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DenCServiliobis.jpg
50 viewsC. SERVILIVS M.f. Denarius. 136 BC. Gens SERVILIA - g. 3,8, mm. 20,5x19,7
Obv.:Winged, helmeted head of Roma right, surmounted by head of an eagle, wreath & * behind, ROMA below
Rev.: the Dioscuri galloping in opposite directions, C SERVEILI M F in ex.
Cr239/1, Sear RCV 116.

2 commentsMaxentius
Roma_front_ionic_column_back_B_.jpg
51 viewsC. Augurinus, ca 135 B.C., Denarius.
Obverse: Roam right, X beneath chin.
Reverse: Ionic column surmounted by statue flanked by togate and grain ears.
EX: Laurion Numismatics Winter 1992 fixed price list - the first coin I purchased from a fixed price list.
3 commentspaul1888
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_04_cut.JPG
44 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse, cut.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01.JPG
255 viewsFree at last, free at last.5 commentsrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_rev_01.JPG
52 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_obv_01.JPG
68 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
1 commentsrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01_cut_02.JPG
14 viewsSeverus Alexander AD 232 AE Sestertiusrexesq
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01.JPG
200 viewsSeverus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.

**Photo w/ Flash
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rexesq
CalPisoLFFrugi.jpg
64 viewsCal. Piso L. F. Frugi, AR denarius, Ca. 67 BC
Obverse: Apollo facing right
Reverse: Horseman
Crawford 408 1a; Sydenham 850a; RSC Calpurnia 24g

Ex: Apollo Numismatics; NAC Auction 18 (3/29/2000), lot 302
2 commentspaul1888
rome_AD232_AE-sestertius_mars-ultor_ANACS-VF20_opened_obv_01-rev_01_cut_01.JPG
18 viewsSeverus Alexander AD 232 AE Sestertiusrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_03_cut.JPG
123 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse, cut.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
--------------------------
Fantastic 'MARS ULTOR' reverse!
rexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_rev_03.JPG
182 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Reverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
--------------------------
Fantastic 'MARS ULTOR' reverse!!
1 commentsrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_obv_06.JPG
29 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
1 commentsrexesq
rome_sestertius_ANACS-VF-20_obv_05.JPG
25 viewsEmperor Severus Alexander. AD232. AE Sestertius. Obverse.

obv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARS VLTOR - Mars with spear and shield in the 'Ready-for-Action' position.
'S C' to either side of Mars.

22.3 grams.
rexesq
Copy_of_severus-alexander_ae-sestertius_quadriga_02.jpg
17 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm

References: Cohen 377, RIC 495
-----------------------

~*~I will most likely be taking this coin out of it's plastic prison soon. I will post more pics after doing so.~*~
rexesq
100_1889_crop.JPG
188 viewsHere is an example of a cabinet showing three different available styles of trays for storage. At the top is a standard round recess type tray....very traditional.

In the middle is an open format tray for displaying items "free form", or for items of unusual sizes/shapes such as large medals, military decorations or pocket watches.

On the bottom is a new offering; a drawer for slabs. Each drawer can hold 30 slabs from any of the three major slabbing firms; PCGS, NCG, or ANACS. Other commercial, or "DIY" slabs should also fit, provided they are no larger than any from the "big three" firms.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
dcs0112.jpg
69 views2 commentsGrant H
dcs0097.jpg
21 viewsGrant H
dcs0801.jpg
14 viewsGrant H
dcs0105.jpg
19 viewsGrant H
dcs0100.jpg
20 viewsGrant H
12cs.jpg
The 12 Caesars 63 views1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Vindex_denarius.jpg
6.75 Revolt of Vindex61 viewsRevolt Against Nero, Gaius Iulius Vindex, Governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, c. Late 67 - May 68 A.D.

Struck by Gaius Iulius Vindex, the Roman governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, who rebelled against Nero's tax policy and declared allegiance to Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as the new emperor. Vindex was defeated and killed in battle near Vesontio (modern Besançon), but the military continued to support Galba. On 9 June 68, deserted by the Praetorian Guard, Nero stabbed himself in the throat.

Silver denarius, Unpublished, civil war restitution of Augustus, gF, porosity, marks, uncertain (Lugdunum?) mint, weight 3.167g, maximum diameter 19.0mm, die axis 180o, c. late 67 - May 68 A.D.; obverse CAESAR, bare head of Augustus right; reverse AVGVSTVS, young bull walking right, head turned facing; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6, lot 321; only two examples known to Forum

Purchased from FORVM
2 commentsSosius
Philip_AE_25_of_Antioch.jpg
2 Philip I18 viewsPhilip I
Ć25 of Antiochia, Pisidia
244-249 AD

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust r. / The river-god Anthios reclining l. on urn, holding reed and cornucopia.

SNG von Aulock 4971. VF

This coin may be a die match with this coin: http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=602309
Sosius
Elagabalus_Cop_245.jpg
29 Elagabalus12 viewsELAGABALUS
AE 19mm of Antioch, Syria.

AVT KAI M AV ANTWNINOC, radiate head right. / SC within wreath, DE above, eagle standing right below.

SNG Cop 245. Ex Failla Numismatics
Sosius
Baktria,_Diodotos_I,_AR_tetradrachm_-_Holt_A6_4_(this_coin)~0.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos I, ca. 255/250-240 BC, AR Tetradrachm 29 viewsDiademed head of Diodotos I right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY Zeus advancing left hurling thunderbolt, eagle at feet, ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta, Sampi) monogram in inner left field.

