viewsAE AS 26,25 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
mdelvalle
RIC_38_AS_Caligula_1.jpg
06-11 - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 28.0 mm 9,20 gr.

Anv: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VESTA" en campo superior - Vesta sentada en un trono ornamentado a izquierda, portando pátera en mano der. y largo cetro oblicuo en izq. "S C " en los campos.

Acuñada ca. 37 D.C.
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #38 Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #1803 Pag.356 - BMCRE #46 - Cohen Vol.I #27 Pag.240 - DVM #9 Pag.80 - CBN #54
mdelvalle
SGICTV_5431_Caligula.jpg
06-20 - Reino del Bósforo - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)16 viewsAE Assarion 21.0 mm 5.7 gr.

Anv: "ΓAIOV KAIΣAROΣ ΓEPMANIKOY" - Busto a cabeza desnuda de Caligula viendo a derecha.
Rev: Cabeza vistiendo diadema de Tiberio Julio Aspurgo Rey del Bosforo viendo a derecha, "BAP" en monograma detrás del busto e "IB" debajo del mentón.

Acuñada 37-38 D.C.
Ceca: Bosforo.

Referencias: RPC I #1904 - SNG Cop #24 - BMC 13 #8-9 Pag.50 - MacDonald #302 - Anokhin #320 - Sear GICTV #5431 Pag.536
mdelvalle
AS GERMANICO RIC 35.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)62 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
RIC_35_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-01 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)12 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.0 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 37 - 38 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - Off. 1ra.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #35 Pag.110 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821 Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #49 - Cohen Vol.1 #1 Pag.224 - DVM #2 Pag.77 - CBN #73 - MIR #20 - RC #600
mdelvalle
AS_Germanico_1.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)73 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
RIC_43v_AS_Germanico.jpg
07-03 GERMANICO (4 - 19 D.C.)13 viewsAE AS 28 mm 9.1 gr.
Emisión póstuma realizada por su hijo Caligula

Anv: "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Gaius) #43var, Pag.111 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Caligula) #1821var, Pag.360 - BMCRE (Gaius) #60 - Cohen Vol.1 #4, Pag.224 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN II #106, Pag.72
mdelvalle
AGRIPPINA.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)91 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_102_Sestercio_Agripina_Sr_.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)14 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
mdelvalle
Denario_Claudio_I_y_Agripina_jr.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)71 viewsAR Denario 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
3 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_81_Claudio_y_Agripina_Jr_.jpg
10-01 - CLAUDIO y AGRIPINA Jr. (41 - 54 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 20.0 mm 3.13 grs.

Anv: TI. CLAVD. CAESAR AVG. GERM. P. M. TRIB. POT. P. P.. Cabeza laureada de Claudio a derecha.
Rev: AGRIPPINAE AVGVSTAE. Busto de Agripina a derecha con corona de espigas.

Julia Vipsania Agripina , más conocida cómo Agripina la Menor para distinguirla de su madre, fue la hija mayor de Germánico y Agripina la Mayor, bisnieta por tanto de Marco Antonio y Octavia. Fue además Esposa de Ahenobarbo, hermana de Calígula, mujer y sobrina de Claudio I y madre de Nerón.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #81 Pag.126 (Plate.16) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1886 Pag.371 - BMCRE Vol.1 #75 - Cohen Vol.1 (Agrippine et Claude) #4 Pag.274 - DVM #27 Pag.84 - CBN #82 - RSC Vol. II #4 Pag.11
1 commentsmdelvalle
12_caes_portraits_coll_res_lt.jpg
12 CAESARS PORTRAITS164 viewsObverse images from my collection.
R 1: Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula
R 2: Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho
R 3: Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
2 commentslaney
antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa36 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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CaligulaAE27Caesonia.jpg
1ao2 Caesonia (?)19 viewsAE 27 of Carthago Nova, Spain

Laureate head of Caligula, right, C CAESAR AVG GERMANIS
Draped bust of Caesonia (as Salus) right, DN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR Q V I N C, SAL AVG across field

Generally held to portray the fourth wife of Caligula.

Sear 624

Caesonia, Milonia, (d41AD) was the fourth and last wife of Caligula. Her younger half-brother was the Consul Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Her niece, Domitia Longina, married Domitian. In 41, Caligula was assassinated and Caesonia and her daughter Julia Drusilla murdered.

Suetonius states: As for Caesonia, who was neither young nor beautiful, had three daughters by another man, and was wildly promiscuous and extravagant, he not only loved her more passionately for it, but also more faithfully, taking her out riding, and showing her to the soldiers, dressed in a cloak with helmet and shield: while he exhibited her to his friends stark naked. He did not honour her with the title of wife until she had given him a child, announcing his paternity and the marriage on the very same day. This child, whom he named Julia Drusilla, he carried round all the temples of the goddesses, before finally entrusting her to Minerva’s lap, calling on that goddess to nurture and educate his daughter. Nothing persuaded him more clearly that she was his own issue than her violent temper, which was so savage the infant would tear at the faces and eyes of her little playmates. . . .

And as [Caligula] kissed the neck of wife or sweetheart, he never failed to say: ‘This lovely thing will be slit whenever I say.’ Now and then he even threatened his dear Caesonia with torture, if that was the only way of discovering why he was so enamoured of her. . . . Some think that Caesonia his wife administered a love potion that had instead the effect of driving him mad.
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Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
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ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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AgrippinaObol.jpg
1aq Agrippina junior31 viewsMarried Claudius 49 AD

Diobol of Alexandria

Draped bust right, wreathed with corn, hair bound in plait behind, AGRIPPEINA CЄBACTH
Draped bust of Euthenia right, wreathed with corn, holding ears of corn, ЄYQH-NIA across fields, L-IB below

Milne 124

Agrippina the Younger, Julia Agrippina, or Agrippinilla (Little Agrippina) after 50 AD known as Julia Augusta Agrippina (c16 AD –59) was sister of Caligula, niece and fourth wife of Claudius and the mother of Nero. In 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal second cousin Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. Their only son was named Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, after Domitius’s recently deceased father. This child would become the Emperor Nero. In 39, Agrippina and her sister Livilla, with their maternal cousin, Drusilla’s widower, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, were involved in a failed plot to murder Caligula, and make Lepidus emperor. Lepidus was executed. Agrippina and Livilla were exiled by their brother to the Pontine Islands.

Suetonius says, "But it was Agrippina the Younger, his brother Germanicus’s daughter, who ensnared him, assisted by a niece’s privilege of exchanging kisses and endearments. At the next Senate meeting, he primed a group of Senators to propose that he ought to marry Agrippina, as it was in the public interest, and that such marriages between uncle and niece should from then on be regarded as lawful, and no longer incestuous. He married her (AD 49) with barely a day’s delay, but only one freedman and one leading centurion married their respective nieces, to follow suit. Claudius himself, with Agrippina, attended the centurion’s wedding."

The Euthenia reverse reminds one of "euthanasia." which is what some suspect she did to Claudius to elevate her son Nero to the purple.
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NeroAsGenAug.jpg
1ar Nero52 views54-68

As

Bare head, right, IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P
Genius, GENIO AVGVSTI

RIC 86

Suetonius wrote: Nero was born nine months after the death of Tiberius, at Antium, at sunrise on the 15th of December (AD 37). . . . While he was still a young stripling he took part in a successful performance of the Troy Game in the Circus, in which he exhibited great self-possession. At the age of twelve or so (sometime in AD 50), he was adopted by Claudius, who appointed Annaeus Seneca, already a member of the Senate, as his tutor. The following night, it is said, Seneca dreamed that his young charge was really Caligula, and Nero soon proved the dream prophetic by seizing the first opportunity to reveal his cruel disposition. . . . After Claudius’s death (AD 54) had been announced publicly, Nero, who was not quite seventeen years old, decided to address the Guards in the late afternoon, since inauspicious omens that day had ruled out an earlier appearance. After being acclaimed Emperor on the Palace steps, he was carried in a litter to the Praetorian Camp where he spoke to the Guards, and then to the House where he stayed until evening. He refused only one of the many honours that were heaped upon him, that of ‘Father of the Country’, and declined that simply on account of his youth.

Eutropius summarized: To him succeeded NERO, who greatly resembled his uncle Caligula, and both disgraced and weakened the Roman empire; he indulged in such extraordinary luxury and extravagance, that, after the example of Caius Caligula, he even bathed in hot and cold perfumes, and fished with golden nets, which he drew up with cords of purple silk. He put to death a very great number of the senate. To all good men he was an enemy. At last he exposed himself in so disgraceful a manner, that he danced and sung upon the stage in the dress of a harp-player and tragedian. He was guilty of many murders, his brother, wife, and mother, being put to death by him. He set on fire the city of Rome, that he might enjoy the sight of a spectacle such as Troy formerly presented when taken and burned.

In military affairs he attempted nothing. Britain he almost lost; for two of its most noble towns4 were taken and levelled to the ground under his reign. The Parthians took from him Armenia, and compelled the Roman legions to pass under the yoke. Two provinces however were formed under him; Pontus Polemoniacus, by the concession of King Polemon; and the Cottian Alps, on the death of King Cottius.

15 When, having become detestable by such conduct to the city of Rome, and being deserted at the same time by every one, and declared an enemy by the senate, he was sought for to be led to punishment (the punishment being, that he should be dragged naked through the streets, with a fork placed under his head,5 be beaten to death with rods, and then hurled from the Tarpeian rock), he fled from the palace, and killed himself in a suburban villa of one of his freed-men, between the Salarian and Nomentane roads, at the fourth milestone from the city. He built those hot baths at Rome, which were formerly called the Neronian, but now the Alexandrian. He died in the thirty-second year of his age, and the fourteenth year of his reign; and in him all the family of Augustus became extinct.

Having successfully dispatched his scheming mother Agrippina in 59 and survived a decade on the throne, Nero must have felt like a genius when this was minted ca 64 AD!
1 commentsBlindado
GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
TitusProv.jpg
1ax Titus96 views79-81

AE, Ankyra, Galatia
Laureate head, right AY KAICAP TITOC CEBASTO. . .
Man standing, left, SEBASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN

RPC 1620

By Suetonius' account: Titus, surnamed Vespasianus like his father, possessed such an aptitude, by nature, nurture, or good fortune, for winning affection that he was loved and adored by all the world as Emperor. . . . He was born on the 30th of December AD41, the very year of Caligula’s assassination, in a little dingy room of a humble dwelling, near the Septizonium. . . .

He was handsome, graceful, and dignified, and of exceptional strength, though of no great height and rather full-bellied. He had an extraordinary memory, and an aptitude for virtually all the arts of war and peace, being a fine horseman, skilled in the use of weapons, yet penning impromptu verses in Greek and Latin with equal readiness and facility. He had a grasp of music too, singing well and playing the harp pleasantly and with ability. . . .

As military tribune in Germany (c57-59AD) and Britain (c60-62), he won an excellent reputation for energy and integrity, as is shown by the large number of inscribed statues and busts of him found in both countries. . . . When his quaestorship ended, he commanded one of his father’s legions in Judaea, capturing the strongholds of Tarichaeae and Gamala (67AD). His horse was killed under him in battle, but he mounted that of a comrade who fell fighting at his side. . . . [Upon] Vespasian’s accession, his father left him to complete the conquest of Judaea, and in the final assault on Jerusalem (70AD) Titus killed twelve of the defenders with as many arrows. . . .

From then on, he acted as his father’s colleague and even protector. He shared in his Judaean triumph (of AD 71), the censorship (AD 73), the exercise of tribunicial power, and in seven of his consulships (AD 70, 72, 74-77, 79). . . .

He died at the same villa as his father, Vespasian, on the 13th of September AD81, at the age of forty-one, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. The people mourned his loss as if he were a member of their own family.
2 commentsBlindado
GermanicusDupDEVICTISGERM.jpg
1be Germanicus Recovers the Legionary Standards Lost by Varus10 viewsGermanicus

Dupondius, struck by Caligula
37-41

GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right.
SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter

Commemorates the recovery by Germanicus, who was Caligila's father, of the legionary standards lost by Varus in the Teutoburg Forest

RIC 57
Blindado
BOTLAUREL_2012.JPG
201240 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
agrippa cmk as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)75 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)(with Vespasian countermark)
rev: - / S.C. (Neptune holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left)
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
10.51gms, 28mm
Rare with this cmk

The capricorn originally a sign related to Augustus, it became a symbol of Vespasian' reign also. This countermark often attributed to Vespasian during the civil war, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region. The emblem beneath could be variously interpreted as a plough or a globe with ships rudder, or maybe instrument. This Agrippa coin with Vespasian cmk was found in the balkan region, too. Top of the picture is the original counterstamp-mint.
berserker
160-agrippa as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)47 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)
rev: Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. / S.C.
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
mint: Rome
11.10gms, 28mm

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C.
berserker
caligula dupondius RIC56.jpg
37-41 AD - AUGUSTUS memorial Æ dupondius - struck under Caligula 43 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS (radiate head of Augustus left), dividing S C
rev: CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R (laureate & togate statue of Gaius Caligula seated left on curule chair, holding branch)
ref: RIC I 56 (Gaius); BMCRE 88; C.87 (at Augustus-as struck Tiberius-4 frcs). BMC90
mint: Rome
15.80gms, 29mm
Rare

In reverse the whole text: CONSENSV. SENATus ET EQuestris ORDINis Populi Que Romani. This coin probably features an image of an actual statue of the Caligula. Dio Cassius notes, that the Senate ordered a guard to keep watch at each of Caligula's statues. (Dio Cassius LIX.26). Just a few coin has S-C on the obverse, like this.
berserker
caligula as-.jpg
37-41 AD - CALIGULA (GAIUS) AE as - struck 38 AD40 viewsobv: C.CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT (bare head left)
rev: VESTA (Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre, large S C at sides)
ref: RIC I 38 (C), BMC46, Cohen 27
mint: Rome (probably ancient fake, matter is lead)
10,36gms, 28mm
berserker
caligula quadrans.jpg
37-41 AD - CALIGULA (GAIUS) AE quadrans - struck 39 AD36 viewsobv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG / RCC
rev: PONT M TR P III PP COS DES III / S.C.
ref: RIC I 39, C.27, BMC57
mint: Rome
3.06gms, 16-18mm
Scarce

RCC = remissa ducentesima. Commemorative of a tax having been abolished by Caligula. The pileus or cap of liberty between S and C, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.
berserker
caligula_RIC36-R.jpg
37-41 AD - CALIGULA AE sestertius - struck 37-38 AD79 viewsobv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS P M TR POT (Pietas, veiled, seated left and holding patera, left elbow resting on small statue of Spes), PIETAS in exergue
rev: DIVO-AVG (Gaius sacrificing before garlanded hexastyle temple; one attendant leading bull to altar, the other holding a patera), S-C across field
ref: RIC I 36 (R), BMCRE 41, Cohen 9 (15frcs)
27.38gms, 33mm
Very rare

This issue commemorates Gaius Caligula's dedication of the Temple of the Divus Augustus and the young emperor's sense of pietas. The PIETAS beneath the figure of the emperor drives home the point that he is fulfilling his duty by dedicating the temple to his great-grandfather. Construction of the Temple of the Divus Augustus began under Tiberius and, perhaps, under the direction of Livia herself, in the general area behind the Basilica Julia (though the actual site remains unknown), and was subsequently dedicated by Caligula.
2 commentsberserker
germanicus as.jpg
37-41 AD - GERMANICUS memorial AE As - struck under Caligula 34 viewsobv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S-C
ref: RIC I 35 (Caligula), C.1 (3frcs), BMC49
8.63gms, 28mm

Germanicus was a brilliant young Julio-Claudian who distinguished himself on the battlefield many times. Most notably in Germania where he inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes and recovered the legionary standards lost in the catastrophic Varus disaster. He was chosen Tiberius' succesor, but died of an unknown cause in 19 AD.
berserker
agrippina RIC102(claudius).jpg
41-54 AD - AGRIPPINA Senior AE Sestertius - struck under Claudius (ca.42-43 AD)43 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS (draped bust right, hair behind in an elaborate plait)
rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
ref: RIC I 102 [Claudius], Cohen 3, BMC 219
mint: Rome
25.89gms, 35mm
Rare

Agrippina was the wife of Germanicus, and the father of six children who survived into adulthood, including the emperor Caligula. She was banished by Tiberius to the island of Pandataria, where she died of starvation in 33 AD. Her memory was honored under Caligula and Claudius.
berserker
antonia_AE17_RPC1582.jpg
41-54 AD - ANTONIA AE16 of Thessalonica - struck under Claudius 29 viewsobv: ANTWNIA (draped bust right, hair tied in queue down neck)
rev: TECCALO-NEIKEWN (Nike on globe left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RPC 1582, SNG ANS 840
mint: Thessalonica, Macedonia
4.74 gms, 16 mm
Very rare - original green patina

Antonia was daughter of Marc Antony and Octavia, wife of Nero Claudius Drusus, sister-in-law of Tiberius, mother of Claudius, and grandmother of Caligula.
berserker
coin233~0.JPG
504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch18 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

ecoli
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2146 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CLAUD34LG.jpg
705a, Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.62 viewsClaudius. 42-43 AD. AE As.
Claudius. 42-43 AD. AE As (29 mm, 10.87 g). Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head right; Reverse: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI / S - C, Constantiae in military dress standing left, holding spear; RIC I, 111; aVF. Ex Imperial Coins.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

CLAUDIUS (41-54 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Ti. Claudius Nero Germanicus (b. 10 BC, d. 54 A.D.; emperor, 41-54 A.D.) was the third emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. His reign represents a turning point in the history of the Principate for a number of reasons, not the least for the manner of his accession and the implications it carried for the nature of the office. During his reign he promoted administrators who did not belong to the senatorial or equestrian classes, and was later vilified by authors who did. He followed Caesar in carrying Roman arms across the English Channel into Britain but, unlike his predecessor, he initiated the full-scale annexation of Britain as a province, which remains today the most closely studied corner of the Roman Empire. His relationships with his wives and children provide detailed insights into the perennial difficulties of the succession problem faced by all Roman Emperors. His final settlement in this regard was not lucky: he adopted his fourth wife's son, L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, who was to reign catastrophically as Nero and bring the dynasty to an end. Claudius's reign, therefore, was a mixture of successes and failures that leads into the last phase of the Julio-Claudian line.

Robert Graves' fictional characterization of Claudius as an essentially benign man with a keen intelligence has tended to dominate the wider public's view of this emperor. Close study of the sources, however, reveals a somewhat different kind of man. In addition to his scholarly and cautious nature, he had a cruel streak, as suggested by his addiction to gladiatorial games and his fondness for watching his defeated opponents executed. He conducted closed-door (in camera ) trials of leading citizens that frequently resulted in their ruin or deaths -- an unprecedented and tyrannical pattern of behavior. He had his wife Messalina executed, and he personally presided over a kangaroo court in the Praetorian Camp in which many of her hangers-on lost their lives. He abandoned his own son Britannicus to his fate and favored the advancement of Nero as his successor. While he cannot be blamed for the disastrous way Nero's rule turned out, he must take some responsibility for putting that most unsuitable youth on the throne. At the same time, his reign was marked by some notable successes: the invasion of Britain, stability and good government in the provinces, and successful management of client kingdoms. Claudius, then, is a more enigmatic figure than the other Julio-Claudian emperors: at once careful, intelligent, aware and respectful of tradition, but given to bouts of rage and cruelty, willing to sacrifice precedent to expediency, and utterly ruthless in his treatment of those who crossed him. Augustus's suspicion that there was more to the timid Claudius than met the eye was more than fully borne out by the events of his unexpected reign.

The possibility has to be entertained that Claudius was a far more active participant in his own elevation than traditional accounts let on. There is just reason to suspect that he may even have been involved in planning the murder of Gaius (Caligula). Merely minutes before the assassination of Gaius, Claudius had departed for lunch; this appears altogether too fortuitous. This possibility, however, must remain pure speculation, since the ancient evidence offers nothing explicit in the way of support. On the other hand, we can hardly expect them to, given the later pattern of events. The whole issue of Claudius's possible involvement in the death of Gaius and his own subsequent acclamation by the Praetorian Guard must, therefore, remain moot . . . yet intriguing

Copyright 1998, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Caligula_Aizani.jpg
Aezani; Zeus, AE199 viewsCALIGULA. Phrygia Aezani. 5,5g, 19mm Lollios Klassikos and Lollios Roufos, magistrates. Obv: Radiate head right. Rev: Zeus standing left, holding eagle and sceptre. RPC 3085. Podiceps
agrippina_II.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia, AE 17.9; Head of Persephone r.18 viewsAgrippina II. Augusta 50-59 A.D. Daughter of Agrippina Sr. and Germanicus, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius and mother of Nero, was born in 16 A.D. Aezanis, Phrygia, Bronze 2.50g. 17.9mm Obv: AGRIPPINAN SEBASTHN, Head of Agrippina II. r. Rev: AIZANITWN, Head of Persephone r. RPC 3102. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
agrippaII.jpg
AGRIPPA31 viewsAE As. 37-41 AD ( struck under Caligula ) 11,79 grs. . Head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown. M AGRIPPA L F COS III / Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. S C.
RIC I 58 (Gaius). Cohen 3.
benito
Agrippa.JPG
Agrippa22 viewsStruck under Caligula
AD 37-41
Rome Mint
RIC 58?
Jeromy G
Agrippa 1+.jpg
Agrippa114 viewsAGRIPPA. Died 12 BC. Æ As. Struck under Gaius Caligula, 37-41 AD. M • AGRIPPA • L • F • COS • III • , head left, wearing rostral crown / S-C across field, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. RIC 58 (Gaius); Cohen 3.1 commentsTanit
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa55 viewsAgrippa, as (struck under Caligula).
Son-in-law of Augustus.
RIC 58.
11,37 g, 28-29 mm.
Rome, 37-41 A.D.
Obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown.
Rev. S C either side of Neptune standing left holding dolphin and trident.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a renowned Roman general and close friend of Octavian (Augustus). As general, Agrippa defeated the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. In 21 B.C., Augustus married his own daughter Julia to Agrippa. By Julia, Agrippa had two daughters, Vipsania Julia Agrippina and Vipsania Agrippina maior, and three sons, Gaius, Lucius and Agrippa Postumus.
1 commentsMarsman
agrippa.jpg
AGRIPPA80 viewsAE As. 37-41 AD ( struck under Caligula ) 11,79 grs. . Head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown. M AGRIPPA L F COS III / Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. S C.
RIC I 58 (Gaius). Cohen 3.
1 commentsbenito
agrippa_01_29_res.jpg
AGRIPPA23 viewsStruck 38 AD, under Caligula
AE As 27 mm; 9.92 g
O: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing a rostral crown
R: Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields
Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556
laney
agrippa_06_14_res.jpg
AGRIPPA21 views(b. 63 BC - d. 12 BC)
Struck posthumously 38 AD, under Caligula
AE As 30 mm; 8.7 g
O: Head left wearing a rostral crown
R: Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields
Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556
laney
agrippa.JPG
Agrippa (Died 12 B.C.)47 viewsÆ As
O: M. AGRIPPA. F. COS. III, head left, wearing rostral crown.
R: Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident; S-C across field.
Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula)
27mm
9.72g
RIC I 58 (Gaius); MIR 3, 24-6; BMCRE 161 (Tiberius); Cohen 3
2 commentsMat
422_Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa - AE as6 viewsstruck by Caligula
Rome
38 AD
head wearing rostrate crown left
M•AGRIPPA•L_•F • COS III
Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident
S C
RIC I Gaius 58; BMCRE II Tiberius 161 - 168; Cohen I 3, BnF II Caligula 77 - 97, SRCV I 1812
10,51g
Johny SYSEL
00-agrippa.jpg
Agrippa - RIC 5817 viewsAgrippa, AE As.
Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD.
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown /
S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms,
holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.
xokleng
Agrippa_with_title.jpg
Agrippa - Struck under Caligula46 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown
Rev: SC, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left
Size: 29mm, 11.3g
Mint: Rome, struck under Caligula 37-41AD
Id: RIC 58
Notes: I picked this one up cheap, knowing it was riddled with bronze disease, so I could learn how to deal with the disease. I cleaned it, baked it, and sealed it in 2011. It seems to have stabilized nicely.
ickster
agrippa~0.jpg
Agrippa AE AS61 viewsOBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
head left wearing rostral crown
REV: S C, Neptune standing left
holding dolphin and trident
Date: 37-41 AD
28.46 mm, 10.46 grams
RIC I 58 (Caligula)
1 commentsmiffy
7Zora2X98AbfPp4FG9e2Tf3R6FNsjD.jpg
Agrippa AE As, by Caligula.26 viewsAgrippa. Died 12 BC. Æ As 28 mm, 10.5 gm. Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-41. Obv: Head of Agrippa facing left, wearing rostral crown Rev: Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. RIC I 58 (Gaius). Antonivs Protti
1050.jpg
Agrippa AS110 viewsAgrippa --AE AS. Struck by Caligula. Obv.: M AGRIPPA LF COS III, Head of Agrippa l. wearing rostral crown. Rev.: S-C either side of Neptune stg. l. holding dolphin and trident. Cohen 3; RIC (Caligula) 58. Probably of provincial mintage. 1 commentsfeatherz
agrippa.jpg
Agrippa As28 viewsOBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Laureate bust left
REV: S C, Neptune standing left
holding dolphin and trident
Date: 37-41 AD
28.46 mm, 10.46 grams
RIC I 58 (Caligula)
miffy
Agrippa-.jpg
Agrippa As5 viewsAE As ; 37 AD; struck under Caligula, Rome
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.