Holt A6.4 (this coin); Kritt A6 (plate 2 A6 this coin); CSE 1294 (this coin); SNG Lockett 3109 (this coin ID: SNGuk_0300_3109); Pozzi 2945 (this coin); ESM 717α (this coin); SNG ANS 77; SC 631.a; Bopearachchi 2E; Mitchiner 64d; Qunduz 6; HGC 9, 243.
Mint "A" - Ai Khanoum

(26 mm, 15.73 g, 6h).
Herakles Numismatics; ex- Houghton Collection (CSE 1294); ex- Lockett Collection (SNGLockett 3109); ex- Pozzi Collection: Naville Sale I (1921) 2945 (sold for CHF 35).

This coin has a very distinguished provenance and has been published as plate coin in four reference works.

The emission with the ΙΔΤ (Iota, Delta Sampi) mint control mark is the most abundant of the Diodotid issues, representing about 13% of known Diodotid precious metal coins. The same control carries over into the early coinage of Euthydemos, although eventually displaced by the PK control monogram after 208/6 BC when Antiochos III captured Ai Khanoum while Euthydemos remained besieged at Baktra, after which it appears that Baktra/Balkh assumed the role of primary royal mint in Baktria. In is notable that the Archaic Greek letter Sampi forms the bottom of the ΙΔΤ monogram. It is an Archaic Greek form of a double Sigma that persisted in Greek dialects of Asia Minor. Many Greek settlers from Asia Minor migrated to Baktria, including the illustrious ruler Euthydemos from Magnesia in either Lydia, or Ionia. The archaic Greek Sampi possibly traveled to Baktria with the earliest Greek settlers from Asia Minor.
n.igma
10.jpg
County of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1251 Billon denier 70 viewsCounty of Tripoli, Bohemond V, 1233 - 1251 Billon denier
R : + CIVITAS TRIPOL, eight pointed star, annulets between the rays
O : + BAMVND' COMS, cross pattée, three pellets in upper right quarter
CCS 19
Vladislavs D
101.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Ć Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187)158 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III (1152-87), Ć Pougeoise, (c.1173-1187), Tripoli mint +CIVITAS, towered gateway, rev., +TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommettée, circle in centre, crescent in each quarter, (CCS 13)Vladislavs D
32264q00~0.jpg
County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise48 views County of Tripoli, Raymond III, 1152 - 1187 Bronze pougeoise
O : + CIVITAS fortified gateway, five rows of masonry, five crenellations, large divided door
R : + TRIPOLIS, St. Andrew's cross pommetée, circle in center, crescent and pellet in each quarter
CCS 13
Ex FORUM ; Ex Malloy
Vladislavs D
HUN_Lajos_I_Huszar_547_Pohl_89-7.JPG
Huszár 547, Pohl 89-7, Unger 432h, Réthy II 89A41 viewsLouis I (Lajos I, in Hun.) (1342-1382). AR denar, .49 g., 13.94 mm. max., .28 gr., 90°

Obv: + [MO]nETA LODOVICI, Saracen head left, pellets flanking.

Rev: + REGIS hVnGARIE, Patriarchal cross with random pellets.

The type was struck 1373-1382 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger, although Huszár later wrote that the Saracen-head coinage incepted in 1372). This privy mark was struck at Pécs by one of the Saracenus brothers, probably by Johannes, who took over the mint after the death of Jacobus (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.

The Saracen's head is a pun on the surname of Jacobus Saracenus (Szerechen, in Hun.) and his brother, Johannes, courtiers of Italian descent who were ennobled by Louis. The image of a Saracen's head appeared on their coat of arms. Jacobus became the kammergraf at the Pécs mint in 1352, and the Comes Camerarum Regalium in 1369. He died in the early 1370s, at which time Johannes succeeded him as kammergraf.
Stkp
sphinx_quad_drach~0.jpg
IONIA, CHIOS12 viewsCa 400-380 BC
AR Drachm 13 mm, 3.63 g
O: Sphinx seated left; amphora surmounted by grapes to left
R: Quadripartite granulated incuse square
Chios; BMC 17-8
ex Roma Numismatics auction
laney
iersab.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .130 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
Pupeinus ric 10a.jpg
RIC-10(a) Pupienus Clasped Hands832 viewsIMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
CARITAS MVTVA AVGG - (Mutual Clarity of the Emperors), clasped hands

This is the scarcer variant of RIC 10. Superb portrait. David Sear ANCCS certified.
From Forum ancient Coins
12 commentsjimwho523
186.jpg
Г (incised)405 viewsPISIDIA. Ariassus. Julia Mamaea. Ć 25. A.D. 222-235. Obv: IOVΛIAMA-MEAC(EB...). Diademed and draped bust right; Incises countermark before. Rev: (A)PIACC(EΩN). Dioscuri standing naked, each infront of a horse, holding a spear; above star in crescent. Ref: BMC -; SNG France (3) -; SNG Aul -. Axis: 195°. Weight: 9.29 g. CM: Г (incised), incuse, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 778 (11 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
171.jpg
Δ and KA (monogram of)295 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Severus Alexander. Ć 28. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AV▪K▪M▪AVP▪CEOVHPAΛEZA-NΔPO. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) on chest, (2) partly under (1). Rev: CEΛE(-YKEΩN)KAΛY-KA-ΔNΩ. Tyche of Seleuceia seated left on rock in distyle shrine, holding grains; river-god Calycadnus swimming left below. Ref: BMC -; SNG Levante Supp. 196 (same obv. die, var. rev. leg.). Axis: 195°. Weight: 9.91 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Monogram of K and A, in shaped punch, 4 x 5 mm. Howgego 618 (52 pcs). Note: The countermark likely refers to Calycadnum. Collection Automan.Automan
092n.jpg
Δ and NIKO308 viewsMOESIA INFERIOR. Nikopolis ad Istrum. Septimius Severus. Ć 27. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (VK)ΛCEΠ•-CEVHPOC (...) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark (1) on shoulder. Rev: VΠAVP•ΓAΛΛOV•NIKOΠOΛITΠPOCIC. River-god reclining left, leaning against urn (?), holding branch in right hand; Countermark (2) to left. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 60°. Weight: 11.68 g. CM(1): Δ, incuse punch, 7 x 6 mm. Howgego 782 (3 pcs). CM(2): NIKO, incuse, 14 x 5 mm. Howgego 553 (3 pcs, 2 of which on reverse). Note: All coins that have the Δ c/m apparently also bear the NIKO c/m and vice-versa, so they must have been applied at the same time. Collection Automan.Automan
005n.jpg
Δ and Six-pointed star291 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Ć 28. A.D. 235-238. Obv: IMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on bust. Rev: NIN-C-CLAV. Colonist ploughing behind two oxen, in background vexillum. Ref: BMC 8. Axis: 360°. Weight: 9.86 g. CM (1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM (2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
006n.jpg
Δ containing dot270 viewsCILICIA. Seleuceia ad Calycadnum. Gordian III. Ć 33. A.D. 238-244. Obv: (ANTΩNI)OC-(ΓΩPΔIAN)OC, (C)EBA. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: CELEUKEΩ-N-(TΩΠPOCTΩK)-AΛV-KAΔ-NΩ. Athena standing left, holding Nike in right hand and resting left hand on shield, behind which rises a spear. Ref: BMC 37. Axis: 180°. Weight: 19.13 g. CM: Δ containing dot, in triangular punch, c. 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 670 (206 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. Collection Automan. Automan
170.jpg
Δ containing dot215 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Ć 23. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (IMP)MAXIMINVΓPI. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: NI-NI-CL-Ω-ΩΔ. Two vexilla. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 180°. Weight: 6.92 g.CM: Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
007n.jpg
Δ in circular punch240 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Septimius Severus. Ć 22. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (…)-CEOYHPON(…). Laureate head right; countermark on shoulder. Rev: (…)-MHTPOΠ(…). Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 28v; BMC -. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.24 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Note: May bave been countermarked during reign of Elagabalus, although this is uncertain since the coins of Elagabalus were too small to be countermarked Δ, and no coins were issued after his reign. Collection Automan.Automan
008n.jpg
Δ in circular punch279 viewsIONIA. Smyrna. Civic. Ć 20. Time of Gordian to Valerian. Obv: .IEPACVNKΛHTOC. Laureate and draped bust of the Roman Senate right, countermark on bust. Rev: CMVPΓNE-ΩKOPΩN. Figure of Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia, inside tetrastyle temple. Ref: Ex. Lindgren II:556; BMC 233. Axis: 180°. Weight: 4.95 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 791 (34 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably not applied before the time of the joint reign of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
047n.jpg
Δ in circular punch274 viewsBITHYNIA. Tium. Civic. Ć 24. First half of 3rd century A.D. Obv: .TE-IOC. Diademed and draped bust of Teos right; countermark on neck. Rev: TIAN-ΩN. Dionysus standing facing, head left, emptying contents of cantharus, holding thyrsus. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock 928ff (obverse).Axis: 30°. Weight: 5.72 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 789 (34 pcs). Note: The latest coin bearing this countermark was issued for Hostilian. Collection Automan.Automan
168.jpg
Δ, 6-pointed star and Nike188 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Ć 28. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (...MA)XIMINVΓP(A)UTΛ or similar. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 4 countermarks: (1) before face, (2) on shoulder; (3) before chest, (4) behind neck. Rev: (C)-OLN-(I)NI-CLAUΔ. Colonist ploughing behind two oxen, in background vexillum, star before colonist. Ref: BMC 8 (var. obv. leg.). Axis: 210°. Weight: 10.70 g. CM(1): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(2): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. . Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(3-4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm (not certain!). Howgego 262 (34 pcs). Note:The sequence of application appears to have been (1) Δ in circle (669), (2) six-pointed star (451), and (3) Nike (262). Collection Automan.Automan