Ref: Cohen 3, RIC 58
Tanit
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Agrippa As, Issue by Caligula12 viewsMarcus Agrippa, struck by Caligula, 39 - 40 AD
Æ As, 29mm, 11.0 grams
Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, Head left.
Reverse: S C, Neptune standing left holding dolphin and trident.

Reference:
RIC58 (Caligula)

Notes:
One of the first ancient coins I purchased, from a bag of mostly junk at a local coin shop mid 1980's. This coin cost me about 70 cents at the time.
Ken Dorney
AGRIPPA.jpg
Agrippa As, Neptune10 viewsAgrippa, † 12 B.C. As, Rome 37-41, Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III; head left, wearing rostral crown. Reverse: SC across field, Neptune standing left holding small dolphin and trident. Sear RCV 1812, RIC Caligula 58.Podiceps
agrippa.jpg
Agrippa by Caligula (37 - 41 AD)43 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III-Busto a esquerda. SC-Netuno parado à esquerda segurando tridente e golfinho. RIC 32; Cohen 3. mestreaudi
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Agrippa Copper As32 viewsFrom Forum:RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556, aVF, corrosion, 11.123g, 29.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caligula 38 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bare head right; reverse Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields;

This is the coin that convinced me that I'd rather pay more for quality rather than less for quantity.
1 commentsMagisterRiggs
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
Agrippa_Struck_by_Caligula~0.JPG
Agrippa Struck by Caligula58 viewsAgrippa Copper AS struck by Caligula RIC 58
OBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa facing left, wearing rostral crown.
REV: S – C on either side of Neptune, standing left, holding dolphin and trident.
37 - 41 AD, Rome, 28mm 10.5g
Cohen 3
BMCRE 161

2 commentsRomanorvm
Agrippa_RIC_I_58.jpg
Agrippa, AE As, RIC I 585 viewsAgrippa
As Consul for the third time, 27 B.C.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bust facing left, wearing Rostral crown.
Reverse: Neptune, standing, facing left, a Chlamys draped over his arms, holding a Dolphin in his right hand and a Trident with his left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 9.52 g, Diameter: 26.8 x 28 x 1.5 mm, Die axis: 160°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue by his grandson, Gaius "Caligula", between 37-41 A.D. Reference: RIC I 58
Masis
Agrippa_RIC_I_58_Second_example.jpg
Agrippa, AE As, RIC I 58, Second example6 viewsAgrippa
As Consul for the third time, 27 B.C.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bust facing left, wearing Rostral crown.
Reverse: Neptune, standing, facing left, a Chlamys draped over his arms, holding a Dolphin in his right hand and a Trident with his left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 9.43 g, Diameter: 27.2 x 27 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 220°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue by his grandson, Gaius "Caligula", between 37-41 A.D. Reference: RIC I 58
Masis
Agrippa_RIC_I_58_Third_example.jpg
Agrippa, AE As, RIC I 58, Third example4 viewsAgrippa
As Consul for the third time, 27 B.C.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·III·, bust wearing a Rostral crown, facing left.
Reverse: Neptune, standing, facing left, a Chlamys draped over his arms, holding a Dolphin in his right hand and a Trident with his left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 9.65 g, Diameter: 27.1 x 26.6 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 210°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue by his grandson, Gaius "Caligula", between 37-41 A.D. Reference: RIC I 58
Masis
072.jpg
AGRIPPA, AE-As. Neptune.33 viewsRoman Empire, Agrippa. Died 12 BC. AE-As. Rome Mint. Struck under Caligula. Rx./ Neptune standing lt. VG with pitting.
1350
Antonivs Protti
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *323 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
Agrippa_RIC_C58.JPG
Agrippa, died 12 BC83 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa, facing left, wearing a rostral crown.

Rev: Neptune standing left, holding a dolphin in his right hand and a trident in his left; S C across field.

Copper As, Rome mint, Issue of Caligula 38 AD

10.6 grams, 27.8 mm, 180°

RIC I Caligula 58, S1812, VM Agrippa; 4

Ex: FORVM
4 commentsSPQR Matt
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa, Military commander, friend of Augustus, grandfather of Caligula, great-grandfather of Nero155 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, S 556, gF, 11.830g, 28.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caligula 38 A.D.;
obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bare head right;
reverse - S C, Neptune holding a dolphin and trident;
b70
Agrippa.JPG
Agrippa, Neptune As31 viewsStruck under Caligula (37 - 41 AD)

AE AS

Obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, left wearing rostral crown.
Rev: SC Neptune standing with dolphin in in right hand and trident in left.
RIC I 58

Weight: 11.6g
Diameter: 28mm
Jose Polanco
Agrippa_AE_As.JPG
Agrippa, Æ As. Struck under Caligula28 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. Agrippa Died 12 BC. Struck under Caligula 37-41 AD. Ref Agrippa AE As, RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius]. Sear Roman Coins and their Values (RCV 2000 Edition) Number 1812. Large 27mm. _3601
Antonivs Protti
Agrippa S C.jpg
Agrippa- Anepigraphic79 viewsAgrippa – 63- 12 BC, Military commander and friend of Augustus

Obverse:

Head left wearing a rostral crown.

M.(Marcus) AGRIPPA L.F. (Lucius Filius = son of Lucius) COS. III (Consul for the third time.)

M:Marcus
L.F: Lucius Filius = son of Lucius
COS. III: Consul for the third time

Agrippa he wears a crown on his head which is decorated by prows of (war)ships, a so-called 'rostral crown' probably given to him to honour him as a fleetcommander during the battle of Actium, the decisiove battle in which Octavian defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra.

Reverse:

S—C, Senatus Consulto

The reverse is 'anepigraphic' without text, apart from S.C. (Senatus Consulto = by approval of the Senate) Neptune holds a trident and has a dolphin on his outstretched hand. Neptune too is a reference to the sea and Agrippa's nautical carreer.

Domination: AS, Copper, 29 mm

Mint: Rome. This AS of Agrippa is struck under Caligula.

AGRIPPA
63 - 12 BC
Roman General
Agrippa was the companion of Octavian by the time Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Agrippa was Octavian's most brilliant military commander. He defeated Pompeius in two naval battles and was responsible for for Octavian's victory over Mark Antony. When Octavian became emperor under the name Augustus Agrippa was second only to the emperor in authority. He suppressed rebellions, founded colonies and built an extensive road-network throughout the Roman empire.
John Schou
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa. As minted under Caligula99 viewsM. AGRIPPA L.F. COS. III : head of Agrippa wearing the Rostral crown.
Rev.: Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident. S C.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was Augustus' closest friend, and Caligula's grandfather. The rostral crown and the Neptune remind us of the victory of the fleet, commanded by Agrippa, at Actium in 31 BC.
Ginolerhino
AGRSSE01.JPG
Agrippina maior, grand daughter of Augustus, daughter of Agrippa, wife of Germanicus, mother of Gaius ("Caligula"), 14 BC- 33 AD227 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (26.9g, 36mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius, AD 37.
AGRIPPINA·M·F·MAT·C·CAESARIS·AVGVSTI, draped bust right
S·P·Q·R· in field above, MEMORIAE / AGRIPPINAE in two lines
Carpentum drawn by two mules moving left. The Carpentum's cover is supported by standing figures at the corners and its sides are ornamented.
Gaius had the ashes of his mother returned to Rome soon after he came to power in 37 AD. He celebrated the memory of his mother, father and brothers, all murdered by Tiberius, with a series of coins. The sestertius issue was reserved for the memory of his mother. Note the lack of S C on this issue which has S P Q R instead.
RIC 55; Cohen 1
2 commentsCharles S
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~4.jpg
Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1185 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen originally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv.Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
10 commentsPetitioncrown
CLAUDIUS-2~0.jpg
Agrippina the Younger, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius, mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 CE.266 viewsBosporos, under King Kotys I with Claudius & Agrippina Jr. 50-54 AD.
Æ 12 nummia or Assarion (25 mm, 9.30 gm).
Obv: TI KLAUDIOU KAICAROC, Laureate head of Claudius right, IB below.
Rev: IOULIAN AGRIPPINAN CEBACTHN, Head of Agrippina Junior left, hair weaved and tied at back of head to make a loop ponytail; BAK (monogram of Kotys I) before.
SGI 5438; RPC 1925; BMC 13.52,7; Anokhin Bosporus 348; Vagi 670; SNG Vol IX, 971; SNG Copenhagen 31; W.Wroth p. XI, 14.
EmpressCollector
CaliSe09-2~0.jpg
Agrippina, Drusilla and Julia, Caligula's three sisters271 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (23.4g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius ("Caligula") AD 37-38.
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT laureate portret of Gaius facing left
Reverse: AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA Agrippina (Jr), the eldest sister as Securitas, leaning on column, holding cornucopia, and placing left hand on Drusilla's shoulder; Drusilla, the middle sister, as Concordia, holding patera and cornucopia; and Julia Livilla, the youngest, as Fortuna, holding rudder and cornucopia.
RIC (Gaius) 33; Cohen 4
Ex Harlan J. Berk, Buy/Bid Sale

This specimen in the style of a provincial branch mint, rarer than those in Rome-mint style.
4 commentsCharles S
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c~0.jpg
AN countermark in rectangle punch.75 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. A N in rectangle Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
NORMAN K
Antonia~0.jpg
Antonia Augusta 66 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA

Rev. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Cladius veiled and togate stg left holding simpulum

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.

SOLD
Titus Pullo
Antonia~1.jpg
Antonia Augusta71 viewsANTONIA AVGVSTA
Head of Antonia right

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP SC
Claudius veiled and togate standing left holding simpulum

11.47g

Sear 1902

Antonia was the younger daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia and was born on January 31st 36B.C. She was married at age 20 to Tiberius' younger brother Nero Claudius Drusus and had two sons, the great Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius. She was widowed in 9 BC and refused to marry again and devoted her life to her families interests. Her wealth and status made her very influencial during Tiberius' reign and it was she who brought about the downfall of Sejanus.

On the accession of her grandson Caligula in 37 AD she received many honours but died later that year at the age of 73. She did not receive postumous honours until the reign of her son Claudius in 41 AD and all of the coinage in Antonia's name was issued by Claudius.
Jay GT4
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Antoninus Pius 3 views
Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ Dupondius (27mm, 10.58 g, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159. Radiate head right / TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST, octastyle temple within which are the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia. RIC III 1017. VF, dark brown surfaces with touches of green, some pitting and minor smoothing.


The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80, which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia. It received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Ancient Aussie
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
12_Caesar_portraits.jpg
Antony & The 12 Caesars256 viewsA variation on my other virtual coin trays. This one includes a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar. It's difficult choosing which coin to include in this set, in some cases I only had one (Galba, Otho) but others I had many more to choose from. I do have better portraits of some but I thought these had more interesting reverse types or portrait styles:

Marcus Antonius denarius
Julius Caesar denarius
Augustus denarius
Tiberius denarius
Caligula AE As
Claudius AE As
Nero Dupondius
Galba AE As
Otho Tetradrachm
Vitellius denarius
Vespasian denarius
Titus denarius
Domitian denarius

Image is clickable for larger size.
To see the coins individually see them in my gallery.
9 commentsJay GT4
Caligula~0.jpg
As; VESTA S C, RIC I 384 viewsCaligula; 16 March 37- 24 January 41 A.D. Copper as, RIC I 38, Cohen 27, BMCRE I 46, SRCV I 1803, Fair, dark patina, Rome mint, 8.511g, 27.0mm, 180o, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left; reverse VESTA S C, Vesta enthroned left, patera extended in right, long scepter transverse in left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
20180201_125601.jpg
Ascalon, Caligula 37-41 Bronze26 viewsObv. Caligula head left.
Rev. City goddess holding a spear slightly to the left, an altar in front.
References: RPC 4882, BMC 27.116, 81 and Sear GIC 404.
25mm, 10.72 grams, Very rare.
1 commentsCanaan
Caligula_R632_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Caria, Cidramus, Caligula, Goddess Sparzene29 viewsCaligula, AD 37-41
Caria, Cidramus
AE 17
Obv.: ΣΕΒΑΣTOΣ, Bare head left.
Rev.: ΚΙΔΡΑΜΗΝΩΝ ΜΟΥΣΑΙΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΚΡΑΤΟΥΣ ΠΡ, Goddess Sparzene standing facing, with outstretched arms.
AE, 5.33g, 17mm
Ref.: RPC I 2874
2 commentsshanxi
bosporus_aspurgus.jpg
Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Tiberius/ Aspurgus21 viewsKingdom of Bosporus, Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Bronze 12 nummi, RPC I 1903 (14 examples), MacDonald 300, F, 7.000g, 22.7mm, 0o, c. 35 - 37 A.D.; obverse “TIBERIOS KAISAROS”, laureate head of Tiberius right; reverse, diademed head of Aspurgus right, IB before, uncertain monogram behind; brown tone. This coin and coins of Caligula (RPC 1904, “Gaius Caesar Germanicus” 14 examples known to RPC) were both struck with this date, with young portraits, about which RPC notes, “the pieces with the portraits of Tiberius and Caligula were probably made at the end of the reign; the Tiberian pieces are so similar to the Caligulan ones that it seems very likely that both were made within a short space of time.” Could the young portrait on the obverse be viewed as that of Tiberius Gemellus? The grandson of Tiberius was named joint-heir with Caligula in the will of the emperor. Ex FORVMPodiceps
PtolemyREX.jpg
AUGUSTUS & PTOLEMY OF NUMIDIA AE semis174 viewsAVGVSTVS DIVI F
bare head of Augustus right

C LAETILIVS APALVS II V Q, REX PTOL (Ptolemy, King) within diadem

Carthago Nova, Spain, under sole 'duovir quinqunennales' C Laetilius Apalus.

18.5mm, 5.3g.
RPC 172.

Ex-Incitatus

Ptolemy of Numidia was the son of King Juba II of Numidia and Cleopatra Selene II. He was also the grandson of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII on his mohter's side. He was named in honor of the memory of Cleopatra VII, the birthplace of his mother and the birthplace of her relatives. In choosing her son's name, Cleopatra Selene II created a distinct Greek-Egyptian tone and emphasized her role as the monarch who would continue the Ptolemaic dynasty. She by-passed the ancestral names of her husband. By naming her son Ptolemy instead of a Berber ancestral name, she offers an example rare in ancient history, especially in the case of a son who is the primary male heir, of reaching into the mother's family instead of the father's for a name. This emphasized the idea that his mother was the heiress of the Ptolemies and the leader of a Ptolemaic government in exile.

Through his parents he received Roman citizenship and was actually educated in Rome. Amazingly he grew up in the house of his maternal aunt, and Antony's daughter Antonia Minor, the youngest daughter of Mark Antony and the youngest niece of Augustus. Antonia was also a half-sister of Ptolemy's late mother, also a daughter of Mark Antony. Antonia Minor's mother was Octavia Minor, Mark Antony's fourth wife and the second sister of Octavian (later Augustus). Ptolemy lived in Rome until the age of 21, when he returned to the court of his aging father in Mauretania.

Ptolemy was a co-ruler with his father Juba II until Juba's death and was the last semi-autonomous ruler of Africa. On a visit to Rome in 40 AD he was seen by the Emperor Caligula in an amphitheather wearing a spectacular purpal cloak. A jealous Caligula had him murdered for his fashionable purple cloak.

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
RIC_Augustus-Caligula_Martini-Pangerl_90,_95__etc.JPG
Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (27 B.C. – 14 A.D.) and Tiberius (Tiberius Julius Caesar) (14-37 A.D.) or Caligula (Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus) (37-41 A.D.)26 viewsMartini-Pangerl 90 (re TI•CÆ), 75 & 83 (re AVG), 98 (re helmet), 95-97 (re dolphin)

AE 23-26 mm

Obv: TI•CÆ, AVG and helmet countermarks on an unidentified undertype.

Rev: Dolphin countermark on an unidentified undertype.

The TI•CÆ countermark is late Augustinian and is often combined with the dolphin and helmet countermarks. The AVG countermark is probably associated with Tiberius or Caligula.

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
CALIGULA-1.jpg
Caesonia (?), wife of Caligula, died 41 CE670 viewsÆ (28 mm, 11.17 g) of Carthago Nova, Spain.
Obv: C CAESAR AVG. GERMANIC. IMP. PM. TRP. COS. Laurate head of Caligula, right.
Rev: CN. ATEL. FLAC. CN. POM. FLAC. II VIR. Q.V.I.N.C. Head of Caesonia (as Salus) right, SAL AVG across field.
SGI 419; Heiss 272,35; Cohen 247,1.

Though this coin is reputed to portray Caesonia, this is not likely for its obverse is dated TR P COS = 37 AD, yet Caligula did not marry Caesonia until late 39! RPC 185 calls the lady Salus, but also mentions possible IDs with Antonia or Livia (p. 92).
EmpressCollector
5Rcc6o3M8EiABn7sFjP6W2gNzN4rJ9.jpg
CAIUS “CALIGULA”, AS, ROME MINT16 viewsCAIUS “CALIGULA”, AS, ROME MINT, VESTA, RIC 38
Ancient Coins - CAIUS “CALIGULA”, AS, ROME MINT, VESTA, RIC 38 zoom view
Caius “Caligula”
AE as
Rome mint
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left
Rev: VESTA SC
Vesta seated left holding patera and transverse sceptre
RIC 38
Probably the WORST Caligula as offered on VCoins BUT the type is clearly identifiable from the remaining obverse legend and can be used as a space filler.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
caligula.jpg
caligula34 viewsGaius Caligula AE As. Struck 37-8 AD.
Obverse- C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left.
Reverse- VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 38, Cohen 27, BMC 46.
30 mm; 9.9 g.
1 commentsb70
Caligula.jpg
Caligula26 viewsCaligula AE Quadrans , RCV 1804

Obv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG around SC divided by pileus

Rev: PON M TRP IIII PP COS TERT around RCC

RIC 52 BMC 64 C 7, minted Rome CE 40
Tanit
caligula2.jpg
Caligula48 viewsGaius Caligula AE As. Struck 37-8 AD.
Obverse- C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left.
Reverse- VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 38, Cohen 27, BMC 46.
27 mm; 9.3 g.
b70
00030-Caligula.JPG
Caligula12 viewsCaligula AS
28 mm 12.11 gm
O:C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left.
R: VESTA S C
Vesta seated left.
John Campbell
Caligula.jpg
Caligula41 viewsGaius Caligula Æ As. Struck 37-8 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. Cohen 27. RIC 381 commentsSoxfan
00caligula.jpg
CALIGULA41 viewsKingdom of Bosporus. 37-38 AD. AE 10,78 grs. Bare head of Caligula right. ΓAIOV KAICAPOC ΓEPMANIKOV / Diademed head of Aspurgus right. Monogram behind.
RPC I 1904. Anokhin 320
benito
00caligula~0.jpg
CALIGULA17 viewsKingdom of Bosporus. 37-38 AD. AE 10,78 grs. Bare head of Caligula right. ΓAIOV KAICAPOC ΓEPMANIKOV / Diademed head of Aspurgus right. Monogram behind.
RPC I 1904. Anokhin 320
benito
Caligula_RIC_38.jpg
Caligula53 viewsCaligula, as
RIC 38
11.1 g. 28 mm.
Obv. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICUS PON M TR POT; bare head left.
Rev. VESTA /S-C; Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
1 commentsMarsman
caligulasest.jpg
CALIGULA87 viewsAE sestertius. 40-41 AD. 28,07 grs. 6h. Laureate head left. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P // S P Q R / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath.
RIC I 53.
7 commentsbenito
caligulasest~0.jpg
CALIGULA25 viewsAE sestertius. 40-41 AD. 28,07 grs. 6h. Laureate head left. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P // S P Q R / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS in four lines within oak wreath.
RIC I 53.

benito
caligula.jpg
Caligula56 viewsRoman Empire
Caius Caesar "Caligula"
(Reign as 3rd Emperor of the Roman Empire 37-41 AD)
(b. 12 AD, d. 41 AD)


Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP, Laureate head of Caligula facing left

Reverse: SEGO BRIGA within wreath




Bronze As
Minted in Segobriga, Spain 37-41 AD



Translations:

C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP = Caius Caesar Emperor Germanicus Imperator(Commander-in-Chief)

SEGO BRIGA = Segobriga, Spain (near Madrid)



References:
RPC 476
1 commentsSphinx357
IMG_9855.JPG
Caligula4 viewsGaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ Sestertius (36mm, 24.53 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 37-38. Pietas, veiled and draped, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small draped figure, standing on a basis / Gaius (Caligula) standing left, holding patera over altar; on either side, victimarius, holding bull for sacrifice, and attendant, holding patera; hexastyle, garlanded temple of Divus Augustus in background. RIC I 36. Fine, brown surfaces, some roughness.

Ex-cng
ecoli
Caligula.jpg
Caligula2 viewsCaligula Vesta AE As Rome 37-38 AD, 9.9gm.Ancient Aussie
rJ9P3Sacy7Cs4EiHGtB6K8d96G5jb2.jpg
CALIGULA & DIVUS AUGUSTUS AE dupondius. Statue of Caligula, bust of Divus Augustus, SC flanking.20 viewsCALIGULA & DIVUS AUGUSTUS AE dupondius. Struck 37-41 AD. CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R, laureate & togate Caligula seated left on curule chair, holding branch. Reverse - DIVVS AVGVSTVS S-C, radiate head of Divus Augustus left. RCV 1811. Very Scarce. 29mm, 15.1g.1 commentsAntonivs Protti
cali.jpg
Caligula (37 - 41 A.D.)106 viewsÆ30 AS
SEGOBRIGA, SPAIN
O: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP, laureate head left.
R: SEGO BRIGA in wreath.
Segobriga Mint
30.5mm
10.1g
Burgos 1724
3 commentsMat
Caligula4Caesarea0341_(1).jpg
Caligula (37-41 A.D.)43 viewsAR Drachm
CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea
O: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS Bare head of Caligula to right.
R: IMPERATOR PONT MAX AVG TR POT Simpulum and lituus.
3.37g
18mm
BMC 102. RIC 63 Sear 1798
5 commentsMat
TW-04.jpg
Caligula (A.D. 37-41)14 viewsAE As, A.D. 37-38, Rome, 29.8mm, 9.92g, 180°, RIC 138.
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT. Bare head left.
Rev: VESTA. Vesta enthroned left, patera in right, scepter in left; S C in field.
Joseph D5
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-jL32v9k6T0fUkE3l-Agrippa.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS6 viewsM AGRIPPA. L. F. COS. III - Head left, wearing rostral crown
S-C across field - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.70g / 28.45mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 58 (Gaius)
BMCRE 161 (Tiberius)
Cohen 3
Acquisition/Sale: 22noelnoel22 Ebay $0.00 08/18
Notes: Aug 24, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2
Agrippa-Brass_As_of_Roman_Co.jpg
Caligula (Agrippa) (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 5 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head of Agrippa, left, wearing rostral crown
S C - Neptune stg. l. holding dolphin and trident
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
BMC 161
RIC 1 58
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jun 13, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Agrippa, Military Commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 9 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.
Gary W2
40_AD_NERO___DRUSUS_.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 9 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Statue of Nero and Drusus Caesar riding right cloaks flying
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Legend surrounding S C
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 34
BMCRE 44 (Caligula
BN 52 (Caligula)
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.
Gary W2
Roman_Bronze_Dupondi.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius9 viewsCONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R (With Agreement of the Senate, the Equestrian Order and the Roman People) - Statue of Caligula, laureate and togate, seated, left, on curule chair, holding branch in right hand and resting left hand against side
DIVVS AVGVSTVS S C - Head of Augustus, radiate, left
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 28mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
BMC 90
RIC 1 56
Acquisition/Sale: servuscoins Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R translates: "with the will of the Senate, the equestrian order, and the people of Rome"
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius12 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

Per RIC-Rarity 3
Gary W2
Nero_and_Drusus_Caes~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius13 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus Caesar on horseback riding r., cloaks flying behind them.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP - Legend around S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.99g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: R2
References:
Cohen 2
RIC Gaius 49
BMC Gaius 70
CBN Gaius 120
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Finearts Vcoins

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

Historical Context

Suetonius states in (Caligula 22.1-2) “Up until now I have been discussing Caligula in his capacity as an emperor; we must now consider him in his capacity as a monster….

Eventually Caligula began to claim for himself a Divine majesty;…..he extended a part of the Palatine palace all the way out to the Forum, transforming the Temple of Castor and Pollux into an entrance hall for the Palace. There in the Temple he would often take his seat between the twin gods, presenting himself for worship to those he approached.”

Dio, (History 59.28.5) states, “ Caligula went so far as to divide in two the Temple of the Dioscuri in the Roman Forum, making a passageway to the Palatine that went right between the two cult statues. As a result, he was fond of saying that he regarded the Dioscuri as his gate-keepers. NEW ARCHAEOLOGY: Regarding the extension from the palace - http://news.stanford.edu/news/2003/september10/caligula-910.html Stanford Report, September 10, 2003, this was thought for years until 2003 to have been impossible.
Did Caligula have a God complex?

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.

From Roma:
Nero and Drusus were the brothers of the future emperor Caligula, and the children of Germanicus and Agrippina the Elder. More significantly Tiberius adopted both sons as grandchildren, and it was thought that Nero, being the oldest, would succeed Tiberius. However, Nero and his mother were accused of treason in 29 AD, and Nero’s demise quickly followed when he was exiled to the island of Ponza. Drusus suffered a similar fate a year later in 30 AD and, having been accused of plotting against his Grandfather and Emperor, he was thrown into prison in 33 AD where he was left to starve.

Additional images:
The Circus of Caligula and Nero

Circus of Nero (or Circus of Gaius (Caligula)) was a circus in ancient Rome placed at the location of today's Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican. All that is left today of this circus is obelisk that stood at its center.

Caligula (31 August 12 AD - 22 January 41 AD), a Roman emperor, began construction of this circus in the year 40 AD on the land of his mother, Agrippina. Claudius, who succeeded him, finished construction. Grimaldi says that the circus was 90 meters wide and 161 long. It was a place where Caligula and Nero trained racing with four horse chariots. In 65 AD, the first fist public persecution of Christians happened in this circus and Christian tradition says that Saint Peter lost his life there two years later. Saint Peter's tomb is in this area, in the cemetery near where the Circus was. Obelisk that stood in the center was placed there by Caligula. It was later (in 16th century) moved to Saint Peter's Square by the architect Domenico Fontana.

The Circus was abandoned by the middle of the 2nd century AD so Constantine built the first basilica (Old St. Peter) at the site of the Circus using some of the existing structure. Most of the ruins of the Circus survived until mid-15th century. They were finally destroyed to make a space for the construction of the new St. Peter's Basilica.

Per RIC-Rarity 2
Gary W2
Gaius_Caligula_37-41~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 14 viewsC•CAESAR•AVG•GERMANICVS•PON•M•TR•POT - Laureate head left
S•P•Q•R / P•P / OB•CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.74g / 33mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 37
Provenances:
WallinMynt (SE)
Acquisition/Sale: WallinMynt (SE) MA Shops-internet

The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2
Caligula_sestertius.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 20 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AD LOCVT - Gaius Caligula stg. l. on daïs, extending r. hand in gesture of address (ad locutio), a sella castrensis (camp stool) to r., before him stand five soldiers r., all helmeted, holding shields, and parazonia, four aquilae behind them, in ex. COH,
Exergue: COH


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.69g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 32
Sear'88 #612
Cohen 1
MIR 3, 6-4
BMCRE 33
Provenances:
Baldwin's of St. James's
Acquisition/Sale: Baldwin's of St. James's Internet 8/9-20-17 #31

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From CNG:
Before a battle or on parade, the emperor would address his troops in an event known as an adlocutio cohortium (address to the cohorts). This was an important opportunity for the emperor to be present among his troops to inspire morale. This sestertius was issued on the occasion of a donative for the Praetorian Guard and was the first to employ the adlocutio as a reverse type.

The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions or “cohorts” each of 500 – 1000 men. On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own[7]. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts.” Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”) which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage.

Highly unusual on this type is the lack of the letters S C, which designate a coin issued by decree of the Senate (Senatus Consulto). From Republican times, the formula had been used on both silver and bronze coinage, but under the Empire, the emperor took responsibility for the precious metal coinage and left only the base metal coins to be issued by the Senate and accordingly marked S C. Imperial bronze coinage without the formula is generally thought to have been issued under special circumstances and under an authority other than the Senate. The ADLOCVT(io) COH(ortium) sestertii are thought to have been a special distribution issue for the Praetorian Guard personally funded out of the emperor's own purse.
The lack of S C suggests that this interesting issue was undertaken and paid for by the emperor. Cassius Dio (59.2) writes “... in company with the senate, he inspected the Pretorians at drill and distributed to them the money that had been bequeathed them, amounting to a thousand sesterces apiece.”

From Jeff Starck, Coin World:
Many Roman coins bear the giant letters SC, shorthand for “senatus consulto” or “senatus consultum.” The fact that they are missing from this coin suggests that the coin was not issued with the approval of the Roman senate. This was an obvious statement of authority by the fairly new leader Caligula.

“There is no reason to believe its exclusion was accidental,” according to the catalog. “The inescapable message to the senate was that the emperor’s newfound authority was assured by his relationship with the [prateorean] guard.”

Tiberius died in 37 A.D., perhaps with the aid of Sertorius Macro, who had authority as a prefect in the prateorean guard; Macro then offered his support to Caligula, who received full authority from the state.

Tiberius’ will allocated 1,000 sestertii for each guard, an amount that Caligula doubled upon realizing that his power rested largely in the support of the guard.

These payments were handed out during a ceremony that is presumably pictured on the coin’s reverse, where Caligula is shown standing before the seat of the army chief, delivering a speech to five soldiers. The inscription ADLOCVT COH describes the image, the abbreviation identifying the adlocutio (speech from the emperor to his army).

The curule chair was for senior magistrates including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. As a form of a throne, it might be given as an honor to foreign kings recognized formally as a friend (amicus) by the Roman people or senate. Designed for use by commanders in the field, the curule chair could be folded for easy transport. It had no back, low arms, curved legs forming an X, and was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 14 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Gaius_Caligula_37-41.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius7 viewsC•CAESAR•AVG•GERMANICVS•PON•M•TR•POT - Laureate head left
S•P•Q•R / P•P / OB•CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.74g / 33mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 37
Provenances:
WallinMynt (SE)
Acquisition/Sale: WallinMynt (SE) MA Shops-internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius61 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
Caligula_Sestertius_29_13g,_35mm,_6h.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius58 viewsC•CAESAR•AVG•GERMANICVS•PON•M•TR•POT - Laureate head left
S•P•Q•R / P•P / OB•CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 29.13g / 35mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 37
BMCRE 38
Cohen 24
BN 50
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Ex L. Rose Collection.
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 61 #631 $0.00 08/19
Notes: Aug 22, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has been gouged on the jaw and a cut applied from Caligula's left cheek and across his lips. In addition, the two "C"s in the obverse legend have been erased. The firsr stood for Caligula's name, Gaius and the second for Caesar. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)9 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-zg2aP0ewwCVrhb-Caligula_damnatio.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS13 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.40g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Acquisition/Sale: indalocolecciones eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has had cut marks applied to the jaw and neck areas. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.


ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.

Gary W2
Gary W2
Caligula_Large_27mm_AE_As_Vesta_42.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 5 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P - Bare head left
Vesta SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 8.40g / 27mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 47
Cohen 28
Acquisition/Sale: arkadyn Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

This is the second of three dated Caligula As issues. This one dates from 39-40 AD and is the scarcer of the three. The one dated 40-41 AD seems to be more available then the 39-40 AD issue where as the 37-38 AD issue is by far the most common.
Gary W2
40-41_AD_CALIGULA_AE.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As 6 viewsCAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 54
Cohen 29
BMCRE 73
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Per RIC: This late series, the final issue from 40-41 AD, is rated R in RIC. The other type from 39-40 AD with the same obverse legend is scarce, whilst the standard type from 37-39 AD is rated common. I find the 39-40 AD issues to be the rarest of them all.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-2WcIZv40JXVImci-Caligula_69.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As11 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 11.61g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 38
Acquisition/Sale: timeman21 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
Caligula, the grand nephew and murderer of Tiberius, most worthy to succeed that emperor, because of an equally infamous, though not so able a tyrant, reigned from A.D. 37 to A.D. 41.

His real appellation was Caius Caesar, but about the time of Augustus' death, he, still a child, being with the army of the lower Rhine, the soldiers, with whom he was a great favorite, were accustomed in the joking parlance of the camp, to give him the nickname of Caligula (from Caligae) because he constantly appeared in the usual military leggings.

Hence Ausonius, in his poem, referring to this cruel wretch, says --

Post hunc castrensis caligae cognomine
Caesar Successit, saevo saevior ingenio.

As emperor, however, he was always called Caius, and he considered himself insulted by the name of Caligula.

He was the youngest son of Germanicus, the nephew of Tiberius and Agrippina; born in 12 A.D. on the day before the calends of September, at Antium, as Suetonius has proved at great length (in Caligula, ch. 8). In 17 A.D., he went into Syria with his father, at whose death, within two years, he returned to Rome with his mother. After she was banished, he was transferred to his great grand-mother Julia and when she diet to his grand-mother Antonia.

In 31 A.D., after the violent deaths of his brothers Nero and Drusus, and also of Sejanus, whose plots he alone had escaped he was he was the apparent successor to the empire and invested with the Pontificate.

In 33 A.D., on the same day he assumed the toga he laid aside his beard, he was nominated questor and Tiberius invited him to Capraea. He moved in with Tiberius, feigning ignorance or indifference, regarding the murder of his relations, as though it did not concern him. He so obsequiously obeyed Tiberius the it was a common expression, that "there never was a better servant, or a worse master." (Sueton, ch. 10)

In 37 A.D., Tiberius was attacked with a severe illness from which he was recovering when Caligula, at the instigation of Maero, the praetorian prefect, put and end to his life by smothering him.

Caligula entered Rome after Tiberius' death and compelled the Senate to join him, by a Senatus Consultum, in depriving Tiberius, son Drusus junior and the elder Tiberius' heir in his last will, of his right to the empire.

The funeral ceremonies of were performed with due pomp by Caligula.

On the eighth month of his reign he was attacked with severe sickness. On his recovery, he adopted his brother Tiberius, gave him the title of Princeps Juventutis, and afterwards put him to death.

In the calends of July he entered upon the office of Consul Suffectus, as colleague to his uncle Claudius, and after two months resigned it.

In 38 A.D. he conceded to Soaemus, the kingdom of Arabians of Ituraea; to Cotys, Armenia Minor; to Polemon, the son of Polemon, his father's dominions.

Dion wrote, "In a short time he assumed so much the air of a king, that all those honors, which Augustus had accepted only when duly arrived at the sovereignty, and even then with hesitation as they were decreed from time to time, and many of which Tiberius altogether declined, were by Caligula grasped in one day, with the exception only of Pater Patriae, which, however was not long deferred."

In 39 A.D., in the calends of January, he entered his second Consulate and resigned the office in thirty days. (Sueton ch. 17)

Having exhausted the treasury by his profuse expenditure on public spectacles and other extravagances, he endeavoured to repair the deficiency by the slaughter of wealthy citizens; and then proceeded to Gaul, their to practice the like system of murder and spoliation.

The name of Germanicus does not appear on coins of this year, nor ever subsequently.

In 40 A.D., Caligula, without a colleague, entered his third consulate, at Lugdunum (Lyon), in Gaul; and resigned it on the ides of January. (Sueton. ch. 17)

Having invited over from Africa, Ptolemy, the son of Juba, he put him to death on the pretence of the young prince's ostentatious bearing. (Dion, B. lix. 25)

Proceeding to the ocean, as if about to invade Britain, he ordered his soldiers to gather shell-fish, and returned as a conqueror, laden with the spoils of the sea. (Sueton. ch. 46)

L. Vitellius, prefect of Syria, the same year, gave such a lesson to Artabanus, the Persian, who was threatening an invasion of Armenia that the later abandoned his design, and paid his adoration to the statues of Augustus and of Caligula. (Dion, I. e.)

In 41 A.D., he began hid fourth consulate, on the 7th of the ides of January. Shortly afterwards (viz. on the 9th of the calends of February), he was assassinated by the conspirators Cassius Chaerea and Cornelius Sabinus.

Caligula's accession to the empire was hailed with joy by the Roman people; but their satisfaction was based on no solid foundations, being the result rather of their deep-rooted attachment to his father Germanicus. He seeming, indeed, responded to the fond wishes of the nation, by many acts of piety, justice, and moderation. But it too soon became apparent that these virtues were not of natural growth but owed their exhibition to the policy of Tiberius, who wished through their influences to consolidate his own power in the empire. For there was not act of cruelty, folly, meanness or infamy, which this monster and madman did not delight in perpetrating. He caused his horse, whom he called Incitatus, to be introduced at dinner time, setting before him gilded corn, and drinking his health in golden cups; and he would have created him consul, had he lived long enough. He imitated all the gods and goddesses, in the adoration which he caused to be paid to him, becoming by turns Jupiter, Bacchus, Hercules, Juno, Diana, and Venus. He constructed a bridge of vessels joined together from Puteoli to Baiae, and crossing over with his troops invaded puteoli and then recrossed it in a kind of triumph, delighting in hearing himself called Alexander the Great. By his absurd and extravagant undertakings of this kind, before the year was fully expired, he had squandered the enormous sums of money left by Tiberius. (Vicies ae septics millies IIS. -- See Sestertium).

He both claimed and receive divine worship, and was the greatest blasphemer that ever lived; yet he quailed in the conviction of a deity, and crept under his bed whenever he heard thunder. With savage inhumanity he attended executions in person, and made parents behold the merciless torments inflicted on their children. He contracted and dissolved marriages with equal caprice and dishonesty. Besides his incestuous union with Drusilla, he seized and repudiated three wives, and was at last permanently attached to Caesonia a mother of children by another man, and without your or beauty, but of depravity corresponding with his own.

Other instances of his incredible cruelty and lust may be found in Suetonius, Philo, and Dion. Such infatuations are evident tokens not only of a brutal nature, but also of a distempered intellect. Nor is it possible to entertain other than supreme contempt for the base servility of the Romans, who could offer solemn adoration to a wretch openly guilty of the most detestable and unnatural crimes; and whose adage was oderint, dum metuant (Let them hate so long as they fear).

The gold and silver coins of Caligula are of considerable rarity. Sestertii are also rare. Ases are more common, yet still expensive due to popularity of collecting the infamous emperor and because they generally exhibit good workmanship. When Caligula was destroyed, the dastardly senators, who had so recently sacrificed to him, ordered all his statues to be demolished, his acts abrogated, his money melted down and his inscriptions defaced, in order that his memory might be extinguished forever. Yet this sentence has not prevented a considerable number of his coins from reaching us, though consequently, except for ases, they are of considerable rarity when in good preservation. The coins of Caligula, minted at Rome, do not exhibit Imperator as a surname. This title is used on colonial coins. The only imperial coin of Caligula bearing IMP is a denarius.

On his coins, Caligula resembles his grandfather, but is less noble and has a malignant expression. He was at great pains to cherish this horrid index of his cruel disposition.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-ehW7BvU2jIvxxn-Caligula_countermark.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As4 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT (COUNTERMARK - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 9.60g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Sear5 #1803
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The countermark-TICA- is either from Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus), or, less likely from Titus (Titus Caesar Augustus)

Since this coin was found in Spain, it escaped the Roman recall of Caligula coinage which was to be melted down in Rome. Also I suspect that token coinage was needed in the Western Provinces which thereby also helped keep this coin intact with the countermark of Claudius provided to inform the populace of a new emperor.
Gary W2
40-41_AD_CALIGULA_AE~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As14 viewsCAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on throne with ornamented back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 12.50g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 54
Cohen 29
BMCRE 73
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

Per RIC: This late series, the final issue from 40-41 AD, is rated R in RIC. The other type from 39-40 AD with the same obverse legend is scarce, whilst the standard type from 37-39 AD is rated common. I find the 39-40 AD issues to be the rarest of them all.
Gary W2
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chærea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chærea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chærea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chærea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chærea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chærea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chærea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chærea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chærea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chærea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chærea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chærea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chærea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chærea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chærea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chærea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chærea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chærea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chærea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chærea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chærea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chærea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cæsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cæsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
39-40_AD_Gaius_(Caligula,_37-.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 5 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, Pileus between S C - Pileus between S C
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT, around R C C - Inscription around R C C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.65g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 45
BMCRE 63
Cohen 6
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts Internet E-Live Auction 50 #32

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
Caligula_37-41_Quadrans_78_06.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans6 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field Exergue:
Mint: Rome (41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.43g / 18mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I (first ed.) 41
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
BMCRE I, no. 79
Cohen 8
Acquisition/Sale: hmm shop eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

he last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-B1lgFjNUL7hU2d-Caligula.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans39 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

4 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-B1lgFjNUL7hU2d-Caligula~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans11 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

RIC failed to place this issue in the most recent edition. The fact that this issue was only from January 1 to January 24, 41 AD makes this issue rare.
Gary W2
Caligula_37-41_Quadrans_78_06~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans11 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

RIC failed to place this issue in the most recent edition. The fact that this issue was only from January 1 to January 24, 41 AD makes this issue rare.
Gary W2
lg_caligula_thrace.jpg
Caligula (Augustus), Thracian Kings29 viewsCaligula (Augustus)
Reign of Rhoemetalkes III, Thracian Kingdom
AE 6.94g / 22.75mm / -
ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΑΡΙ or ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΣΑΡ - Bust left
Ρ-Σ; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ - Nike r. with wreath and malm on globe
Mint: (38 - 46 AD)
Ref: RPC 1725; Gorny & Moshc 126, 13-14 Oct 2003 Lot 1659
Further references:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=59717&AucID=63&Lot=1659
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=94344&AucID=101&Lot=1637
http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/44602782922868295254468/025000_0004.pdf
Scotvs Capitis
collagemaker_2018060_ied4O.jpg
Caligula (Gaius)12 viewsAE21, Corinthian, Issued by P. Vipsanius Agrippa and M. Bellius Proculus, duoviri. Struck 37-38 AD
Obverse: CAESAR AVGVST, bare head of Caligula left.
Reverse: P VIPSANIO AGRIPPA IIVIR, Pegasus flying right, COR below.
References: RPC 1173 (left), BCD Corinth 407, Amandry group XVII pp. 186-189, British Museum (Corinth) 531-533
Justin L
00718.jpg
Caligula (RIC 37, #718)12 viewsRIC 37 (Rare), Orichalcum Sestertius, Rome, 37-38 AD.
OBV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT; Laureate head left.
REV: S P Q R / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS; Four lines of text in a wreath.
SIZE: 36.5mm, 27.80g
MaynardGee
00586.jpg
Caligula (RPC 477, Coin #586)19 viewsCaligula, RPC 477 (S), AE Semis, Segobriga Spain, 37 - 41 AD
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP Laureate head of Caligula left.
Rev: SEGOBRIGA Legend in two lines within wreath.
Size: 20.7mm 4.36g
MaynardGee
1266_Caligula_Aphrodisias.jpg
Caligula - Aphrodisias9 views37-41 AD
laureate head right
ΓAIOΣ__KAIΣAP
diademed head of Aphrodite right
AΦPOΔI_ΣIEΩN
RPC I 2845; BMC 97-8.
ex Aureo & Calicó
Johny SYSEL
Calígula-CCA.jpg
Caligula - RPC 37111 viewsColonia Caesar Augusta- 37-41 AD.
xokleng
Caligula_Thessalonica_1.jpg
Caligula - Thessalonica24 viewsAE 20
37-41 AD
laureate head left
Γ KAIΣAP ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN
veiled bust of Antonia (grandmother of Caligula)
ANTΩNIA_ΣEBAΣTH
RPC 1574
8,41g 21-20 mm
Johny SYSEL
716_Caligula_Antonia_Thessalonica.jpg
Caligula - Thessalonica6 views37-41 AD
laureate head left
Γ KAIΣAP ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN
veiled bust of Antonia (grandmother of Caligula)
ANTΩNIA_ΣEBAΣTH
RPC 1574
8,41g 21-20 mm
Johny SYSEL
caligula_k.jpg
Caligula AD 37-416 viewsAE17, 3.6g, 12h; Philadelphia, Lydia. Magistrate Moschion Moschionos.
Obv. ΓAIOY KAICAP; bare head right.
Rev. ΦIΛOKAICAP ΦIΛOΔЄΛΦЄWN MOCXIWN MOCXIWNOC; Capricorn left.
Reference: RPC I, 3027.
John Anthony
caligula2.jpg
Caligula AE AS84 viewsCaligula -AE AS. R: Vesta seated right.featherz
calig1.JPG
Caligula AE AS41 viewsGhengis_Jon
caligula_02.jpg
Caligula AE As27 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head l.
Rev: VESTA - Vesta, diademed and veiled, seated l. on ornamental throne, holding patera and long transverse sceptre; S C at sides.
Year: 37-8 AD
Ref: RIC 38
oa
caligula.jpg
Caligula AE As41 viewsOBV: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P
bare head left
REV: VESTA above S C across field
Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre
Date: 39-40 AD
27.2mm
RIC 47
Not RIC 38
It is different from Obv.
1 commentsmiffy
roman76.jpg
Caligula AE As51 views37-38 AD
Obv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head of Caligula.
Rev.: Vesta seated, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 38
1 commentsMinos
004C.jpg
Caligula AE As69 viewsRIC I 38 Rome, C 27
10.61 g, 28 mm
Struck 37-38 AD
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left
VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre
Mark Z
Caligula.jpg
Caligula AE As16 viewsCaligula AE As. Rome, 37-38 A.D. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, Bare head left / VESTA, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC 38, BMC 46, Cohen 27Holding_History
Caligula_AE_as_obv.jpg
Caligula AE as19 viewsGaius 'Caligula' (AD 37-41). AE as (29mm, 11.8 g, 6h). Rome, AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head of Caligula left / VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter, S C across field. RIC 38. Untouched dark green patina. Detailed portrait, exceptional strike. Choice EFOctopus Grabus
Caligula_2_opt.jpg
CALIGULA AE As, RIC 38, Vesta 16 viewsOBV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANI C V S PON M TR POT - Bare head Left.
REV: VESTA - Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter
9.6g, 28mm

Minted at Rome, 37-8 AD
Legatus
B-caligula_caesonia_0001.jpg
Caligula AE Medallion68 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG GERMANIC IMP P M TR P COS - Laureate bust right.
Rev: CN ATEL FLAC CN POM FLAC II VIR QVINC / SAL - AVG - Bust of Salus r.
Mint: Carthago Nova
Weight: 18.75g
Ref: Cohen 2
1 commentsoa
Cuadrante_Calígula.JPG
Caligula AE Quadrans RCC3 viewsObv. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, pileus between S-C.
PONT M TR P III PP COS DES III around RCC (remisa ducentesima). Celebrating tax cuts.