013n~0.jpg
Δ, six-pointed star, eagle and Nike (6 cmks!)204 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Maximinus I. Ć 27. A.D. 235-238. Obv: OIMPCSIVLVERMAXIMINVS. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 6 countermarks: (1) to right, before bust, (2) on lower part of bust, (3) on neck, (4) behind and on back of head, (5) on upper part of head, (6) before head. Rev: NINIC-OL-CLA-UΔI, OPOLI in ex. Tetrastyle temple containing emperor, standing left, holding patera and spear. Ref: BMC 10; Sear GIC 3548 (same dies). Axis: 360°. Weight: 9.12 g. CM(1): Δ containing dot, all within circle; circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 669 (49 pcs). Note: Not likely to be a denominational countermark. CM(2): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). CM(3): Eagle standing right with head left, in shaped punch, c. 4 x 7 mm. Howgego 338 (11 pcs). CM(4): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm. Howgego 262 (34 pcs). CM(5): Similar to CM(4). CM(6): Similar to CM(4). Note: The sequence of application appears to have been 669-451-262-338. Automan
w0143.jpg
ΔAK237 viewsSyria-Coele, Leucas ad Chrysoroas, Balanea Leucas. Trajan 103 A.D. (Year 55). AE-21 mm, 7.67 grs. AV: AU KAI NER - TRAIANOC, Laur. head to right, within dotted border, Rectangular CM: ΔAK, Howgego 529 (43 pcs). RV: [LEU]KAD[EwN], Emperor with szepter in quadriga to right, in the field: EN (Year 55), within dotted border. Note: The CM (ΔAK) refers to Trajan's title "Dacicus". Interestingly, the title is already present on the coin. It has therefore been suggested by H.Seyrig that its application was a means for raising money for a gift for the emperor. Collection: Mueller.Automan
199.jpg
ΔAK in rectangular punch178 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. Ć 22. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: (AY)KAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, holding sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30°. Weight: 9.16 g. CM: ΔAK in rectangular punch, 6 x 3 mm. Howgego 529 (43 pcs). Note: Interestingly, the title Dacicus is already part of the inscription of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
125.jpg
ΘEC190 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. Ć 27. A.D. 54-68. Obv: KAICAP-NEPWN. Bare head left; countermark on head. Rev: ΘECCA-ΛONIKH. Nike standing left on globe, holding wreath in extended right hand, palm branches in left hand. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1593 (2 pcs). Axis: 15°. Weight: 22.04 g. CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. Collection Automan.Automan
126.jpg
ΘEC in rectangular punch181 viewsMACEDON. Thessalonica. Nero. Ć 23. A.D. 54-68. Obv: NE(PΩNC)EBAΣΣ-TOΣKAIΣAP (sic.). Bare head left; countermark across neck. Rev: ΘECCAΛ-ONIKH-ΩN in three lines in oak-wreath, eagle at top. Ref: BMC -; RPC 1603 (5 pcs); Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.36 g. Note: The name and face of Nero have been erased (damnatio). CM: ΘEC in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 537 (7 pcs). Note: Howgego notes that the countermark was probably applied in A.D. 68/69, sanctioning coins of Nero. He also notes that the application of the countermark was not directly connected with the erasure of the name and face of Nero, since this was done to only one of the seven specimens he identified. Collection Automan.Automan
026n.jpg
ΘY (monogram of)208 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Severus Alexander. Ć 20. A.D. 222-235. Obv: AΛEΞ(A)N-ΔPOC. Laureate bust right; countermark on head. Rev: ΘVAT-E-IPHN. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC -; SNG von Aulock -; SNG Cop -; Lindgren -.Axis: 180°. Weight: 3.76 g. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
108.jpg
ΘY (monogram of)202 viewsLYDIA. Thyatira. Elagabalus. Ć 26. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVTKMAAN-TΩNEINOC. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (ΘVAT-E-I-)PHNΩN. Athena seated left, holding palladium in right extended arm, resting left arm on spear, wheel-like shield resing against throne. Ref: BMC 114. Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.60 g. Note: Same obverse die as Sear (GIC) 3072. CM: Monogram of Θ and Y, in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 617 (11 pcs). Note: Undoubtedly the countermark refers to the city of Thyatira where the host coin was issued. Collection Automan.Automan
042n.jpg
ΛΓΓ179 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Gabala. Caracalla. Ć 22. A.D. 198-217. Obv: (AVKMAANTΩNEINOC) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark across shoulder. Rev: Γ(ABAΛEΩ)N. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC –Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.53 g. CM: ΛΓΓ in rectangular punch, 7.5 x 4 mm. Howgego 551 (5 pcs). Note: Howgego describes the countermark as either ΛΠ or ΛΓI, while this specimen reads ΛΓΓ. Collection Automan.Automan
189.jpg
Δ on GETA, AE20 ARABIA PETRAEA.197 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Ć 20. A.D. 198-209 (as Caesar). Obv: (...)ΠCE(...)-(ГETACKAICAP) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before. Rev: AΔ(PI-ΠEP)TA-MHT. Within distyle temple, Tyche seated left, holding small stele in extended right hand, holding trophy in left hand. Ref: Spijkerman 51. Axis: 330°. Weight: 7.75 g. CM: •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
tessera1.JPG
53 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 3.06 g, 12 h)
Isis standing left, holding sistrum and situla
IVE/NES
Rostovtsev -


The iuvenes were Roman educational organizations roughly analagous to modern American colleges. Mohler1 argues that, while their athletic program undoubtedly focused on parade and various other activities that relate to war, the group focused equally on education and athletics, rather than as a pseudo-military training program. Inscriptions survive in some theaters and arenas that note reserved seats for iuvenes, leading some to identify these pieces as entrance tickets. I feel they were more likely distributed at the various parades and processions for which the organizations were famous.

The iuvenes tokens are related to those of the sodales, composed of individuals not a part of the organization (younger or older men and women) who still actively supported it.

1. Mohler, S. L. (1937). The Iuvenes and Roman Education. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Society, 68, 442–479.
Ardatirion
00009x00~0.jpg
11 viewsROME
PB Tessera (23mm, 6.90 g, 12h
Rudder
Flaccid male genitals (or leaf?)
Rostovtsev –

The obverse type differs from the phallic imagery sometimes scene on Roman tesserae. This example depicts a flaccid, rather than engorged penis, often conservatively described in numismatics as a "pudenda virilia." The unusual shape of this piece, combined with the differing obverse type, makes me think this may be a fertility amulet.
Ardatirion
AED_CSC.jpg
52 viewsROME
PB Tessera. (20mm, 4.40 g)
AED
CSC
Rostowzew -

The legend likely refers to the office of aedile, an elected position in the city of Rome. Aediles were responsible for various duties, including managing the grain supply and providing for games and public festivals.
1 commentsArdatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_1.jpg
32 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (16mm, 4.01 g)
Boar at bay right
Hound standing right

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330a
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_3.jpg
25 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (14mm, 3.65 g)
Bull standing right
Pitchfork

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330c
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_4.jpg
21 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera(15mm, 3.98 g)
Female standing left, holding two grain ears
Male(?) reclining left, holding pitchfork

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330d
Ardatirion
Greek_-_Uncertain_Northern_Greek_2.jpg
30 viewsNORTHERN GREECE, Uncertain
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.96 g)
Goat standing right
Bunch of grapes hanging from vine

Ex Classical Numismatics Group 85 (15 September 2010), lot 330b
Ardatirion
_(KGrHqF,!lMFCSjPoI()BQv2mFrJKw~~60_1.jpg
43 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (15mm, 3.31 g)
Hermit crab right; wheat ear below
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç 40 var. (figure on reverse - same obverse die)
1 commentsArdatirion
00033x00~1.jpg
63 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.41 g)
Oleiculture scene: male figure standing right, holding stick and knocking olives from tree to right; star and crescent between; behind, stag(?) standing left; [...]POV above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –

Scenes of the olive harvest are entirely unknown on coinage, but some mosaics and Greek vases illustrate the practice. See in particular an Attic black figure neck amphora in the British Museum (ABV, 273, 116) depicting two men using sticks to knock olives from a tree.
1 commentsArdatirion
kyHWAyT.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (28.5mm, 8.53 g, 12h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1838.
AM I NOT A WOMAN & A SISTER, hained female slave kneeling right, raising arms in supplication; * 1838 * below UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, LIBERTY/ 1838 within wreath
Rulau HT 81; Low 54

Ex Album 33 (17 January 2019), lot 2542

June 1900 saw a brief flurry of journalistic interest in the "Am I Not A Woman & A Sister" tokens. A specimen had been found in a garden in Indiana, apparently in one of the many towns that claim a connection to the Underground Railroad, and received a glowing and fanciful write up in the local newspaper. The paper claimed that it was a "Talisman of Slavery," and used as a token to ensure safe passage along the escaped slave's route, and that it was a very rare piece. The following week a newspaper in Maine recorded that a local collector had another example, again drawing a purported connection to the Underground Railroad. Astutely, the July 1900 edition of the American Journal of Numismatics pointed out that, while an isolated use like this was possible, it was not what the tokens were originally intended for.
Ardatirion
ago.jpg
26 viewsEGYPT, Uncertain
PB Tessera (24 mm, 13.90 g)
Athena standing left, holding Nike and grounded shield
AΓO
Milne -; Dattari (Savio) -; Köln 3560

Ex Classical Numismatics Group Electronic Auction 238, lot 294
Ardatirion
valentinien1-gloria-romanorvm-siscia.JPG
RIC.14a.xxv Valentinian I (AE4, Gloria Romanorvm)10 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
AE4: Gloria Romanorvm (367-375, Siscia, 2ond officine)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.00 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA RO-MANORVM / BSISCS in exergue / Q|*RO in the field; emperor advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
Droger
philippe2-denier-saintmartin.JPG
Dy.176 Philip II (Augustus): denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)24 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)

Billon, 0.96 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 7h
O: PHILIPVS REX; croix pattée
R: +SCS MARTINVS; châtel tournois

The livre parisis was a standard for minting coins (and for unit of accounts) inherited from the Carolingians.
In 1203, John (Lackland) lost Anjou to Philip II. The deniers minted at the Saint Martin abbey in Touraine were considered as very stable. So Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois (tournois means "of Tours", Tours is a French city in Anjou close to Saint Martin abbey) as a new standard denier and unit of account. Livre parisis and livre tournois coexisted for some time but the livre tournois quickly outstripped the livre parisis as a unit of account. Deniers parisis ceased to be struck a little more than a century later, but livre parisis existed till 17th century.
SCS MARTINVS means Sanctus Martinus (Saint Martin). The name of the abbey was temporarily kept on the deniers tournois, but was soon replaced by the name of the city of Tours.
Droger
louis3-denier-tours.JPG
D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)31 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
saint-martin-tours-denier.JPG
Saint Martin abbey: denier (Tours)9 viewsSaint Martin of Tours abbey
Denier (second half of the XII th century, Tours)