Weight: 3.2g
Diameter: 18mm.
Sergio Orata
Cuadrante_Calígula.JPG
Caligula AE Quadrans RCC1 viewsCalígula (37 – 41 AD)

AE Quadrans, Rome, 39 AD

Obv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, pileus between S-C
Rev: PONT M TR P III PP COS DES III around RCC (Remisa duocentesima)
RIC I 52

Weigth: 3.2g
Diameter: 18mm
Jose Polanco
Caligula_Divo.jpg
Caligula AE Sestertius, Pietas / Divo Avg RIC 3698 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS P M TR POT, PIETAS in exergue, Pietas seated left on stool, holding patera in extended left hand and resting right forearm on small draped figure standing facing on basis
Rev: DIVO AVG above S C across field, Gaius, toga draped over his head, standing left, holding patera over garlanded altar; victimarius standing facing, holding bull for sacrifice; second attendant standing behind Gaius, holding a patera on either side; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background, pediment decorated with sacrificial scene; triumphal quadriga and Victories as acroteria, statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line.
RIC I 36; BMCRE 41; BN 51; Cohen 9. aF/aVF, dark brown patina, with brassy highlights. Numerous light scratches and bumps on obverse, some pitting, reverse near VF with great details. RARE and important architectural type.
This coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies.
2 commentsmattpat
caligula.jpg
Caligula AE15, Tomis, Thrace.65 viewsΓAIOC KAICAP, laureate head right

TOM - HΓH - TOPI - ΔOY, winged caduceus

AMNG 2579 .

Located in modern day Romania on the coast of the Black Sea Tomis ( Constanţa), was founded by Greek traders around the 6th century BC.
It is the town celebrated by Ovid in his poems after his exile there in 8 AD by Augustus.
The town was later renmaed Constantiana after the half sister of Constantine the Great, Constantia. This is the modern name of the town.
GaiusCaligula
caligula_cgb2~0.jpg
Caligula and agripinna7 viewsarash p
Caligula4.jpg
CALIGULA AR Denarius, RIC I 10, DIVS Augustus133 viewsOBV: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT, bare head right
REV: DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE, radiate head of Augustus right


Minted at Lugdunum, 37-38 AD
4 commentsLegatus
Germanicus D 1.jpg
Caligula As43 viewsAE As.Caligula,
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Reverse: VESTA/S/C
RIC 38, C. 27, BMC 46.
Tanit
Caligula_.jpg
Caligula As35 viewsAE As.Caligula,
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Reverse: VESTA/S/C
RIC 38, C. 27, BMC 46.
1 commentsTanit
Caligula_As.jpg
Caligula As46 viewsOBV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head of Caligula left.
REV: VESTA S C
Vesta seated on ornate chair left,
holding patera and scepter.

BM-46, Paris-54, C-27, RIC-38.
A.D. 37-38
10.61gm 29 mm
3 commentsgoldenancients
MA Agrip SC dolphin.jpg
Caligula As (Issue in honour of his deceased grandfather Agrippa)23 viewsAE 29mm, Rome, 38 A.D.
Obv: M Agrippa Cos III
Rev: S.C. ( Neptune holding dolphin and trident)
Ref: Roman coins ATV, David R. Sear, vol I, p. 358 # 1812
Jean Paul D
Caligula_As_Vesta.jpg
Caligula As Vesta83 viewsObv.
C CAESAR GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left

Rev.
VESTA
SC
Vesta seated on throne left, holding spear and pouring from cadeucus
ancientdave
calrici54OR.jpg
Caligula As, RIC I 5440 viewsRome mint, Caligula As, 40-41 A.D. AE, 10.595g, 27.7mm, RIC I 54, BMCRE I 72, Cohen 29, holed at center
O: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, bare head left
R: VESTA S C, Vesta enthroned left, patera extended in right, long scepter transverse in left
1 commentscasata137ec
Caligula_RIC56.jpg
Caligula for Divus Augustus - Dupondius - RIC 5611 viewsObv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS S-C, radiate head of Divus Augustus left
Rev: CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R, laureate & togate statue of Gaius Caligula seated left on curule chair, holding branch
Size: 28 mm
Weight: 13,2 g
Mint: Rome
Date: 37-39 AD
Ref: RIC I 56 (Caligula), Cohen 87 (Augustus), BMC 88
vs1969
Caligula_RIC35.jpg
Caligula for Germanicus - As - RIC 3512 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC
Size: 27 mm
Weight: 9,80 g
Mint: Rome
Date: 37-38 AD
Ref: RIC I 35 (Caligula), Cohen 1, BMC 49
vs1969
Caligula_Perinthus_As_-_Neptune_Reverse.jpg
Caligula Perinthus As - Neptune Reverse24 viewsPlease pardon the terrible picture. It was the best I could do.

AE As
Probably Balkan mint of Perinthus
9.7 g.

C CA[ES]A[R A]VG GERMANICVS PON M TR P[OT]

Bare head left

Rx: S C Neptune standing

Condition F/G, brown patina.
cliff_marsland
Caligula_as.jpg
Caligula portrait as29 viewsDescription: Caligula (AD 37-41). Bronze as (29mm, 10.02 gm). Rome mint, AD 37-38. Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left. Reverse: VESTA S C., Vesta seated left, veiled, holding patera and scepter. RIC 38. C. 27. BMC 46. Dark green patina.

2 commentsTiberiusClaudius
Calgula_denarius_ric_2.jpg
Caligula RIC 000286 viewsGaius (Caligula), with Divus Augustus. AD 37-41. AR Denarius
(17.5mm, 3.26 g, 5h).
Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. 1st emission, AD 37.
Obv :Bare head of Gaius (Caligula) right C. CAESAR. AVG. GERM. P. M. TR. POT. COS
Rev: Radiate head of Divus Augustus right, between two stars.
RIC I 2; Lyon 157; RSC 11.
Fine, toned, deposits, chipped at edges, a few scratches.
CNG E-auction 428 Lot 344 September 5, 2018

This is my third denarius of Caligula. Yes, I know the coin has a few problems. The is a chip on the reverse, and there are deposits on both sides of the coin. Having said that, the quality of the silver is very good and the coin feels nice and solid to the touch.

I bought this coin for the artistic portrait of Caligula. I was really quite taken by it. I also like that most of the legend is present and readable. I did not need another denarius of Caligula, but when I saw the coin I had to have it. This coin will make an excellent addition to my 12 Caesars set.

Denarii of Caligula are scarce and they are sought after. It is the perfect storm as far as prices for these are concerned. It is not only the 12 Caesars collectors that drive up the prices for these denarii it is also the reputation of the man. Who would not like to have a coin of this murderous and insane monster that also happens to be a fascinating historical figure?

If you do not want to shell out the money for a denarius, the Vesta reverse As is available quite readily and for very reasonable prices. Everyone should have a coin of this remarkable and storied individual.
5 commentsorfew
new_caius_combined.jpg
Caligula RIC 001433 viewsCaligula and Agrippina AR Denarius, aF, toned, bumps and marks,
(17.84 mm, 2.680g) 180o
Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, end of 37 - early 38 A.D.;
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise), laureate head of Gaius right;
Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM (counterclockwise), draped bust of Agrippina Senior (his mother), her hair in a queue behind, one curly lock falls loose on the side of her neck,
RIC I 14 (R) (Rome), RSC II 2; BMCRE I 15 (Rome), BnF II 24, Hunter I 7 (Rome), SRCV I 1825
Ex: the Jyrki Muona Collection, Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins.




As you can tell from the photo, this is a worn coin. All denarii of Gaius (Caligula) are scarce, and some are harder to find than others. Denarii of Claudius are also scarce. The speculation is that after Nero debased the denarii, people hoarded all of the good silver coins, and this included denarii of Claudius and Gaius. According to Gresham's law bad money drives out good money. However, this does not explain why there appears to be plenty of earlier denarii available of figures such as Tiberius and Augustus but very few of Claudius and Gaius. We may never have a satisfactory answer.

Now why do I call him Gaius. Caligula (meaning little boots) was a nickname given to Gaius when he was young and travelling with his father's (Germanicus) army. According to contemporary or near contemporary accounts he detested the name. If you were emperor I am sure you would not want to be called "Bootykins".

The reverse of this coin has a portrait of Agrippina the Elder , Gaius' mother. She reportedly starved herself to death 4 years before Gaius became emperor.
orfew
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001674 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
Caligula_RIC_54.jpg
Caligula RIC 5436 viewsObverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP, bare head left of Caligula
Reverse: Veiled Vesta, seated on throne, patera extended in right, long scepter transverse in left, VESTA above, SC
Size: 11.5 gms, 29 mm
ID: RIC 54, Cohen 29
Mint: Rome mint 40-41 AD
ickster
Caligula_Sestertius_Pietas-Caligula_Sacrificing_at_Temple_of_Augustus.jpg
Caligula Sestertius Pietas-Caligula Sacrificing at Temple of Augustus162 viewsObv.
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS P M TR POT
PIETAS in ex
Pietas, veiled, seated left and holding patera, elbow resting on statue

Rev.
DIVO AVG S-C
Gaius sacrificing before hexastyle temple; attendants with bull and patera at sides
6 commentsancientdave
54869q00.jpg
Caligula Sestertius RIC 3761 viewsOrichalcum sestertius,
RIC I 37; BMCRE I 38; Cohen 24,
Condition, aVF by wear but corroded, Rome mint,
Weight 24.698g, maximum diameter 34.9mm
OBV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laureate head left;
Rx: S P Q R / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS, legend in four lines within Corona Civica oak wreath
ex Forum SH54869., ; ex Edward J. Waddell
recycled photo
cliff_marsland
Caligula_Vesta.JPG
Caligula Vesta16 viewsCaligula Gaius AD 37-41 Copper As, 29mm, 10.02g, Sear 1803, BMCRE 46, BN 54, Cohen 27
OBV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left
REV: VESTA S-C – Vesta seated left holding patera and transverse scepter

Romanorvm
Claigula_Vesta_2a.jpg
Caligula | Vesta * Æ As - 37-41 AD.56 views
Caligula Gaius | Vesta, Copper As

Obv: Bare head left: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Rev: Vesta seated left holding patera in right hand and scepter in left hand, semi-transverse resting on left shoulder: S-C.

Exergue: None

Mint: Rome
Struck: 37-38 AD

Size: 26.90 grm.
Weight: 10.44 mm.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: A well worn coin, far more pleasant to the eye in hand. A challenge to photograph for like impression.

Refs:*
BN, 54
RIC I, 38
Cohen, 27
BMCRE, 46
Tiathena
Paduan_Caligula.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD147 viewsObv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP IIII PP, laureate head of Caligula facing left.

Rev: AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, The three sisters of Caligula, standing side by side; on the left, Agrippina (personified as Securitas) with head turned right, holds cornucopia, resting right hand on column, left hand on Drusilla’s shoulder; in center Drusilla (personified as Concordia), with head turned left, holding patera in right hand and cornucopia in left; on right Julia (personified as Fortuna Augusta), with head turned left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopia in left; SC in exergue.

20.1 grams, 35 mm

This coin is a copy of a medallion made my Giovanni da Cavino of Padua, Italy. Though it's not an "ancient forgery" I would estimate it's manufacture to be sometime in the mid to late 19th Century. There appears to be genuine wear on the coin's surface along with a waxy residue visible in the lettering above Caligula's head leading me to believe this coin might have been used as a host to cast other fakes. It appears to be a direct copy of the Paduan housed in the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris. It is pictured in Imitations and Inventions of Roman Coins by Zander H. Klawans as Caligula 1.

RIC 41, Klawans Caligula 1
SPQR Coins
Caligula_RIC_18_(fourree).JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD175 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT, laureate head of Caligula facing right.

Rev: GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus facing right.

Plated Denarius, Illegal Mint after Lugdunum, circa 37 - 38 AD

3 grams, 19 mm, 90°

RIC I 18, RSC Caligula & Germanicus 2, S1815 (var.), VM 3
2 commentsSPQR Coins
Caligula_RIC_38.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD65 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head of Caligula facing left.

Rev: VESTA S - C, Vesta enthroned, left, holding patera in right hand and scepter in left.

Copper As, Rome Mint, 37 - 38 AD

11.6 grams, 27 mm, 180°

RIC I 38, S1803, VM 9
1 commentsSPQR Coins
Caligula_GIC_393.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD 35 viewsObv: ΓAΙOC KAICAP, laureate head of Caligula facing right.

Rev: AIZANITΩN ЄΠI ΛΟΛΛIOY KΛACCIKOY, Zeus standing left holding an eagle in his outstretched right hand and a scepter in his left.

Magistrate: Lollios Klassikos

Æ 21, Aezanis, Phrygia mint, ca. 37 - 38 AD

5.3 grams, 19.6 mm, 0°

GIC 393
SPQR Coins
Caligula_RIC_39.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD26 viewsObv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, a pileus between S - C.

Rev: PON M TRP III PP COS DES III around large RCC

Copper Quadrans, Rome mint, 39 AD

3.4 grams, 18 mm, 180°

RIC I 39, S1804 (var.), VM 10
SPQR Matt
Caligula_RIC_18.JPG
Caligula, 37 - 41 AD177 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR POT, laureate head of Caligula facing right.

Rev: GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM, bare head of Germanicus facing right.

Silver Denarius, Lugdunum mint, 37 - 38 AD

3.5 grams, 17.8 mm, 90°

RIC I 18, RSC Caligula & Germanicus 2, S1815 (var.), VM 3
4 commentsSPQR Matt
51.jpg
Caligula, AD 37-4179 viewsAE As, 28.29mm (11.75 gm).

C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA, S-C in field; Vesta, veiled, draped, seated left on throne with ornamental back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transverse sceptre in left; VESTA above, S-C to left and right. Rome mint, struck AD 37-38.

RIC I, 038; BMCRE I, 046.
5 commentssocalcoins
Caligula_aizanoi.jpg
Caligula, AE 11, Aizanoi11 viewsGaius (Caligula), 37-42 A.D., Province Asia. Phrygia, Aizanoi (Aezani). AE 11, 4,9 g. Obv: G KAIC CEB GERMANIKOC; Laureate bust right; Rev: AIZANITWN EPI PRAXIME; Draped bust of Artemis with bow to right (Magistrate Praxime). RPC I 3074, BMC 71.Podiceps
Caligula_RIC_I_38.jpg
Caligula, AE As, RIC I 38, Countermarked5 viewsGaius Germanicus "Caligula"
Augustus, 37 - 41 A.D.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare headed bust facing left.
Reverse: VESTA, Vesta, seated to the left, S - C across the fields.

Weight: 8.89 g, Diameter: 28.5 x 27 x 2 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, struck between 37-38 A.D. Reference: RIC I 38, Countermark: "TI.C.A" on the obverse side, done in the reign of his successor, Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus).
Masis
0050-310np_noir.jpg
Caligula, As - *109 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head of Caligula left
VESTA, Vesta seated left, SC in field
10,96 gr
Ref : RCV #1803, Cohen #27
Potator II
4505_4506.jpg
Caligula, As, Vesta9 viewsAE As
Caligula
Augustus: 37 - 41AD
Issued: 37 - 38AD
27.0mm 10.93gr
O: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PN M TR POT; Bare head, right.
R: VESTA; Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter.
Exergue: S, left field; C, right field.
Rome Mint
RIC 38.
Aorta: 50: B1, O5, R20, T12, M3.
lucernae 201077745539
4/22/14 4/3/17
Nicholas Z
CaligulaCaesonia_CarthagoNova.jpg
Caligula, Caesonia, Carthago Nova46 viewsAE22, 6.5g
cf.
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=51775&AucID=54&Lot=266
areich
Caligula_denarius.jpg
Caligula, denarius25 viewsCaligula, denarius.
37-8 AD, Lugdunum.
3.62g.
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT / laureate head of Caligula right.
Rev. GERMANICVS CAES P C CAES AVG GERM / bare head of Germanicus right.
RIC 18.
1 commentsMarsman
CALIGULA-1-ROMAN.jpg
Caligula, RIC I-38 Rome5 viewsAE As
Rome mint, 37-38 A.D.
30mm, 11.64
RIC I-38, RCVv.1-1803

Obverse:
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left.

Reverse:
VESTA
S-C
Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left, on ornamental throne, right holding patera, left long transverse spear.
Will J
Caligula_Tomis_Caduceus_AE16.jpg
Caligula, Tomis, Caduceus, AE1632 viewsobv: ΓAIOC KAICAP, laureate head right
rev: TOM - HΓH - TOPI - ΔOY, winged caduceus
AMNG, 2579
areich
Caligula_AE_As.jpg
CALIGULA. (AD 37-41) As, 10.83g. Rome. VESTA16 viewsObverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left.
Reverse: VESTA
Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter.
Mint City: Rome. Struck AD 37-38
Reference: RIC 38
Antonivs Protti
EM032_AS_Caligula.jpg
Caligula: 37 - 41 AD57 viewsAE As; Rome Mint
Struck 37 - 38AD
Obv. - bare head left; G. CAESAR.AVG.GERMANICVS.PON.M.TR.P
Rev. - Vesta seated left, holding patera and scepter; VESTA above; large S / C either side
11.72 grams
27.2 mm
1 commentscmcdon0923
Caius RIC 30.jpg
Calius (Caligula) - as RIC 3849 viewsAs, RIC 38, 10.97g; 37-38 A.D.; obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left; reverse: VESTA above, S - C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.Priscian
ClaudAntoniaTet.jpg
Claudius & Antonia Tetradrachm171 viewsTI KΛAY∆I KAIΣ ΣEBA ΓEPMANI AYTOKP
laureate head right, date LB (year 2) before

ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH
bust of Antonia right, hair in queue

29 Sep 41 - 28 Sep 42 A.D.

Alexandria mint

11.054g, 23.2mm, die axis 0o,

RPC 5117; Geissen 62; Milne 61; BMC Alexandria p. 9, 65; Dattari 114; SNG Milan 620, SNG Cop 57; Sommer 12.3, Emmett 73

Scarce

Ex-Forum

Antonia was the youngest daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero. She was additionally the maternal great-aunt of the Empress Valeria Messalina and Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix, and paternal grandmother of Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, and Britannicus.
3 commentsJay GT4
Claudius_Æ_Sestertiu.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 6 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right, NCAPR counterstamp behind bust
EX S C / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (50-54AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.42g / 36.39mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC² 112
Cohen 38
BMC 185
Sear 1850
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Old Roman Coins.Com
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet $0.00 8/17
The Gary R. Wilson Collection


The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.



The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-oXfGCiAQjcBiF-Claudius_arch.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right with NCAPR countermark behind head.
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C - Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch & decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 114
Cohen 48
BMC 187
Acquisition/Sale: shpadoinkle24 Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jan 9, 19 - NCAPR Countermark

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus was Tiberius' younger brother. He was a successful general but died at only 29 after a fall from his horse. He married Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their sons were Germanicus and Claudius. Claudius issued his coins.

From CNG:
The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'

Just FYI-This coin has been 'Liberated' from the NGC slab and is now how it should be-free for a person to hold, as all ancients should be!
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AOy7GVWJFbuo-Claudius.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
(NO LEGEND) SC - Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-54 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC I (second edition), 116
BMC 206
Cohen 84
von Kaenel Type 60
BN 233-5
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 eBay $0.00 04/19
Notes: Apr 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

per Curtis Clay:
At ROME, bronze coins were struck for Claudius in two large issues, the first without P P and the second with P P, that is the first between his accession on 25 Jan. 41 and his acceptance of the title Pater Patriae less than a year later, between 1 and 12 Jan. 42, and the second after early January 42.

The types were the same in both issues:

sestertii of Claudius with types legend in wreath OB CIVES SERVATOS, SPES AVGVSTA, and legend of Nero Claudius Drusus around triumphal arch;

sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus with rev. legend of Claudius around Claudius seated on curule chair set on globe among arms;

dupondius of Claudius with rev. CERES AVGVSTA;

dupondius of Antonia with rev. legend of Claudius around standing togate emperor;

asses of Claudius with rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, and Minerva fighting r.;

quadrantes of Claudius with types Modius and PNR, hand holding scales.

PROVINCIAL MINTS, official and unofficial, on the other hand, struck these same types for Claudius, usually without the quadrantes, almost exclusively without P P, so apparently during the first year of his reign. There were only two exceptions of provincial mints striking these standard types of Claudius after he became P P:

1. The Spanish mint, defined by the many sestertii and dupondii of this particular style, including dozens of die duplicates, found in the Pobla de Mafumet Hoard, struck most of its bronze coins for Claudius without P P, but, alone of the early provincial mints, continued to strike for him early in 42, now with P P, this however being a much smaller issue which probably lasted only a month or two.