Billon, 0.67 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 10 h
O/ +SCS MARTINVS ; châtel tournois
R/ +TVRONVS CIVI ; cross pattée

Philip II has been inspired by this coin to create the denier tournois.
Droger
magnus-maximus-votvmvltx-LVGS.JPG
RIC.35 Magnus Maximus (AE4, Vot V Mvlt X)11 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Vot V Mvlt X (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 14 mm diameter, 1.72 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ [D N MA]G MAXI-MVS P F AV[G]; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VOT / V/ MVLT / X / LVCS in exergue; in wreath
Droger
EpirFake.jpg
"Epirus, the Epeirote Republic, Didrachm size modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC. "69 viewsEpirus, the Epeirote Republic, modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC.,
Didrachm size (ř 22 mm / 8,50 g), silver, axes about coin alignment ↑↓ (ca. 160°), edge: 50 % filed, 50 % hammered,
Obv.: A· , laureate head of Zeus Dodonaios right, A· behind, dotted border.
Rev.: AΠEI / PΩTAN , eagle standing right on thunderbolt, all within oak wreath, dotted border.
for prototype cf. BMC p. 89, no. 14 (drachm size 4,5-5,0 g., AI· -monogram behind head on obverse) ; - Dewing 1444 (same) ; Franke, - Epirus 100 (same) ; - SNG Cop. 108ff. ; for a drachm showing similar style cf. http://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=748945 (also a fake?) .

1 commentsArminius
149.jpg
"EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY" (monograms to be read as)182 viewsPHRYGIA. Eumeneia. Fulvia. Ć 19. Ca. 41-40 B.C. Obv: Draped bust of Fulvia as winged Nike r.; 2 cm’s, (1) on head, (2) above head. Rev: (ΦYΛOYIANΩN) to right, ΣMEPTOPIΓ(OΣ)/(ΦIΛΩNIΔOY) in 2 lines to l. Athena adv. l., hld. spear and shield. Ref: BMC 20-21 (?); RPC 3139 (7 pcs). Axis: 330°. Weight: 6.84 g. Magistrate: Zmertorigos Philopatris. Note: Eumeneia changed its name to Fulvia on the occasion of Mark Antony's journey to the east in 41 B.C., likely propmting the issue of coins. After Fulvia died the city took back its old name. On BMC 21 the ethnic "ΦYΛOVIANΩN" may be purposefully erased, which also seems to be the case on this specimen! Both coins are countermarked, and the cm's may be read "EVMENEΩN" and "ΦIΛΩNIΔOY". The purpose of countermarking in combination with the erasure of the city name, thus, seems to have been to make note of second name change. CM(1): Monogram of EVMNO (?), in circ. punch, 4 mm. CM(2): Monogram of ΦIΛNΔ (?), in circ. punch, 3.5 mm. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
86A_1.jpg
"Q" Quinarius, RRC 86A/126 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Hair curl visible on far side of Roma’s neck. Behind, “V”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; “ROMA” in exergue. “Q” symbol below horses
Mint: S. E. Italy
Weight: 2.11 gm.
Reference: Crawford 86A/1
Provenance: Nomisma E-Live Auction 12, October 2, 2019, Lot 2034

Comments: “Q” symbol quinarius, Not to be confused with the more common Crawford 102/2 Q quinarius varieties. Very scarce, 6 examples in ACSearch at this writing.

Glossy jet black patina(?) Some reverse corrosion, otherwise GVF.
3 commentsSteve B5
boar.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN--BOAR28 views98 - 117 AD
AE QUADRANS 2.96 g 14 mm
IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG
O: HEAD OF BEARDED HERACLES RIGHT
R: BOAR STANDING RIGHT, SC BELOW
RCV I 3248
(ex Aegean Numasmatics)
laney
TRAJANWOLFLEFT.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN--WOLF #231 views98 - 117 AD
AE QUADRANS 19 mm 2.86 g
O: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG
HEAD OF TRAJAN RIGHT
R: SHE WOLF STANDING LEFT, SC BELOW
RCV II 3246
(ex Aegean Numasmatics)
laney
hadrianserpent.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN47 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 138 AD
BILLON TETRADRACHM 12.78 g
O: HEAD OF HADRIAN, RIGHT
R: AGATHODAEMON SERPENT ERECT, RIGHT, WEARING SKHENT AND SUPPORTING A WINGED CADUCEUS IN ITS FOLD
MILNE 946 (year 4)
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN EGYPT
(ex Aegean Numismatics)
laney
hadrian_agath.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN38 views117 - 138 AD
Struck 138 AD
BILLON TETRADRACHM 12.78 g
O: HEAD OF HADRIAN, RIGHT
R: AGATHADAEMON SERPENT ERECT, RIGHT, WEARING SKHENT AND SUPPORTING A WINGED CADUCEUS IN ITS FOLD
MILNE 946 (year 4)
ALEXANDRIA, ROMAN EGYPT
(ex Aegean Numismatics)
laney
cst_II_glor_smanb_res.jpg
(0317) CONSTANTINE II (as Augustus)40 views317 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 340 AD (as Augustus)
AE 14 mm; 1.60 g
O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them.; SMANB in exe.
Antioch mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_rome_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II30 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17 mm, 2.08 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman
Rome mint
laney
cssts_ii_ft_consa_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II27 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5 mm max., 2.97 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; Dot to left of soldier; CONSA in exe.
Constantinople mint
laney
csta_ii_vot_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II25 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
Obv: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed head
Rev: VOT XX MVLT XXX in four lines within wreath; SMHB in exe
RIC VIII Heraclea 45, rated Scarce.
laney
csts_ii_ft_scon_m_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II17 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 16.5 mm, 2.21 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; M to left of soldier; SCON in exe.
Arles mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_g_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II30 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 21 mm, 4.30 g
O: Diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: Soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman;
Antioch mint
1 commentslaney
csts_ii_ft_cons_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 15.6 mm, 2.28 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; E in left field; CONSB in exe.
Constantinople mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_bsirm_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II26 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm max., 2.02 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; BSIRM in exe.
Sirmium mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_rome_leaf_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II14 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18 mm, 1.96 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman
RP branch in exe.
Rome mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_gsis_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
laney
csts_ii_ft_bsis_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II15 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm, 3.04g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; BSIS in exe
Siscia mint
laney
csts_ii_phoenix_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II15 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5 mm, 2.23 g
O: bust right
R: radiate phoenix on globe
Constantinople mint
laney
csts_ii_gaye_smanth_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18 mm 3.13 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laureate draped cuirassed bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS campgate with 2 turrets, star above; SMANTH in exe
Antioch mint
RIC 66 (VII); Officina H=8 (rare)
laney
csts_ii_ft_smts_e_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5 mm, 2.04 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; E in left field; SMTS in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_sm_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II18 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5 mm, 2.57 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman
laney
csts_ii_ft_scon_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II20 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5mm 1.89 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; SCON in exe.
Arles mint
laney
csts_tt_ft_smts_d_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 15 X 17.5 mm, 2.24 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; D in left field; SMTS in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
csts_ii_ge_bsis_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II22 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5 mm 1.55 g
O: CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS two soldiers facing single chi-rho standard; BSIS in exe
Siscia mint
laney
csts_ii_ge_cons_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II21 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 15.28 mm, 1.21 g
O: CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed head right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS two soldiers facing single standard,"o" on banners;
Constantinople mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_sisd_n_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II18 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5mm 2.45 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; M in left field; GSISD in exe.
RIC VIII Siscia 372
Siscia mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_smts_d_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II18 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 19 mm 2.05 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; D in left field; SMTS in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
csts_ii_vict_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II27 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)AE 15 mm, 1.47 g
O: CONSTANTI-VS PF AVG laurel + rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN two Victories standing facing each other, each holding wreath & palm; pellet/NA" in center
Exerge: PARL
RIC VIII Arles 78
laney
cst_2_horseman_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II17 views337- 361 AD
AE 17 X 18 mm; 2.23 g
O: DN CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman
laney
cst_2_glor_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II23 views337 - 361 AD
AE 18 mm; 2.60 g
O: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, cuirassed bust right.
R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with two standards between them; O on banners.
Mintmark: dot SMKB (unlisted officina).
Cyzicus mint
laney
csts_2_vot.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II15 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 16mm, 2.10 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed head right
R: VOT XX dot MVLT XXX in 3 lines within wreath; CONSG star in exe.
Constantinople mint; RIC VIII 76 (Gamma) rated Scarce
laney
csts2fel.jpg
(0337) CONSTANTIUS II16 views337 - 361 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 1.92 g
O: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen Phyrgian horseman who is reaching back' SMNG in exe.
Nicomedia mint
laney
csts_2_fel.jpg
(0337) CONSTANTIUS II18 views337 - 361 AD
AE 18 mm; 2.63 g
O: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, pellet center; CONSB in exe
Constantinople mint
laney
julian_spes_re.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II20 viewsAE 15.5 mm; 1.72 g
O: D N FL CL IVLIANVS NOB CS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear; uncertain mark in left field
Cyzicus mint
laney
valt_i_sec_sisc_symb_4_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I39 views364 - 375 AD
struck 367 - 375 AD
AE 18 mm; 1.45 g
O: VALENTINIANVS PF AVG Diademed, draped bust right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left carrying wreath and palm, R over symbol 4 (A with a curl on top) to left, F to right, GSISCS in exergue.
Siscia mint; RIC IX-15a
laney
caligula_denarius_augustus_bbb.jpg
(04) CALIGULA21 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm, 3.53 g
37 - 41 AD
Struck 37-38 AD
O: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT [COS] Bare head of Caligula right
R: Radiate head of Divus Augustus right, flanked by stars
Rome; RIC 2; RSC 11; BMCRE 4
ex. Roma Numismatics Auction
2 commentslaney
claudius_denarius.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS45 views41-54 AD (struck 41/2)
AR Denarius 3.50 g
O: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG P M TR P, laureate head right
R: PACI AVGVSTAE, Nemesis walking right, holding caduceus, serpent before.
RIC 10 (R3); RSC 51
(ex Forman collection)
2 commentslaney
roma_numis_auction_otho_glk_2.jpg
(08) OTHO13 views15 January - 8 March 69 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm, 2.82 g
O: IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right
R: SECVRITAS P R, Securitas, draped, standing left, holding wreath in extended right hand, cradling sceptre in left arm
Rome; RIC 10; BMCRE 19; BN 11-13. Very Rare
Ex. Roma Numismatics auction 01.2019
laney
vitellius_libertas_denarius.jpg
(09) VITELLIUS10 views69 AD
AR Denarius 17 mm, 3.00 g
O: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right
R: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long staff.
Rome; RIC 105; RSC 47
ex. Roma Numismatics auction
laney
Janus119BCCrawford281_1.jpg
(500a) Roman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 1882 viewsRoman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 18. Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529; 19mm, 3.23 grams. aVF, Rome; Obverse: laureate head of Janus, M FORVRI L F around; Reverse: Roma standing left erecting trophy, Galic arms around, PHLI in exergue. Ex Ephesus Numismatics.