I show below a "Pobla" dupondius of Claudius, this one of 41 (no P P), with the characteristic letter forms (particularly the Rs and Ms), often dots left and right of S C in rev. exergue, and the characteristic portrait with spikey hair locks. For comparison I also add a Rome-mint dupondius of the second issue, with P P. (Both images from CoinArchives)

curtislclay:
2. Thracian mint, later in reign, which had NOT struck bronzes for Claudius before he became P P. This mint copied the Roman types, but in slightly cruder style. Its dupondii often have central cavities on their flans, which never occur at Rome or at any of the other provincial mints; see the specimen that I illustrate below from CoinArchives.

Other features which suggest a Thracian or possibly Bithynian location of the mint: (a) quite a few bronze coins of this style have turned up in the flood of ancient coins that emerged from Bulgaria after the fall of the Iron Curtain. (b) Some of the sestertii in this style have Eastern countermarks, for example the SPES AVGVSTA sestertius shown below, from the website Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins, with countermark Capricorn above rudder on globe. I think most of the Claudian bronzes known with this rare countermark are from our Thracian mint, though it can also occur on Roman and Spanish bronzes of Claudius, which had presumably found their way into circulation in Thrace or Bithynia.

What types did this mint strike? Well, sestertii of Claudius with Legend in wreath and SPES AVGVSTA, but no Arch of Drusus sestertii have yet been observed; CERES AVGVSTA dupondii of Claudius, but I haven't yet noted any dupondii of Antonia; asses of Claudius with all three normal types; no quadrantes.

curtislclay:
Unfortunately these different mints for bronze coins of Claudius are hardly recorded in the standard catalogues!

Laffranchi, in an article written in 1948, was the first to recognize and separate from Rome two of the main provincial mints striking bronzes for Claudius early in his reign, including the Spanish mint mentioned above. But Sutherland, revising RIC I in 1983, was unable to see the stylistic differences pointed out by Laffranchi, so attributed all of Claudius' bronze coins to Rome. The same RIC numbers, therefore, cover Rome and at least three major provincial mints without P P, and Rome, the Spanish mint, and the Thracian mint with P P!

Von Kaenel, in his 1986 monograph on the coinage of Claudius, recognized the two early provincial mints for bronze coins pointed out by Laffranchi, and attributed certain middle bronzes to yet a third provincial mint, though he wrongly located all of these mints in Rome, as auxiliarly mints to the main public one, rather than in the western provinces. He did not recognize the Thracian mint from later in the reign that I have treated above. His catalogue, no. 1888, pl. 43, indeed includes a Thracian CERES AVGVSTA dupondius with central indentations, but he misattributed it to the early Spanish mint, the only early provincial mint to produce bronze coins for Claudius as P P.

Giard, in his Paris catalogue of 1988, ignored both Laffranchi and von Kaenel, and, like RIC, attributed all official bronze coins of Claudius to the mint of Rome!

Individual Thracian mint coins have been recognized as such in various sale catalogues since the 1990s, but this mint has not been treated in any academic article or museum catalogue as far as I know.
Gary W2
Claudius_(41-54)__Æ_Quadrans_(18mm,_2_71g,_7h)__Rome,_AD_42.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans16 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Hand holding scales, PNR in field
PON M TR P IMP PP COS II around S C. - Legend around S C
Mint: Rome ( 1-4 January AD 42))
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.71g / 18mm / 7h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 91
Cohen 73
BMC 181
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins (LAC)
Acquisition/Sale: London Ancient Coins (LAC) Internet LAC Price List 2 #441 $0.00 07/19
Notes: Jul 19, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD-Common
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD -Common
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD-Rare
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD-Rare
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD- R3
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD- R3 -This Coin
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD- Common
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD- Scarce

Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Claudius himself at a similar event.

The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain.

Per CNG: Very rare. Struck 1-4 January AD 42.
2 commentsGary W2
Claudius__AD_41-54__Æ_Quadrans,_Modius_2.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 14 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Three-legged modius
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.21g / 17mm / 6h
References:
RIC I 84
BMCRE 179
Cohen 70
von Kaenel Type 63
Acquisition/Sale: holding_history eBay $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 16, 19 - The modius was a roman unit for grain corresponding to 8.7 liters (2.3 gallons).

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD -This Coin
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD

Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Claudius himself at a similar event.

The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain.
Gary W2
Claudius_AD_41-54__Rome.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 7 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Three-legged modius
PON M TR P IMP COS II around large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome ( 1-4 January AD 42)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.95g / 17mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 88
von Kaenel Type 65
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 21st Blue Auction #1017 $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 23, 19 - The modius was a roman unit for grain corresponding to 8.7 liters (2.3 gallons).

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD

Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Claudius himself at a similar event.

The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain.

Per CNG: Very rare. Struck 1-4 January AD 42.
Gary W2
Claudius_AD_41-54__Rome~0.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans44 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Three-legged modius
PON M TR P IMP COS II around large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome ( 1-4 January AD 42)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.95g / 17mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 88
von Kaenel Type 65
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 21st Blue Auction #1017 $0.00 06/19
Notes: Jun 23, 19 - The modius was a roman unit for grain corresponding to 8.7 liters (2.3 gallons).

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD-Common
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD -Common
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD-Rare
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD-Rare
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD-This Coin- R3
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD- R3
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD- Common
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD- Scarce

Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Claudius himself at a similar event.

The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain.

Per CNG: Very rare. Struck 1-4 January AD 42.
3 commentsGary W2
Claudius_quadrans_17_mm_,_2_44_g_.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans3 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG - Hand holding pair of scales; P N R below.
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II around S · C - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (42 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.44g / 17mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 91
von Kaenel Type 68
Cohen 73
BMC 181
Provenances:
Savoca Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Savoca Coins Internet 6th Blue Auction #829 $0.00
Notes: Oct 5, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Minted 5 January-31 December AD 42.

There were eight different issues of quadrans under Claudius:
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (modius)-41AD-Common
PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT (scales)-41AD -Common
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (modius)-41AD-Rare
PONT MAX TR POT IMP (scales)-41AD-Rare
PON M TR P IMP COS II (modius)-42AD- R3
PON M TR P IMP COS II (scales)-42AD- R3
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (modius)-42AD- Common
PON M TR P IMP P P COS II (scales)-42AD- Scarce-This Coin

Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia "Caligula threw coins among the people." Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Claudius himself at a similar event.

The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain.

Per CNG:The meaning of the P N R on the obverse is not entirely clear. It should perhaps be expanded to Pondus Nummi Restitutum, referring to a monetary reform.
GRWilson
GermAs04-3.jpg
Claudius, RIC 106, for Germanicus, As of AD 50-5462 viewsÆ As (10.8g, 29mm, 6h). Rome mint, struck AD 50-54.
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR·TI AVG F DIVI AVG, head of Germanicus facing right.
Rev.: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR·AVG GERM PM TR P IMP·P P around large S·C
RIC (Claudius) 106; Cohen 9

Germanicus was the brother of Claudius and the father of Gaius ("Caligula")
2 commentsCharles S
claudius113_overstruck.jpg
Claudius, RIC 113 (political overstruck)30 viewsClaudius, AD 41-50
AE - As, 28.5mm, 10.3g
obv. TI CLAVDIVS CAES - ERMANICVS(sic!) IMP PP
Bare head, l.
rev. LIBERTAS - AVG
Libertas, stg. r., holding pileus in r. hand and reaching out l. hand
RIC I, 113
F+

This seems to be an overstruck on Caligula RIC I, 8 (Vesta). On the r. side of the rev. we see the big C and remnants of the back of Vesta's throne. On the obv. we find the ERMANICVS.

It is difficult to decide whether this was a small-scale official operation perhaps carried out in a provincial town or army outpost, or the unofficial initiative of some merchant, perhaps, who didn't want to be bothered to transport his Caligulan asses to one of the official mints! (Curtis Clay)
Jochen
CORINTHIA,_Corinth__Gaius_Caligula_.png
CORINTHIA, Corinth. Gaius Caligula.29 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ As (7.65 g).
Caligula Bare head right / Pegasus flying right. VG, olive green patina. Rare.
Sam
coins110.JPG
CORINTHIA, Corinth; Caligula17 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth. Gaius (Caligula). 37-41 AD. Æ 19mm Struck 37-38 AD. P. Vipsanius Agrippa and M. Bellius Proculus, magistrates. Bare head right / Pegasos flying right.
Amandry XVII; RPC I 1172.
ecoli
1465E084-50A0-4BB3-A4B3-EDA9A6E8C3DB.jpeg
CORINTHIA, Corinth; Caligula9 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ As. P. Vipsanius Agrippa, duovir. Struck AD 37/8. Bare head right / Pegasus flying right. RPC 1172; Amandry Em. XVII21; BCD Corinth 402.ecoli
divus-augustus.jpg
Divus Augustus AE Dupondius, struck under Caligula19 viewsDivus Augustus AE Dupondius, struck under Caligula, Rome, 37-41 A.D. DIVVS AVGVSTVS S-C, Radiate bust of Divus Augustus left. / CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R, Laureate and togate Caligula seated left on curule chair, holding branch in right hand. RIC 56, BMC 90, RCV 1811Holding_History
U11184F1GOTYQOGO.jpg
Divus Germanicus AE Dupondius. Rome Mint Under Caligula 37-41 AD35 viewsDivus Germanicus AE Dupondius.
Rome Mint Issued by Caligula in honor of his deceased father (Died in 19AD) 37-41 AD 11.95g
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR Germanicus, bare-headed and cloaked, standing in quadriga, right, holding eagle tipped scepter
Reverse: SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S C Germanicus bare-headed and cuirassed, right, with tunic standing, left, right hand raised and left holding aquila.
RIC I 57 (Gaius); BMC 94; Cohen 7
Ex Forum Auctions ( Jay GT4 )
1 commentsVladislav D
DomDup.jpg
Domitian dupondius, 92-94 AD, Rome mint22 viewsDomitian. An emperor very much shaped by the circumstances of his upbringing, in a tumultuous and chaotic time, and neglected by (one of my more loved emperors) Vespasian in favor of Titus. I will give him serious commendation on the seriousness of his paranoia... "your lord and god Domitian" might have been paranoid, but he wasn't crazy in the vein of Commodus, Caracalla, or Caligula. For that, I can respect him.

Die axis 180 degrees.
EvaJupiterSkies
D816_(5)sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-81672 viewsAR Denarius, 2.73g
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
Obv: DOMITIANVS AVG GERM; Head of Domitian, bare, bearded, r.
Rev: Temple, eight columns, seated figure in centre; IMP CAESAR on architrave
RIC 816 (R2). BMC 243. RSC 175. BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

Domitian struck a rare undated issue of denarii depicting five different temples. Based on portrait style and the fact that Domitian's moneyers were experimenting with new reverse designs after 94, the issue has been dated to either 95 or 96. Four of the five temples have been identified - Serapis, Cybele, Minerva, and Capitoline Jupiter. The fifth type is an octastyle temple, as seen on the coin above, and its identification remains a mystery. Mattingly conjectured it could be the Temple of Divus Vespasian, P.V. Hill and D. Vagi thought it possibly the Temple of Jupiter Victor, R.H. Darwell-Smith speculated it is the Temple of Jupiter Custos, and M. Tameanko believed it to be the Temple of Divus Augustus. Tameanko makes the strongest case. Earlier renditions of the temple on the coinage under Caligula show it with a hexastyle facade. Domitian restored or rebuilt the temple after the fire of 80. His architect Rabirius may have completely overhauled the building in a more contemporary style producing an octastyle temple. Almost a hundred years later Antoninus Pius restored the temple again and struck a series of coins commemorating the event. His coins indeed depict an octastyle temple very much like the one seen on this denarius and may be proof that under Domitian the temple was rebuilt as an octastyle structure. However, until more evidence comes to light, the identification remains uncertain. Like Domitian's earlier Saecular Games series, the temple denarii were likely struck as a special issue, perhaps reflecting Domitian's new interest as builder. The remarkable bare headed portrait further enhances the issue as something special.

Needless to say it is a fantastically rare piece! Additionally, the eight column type may be the scarcest of the temple group, considering I have located only two other examples in trade over the last 15 years. The other two coins (OldRomanCoins 2002, HJB 145, lot 265) are obverse die matches with mine. Oddly, some specimens (BM 234 for example) lack IMP CAESAR on the architrave.

Worn, with some bumps and scrapes, but well-centred and in good style with plenty of eye appeal.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
Tiberius___Germanicus_Gemellus__AD_19_(37-8)_and_19_(23-4),_respectively__Æ_Sestertius_(34mm,_24_74_g,_6h)__Rome_mint__100.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius 10 views(no legend) - Crossed cornucopias, each surmounted by the bareheaded bust of a boy facing one another; winged caduceus between
DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large SC. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.74g / 34mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 42 (Tiberius)
BMC Tiberius 95
CBN Tiberius 73
Provenances:
Richard Baker Collection
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 435 #315

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

This issue, commemorating the birth of twin sons to Drusus Caesar and his wife Livia Drusilla (Livilla), was part of the series issued under the Tiberius in AD 22-23 to promote the imperial virtue and dynastic solidity of the emperor's family. Although Germanicus Gemellus died very young, his brother Tiberius lived into his adulthood, with the expectation that he would be heir to his grandfather following the premature death of his father, Drusus. In the later years of the emperor’s life, though, Gaius (Caligula) was often seen in close company with the emperor, while Tiberius Gemellus’s status was shrouded in obscurity. Thus, after the death of the emperor, Caligula, assisted by the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, quickly moved to take the purple. Upon the reading of the deceased emperor’s will, however, it was discovered that Tiberius intended for both Tiberius Gemellus and his cousin Gaius to be jointly elevated, and, moreover, that Gemellus was to be the senior partner. Under unknown authority, Caligula quickly had the will vacated, and, shortly thereafter, his cousin murdered.

This sestertius was struck in 22/23, nearly three years after the death of Germanicus, Tiberius’ nephew and first heir. In the
interim Tiberius had named no heir, but with the nine coins in his dated aes of 22/23 he announces a ‘Tiberian dynasty’
that includes his son Drusus, his daughter-in-law (and niece) Livilla, and his twin grandsons Tiberius Gemellus and
Germanicus Gemellus, whose heads decorate the crossed cornucopias on this sestertius.
Since it is the only coin in the aes of 22/23 without an obverse inscription, we must presume its design was believed
sufficient to communicate the fact that the twin boys were portrayed. Though this type usually is thought to celebrate the
birth of the twins, that event had occurred two and a half years before this coin was struck. Rather, it is best seen in light of
early Julio-Claudian dynastic rhetoric in which male heirs were celebrated as twins (even if they were not literally twins, or
even biological brothers) and were routinely likened to the Dioscuri, the heavenly twins Castor and Pollux.
The crossed-cornucopias design is familiar on ancient coinage, and here the cornucopias, grape clusters, grape leaves and
pine cones seemingly allude to Bacchus or Liber in a reference to fecundity. In terms of dynastic appeal, the design boasts
of the prosperity and fruitfulness of the Tiberian line, with the caduceus symbolizing Mercury as the messenger of the gods
and the bringer of good fortune.
Despite the hopefulness represented by this series of coins, tragedy struck on two fronts. The ‘Tiberian dynasty’ collapsed
within months of its being announced when both Drusus and his son Germanicus Gemellus (the boy whose head is shown
on the right cornucopia) died in 23.
Poor fates awaited the remaining two members: Drusus’ wife Livilla became increasingly associated with Tiberius’ prefect
Sejanus, and she died shamefully in the aftermath of his downfall in 31, and the second grandson, Tiberius Gemellus,
survived long enough to be named co-heir of Tiberius with Caligula, but after Tiberius’ death he was pushed into a
subsidiary role and soon was executed by Caligula, who would not tolerate a second heir to the throne.

The Caduceus between two cornucopia indicates Concord, and is found on medals of Augustus, M. Antony, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Clodius Albinus in addition to this sestertius of Drusus.

Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known Gemellus and his twin brother Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus II Gemellus, were born on the 10th of October 19AD. They were the win sons of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the cousin of the Emperor Caligula. Gemellus is a nickname meaning “the twin”. Germanicus II Gemellus, died in early childhood in 23 AD whereas Nero Gemellus died 37 or 38AD perhaps on the orders of his cousin Caligula.

Gemellus’ father Drusus (also known as Castor) died mysteriously when Gemellus was only four. It is believed that Drusus died at the hands of the Praetorian Prefect, Lucius Aelius Sejanus. His mother Livilla was either put to death or committed suicide because she had been plotting with Sejanus to overthrow Tiberius, and also because she may have worked with Sejanus to poison her husband. Livilla had been Sejanus’ lover for a number of years before their deaths, and many including Tiberius believed that both Gemelli were really Sejanus’ sons.

We know very little about Gemellus’ life, since he was largely ignored by most of the Imperial family. When Gemellus was 12 years old, he was summoned to the island of Capri where Tiberius lived at that time, along with his cousin Caligula. Tiberius made both Caligula and Gemellus joint-heirs, but Caligula was the favorite.

After Tiberius died on March 16th, 37AD, Caligula became Emperor and adopted Gemellus as his son. Caligula soon thereafter ordered him killed in late 37 AD or early 38 AD . The allegation was plotting against Caligula while he was ill. Suetonius writes that Caligula ordered Gemellus killed.
Gary W2
EB0379_scaled.JPG
EB0379 Nero and Drusus galloping right7 viewsNero and Drusus Caesars, AE Dupondius, Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD.
Obv: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback galloping right.
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C.
References: RIC I 34.
Diameter: 29.5 mm, Weight: 15.619 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0380_scaled.JPG
EB0380 Germanicus TR P IIII7 viewsGermanicus, AE AS, Struck under Caligula, 40-41 AD.
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI [AVG N], bare head left.
Rev: [C CAESAR] DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P around large SC.
References: RIC 50; Cohen 4.
Diameter: 27 mm, Weight: 8.143 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0381_scaled.JPG
EB0381 Germanicus PON M TR POT6 viewsGermanicus Caesar, AE As, Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD.
Obv: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left.
Rev: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC.
References: RIC I 35; Cohen 1.
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 10.452 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0382_scaled.JPG
EB0382 M. Agrippa / Neptune5 viewsM. Agrippa, AE As, Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD.
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown
Rev: S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.
References: RIC I 58; Cohen 3.
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 10.455 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0383_scaled.JPG
EB0383 M. Agrippa / Neptune7 viewsM. Agrippa, AE As, Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD.
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown
Rev: S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.
References: RIC I 58; Cohen 3.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 10.316 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0386_scaled.JPG
EB0386 Caligula / Vesta10 viewsCaligula, AE As, 40-41 AD.
Obv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, bare head left.
Rev: [VESTA above], S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
References: RIC I 54; Cohen 29.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 10.258 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0540_scaled.JPG
EB0540 Caligula / Agrippina & Germanicus12 viewsCaligula, AE 22, of Smyrna, Ionia. Magistrate and proconsul Menophanes and Aviola, ca 37-38 AD.
Obv: ΓAION KAICAΡA ΓEΡMANIKON EΠI AOYIOΛA, laureate head right.
Rev: [ΓEΡMA]NIKON AΓΡ[IΠΠEINA ZMYΡNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC], Draped bust of Agrippina I right, vis-Ã -vis bare head of Germanicus left.
References: RPC I 2471; Klose XXIX, SNG von Aulock 2201.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 5.431 grams.
EB
EB1028_scaled.JPG
EB1028 Augustus / Caligula10 viewsCaligula & Divus Augustus Æ Dupondius. 37-41 AD.
Obverse: DIVVS AVGVSTVS S-C, radiate head of Divus Augustus left (tooled).
Reverse: CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R, laureate & togate statue of Gaius Caligula seated left on curule chair, holding branch.
References: RIC 56 [Caligula], Cohen 87 [Augustus], BMC 88.
Diameter: 30mm, Weight: 17.41g.
EB
alexandria_hadrian_Milne844.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Hadrian, Milne 84440 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
struck AD 117-118
obv. AVT KAIC TRAIANOC ADRIANOC
Bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. Euthenia, clad in the garment of Isis with the typical pectoral knot, wearing Uraeus crown
and grain(?) , leaning l., resting with l. arm on small sphinx, laying r., and holding in raised
r. hand grain-ears, poppies and lotus-flower(?)
in field LB (= year 2)
Milne 822; BMC -
VF, brown patina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The portrait of Hadrian is unusual and reminds of Caligula(!). This often appears on Alexandrian coins where the typical Roman Imperial portraits are found some times later in the reign of the emperor.
Euthenia was the goddess or spirit (daimon) of prosperity, abundance and plenty. She appears to have been one of a group of four younger Graces, the others being her sisters Eukleia (Good Repute), Eupheme (Acclaim) and Philophrosyne (Welcome) (from www.theoi.com)
Jochen
RS020-Roman-AE_as,_Caligula_(ca_14-37_AD)-017900.jpg
GAIUS "Caligula" (14-37 AD), AE as, Caesaraugusta, Spain55 viewsObverse- C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS IMP, laureate head of Caligula left.
Reverse- C C A LICINIANO ET GERMANICO, II VIR in exergue, two bulls, led by man behind.
RPC 371, 11.12 g, 26 mm.
aVF with brown and black patina, a few old scratches.
Ex-Hellenika Ancient Numismatics, July 2012, through VCoins store.
Comments: Most Caligula portrait coins available under $500 seem to be the VESTA-reverse bronzes. I had a decent one of those in my previous collection, but didn't want another unless it was nicer than my old one, and finding one I liked within my budget proved difficult. Then I spotted this provincial, with a more interesting design and a much friendlier price (under $200), so I bought it. Yes, it has some old scratches, but I can live with those. I thought it had a lot of "meat" on it for the price. The seller had speculated as to whether the scratch on the portrait represented a damnatio attempt, but I don't think so- to my mind, a damnatio would have involved much more deliberate and vicious damage.
2 commentslordmarcovan
calise03-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 32, Sestertius of AD 37-38 (Gaius addressing soldiers)117 viewsÆ sestertius (25.0g, Ø34mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 40-41.
Obv.: C·CAESAR·AVG GERMANICVS·PON M·TR·POT·, laureate head of Gaius left.
Rev.: ADLOCVT (above) COH (below) Gaius on a platform addressing five soldiers, helmeted, with shields and swords, four with aquilae (legionary standards with eagle).
RIC 32 (S); BMCRE 33; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 60:1

Payment to the praetorian guard of the bequest of Tiberius. The minting of this sestertius was ordered directly by the emperor, hence the lack of the letters S C. Style of provincial mint, probably Lugdunum. N.B. RIC attributes this type to the mint of Rome; Sear favors Lugdunum.
4 commentsCharles S
GaiusRIC33.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 33, Sestertius from A.D.37-38 (three sisters)167 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.4g, Ø 33-34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38
Obv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laurate head left
Rev.: AGRIPPINA - DRVSILLA - IVLIA (left, above and right) S C (ex.), Caligula's three sisters: Agrippina (Jr.), the eldest sister, as Securitas, leaning on column, holding cornucopiae, and placing left hand on Drusilla's shoulder; Drusilla, the middle sister, as Concordia, holding patera and cornucopiae; and Julia Livilla, the youngest, as Fortuna, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC 33 (R); Mattingly (BMCRE) 36, 37; Cohen 4 (25 Fr.); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values) 1800
ex Harlan J. Berk, Buy/Bid Sale 130 (2002)

Addtional information from H.J. Berk: This specimen in the style of a provincial branch mint, apparently rarer than those in Rome-mint style. Very slightly granular.

This type was produced on two occasions, a first issue in 37-38, and a second in 39-40. This example belongs to the first, issued when the three women were all still alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (the one with whom he is said to have had an incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the first issue were struck. By the time the second issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
Drusilla married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity. All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life. Examples of this second issue are excessively rare (RIC 41:R4).
3 commentsCharles S
calise10.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 33, Sestertius from AD 37-38 (three sisters)77 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.6g, Ø 34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38
Obv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laurate head left
Rev.: AGRIPPINA - DRVSILLA - IVLIA (left, above, and right) S C (ex.), Caligula's three sisters: Agrippina (Jr.), the eldest sister, as Securitas, leaning on column, holding cornucopiae, and placing left hand on Drusilla's shoulder; Drusilla, the middle sister, as Concordia, holding patera and cornucopiae; and Julia Livilla, the youngest, as Fortuna, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC 33 (R); BMCRE 36, 37; Cohen 4 (25 Fr.); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values) 1800
ex Macho & Chlapovic Auction 2 (april 2012)

1 commentsCharles S
CALIDU03-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 34, for Nero & Drusus, Dupondius of AD 37-3812 viewsÆ Dupondius (13.2g, Ø28.5mm, 12h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38.
Obv.: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus riding right, cloaks flying.
Rev.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT round large S·C.
RIC 34 BMCRE 44; Cohen 1; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 61:10b

This type celebrates the memory of Caligula's family: bringing back the ashes of his brothers Nero and Drusus.
Charles S
GERMAS01-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 35, for Germanicus, As of AD 37-388 viewsÆ As (10.4g, Ø 28mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head of Germanicus left.
Rev.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT round large S·C.
RIC 35; Cohen 1
Charles S
calise08.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 36, sestertius of AD 37-38 (Hexastyle temple)24 viewsÆ sestertius (26.84g, Ø35mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 37-38.
Obv.: C·CAESAR·AVG·GERMANICVS·P·M·TR·POT / PIETAS (in ex.), Veiled and draped Pietas seated left, holding patera.
Rev.: DIVO - AVG / S - C (left and right in field) Hexastyle guirlanded temple before which Gaius, veiled and togate, standing left, sacrifices with patera over guirlanded altar; at left, an attendant leading bull to altar; at right, another attendant holding patera.
RIC 36 (R); Cohen 9; BMC 41
ex CNG eAuct. 52 lot 101

This architectural type commemorates the dedication of a temple (built under Tiberius) to Divus Augustus, in August, 37 AD.
(photo by CNG)
Charles S
CaligulaSest.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 37, Sestertius of AD 38 (oak wreath)103 viewsÆ Sestertius (25,55g, Ø 34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 38
Obv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, laurate head left
Rev.: SPQR / P·P / OB·CIVES / SERVATOS, Text in oak wreath.
RIC 37 [R]; Sear (Roman Coins and Values) 1801; Foss (Roman Historic Coins) 13
First issue to celebrate the title PATER PATRIAE awarded to him by the senate in AD 38.
2 commentsCharles S
CALIAS02-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 38, As of AD 37-38155 viewsÆ As (11.5g, 30mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38.
Obv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT bare head of Gaius facing left.
Rev.: VESTA S C Vesta veiled and draped, seated left on a throne, holding a patera in her right hand and a long sceptre in her left
RIC 38 (C); Cohen 27
ex CNG, 2000 ("nr EF, warm brown patina, exceptional surfaces")
1 commentsCharles S
CALIAS02-5.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 38, As of AD 37-38 (Vesta)295 viewsÆ As (11.5g, 30mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38.
Obv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT bare head of Gaius facing left.
Rev.: VESTA S C Vesta veiled and draped, seated left on a throne, holding a patera in her right hand and a long sceptre in her left
RIC 38 (C); Cohen 27
ex CNG, 2000 ("nr EF, warm brown patina, exceptional surfaces")
7 commentsCharles S
germas02-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 43, for Germanicus, As of AD 39-4015 viewsÆ As (11.9g, Ø 28mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-38
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head of Germanicus left.
Rev.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR P III P P round large S·C.
RIC (Gaius) 43 (R2) (but incorrect legends: see note below); BMCRE p.156 n.‡; not in Cohen
Ex G.Henzen (1996)

Germanicus adopted by Tiberius, father of Caligula, lived 15BC-19AD.

Note: Both obverse and reverse legends are wrong in the revised edition of RIC Vol1 (1984) no. 83. The obverse is quoted as "GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGvst F DIVI AVG N"; the reverse as "C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR Pot III P P": the parts in lower case are incorrect and should be deleted. The 1923 issue of RIC, no. 46 had these legends correct.
1 commentsCharles S
Calise04-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 44, Sestertius of AD 3920 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.5g, Ø 35.5mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 39.
Obv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P III P P around, PIETAS in ex., Pietas, veiled and draped, seated left, holding patera and resting left arm on small statue on pedestal.
Rev.: DIVO AVG / S C (in two lines in field left & right of the temple), Hexastyle guirlanded temple, surmounted with quadriga and statues, before which Gaius, veiled and togate, standing left, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar; at left, an attendant leading bull to altar; at right, another attendant holding patera.
RIC 44 (R); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values I) 1802; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 60:2a
ex G.Henzen (1999).

Explanation of the legend: obverse: CAIVS CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI PRONEPOS AVGVSTVS PONTIFEX MAXIMVS TRIBVNICIA POTESTATE III PATER PATRIAE : Gaius Caesar, great-grandson of Divine Augustus, emperor, High Priest, with tribunician power for the third time, father of the fatherland. reverse: DIVO AVGVSTO SENATVS CONSVLTO: to Divine Augustus by decree of the Senate.
This architectural type commemorates the dedication of the temple to Divus Augustus in August, 37 AD. There were two temples in Rome honoring Augustus, one on the Palatine, the other of uncertain location, possibly behind the Basilica Julia in the depression between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills. The latter, built under Tiberius, was the one dedicated by Caligula in 37 AD.
Charles S
CALISE02-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 46, Sestertius of AD 39-40 (oak wreath)60 viewsÆ sestertius (30.4g, Ø35mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 39-40.
Obv.: C·CAESAR·DIVI AVG·PRON·AVG·P·M·TR·P·III·P·P, laureate head of Gaius facing left.
Rev.: S·P·Q·R / P·P / OB·CIVES / SERVATOS in four lines oak wreath.
RIC 46 (R2); BMC 58; Cohen 25; Sear (RCV 2K) 1801; Foss (RHC) 61:13
Ex G. Henzen
Second issue to publicise the title PATER PATRIAE (father of the fatherland) awarded to him in A.D.38 by the Senate.
2 commentsCharles S
calise01-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 48, Sestertius of AD 40-4167 viewsÆ sestertius (24.2g, Ø35mm, 6h) Lugdunum mint, struck AD 40-41.
Obv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG·PRON·AVG·PM·TR P IIII P P, laureate head of Gaius facing left.
Rev.: ADLOCVT (above) COH (below) Gaius on a platform addressing five soldiers, four with legionary standards.
RIC 48 (S); Cohen 1; Sear (RCV 2K) 1799

Payment to the praetorian guard of the bequest of Tiberius. The minting of this sestertius was ordered directly by the emperor, hence the lack of the letters S C.
The legend TR.P.IIII is perhaps an indication that it was minted to pay the planned invasion of Brittania. This type was probably not in minted Rome (as attributed by RIC) but in Lugdunum.
3 commentsCharles S
CaliDu02-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 49, for Nero & Drusus, Dupondius of AD 40-4196 viewsÆ Dupondius (16.0g, Ø 31mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 40-41.
Obv.: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero and Drusus riding right, cloaks flying.
Rev.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P P EX round large S·C.
RIC 49 (R2) var. (see note below); BMCRE 70 var (idem); Cohen 2 var (idem); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 61:10b

This type celebrates the memory of Caligula's family: bringing back the ashes of his brothers Nero and Drusus.

Note: The legend on this coin is unusual, because it ends with TR P IIII P P P EX instead of just TR P IIII P P. A coin with the same rev. die was auctioned through CNG eAuction 280 lot 131. Also note that RIC 49 gives the erratic reverse legend ending with TR POT IIII P P instead of TR P IIII P P, compare Cohen 2 where it is correct.
5 commentsCharles S
calise07-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 51, Sestertius of AD 40-4132 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.9g, Ø35mm, 6h) Rome mint, struck AD 40-41.
Obv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON P M TR P IIII P P around edge PIETAS in ex., Pietas, veiled and draped, seated left.
Rev.: DIVO / AVG / S / C. Gaius sacrificing in front of hexastyle temple; attendants with bull and patera.
RIC 51 (R); Cohen 11; Sear (RCV 2K) 1802; Foss (RHC) 60:2a

This architectural type commemorates the dedication of the temple to Divus Augustus in August, 37 AD. There were two temples in Rome honouring Augustus, one on the Palatine, the other of uncertain location, possibly behind the Basilica Julia in the depression between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills. The latter, built under Tiberius, was the one dedicated by Caligula in 37 AD.
Charles S
AGRSSE01~0.JPG
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 55, for Agrippina Maior, sestertius of 37 AD (Carpentum)48 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.9g, 36mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius ("Caligula"), AD 37.
Obv.: AGRIPPINA·M·F·MAT·C·CAESARIS·AVGVSTI, draped bust right.
Rev.: S·P·Q·R· in field above, MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE in two lines
Carpentum drawn by two mules moving left. The Carpentum's cover is supported by standing figures at the corners and its sides are ornamented.
RIC 55; Cohen 1

One of the very first acts of Gaius after he came to power in 37 AD was to have the ashes of his mother returned to Rome from the island where she had been exiled and murdered by Tiberius. He celebrated the memory of his mother, father and brothers, all murdered by Tiberius, with a series of coins, dedicating the most important, the sestertius issue, to his mother. Note the lack of S C on this issue which has S P Q R instead.
1 commentsCharles S
CaliDu01-2~0.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 56, Dupondius of AD 3728 viewsÆ Dupondius (17.0g, 29mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37.
Obv.: CONSENSV SENAT·ET·EQ·ORDIN·P·Q·R Gaius seated left on curule chair
Rev.: DIVVS AVGVSTVS radiate head of Augustus facing left between S C.
RIC (Gaius) 56; Cohen (August) 87; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 60:4
ex D.Ruskin ex old British (Oxford) collection

Minted under Caligula on the occasion of the dedication of a temple to Divus Agustus; the identity of the seated person is uncertain but probably Gaius. The legend 'ET EQ' refers to 'EQVES' (pl. EQVITES), 'horseman'. In the early empire, they were the holders of administrative posts of a class second only to the senators.
In the picture the obverse and reverse have accidentally been switched around.
Charles S
GermDu01-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 57, for Germanicus, Dupondius of AD 37-4158 viewsÆ Dupondius (13.7g, Ø 29mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37-41.
Obv.: GERMANICVS CAESAR, standing in a slow quadriga advancing right
Rev.: SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S C, Germanicus standing left, cuirassed with tunic raising his right arm and holding aquila in his left hand.
RIC (Gaius) 57; Cohen 7
ex David Ruskin (Oxford)

This type recalls the triumph Germanicus earned in 17 AD for his German campaigns, in which he recovered the standards lost by Varus in 9 AD.
3 commentsCharles S
Agrias03-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 58, for Agrippa, As of AD 37-41 (flatbed scan)130 viewsÆ As (11.5g, 28mm, 6h). Rome mint, struck under Gaius, AD 37-41.
Obv.: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·III head of Agrippa with rostral crown facing left
Rev.: S C Neptune standing facing left, holding dolphin and trident
RIC (Gaius) 58; Cohen 3; BMC (Tiberius) 161

Perhaps struck under Caligula in memory of his maternal grandfather Agrippa, although Caligula hated him; perhaps under Tiberius starting as early as 14 AD.
Charles S
agrias03-3.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 58, for Agrippa, As of AD 37-41 (Neptune)150 viewsÆ As (11.5g, 28mm, 6h). Rome mint, struck under Gaius, AD 37-41.
Obv.: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·III head of Agrippa with rostral crown facing left
Rev.: S C Neptune standing facing left, holding dolphin and trident
RIC (Gaius) 58; Cohen 3; BMC (Tiberius) 161

Perhaps struck under Caligula in memory of his maternal grandfather Agrippa, although Caligula hated him; perhaps under Tiberius starting as early as 14 AD.
6 commentsCharles S
gaius.jpg
Gaius Caesar, Phyrigia, Laodikeia13 viewsÆ15, 2.8g, 12h; Laodikeia, Polemon Philopatris, magistrate, AD 5.
Obv.: ΓΑΙΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ; Bare head of Gaius Caesar right.
Rev.: ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕΩΝ; Eagle standing right, head left, between two monograms which expand to ΠOΛE and ΦIΛOΠAT.
Reference: RPC 2900 (This type was formerly attributed to Caligula).
Notes: ex-G-N; ex-Ephesus Numismatics (Baltimore Expo); 3/28/15, sold to JB, 9/15.
John Anthony
caligula-vesta-hh.jpg
Gaius Caligula - Vesta16 viewsRoman Imperial, Gaius Caligula AE As, (37-8 AD), 9.7g, 27mm

Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, Bare head left.

Reverse: VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.

Reference: RIC 38, Cohen 27.

Ex: Holding History +photo
Gil-galad
caligula.jpg
Gaius Caligula 37-41 CE, AE As 11 viewsObverse : C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left.
Reverse : VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left on ornate chair holding patera and sceptre.
RIC I 38, 26.4 mm diam., 7.7 g
sold 1-2018
NORMAN K
AAGGb_small.png
GAIUS CALIGULA As5 viewsGAIUS CALIGULA 37-41 AD.

29mm., 11.19g.

Struck 39-40 AD.

C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P, bare head left

VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.

References: RIC 47; Cohen 28.

OR

C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, bare head left

VESTA, S C across field, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and sceptre.

References: RIC I 54; BMCRE 73; Cohen 29.

AAGG
RL
CaligulaCosIIII.jpg
Gaius Caligula COS IIII Denarius153 viewsGaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. AR Denarius, 3.67 g. Rome mint. Struck January AD 41.
O: C CAESAR • AVG • PON • M • TR • POT IIII COS • IIII, laureate head right
R: S • P• Q • R •/P P/OB • C • S • in three lines within oak wreath.
- RIC I -; RIC I (1st ed.) 7 = BMCRE 32 = RSC 23a.

Extremely rare denarius of Caligula's fourth consulship, which only lasted from 1 January 41 until his assassination on 24 January. The fourth known.

Although the first of these three rare coins, the British Museum piece, was cataloged in the first edition of RIC I, it was left out of the revised edition. In that edition, Giard notes (p. 110, note *) that the BM piece was a misreading of TR POT III COS III. In fact, the first edition was correct, the piece was not misdescribed. The second known example of this type was sold as lot 56 in the Bourgey sale of 17 December 1913. Ironically, Bourgey misdescribed that coin as TR POT III COS III. A third example sold through CNG, printed auction 78 lot 1723.

"On the ninth day before the Kalends of February at about the seventh hour he hesitated whether or not to get up for luncheon, since his stomach was still disordered from excess of food on the day before, but at length he came out at the persuasion of his friends. In the covered passage through which he had to pass, some boys of good birth, who had been summoned from Asia to appear on the stage, were rehearsing their parts, and he stopped to watch and to encourage them; and had not the leader of the troop complained that he had a chill, he would have returned and had the performance given at once. From this point there are two versions of the story: some say that as he was talking with the boys, Chaerea came up behind, and gave him a deep cut in the neck, having first cried, "Take that," and that then the tribune Cornelius Sabinus, who was the other conspirator and faced Gaius, stabbed him in the breast. Others say that Sabinus, after getting rid of the crowd through centurions who were in the plot, asked for the watchword, as soldiers do, and that when Gaius gave him "Jupiter," he cried "So be it," and as Gaius looked around, he split his jawbone with a blow of his sword. As he lay upon the ground and with writhing limbs called out that he still lived, the others dispatched him with thirty wounds; for the general signal was "Strike again." Some even thrust their swords through his privates. At the beginning of the disturbance his bearers ran to his aid with their poles, and presently the Germans of his body-guard, and they slew several of his assassins, as well as some inoffensive senators. (Suetonius - Life of Caligula 58).
10 commentsNemonater
caligula_38.jpg
Gaius Caligula RIC I, 38154 viewsGaius Caligula 37 - 41
AE - As, 11.34g, 30mm
Rome 37/38
obv. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
bare head l.
rev. VESTA
Vesta draped, diademed, veiled, sitting l. on throne
holding patera in r. hand and long sceptre in l. hand
between big S-C
RIC I, 38; C.27
nearly EF

PATERA, a shallow bowl without handles (Greek = phiale), used for pouring libations or scattering grain upon the fire or upon the victims. At the beginning symbol of the VII viri epulones, later for various deities, to which libations might properly be poured.
2 commentsJochen
caligula_52_3.jpg
Gaius Caligula RIC I, 5227 viewsGaius Caligula 37 - 41
AE - Quadrans, 2.79g, 17.8mm
Rome 18 March 40 - 31 Dec. 40
obv.: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG
Pileus between SC
rev.: PON M TRP IIII PP COS TERT
round RCC
RIC I, 52; C.7; BMCR. 64
about VF

RCC = remissa ducentesima, referring to the tax abolition of 1/2 per cent AD 39
Jochen
Nysa-Caligula.jpg
Gaius Caligula, (37 – 41 CE), Æ City coin of Nysa-Scythopolis (Bet-Shean).31 viewsBronze of Caligula (37-41 CE), Minted in Nysa-Scythopolis (Bet-Shean). 20mm, 6 gm. Dated year ΓP, year 103 (39/40 AD).

Obverse: ΓAIOY KAI-CAPOC, laureate head left.
Reverse: Dionysus, standing facing, head left, holding thyrsus in outstretched left.

Reference: Barkay, “The coinage of Nysa-Scythopolis (Beth Shean)”, 7.

Added to Collection: October 29, 2006
Daniel Friedman
caligula_vesta_k.jpg
Gaius Caligula, AD 37-4111 viewsÆ As, 29mm, 11.5g, 6h; Rome mint, AD 37-8
Obv.: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left.
Rev.: VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta, veiled and draped, seated left on ornamental throne, holding patera and long transverse scepter.
Reference: RIC I 38, p. 111 / 16-315-325
John Anthony
fc11.jpg
GAIUS CALIGULA. 37-41 AD. Æ As (11.21 gm). Struck 37/38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, 23 viewsGAIUS CALIGULA. 37-41 AD. Æ As (11.21 gm). Struck 37/38 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; BMCRE 46; Cohen 27. 1 commentsJoe Geranio
Gaius_-_RIC_I_58_-_NavN_pic.jpg
Gaius RIC I 5840 viewsAE As. Agrippa. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. 3 commentsAldo
CALIGULA_AE_orichalc.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius7 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P - Pietas, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small statue of Spes
DIVO AVG S C - Caligula, veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar
Exergue:




Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.40g / 34.5mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 51
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

This coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies, dedicating the Temple on August 30th and 31st in AD 37.


The Temple of Divus Augustus stood between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life. The temple’s construction began during the reign of Tiberius, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after Augustus’ death in AD 14. However it was not until after the death of Tiberius in 37 that the temple was finally completed and dedicated by his successor Caligula, which scene is presented here.

Gary W2
CALIGULA_AE_orichalc~0.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius16 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR POT IIII P P - Pietas, seated left, holding patera and resting arm on small statue of Spes
DIVO AVG S C - Caligula, veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar
Exergue:




Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.40g / 34.5mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC 51
Provenances:
Incitatus Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Incitatus Coins Vcoins

his coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies, dedicating the Temple on August 30th and 31st in AD 37.


The Temple of Divus Augustus stood between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life. The temple’s construction began during the reign of Tiberius, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after Augustus’ death in AD 14. However it was not until after the death of Tiberius in 37 that the temple was finally completed and dedicated by his successor Caligula, which scene is presented here.

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2
40-41_AD_GAIUS_CALIG.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 6 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (40-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.30g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 52
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

obverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG (Gaius Caesar, emperor, great-granson of Divine Augustus)

reverse: PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT (high priest, holder of tribune power for 4 years, father of the country, consul for the third time)

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
39_AD_GAIUS_CALIGULA.jpg
Gaius/Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 5 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (39AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.63g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 39
Provenances:
London Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: London Ancient Coins Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

here were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD-This Coin
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
Galba_Hispania_RIC_I_21.jpg
Galba Hispania RIC I 2129 viewsGalba, Silver denarius, Tarraco Mint, April to late 68 AD, 18.5mm, 3.335g, die axis 180°, RIC I 21 (R2), RSC II 80, BMCRE I 174, BnF III 10, Hunter I -, SRCV I -, F,
OBV: GALBA IMP, laureate head right, globe at tip of neck
REV: HISPANIA, Hispania standing left, draped, poppy and two stalks of grain in extended right hand, two vertical spears and round shield behind in left hand. This is the first example of this type handled by Forum.

VERY RARE
EX: Forum Ancient Coins. Ex: Jyrki Muona Collection

On the death of Caligula, Galba refused the invitation of his friends to make a bid for the empire,
and loyally served Claudius. For the first half of Nero's reign he lived in retirement, until 61, when the emperor bestowed on him the province of Hispania Tarraconensis. In the spring of 68,
at the time of Julius Vindex' insurrection in Gaul, Galba was informed of Nero's intention to put him to death. Learning of Vindex's defeat and suicide Galba hesitated to claim the throne.
He took the title caesar only after Nero's suicide and after he was told that Nymphidius Sabinus, the Praetorian Prefect, had given him his favor.
This type was struck to for Hispania to thank the province for supporting his bid for the purple.
3 commentsSRukke
Germanicus_RIC_57.JPG
Germanicus37 viewsGermanicus
Size: AE Dupondius 16.93g
Info: Struck by Caligula
Obv: Germanicus in quadriga
Rev: Germanicus holding Aquila
Ref: RIC 57 BMC 94
1 commentsJohn K
germanicus_1.jpg
GERMANICUS19 viewsd. 19 AD
STRUCK UNDER CALIGULA 37 - 38 AD
AE As 25.5 mm 9.92 g
O: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG DIVI AVG N
BARE HEAD L
R: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM PR PIIIPP
LEGEND AROUND LARGE SC
laney
Germanicus.jpg
Germanicus54 viewsGERMANICUS, father of Caligula, Died AD 19. Æ Dupondius (29mm, 12.8g). Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-41. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right. / SIGNIS - RECEPT / DEVICTIS - GERM / S-C , Germanicus standing left, holding eagle-tipped scepter. (mint of Rome). RIC I, pg 112, #57 (Gaius)
Son of Drusus, adopted by Tiberius, Father of Caligula, Germanicus Caesar was (by accounts) loved by his legions and the people of Rome. Germanicus carried out punitive actions against the Germans for their part in the Varus ambush, in which the 17th, 18th, and 19th legions were almost decimated to a man. Germanicus's campaign recovered 2 of the 3 lost Eagle stantards from the lost legions. This coin depicts the triumph given to Germanicus and celebrates the recovery of the lost eagle standards.
3 commentsSoxfan
Germanicus_RIC_57.jpg
Germanicus100 viewsGermanicus, dupondius (struck under Caligula in honor of his father).
RIC 57
13,66 g. 30 mm.
Obv. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right.
Rev. SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter.
Struck at Rome by Caligula (37-41 AD) to commemorate the recovery from the Germans by his father, Germanicus, of the standards of the lost legions of Varus. Another opinion is that the coin was struck by Claudius to commemorate his brother.

A historical dupondius with sharp details.
5 commentsMarsman
germanicus_b.jpg
GERMANICUS13 viewsd. 19 AD
Struck 37 - 38 AD (under Caligula)
Æ As 26.5 mm; 8.40 g
Struck under Caligula
O: Bare head left
R: Legend around large SC
laney
CollageMaker_20180702_185400950.jpg
Germanicus22 viewsAE As, Struck 39-40 AD, Rome Mint, Issued by Caligula
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, Head of Germanicus, bare, left.
Reverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P, surrounding large SC.
References: RIC I 50, BMC 60, RCV 1822
Size: 28mm, 11.02g
Justin L
Germanicus_(Died_AD_19)_Struck_under_Gaius_(Caligula)__Æ_Dupondius_285.jpg
Germanicus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Dupondius 8 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR - Germanicus driving triumphal quadriga right, holding eagle-tipped scepter and reins
SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM - Germanicus standing left, raising hand and holding aquila
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 15.65g / 29.57mm / 6h
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC I 57 (Gaius)
Cohen 7
BMC 93
Sear 1820
Provenances:
Marc R. Breitsprecher
the WRG Collection
Coin Galleries (22 August 1984), lot 243
CNG Auction 424/Lot 418 (unsold)
Acquisition/Sale: Marc R. Breitsprecher Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Minted under Caligula.

SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM translates:"standards recovered from the defeated Germans"

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (26 May 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans.” This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany.
Gary W2
Germanicus__Caesar,_15_BC-AD_19__Æ_As_(28mm,_10_44_g,_6h)__Rome_mint_142_20.jpg
Germanicus (Caesar) Coin: Bronze AS 6 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N - Bare head of Germanicus left.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (40-41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.44g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 50 [Caligula]
Cohen 4
BMCRE 74 (Caligula)
Provenances:
From the collection of a Texas Wine Doctor.
Ex Classical Numismatic Group Auction 37 (20 March 1996), lot 1441.
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 428 #343

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From Forvm:
Issued under Caligula in honor of his deceased father. Germanicus inflicted serious defeats on the barbarian tribes in Germania and recovered the legionary standards lost by Varus. He was to be Tiberius' successor but died of an unknown cause. His tremendous popularity helped his son Caligula obtain the throne after Tiberius died.
Gary W2
00713.jpg
Germanicus (RIC 35, Coin #713)9 viewsRIC 35 (C), AE AS, minted under Caligula, Rome, 37 - 38 AD.
OBV: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N; Bare head left.
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT; Legend around large S C.
SIZE: 27.5mm, 9.78g
MaynardGee
Germanicus.jpg
Germanicus - Commemorative issued by Caligula44 viewsAs, 10.30 g, 26 mm, 7 h, 37-38 AD

Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
Bare head right

Reverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC

Rome mint

RIC I 35
drjbca
germanicus.jpg
Germanicus - RIC 3518 viewsGermanicus AE As.
Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD.
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left /
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC.
1 commentsxokleng
GermanicusAsMed.jpg
Germanicus AE As44 viewsGermanicus, prominent and beloved general; father of Caligula
assassinated October 10, 19 AD
struck 42/43 AD under Claudius, Rome mint
AE As, 30mm
Obv: bare head right; GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Rev: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P around large SC
Ref: RIC I 106 (Claudius); Sear5 #1905; Cohen 9; BMC 241
6 commentsTIF
germanicus_ae_as.JPG
Germanicus AE As,20 viewsGermanicus Æ As. Struck under Caligula, 37-38 AD. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC.
RIC 35 [Caligula], Cohen 1, BMC 49 _sold

Antonivs Protti
Germanicus02a.jpg
Germanicus AE Dupondius115 viewsI love this one. I find it has real aesthetic appeal.

Germanicus AE Dupondius struck by Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in quadriga right / SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM S-C, Germanicus standing left with eagle-tipped scepter. Cohen 7.

EXTREMELY FINE
HIGHLY ATTRACTIVE, A QUITE ENTRANCING PIECE.
Ex Künker 2006
6 commentsTrajan
Germanicus_by_Caligula.jpg
Germanicus by Caligula179 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head of Germanicus left

C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII P P
around large SC

Rome 40-1 AD

9.79g

Sear 1822, RIC 50

Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased father Germanicus.

Ex-Tater's
3 commentsJay GT4
Germaincus by Gaius SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM RIC 57.jpg
Germanicus by Gaius SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM RIC 57439 viewsDupondius, 30mm, 14.17g.

Obverse: GERMANICVS/CAESAR in two lines across field, Germanicus, bare-headed and cloaked, in slow quadriga, R. Eagle-tipped sceptre in L hand.

Reverse: SIGNIS - RECEPT/DEVICTIS - GERM/S - C in three lines to L and R of Germanicus, bareheaded and cuirassed, standing L, R hand raised, L holding eagle-tipped sceptre.

Struck under Gaius in honour of his father, 37-41.

Rome, RIC 57, Common.

The coin is badly struck rather than heavily worn. Issued to commemorate Germanicus' capture of the standards lost in the Teutoberg Forest in 9AD. He had been awarded the ornamenta triumphalia by Augustus, the trappings of a triumph without the thing itself; the full triumph was finally awarded by Tiberius in Ad15, but not actually celebrated until Germanicus returned to Rome in 17, after a successful campaign. Although RIC does not say so, I assume the figure of Germanicus in a quadriga commemorates the triumph.
3 commentsRobert_Brenchley
GermanicusCaes.jpg
Germanicus Caesar52 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR
Germanicus in triumphal quadriga r. holding eagle-tipped sceptre.

SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM SC
Germanicus stg l. his r. hand raised holding legionary eagle in l.

Rome 37-41 AD

11.95g


Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased father (Died in 19AD)

New picture of one of my very first Julio-Claudian coins!

SOLD AT FORUM AUCTION
Jay GT4
Germanicus_Dupondius.jpg
Germanicus Dupondius166 viewsStruck by Caligula 37-41 A.D. in honor of his late father, Germanicus.

Obv: GERMANICUS CAESAR
Germanicus carrying scepter in triumphal Quadriga to right

Rev: SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM SC
Germanicus in curaiss walking left, bearing recovered military standard


The obverse of this coin likely depicts Germanicus' military triumph, an event that must have made quite an impression on young Caligula. The reverse depicts Germanicus (or a statue dedicated to him) walking left, bearing one of two standards that he recovered from Germanic tribes which were taken from General Varus in 9 A.D.
5 commentsancientdave
GermanicusDupondius.jpg
Germanicus Dupondius129 viewsGERMANICVS CAESAR
Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right holding eagle-tipped sceptre

SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM SC
Germanicus standing left, his right hand raised, holding legionary eagle in left

Rome, 37-41 AD

15.97g

Scarce

Sear 1820, RIC 57, BMCRE 93

Ex-Calgary coin from an old collection

Minted by Caligula in honor of his father.
4 commentsJay GT4
germanicus_(gaius)57.JPG
Germanicus RIC I, (Gaius) 57165 viewsGermanicus, died AD 19, brother of Claudius, father of Gaius Caligula
AE - Dupondius, 16.7g, 31mm
Rome AD 41.54
obv. GERMANICVS/CAESAR in two lines across field
Germanicus, bare headed and in military cloak, standing r. in a slow-quadriga
ornamented with Victory holding wreath.
rev. SIGNIS - RECEPT/DEVICTIS - GERM/S- C in three lines, between them Germanicvs bare-headed in tunika standing l., r. hand raised for greeting, in l.
hand eagle-sceptre
RIC II, (Gaius) 57; C.7; BMCR. 94
VF, nice patina!

This issue reminds on the triumph of Germanicus AD 17 due to his campaigns against the Germans, where he regains 2 of the 3 signs which were lost AD 9 by Varus in the battle of Teutoburger Wald.

For Latin scholars: The grammar structure on the rev. is the infamous 'ablativus absolutus' in connection with a chiasmus!
3 commentsJochen
germanicus_57.JPG
Germanicus RIC I, (Gaius) 57660 viewsGermanicus, died AD 19, brother of Claudius, father of Gaius Caligula
AE - Dupondius, 16.7g, 31mm, Rome AD 41-54
obv. GERMANICVS/CAESAR in two lines across field
Germanicus bare-headed and in military cloak standing r. in a slow-quadriga
ornamented with Victory holding wreath.
rev. SIGNIS - RECEPT/DEVICTIS - GERM/S- C in three lines, between them Germanicvs bare-headed in tunika standing l., r. hand raised for greeting, in l.
hand eagle-sceptre
RIC II, (Gaius) 57; C.7; BMCR. 94
VF, nice patina!

This issue commemorates the triumph of Germanicus AD 17 due to his rather poor successful campaigns against the Germans, where he regains 2 of the 3 signs of the 17., 18. and 19. legion which were lost AD 9 by Varus in the battle of Teutoburg Forest. On the battlefield he let collect the mortal remains of the dead and built a big tomb.
For Latin scholars: The grammar structure on the rev. is the infamous 'ablativus absolutus' and we find a nice Chiasmus, a crossing of words.
3 commentsJochen
germanicus_35.jpg
Germanicus RIC I, 35115 viewsGermanicus, died 19 BC, father of Gaius Caligula, brother of Claudius
AE - As, 10.95g, 27mm
Rome 37/38 (struck under Gaius)
obv. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIV[I] AVG F
bare head l.
rev. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
around big SC
RIC I, Gaius 35; C.1
nearly VF

For comparison with Claudius RIC I, 97!
Jochen
Germanicus_SC.JPG
Germanicus SC17 viewsGermanicus AE As struck by Caligula, 29mm, Rome, 40 - 41 AD
OBV: GERMANIICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N; Bare Head, Left
REV: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TR POT III P P; Legend around large SC
Sear 5 - 1822, RIC 50, Van Meter 3 rated VB3, RIC 50

RARE
Romanorvm
Germanicus_Struck_by_Caligula.JPG
Germanicus Struck by Caligula13 viewsGermanicus, Copper, 195°, 29.72mm, 9.8g, SEAR 1822, BMC 49, RIC I pg 110 35, VanMeter 2 pg 77,     
OBV:GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, Bare head of Germanicus left
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICUS PON M TR POT S C, Legend around large SC

A bit of a rough one
Romanorvm
Germanicus_R_I_C__I__57_extra.jpg
Germanicus, AE Dupondius, RIC I 5791 viewsGermanicus
Caesar, 4 – 19 A.D.

Coin: AE Dupondius, commemorating the recovery, by Germanicus, of the Legionary Eagles (Aquilae) lost in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 A.D.

Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus, in Triumph, in a Quadriga, going to the right, holding the reigns with his left hand and a Sceptre with his right.
Reverse: SIGNIS RECEP DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus, cuirassed, advancing to the left, saluting with his right hand and holding an Aquila with his left. S-C across the fields.

Weight: 13.06 g, Diameter: 28.5 x 29 x 2 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, issued in the reign of his son, Gaius "Caligula", between 37 - 40 A.D. References: RIC I 57, BMC 94, Note: A metal detecting find at about 3 miles from Chinon, France, by Mr. Murray Jemison in 2010 at what was said to have been a Roman garrison site.
Masis
0041-520np_noir.jpg
Germanicus, As86 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his father (died AD 19)
Rome mint, AD 37-38
GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, Bare head of Germanicus left
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC
10,64 gr
Ref : RCV #1821, Cohen #1
Potator II
0041-510.jpg
Germanicus, Dupondius - *149 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his father (died AD 19)
Rome mint, AD 37-41
GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus in triumphal quadriga right
SIGNIS RECEPT DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus standing left, rising right arm, holding legionnary eagle
17.79 gr
Ref : RCV #1820, Cohen #7
3 commentsPotator II
Germanicus_RIC_C50.JPG
Germanicus, father of Caligula, brother of Claudius22 viewsObv: (GERM)ANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI A(VG N), bare head of Germanicus facing right.

Rev: (C) CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG PM TRP III PP, around large SC.

Copper As, Rome mint, 40-1 AD (posthumous commemorative issued by Caligula)

10.7 grams, 28 mm, 180°

RIC I Caius 50, S1822, VM 3
SPQR Coins
Germanicus_(CM)_RIC_57.JPG
Germanicus, father of Caligula, brother of Claudius35 viewsObv: GERMANICVS CAESAR, Germanicus standing in a slow quadriga right, holding an eagle-tipped scepter.

Countermark: NCAPR in incuse rectangle.

Rev: SIGNIS RECEPT / DEVICTIS GERM, Germanicus, in military attire, advancing left, raising his right arm and holding an aquila.

Orichalcum Dupondius, Rome mint, 37 - 41 AD

13.4 grams, 29.3 mm, 225°

RIC I Caligula 57, S1820

Ex: FORVM
SPQR Matt
Portus_Claaudii-2.jpg
HARBOUR, NERO, AE Sestertius (Portus Claudii)134 viewsÆ sestertius (22.54g, maximum Ø34.24mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero right, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above), aerial view of the harbour of Ostia, showing pier, breakwaters, lighthouse surmounted by the statue of Neptune, seven ships, and the figure of Tiber reclining left in foreground, holding rudder and dolphin.
Mac Dowall (The western Coinages of Nero, ANS SSN 161) 476; RIC 586 (R2); BMCRE 323 var. (different obv. legend); Cohen 253 var. (emperor's head to left); CBN 74 var. (different obv. legend); Sear (RCV) 1953var.

Rome's original harbour was Ostia, situated at the mouth of the Tiber. It could not easily handle large sea-going vessels such as those of the grain fleet. Therefore, Claudius initiated the construction of a new all-weather harboru at Portus, about 4 km north of Ostia. The project was completed under Nero who renamed the harbour "Portus Augusti".

It was a huge project enclosing an area of 69 hectares, with two long curving moles projecting into the sea, and an artificial island, bearing a lighthouse, in the centre of the space between the moles. The foundation of this lighthouse was provided by filling with concrete and sinking one of the massive ships that Caligula had used to transport an obelisk from Egypt for the Circus Maximus. These giant ships had a length of around 100m and displaced a minimum of 7400 tons. The harbour opened directly to the sea on the northwest and communicated with the Tiber by a channel on the southeast. However, it was very exposed to the weather and under Trajan was superseded by a new land-locked inner basin linked to the Tiber by a canal.
3 commentsCharles S
FC5.jpg
IONIA, Smyrna. Gaius (Caligula), with Germanicus and Agrippina Senior. AD 37-41.15 viewsIONIA, Smyrna. Gaius (Caligula), with Germanicus and Agrippina Senior. AD 37-41. Æ 21mm (6.42 g, 12h). Menophanes, magistrate, and Aviola, proconsul. Struck circa AD 37-38. Laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / Draped bust of Agrippina I right, vis-à-vis bare head of Germanicus left. RPC 2471; Klose XXIX, SNG von Aulock 2201.Joe Geranio
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Ionia, Smyrna; Caligular30 viewsSmyrna, Ionia
Obv: GAION KAISARA GERMANIKON EPI AOUIOLA
Head of Caligula laureate r.
Rev: GERMANIKON AGRIPPEINAN ZMURNAIWN MHNOFANHS
Draped bust of Agrippina I. r., facing bare head of Germanicus l.
5.58 gram, 21.5 mm, RPC2471
ecoli
Italy- Pompeii- Street and the Arch of Caligula.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- Street and the Arch of Caligula33 viewsINTERSECTION Pompeii After 80 B.C.
This is a typical intersection. Wheeled traffic passed over and around the pedestrian stepping stones.

The Arch of Caligula
Pompeii. The arch of Caligula leading to the House of Mercurio at the top of the street. The Arch of Caligula with a view of Mt. Vesuvius in the background. The gaps in the stone barrier were meant for chariot wheels to pass through.
John Schou
Italy- Pompeii- The Forum 1.jpg
Italy- Pompeii- The Forum 163 viewsThe Forum
ENTRANCE TO THE FORUM Forum of Pompeii After 80 B.C. One of the two arches originally covered with marble which flank the Temple of Jupiter and are the main entrances to the forum. The temple was built under the Samnites in the second century B.C.
FORUM OF POMPEII After 80 B.C. The Forum of Pompeii has a central rectangular space, 466 feet long by 124 feet wide, surrounded by the most important public buildings in the city. Like other forums, it is set up on an axial plan. A colonnade lines three sides. In the center of the fourth side, visible in the distance, is the Temple of Jupiter, known as the Capitolium. The forum was paved with travertine stone and only pedestrians were permitted in its precinct. Situated on an old site, it was largely rebuilt after 80 B.C. when Pompeii became a Roman colony. The forum was again in the process of rebuilding after the earthquake of 62 AD. It was buried under the eruption of Vesuvius seen in the distance in 79.

FORUM (VII,8)
The first monumental arrangement dates from the 2nd cent. BC, with a few buildings and the porticos with their double row of tufa columns, replaced with white limestone in the imperial age, when the site was repaved and buildings added on the east side where shops had previously stood. Located at the intersection between the two main streets of the original urban center, the Forum was the city's main square, where cart traffic was forbidden: it was surrounded on all sides by religious, political, and business buildings. In the 1st cent. AD the Forum highlighted the celebratory intention of the imperial house, where the monumental bases for commemorative statues were placed on the south side, in front of the city's administrative buildings, while those of illustrious citizens stood along the porticos : the sculptures have not been found, perhaps because they were removed by the people of Pompeii who returned after the eruption to take whatever they could. In the center of the western side stands an orators' tribune.
MEMORIAL ARCHES
In opus latericium, at one time covered with marble, these elegantly enclose the Forum to the north, in celebration of the imperial family. Of the two built on either side of the Temple of Jupiter, the one to the west is attributed to Augustus, the east to Nero, perhaps demolished following the death (68 AD) and sentencing of the emperor, or simply to avoid blocking the view of the other arch behind it, at the north entrance to the Forum. This has two niches on one side that once held statues of Nero and Drusus, on the other side two fountains; an equestrian statue (perhaps of the emperor Tiberius) topped this arch. The other arch, in the back at the start of Via di Mercurio, is called the Caligula Arch because an equestrian statue was found nearby, that may have depicted the emperor Caligula and probably stood on the arch.
John Schou
Italy- Rome -circusmaximus model.jpg
Italy- Rome -circusmaximus model58 viewsA circus designates a circle or course for chariot racing. Aside from the Circus Maximus, the largest and oldest, there were three other circuses in Rome: the Circus Flaminius (221 BC), which actually was not a circus at all but a public square; the Circus Gaii et Neronis (circa AD 40), where many of the Christian martyrdoms occurred and on which St. Peter's basilica was built (the obelisk brought to Rome by Caligula to adorn its spina still stands in the square); and the Circus Maxentius (AD 309), built as part of his villa on the Via Appia and the best preserved.

In this view, the starting gates are in the foreground, with the royal box dominating the viewing standing on the left" or "and the royal box dominating the viewing stands on the left. The palace overlooks the Circus from the Palatine Hill.

The Circus Maximus was another public entertainment center, and was just a single, specific facility in Rome. The Maximus was used mostly for chariot racing. It could seat 250,000 people! There were other circuses in ancient Rome.

This oval basin, nearly 600 meters long, is almost entirely filled in with dirt. It was once a race track. It was made in the time of the Etruscan kings (presumably Tarquinio Prisco). Augustus adorned the brick structure with an imperial stage, which was rebuilt by Trajan, enlarged by Caracalla and restored by Constantine. During the reign of Constantine, the Circus could hold more than 200,000 spectators. Today only the outline remains (the area it occupied is now a public garden).


The most popular events were the chariot races held in the Circus Maximus, an arena that held up to 300,000 spectators. Competing teams with brightly decorated horses attracted fierce loyalty, and up to a dozen four-horse chariots crowded together through the dangerous turns, lap after lap. Successful charioteers became so wealthy that even emperors envied their riches.

John Schou
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Joe Geranio Collection -Cn. Domitius L.f. Ahenobarbus. 41-40 BC. AR Denarius23 viewshe Republicans. Cn. Domitius L.f. Ahenobarbus. 41-40 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.61 g, 7h). Uncertain mint along the Adriatic or Ionian Sea. Head right / Prow right surmounted by a military trophy. Crawford 519/2; CRI 339; Sydenham 1177; Domitia 21. Fine, lightly toned, minor porosity and scratches, banker’s mark on each side.

Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus accompanied his father at Corfinium and Pharsalus on the side of Pompey. After his pardon by Julius Caesar, he retired to Rome in 46 BC. After Caesar's assassination, Ahenobarbus supported Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 BC was condemned under the terms of the Lex Pedia for complicity in the assassination. Ahenobarbus achieved considerable naval success against the Second Triumvirate in the Ionian theater, where this denarius was certainly minted, but finally, through the mediation of Gaius Asinius Pollio, he reconciled with Mark Antony, who thereupon made him governor of Bithynia. He participated in Antony's campaign against the Parthians, and was consul in 32 BC. When war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Ahenobarbus initially supported Antony, but, disgusted by Antony’s relationship with Cleopatra, sided with Octavian shortly before Actium. His only child, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, was married to Antonia Maior, the daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their son, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, married Agrippina Minor, the sister of the emperor Caligula, and was the father of the emperor Nero. Anyone may use as long as credited to Joe Geranio Collection.
Joe Geranio
AGRIPPA~1.jpg
Judea Herod Agrippa I57 viewsAΓΡI ΠA BACIΛEWC
King Agrippa umbrella canopy with fringes

Three ears of barley between two leaves flanked by date L - ς
(year 6).

Jerusalem Mint 41-42 AD
Bronze Prutah

Hendin 1244

Ex-Zurgieh


Herod Agrippa I was a son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great by Mariamne I, granddaughter of High Priest Hyrcanus II. His father Aristobulus had been put to death by Herod the Great. Named after Augustus best friend and genreal Marcus Agrippa, Herod Agrippa was the last of the Herods to become king of all Palestine, as his grandfather had been. Agrippa was educated in Rome with the Emperor Tiberius’ son Drusus and his nephew Claudius and he became a familiar figure in important circles in Rome.

An injudicious statement got Agrippa into trouble with Emperor Tiberius. In an unguarded moment he expressed the wish to Gaius (Caligula) that he, Gaius, might soon be emperor. Overheard by Agrippa’s servant, his remarks came to the ears of Tiberius, who cast Agrippa into prison. His life was in the balance for several months. Fortunately for Agrippa, Tiberius died and Caligula became emperor. He released Agrippa and elevated him to the position of king over the territories that his late uncle Philip had governed.

When Caligula was assassinated Agrippa was in Rome. He was able to act as liaison between the Senate and his friend, the new Emperor Claudius. Claudius expressed his appreciation by awarding him the territory of Judea and Samaria as well as the kingdom of Lysanias. Agrippa now became ruler of about the same dominion that his grandfather Herod the Great had held.


1 commentsJay GT4
coin6~0.JPG
Kingdom of Thrace, Rhoemetalkes III; Caligua34 viewsCaligula & King Rhoemetalkes III Æ26 of the Thracian Kingdom.

AIW KAISARI SEBASTW, laureate head of Caligula left /
BASILEUS ROIMHTALKAS, diademed & draped bust of Rhoemetalkes III left. BMC 2, Jurukova 209, SGI 5407.

ecoli
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KINGS of THRACE. Rhoemetalces III, with Gaius (Caligula). Circa AD 38-46.12 viewsJOE GERANIO COLLECTION- KINGS of THRACE. Rhoemetalces III, with Gaius (Caligula). Circa AD 38-46. Æ (20mm, 5.47 g, 6h). Struck circa AD 38-41. Laureate head of Gaius (Caligula) right / Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RPC I 1725.Joe Geranio
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Lydia, Characa. Drusus AE18. Amphora countermark 24 viewsDrusus Caesar (Son of Germanicus, Brother of Caligula and Nero Caesar)
Obv. DPOVSOS KAISAP, Juvenile head of Drusus.
Rev. MENOFANTOY KAPAKI..., Caduceus.
18mm., 4.2gm.
Sylloge of Ancient Unedited Coins of Greek Cities and Kings, 1837, p. 79
Howgego 369.
1 commentsancientone
PhilidelphiaCaligula.JPG
Lydia, Philadelphia. Caligula AE18. Dioscuri39 viewsObv: ΓAIOΣ KAIΣAΡ, bare head right, star behind
Rev: ΦIΛAΔEΛΦEΩN ..., laureate and jugate busts of the Dioscuri right.

Older references identify imperial family members on the reverse but RPC identifies them as Dioscuri. RPC notes, "That the jugate busts probably do not represent Germanicus and Agrippina I, Germanicus and Agrippina as Apollo and Artemis, or Apollo and Artemis (see BMC; Imhoof-Blumer, LS, pp. 116-117; Trillmich, Familienpropaganda der Kaiser und Claudius, pp. 130-131) since the further figure can sometimes be seen to be laureate (e.g. 2023/1 = BMC 53). It must therefore be male, and the two interpreted as the Dioscuri, who had previously appeared on the coinage of Philadelphia." The Dioscuri are also found on the imperial coinage of Caligula. In addition, since the magistrate named on the reverse is a priest, religious symbolism would be appropriate. The facial features of the reverse busts do, however, resemble members of the family of Caligula. Perhaps the they are Nero and Drusus Caesars as the brothers Castor and Pollux.
-FORVM ANCIENT COINS
ancientone
GermanicusDrususBlackBackground.jpg
LYDIA. Sardes. Germanicus, with Drusus (Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19). Ae (Restruck circa AD 28/9)64 viewsAsinius Pollio, proconsul

This coin was originally struck with the reverse legend EPI ARXIEREWS ALEXANDROU KLEWNOS SARDIANOU but using an elaborate set of ring shaped countermark dies the obverse and reverse legends were restruck, the reverse indicating the new magistrate.

Obverse Legend : deltaΡΟΥΣΟΣ KAI gammaΕΡMANIKOΣ KAIΣΑΡΕΣ NEOI ΘEOI ΦΙΛΑdeltaΕΛΦOI
Obverse Description : Togate figures of Drusus and Germanicus seated left on curule chairs, one figure holding a lituus
Reverse Legend : gammaΑΙΩ AΣΙΝΝΙΩ ΠΟΛΛΙΩΝI ANΘΥΠΑΤΩ KOINOΥ AΣΙΑΣ
Reverse Description : KOINOY AΣΙΑΣ in two lines within wreath; legend around
Weight: 15.5 gm
Diameter: 29 mm

RPC 2995

Supposedly there is an article about this coin in the November 1994 issue of The Celator. I'm trying to locate a copy of that article-- no luck finding it online so I'll have to find and buy a copy of that issue. The piece by Thomas McKenna is titled "The case of the curious coin of Caligula: A provincial bronze restruck with legend-only dies".
3 commentsTIF
349.jpeg
Macedon Caligula 2 views
Caligula, with Antonia, Æ22 of Thessalonica, Macedon. AD 37-41. Γ KAIΣAP θEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, laureate head left / ANTΩNIA ΣEBAΣTH, veiled and draped bust of Antonia left, wearing stephane. RPC I 1574. 9.28g, 21mm, 12h.
Ancient Aussie
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Macedonia, Thessalonika, 011 Caligula and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,77 viewsMacedonia, Thessalonika, 011 Caligula and Antonia??, (37-41 A.D.), RPC 1573, AE22, Head of Antonia left,
avers:- Γ.KAIΣAP-ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate head of Gaius Caligula left,
revers:- ΓEPMANIKOΣ- C(?)E.ΘEΣΣAΛONIKEΩN, Head of Antonia left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,07g, axis: 5h,
mint: Macedonia, Thessalonika, date: 37-41 A.D., ref: RPC 1573 ???,
Q-001
quadrans
marc_antony_denar_legXXI.jpg
MARC ANTONY legionary denarius - 32-31 BC79 viewsobv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C (praetorian galley right)
rev: LEG XXI (Legio XXI Rapax - means Predator) (legionary eagle between two standards)
ref: Cr.544/37, Sear381, RSC 58, Albert1738 (100eur)
2.89gms, 17mm

This legion was probably founded after 31 BC by the emperor Augustus, who may have integrated older units into this new legion and added new recruits from northern Italy. Its first assignment may have been in Hispania Tarraconensis, where it took part in Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians, which lasted from 25-13 AD. XXI Rapax from Raetia marched against king Maroboduus to Czechia in 6 AD. The Twenty-first also was employed during the Germanic war of Caligula, against the rebellious Batavians, and against the Chatti in Baden-Württemberg under led by Domitian in 83. At last the Twenty-first being sent to Pannonia, where war against the tribes of the Middle Danube -the Suebians and Iazyges- was imminent. Here, the Rapax was destroyed in 92 by the Sarmatians.
berserker
Agrippa~0.jpg
Marcus Agrippa 40 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III
head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown

Rev. SC either side of Neptune standing holding dolphin and trident

Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased grandfather Agrippa

Minted in Rome 37-41 A.D.

Sold!
Titus Pullo
Agrippa~2.jpg
Marcus Agrippa97 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III
head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown

SC
Neptune standing holding dolphin and trident

AE As
Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased grandfather Agrippa

Minted in Rome 37-41 A.D.

9.06g

Ex- Ancient Treasures
5 commentsJay GT4
aprippa1.JPG
Marcus Agrippa, Struck under Caligula34 viewsRome mint, struck under Caligula, A.D. 37
Obverse: M • AGRIPPA • L • F • COS • III, head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown
Reverse: S C across field, Neptune standing facing, head left, holding small dolphin in right hand and trident in left.

General of the battle of Actium, and friend of Octavian Augustus
1 commentsDk0311USMC
M_Aurelius_ric_280.jpg
Marcus Aurelius AR Denarius99 viewsMarcus Aurelius, 161-180. Denarius (Silver, 19 mm, 3.31 g, 6 h), Rome, 173. M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII Laureate head of Marcus Aurelius to right. Rev. IMP VI COS III German captive seated left at foot of a trophy. Cohen 300. RIC 280. Well centered and attractively toned. Nearly extremely fine.
From the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland, acquired prior to 1975.
Obolos 9 by Nomos. March 25, 2018

Marcus Aurelius ruled at a time referred to by some as the "Five good emperors". These leaders were known for the lack of excesses that characterized some earlier emperors such as Nero and Caligula. They ruled during a relatively stable period of Roman history unlike the tumult caused by the 'Year of the four Caesars".

However, this is not to say that all was peace and felicity. The reverse of this coin depicts a German captive under a trophy of arms. The message is clear, Marcus Aurelius has defeated the Germans in battle. The larger context of this coin refers to a series of conflicts known as the Macromannic wars.

I love this coin for the reverse, but I think the portrait is also excellent. The engraver was a person of considerable skill. I also like this coin for its provenance. It was a part of the Stoecklin collection. I would like to know more about when and where it was acquired but the auction house only knew that it was purchased by W.F. Stoecklin sometime before 1975.

This coin is a bit of a departure for me as I usually stay firmly in the 1st century CE with my purchases. However I wanted an interesting coin of this philosopher-emperor and so when I saw it I had to have it.
9 commentsorfew
pergamon_3_k.jpg
Mysia, Pergamon, Time of Caligula to Nero7 viewsÆ15, 3.0g, 12h; AD 40-60
Obv.: ΘԐON PΩMHN; Bust of Roma with mural crown right.
Rev.: ΘԐON CYNKΛHTON; Laureate bust of Senate right.
Reference: RPC 2374; SNG Aul.1385 / 17-48-57
John Anthony
AntoniaDup.jpg
NCAPR145 viewsAntonia, daughter of Marc Antony, mother of Claudius, grandmother of Caligula
6174. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC 104, S 1902, BM 166, G, Rome mint, 13.83g, 31.1mm, 180o, 41-42 A.D.; obverse ANTONIA AVGVSTA, bare- headed bust right, countermark; reverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP S C, Claudius veiled and togate, standing left, holding simpulum; sold.
whitetd49
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NEPTUNE252 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather Agrippa
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection
4 commentsPotator II
Nero_and_Druses_Caesar.jpg
NERO AND DRUSUS CAESAR Ae Dupondius RIC 34, Senatus Consulto13 viewsOBV: NERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES, Nero & Drusus on horseback riding right
REV: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large S C
11.56g, 27mm
Minted at Rome under Caligula, 37-38 AD
Nero & Drusus Caesars, brothers of Caligula
Legatus
nerose14c.jpg
Nero, RIC 586, Sestertius of AD 66 (Portus Augusti)72 viewsÆ sestertius (22.54g, maximum Ø34.24mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero right, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above), aerial view of the harbor of Ostia, showing pier, breakwaters, lighthouse surmounted by the statue of Neptune, seven ships, and the figure of Tiber reclining left in foreground, holding rudder and dolphin.
Mac Dowall (The western Coinages of Nero, ANS SSN 161) 476; RIC 586 (R2); BMCRE 323 var. (different obv. legend); Cohen 253 var. (emperor's head to left); CBN 74 var. (different obv. legend); Sear (RCV) 1953var.

Certificate of Authenticity: David R Sear / A.C.C.S. Ref. 100CR/RI/C/V (January 6, 2015): "Grade: F and very rare, one of the most interesting types of Nero's sestertius series "

Extract of Sear's Historical and Numismatic Note: "This example commemorates the completion of the great harbor project to serve the needs of the imperial capital initiated by Claudius and completed under Nero. Ostia is situated at the mouth of the Tiber, but could not easily handle large sea-going vessels such as those of the grain fleet. Accordingly, Claudius initiated the construction of a new all-weather harbor at Portus, about two miles along the coast line to the north. This was a huge project, involving the construction of two great moles jutting out into the sea. The lighthouse erected at the end of one of these moles was built on foundations formed by sinking a large ship that Caligula had used to transport an obelisk from Egypt. This harbor, however, was very exposed to the weather and under Trajan was superseded by a new land-locked inner basin linked to the Tiber by a canal (cf. P.Connolly and H.Hodge, The Ancient City. Life in Classical Athens and Rome, pp. 128-30)"
3 commentsCharles S
bpCM1CounterMark.jpg
Nice Coin with 4 Countermarks from Moesia201 viewsAs, 8 gm, 24.8 mm.
Obv: Three countermarks - AVG, TICA or TICAE (with AE ligate), and a Helmet (?).
Rev: One countermark - Dolphin (?).
Comments: Appear to be the same countermarks shown in the Pangerl Collection #90 (found under TICAE in the 'Museum of Countermarks' on the RNG Web page). Also a good match to Ecoli's exhibit shown next on this board. Possibilities include Tiberius, Caligula or Claudius as reigning Emperor.
From the collection of Massanutten.
2 commentsMassanutten
perg_2_k.jpg
Pergamon, Time of Caligula to Nero6 viewsÆ17, 4.0g,12h; AD 40-60
Obv.: ΘԐON PΩMHN; Bust of Roma with mural crown right.
Rev.: ΘԐON CYNKΛHTON; Laureate bust of Senate right.
Reference: RPC I 2374 / 16-382-50
John Anthony
PolemoII.jpg
Polemo II-Mark Antony's great grandson475 views Silver drachm

BACΙΛΕΩC ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝΟC
diademed head of Polemo right

ETOYC - K (year 20)
laureate head of Nero right;

57 - 58 A.D.
3.645g

18.1mm, die axis 180o

RPC I 3832, SNG Cop 242, BMC Pontus 7 - 8, SNG von Aulock 6691

Ex-Forum

Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontos and Polemon of Cilicia is the only known direct descendant of Mark Antony who bares his name. Through his maternal grandmother he was a direct descendant of Mark Antony and his second wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. Antony and Antonia Hybrida were first paternal cousins. He was Antony’s second born great grandson. Through Antony, he was a distant cousin to Roman Client King Ptolemy of Mauretania and Drusilla of Mauretania. He was also a distant cousin to Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero and Roman Empresses Valeria Messalina, Agrippina the Younger and Claudia Octavia.

Polemon II’s father Polemon Pythodoros King of Pontos died in 8 BC. His mother then married King Archelaus of Cappadocia, and the family moved to the court of his stepfather. In 17 AD Archelaus died and Polemon II and his mother moved back to Pontus. From 17 until 38, Polemon II assisted his mother in the administration of Pontos. When his mother died in 38, Polemon II succeeded her as the sole ruler of Pontus, Colchis and Cilicia.

Around 50 AD, Polemon II met the Judean princess Julia Berenice in Tiberias during a visit to King Agrippa I. Berenice was widowed in 48 AD when her second husband and paternal uncle Herod of Chalcis, died. She had two sons by him, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Berenice set the condition that Polemon II had to convert to Judaism before marriage, which included undergoing the rite of circumcision. Polemon II complied, and the marriage went ahead but it did not last long. Berenice left Pontus with her sons and returned to the court of her brother. Polemon II abandoned Judaism and, according to the legend of Bartholomew the Apostle, accepted Christianity, only to become a pagan again.

In 62, Nero compelled Polemon II to abdicate the Pontian throne. Pontos and Colchis became a Roman province. From then until his death, Polemon II only ruled Cilicia. He never remarried and had no children that are known.

Polemon's sister Antonia Tryphaena's Royal lineage goes all the way down to Nana Queen of Iberia, who died in 363 AD. Truly Antony may have lost the battle of Actium but won the war of genetics!
8 commentsJay GT4
ptolemmée_3.JPG
Ptolémée de Maurétanie (de 23 à 40 ap. J.-C.)29 viewsMazard 469.
Müller 136.
Charlier 372

Denier de Ptolémée de Maurétanie (1 avJC- 40 ap. J-C).
Date de règne de 23 à 40.
Fils de Juba II et de Cléopatre Séléné.
Petit-fils de Marc Antoine et de Cléopatre.
Cousin de Néron et de Caligula.
Dernier roi de Maurétanie et dernier de la grande dynastie des Ptolémées.

REX PTOLEMAEVS (roi Ptolémée).
Tête imberbe à droite du roi.
RA VI (6e année de règne - 29/30 ap J.-C.)
Corne d'abondance avec un sceptre
2 commentsPYL
caligula.jpg
Quadrans, abolition of the auction tax, RIC 5248 viewsCALIGULA A.D.37-49Æ Quadrans. Obv. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C, Pileus. Rev. PON M TR P IIII COS TERT around RCC. 2.7 g 16 mm RIC 52, Sear RCV I 1804. RCC stands for remissa ducentesima, abolition of the tax on auctionsPodiceps
42020_Claudius_quadrans,_RIC_I_90B_modius.jpg
Quadrans; Modius, RIC I 90B9 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D. Copper quadrans, RIC I 90B, BMCRE I 182, Rome mint, 2.550g, 17.4mm, 180o, 5 Jan - 31 Dec 42 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG, modius with three legs; reverse PON M TR P IMP P P COS II, around large S C. Quadrantes, like quinarii, were issued only occasionally, perhaps exclusively for imperial distributions. Suetonius reported that, from the roof of the Basilica Julia 'Caligula threw coins among the people.' Perhaps this small coin was thrown to the crowd by Claudius himself at a similar event. The most common theme for the quadrans was the modius, a Roman grain container. This coin was probably redeemable for a modius of grain. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
fc19.jpg
RARE- PHOENICIA, Tripolis. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ 21mm (8.84 g, 12h). Date CY 350 (AD 38/9). 38 viewsPHOENICIA, Tripolis. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ 21mm (8.84 g, 12h). Date CY 350 (AD 38/9). Laureate head left; L NT (date) below chin / The Dioscuri standing left, each holding wreath over pileus resting on ground and scepter. RPC 4519.15 (this coin); SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 38. Joe Geranio Collection.Joe Geranio
Rhoemetalces_III_Caligula.jpg
Rhoemetalces III - AE 256 viewsKingdom of Thrace
38-41 AD
diademed draped bust of Rhoemetalces III left
BAΣIΛEYΣ_POIMHTAΛKAΣ
laureate head of Caligula left
ΓAIΩ KAIΣAP_I ΣEBAΣΤΩ
Caligula RPC 1723; BMC 2; Jurukova 209; SGI 5407; Moushmov 5805
10,77g
Johny SYSEL
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Rhoemetalces III, Caligula57 viewsAE 21, 38-46 AD
Obv: GAIWKAISAPI, Laureate head of Caligula left.
Rev: BASILEWS (retrograde) , Victory standing right on globe, holding palm and wreath
21mm
RPC 1725
jdholds
Antonia_03.jpg
RIC 1, p.124, 66 - Antonia, CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI19 viewsAntonia
Daughter of Mark Antony, Wife of Nero Drusus, Mother of Claudius, Grandmother of Caligula
AR Denarius, Rome mint, AD 41-42
Obv: ANTONIA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing barley wreath
Rev: CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI (consistency of the emperor), Antonia standing facing, draped as Constantia, long torch in right, cornucopia in left
Ag, 3.717g, maximum diameter 18.9mm, die axis 225deg
Ref.: RIC 66, BMCRE I Claudius 111, Cohen 2, SRCV I 1900, CRE 1 [R2]
Ex H.D. Rauch, Auction 64, December 1999, Lot 122
Ex Jyrki Muona Collection
Ex FORVM
shanxi
Agrippa.jpg
Roman Agrippa AE As24 viewsAE As ; 37 AD; struck under Caligula, Rome
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.

Ref: Cohen 3, RIC 58
Tanit
Caligula~0.jpg
Roman Caligula As45 viewsAE As.Caligula,
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Reverse: VESTA/S/C
RIC 38, C. 27, BMC 46.
1 commentsTanit
CALIGULA.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - CALIGULA30 viewsCaligula Gaius AD 37-41 Copper As "Vesta" Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Bare head left Rev: VESTA S-C - Vesta seated left holding patera and transverse scepter Rome mint: AD 37-38 = RIC I, p. 111, 38; BMC 46; D. Sear I, p. 356, 1803. 9.61 g.
dpaul7
caligula_cgb2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Caligula and agripinna41 viewsReference: Prior 67 (13 ex) RPC.4168 RPC.4168 McAlee 226
Weight: 14.65 g
Ex McAlee collection , Ex Numismatic Fine Arts sales 21, 1981, lot 12
1 commentsarash p
timeofcal.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Caligula, Egypt, Alexandria18 viewsTime of Caligula
AE Dichalkon

Obv: Bull right
Rev: Stork left
seaotter
bpJ1B1Agrippa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippa50 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Head, left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C
Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident.
As 11.1 gm 29 mm Mint: Rome RIC 58
Comment: Issued by Caligula
Massanutten
Agrippa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, AGRIPPA AS1459 viewsObverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left. Reverse: SC - Neptune standing, holding trident and dolphin. Rome Mint: AD 37-41. RIC I Caligula 58, Cohen 313 commentspostumus
04816q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippa, Copper as, RIC I Caligula 58451 viewsAgrippa, Military commander, friend of Augustus, grandfather of Caligula, great-grandfather of Nero

Copper as, RIC I Caligula 58, SRCV I 556, superb EF, weight 10.34 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 38 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing a rostral crown; reverse Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields; bold high relief strike on a large flan with no wear, beautiful green patina, extraordinary portrait, spectacular!

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.

7 commentsJoe Sermarini
ag.jpg
Roman Empire, Agrippa, Struck c.A.D.38 under Caligula.225 viewsAgrippa, 43–12 BC.
AE as, Roma mint, Struck c.A.D 38.
Obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev. SC, Neptune standing half-left, arms draped, holding small dolphin and grounded trident.
RIC I : 58.
21,14g, 28mm.

Provenance: Numismatik Lanz, Auction 147, lot 254.
3 commentsapyatygin
Agrippina Snr RIC 102 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina Senior, RIC 10280 viewsAgrippina Senior
AE Sestertius
Rome Mint. 42 A.D.
Obv: AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI CAESARIS - Draped bust right.
Rev: TI CLAVDIUS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P S-C
Ref: RIC 102. Cohen 3. RCV 1906. VM 2.
Notes: Wife of Germanicus. Mother of Caligula. Struck by brother-in-law Claudius. One of my favourite coins despite its condition. Beautiful patina.
seraphic
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)191 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen orriginally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv.Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
3 commentsPetitioncrown
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-&-Rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1774 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen orriginally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv. Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
25 commentsPetitioncrown
bpJ1H3CaligulaDamn.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caligula63 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head, left.
Rev: VESTA S C
Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre with S C to either side.
As 11.3 gm 27.8 mm RIC 38
Massanutten
Caligula.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caligula31 viewsRIC 47 Gaius Caligula Æ As. Struck 39-40 AD.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P III P P, bare head left / VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
Mike Deigan
RVC2000#1803.JPG
Roman Empire, Caligula26 viewsEmperor: Gaius Caligula
Denomination: Æ As
Struck: 37-8 AD
Mint: Rome(?)
Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left.
Reverse: VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre.
Refernece: RVC2000 1803, Cohen 27.
1 commentsfilip
Caligula.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caligula64 viewsAS, AD 37-38, ROME
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bare head left
VESTA, S C across field
Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera in outstretched right hand and long transverse scepter in left.
RIC I 38
2 commentsMichael V
IMG_20150116_111224gg.jpg
Roman Empire, CALIGULA - Ori. Sestertius, c37-8AD144 viewsCALIGULA - Ori. Sestertius, c37-8AD
Ori. Sestertius, c37-8, c34mm, c25.3g.

Roma. Gaius Caligula (37-41 AD). Sestertius. 40-41 AD.
C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG P M TR P IIII PP Pietas veiled and draped, seated left, holding patera in right hand, left arm resting on small facing figure on basis;
in exergue, PIETAS. R/ Hexastyle garlanded temple surmounted by quadriga, before which Gaius veiled and togate, sacrifices with patera over garlanded altar; one attendant leads bull to the altar; a second attendant holds patera; on left,
[D]IVO and big S; on right, AVG and big C. RIC I, 51; BMCRE 69
7 commentsronald v
CaligulaVesta.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caligula AE As381 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Bear head left

VESTA SC
Vesta seated left holding patera and sceptre

Rome 37-38AD

11.28g

Sear 1803 RIC 38

From an uncleaned lot!
2 commentsJay GT4
caligula~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caligula AE As 41 viewsGaius Caligula AE As. Struck 37-8 AD. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left .
VESTA above, S C across field, Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. Cohen 27.
Britanikus
51~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caligula as 457 viewsAE As, 28.29mm (11.75 gm).

C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left / VESTA, S-C in field; Vesta, veiled, draped, seated left on throne with ornamental back and legs, holding patera in right hand and long transver