Gauis Marius
As a novus homo, or new man, Marius found the rise in the Roman cursus honorum ( "course of honours"-- the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in the Roman Republic) a daunting challenge. It is certain that he used his old family client contacts and his military relations as a source of support. Among these contacts were the powerful Metelli family, and their early support was to prove to be a disaster for them. Just a few short years after his service as Quaestor, Marius was elected Tribune of the Plebes in 119 BC. In this position so soon after the political turmoil and murder of the Gracchi brothers (Gaius murdered 123 BC), Marius chose to follow the populares path, making a name for himself under similar auspices. As Tribune, he would ensure the animosity of the conservative faction of the Senate, and the Metelli, by passing popular laws forbidding the inspection of ballot boxes. In do doing, he directly opposed the powerful elite, who used ballot inspection as a way to intimidate voters in the citizen assembly elections.

Marius would go on to be elected Consul seven times and figure prominantly in the civil unrest of the early eighties as Lucius Cornelius Sulla's opponent. In 88 BC, Sulla had been elected Consul. There was now a choice before the Senate about which general to send to Asia (a potentially lucrative command): either Marius or Sulla. The Senate chose Sulla, but soon the Assembly appointed Marius. In this unsavory episode of low politics, Marius had been helped by the unscrupulous actions of Publius Sulpicius Rufus, whose debts Marius had promised to erase. Sulla refused to acknowledge the validity of the Assembly's action.

Sulla left Rome and traveled to "his"army waiting in Nola, the army the Senate had asked him to lead to Asia. Sulla urged his legions to defy the Assembly's orders and accept him as their rightful leader. Sulla was successful, and the legions murdered the representatives from the Assembly. Sulla then commanded six legions to march with him opon Rome and institute a civil war.

This was a momentous event, and was unforeseen by Marius, as no Roman army had ever marched upon Rome—it was forbidden by law and ancient tradition.

Sulla was to eventually rule Rome as Dictator. In his book Rubicon, historian Tom Holland argues that Sulla's actions had no lasting negative effect upon the health of the Republic, that Sulla was at heart a Republican. However, once a Roman general has defied Republican tradition, once a Roman general has used his command to combat fellow Romans, once a Roman general has set-up himself as Dictator--it follows that the decision to replicate these decsions (think: Caesar and Rubicon) is that much more easiely taken.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.69 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
caracalla_tet_antioch_small-flan-crack_sphinx_01.jpg
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #141 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
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Ex Sphinx Numismatics
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4 commentsrexesq
DSC07249_DSC07252_o_r_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #1.25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
~Flan crack @ 2 o'clock obverse/ 10 o'clock reverse~
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Ex Sphinx Numismatics
3 commentsrexesq
DSC07242_DSC07243_o-96%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #1. 26 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
~Flan crack @ 2 o'clock obverse/ 10 o'clock reverse~
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Ex Sphinx Numismatics
5 commentsrexesq
coin188.JPG
005. CLAUDIUS 41 AD - 54 AD53 viewsCLAUDIUS. 41-54 AD.

I, Claudius was a very sympathetic treatment of Claudius; nevertheless, along with Claudius the God, those books hold a special place in my library. Without those books, I would not have taken an interest in the classics in high school, and subsequently, ancient coins. Certainly Claudius was not a saint; nor good as we define a person now; but given the circumstances and the unlimited power he weld, few of us could have done it better.

Ć As (9.50 gm). Bare head left / Libertas standing right, holding pileus. RIC I 113; BMCRE 202; Cohen 47. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
008.jpg
006 GALBA29 viewsEMPEROR: Galba
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right
REVERSE: SPQR OB CS, legend in three lines within oak wreath
DATE: AD July 68 - January 69
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.45 g
RIC: I.167 (R)
Barnaba6
0066~0.jpg
0066 - Denarius Septimius Severus 210 AC12 viewsObv/SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head of Septimius r.
Rev/PM TR P XVIII COS III PP, Jupiter standing l., holding thunderbolt and sceptre; two children standing by him, l. and r.

Ag, 19.9mm, 2.77g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVa/240 [C] - RSC 540.
ex-Helios Numismatik, auction 1, lot 305 (ex-colln. F.Kovacs, lot 1833)
dafnis
0072~0.jpg
0072 - Denarius Trajan 112-14 AC24 viewsObv/IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP, laureate bust of Trajan r., togate.
Rev/SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan's column surmounted with statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles.

Ag, 20.2mm, 3.32g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/292 [C]
ex-Pegasi Numismatics, auction XXIII, lot 477
1 commentsdafnis
Gallus_ae3.jpg
009 - Constantius Gallus (caesar 351-354 AD), AE 3 - RIC 10741 viewsObv: D N CONSTANTIVS NOB CS, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman.
Minted in Cyzicus (SMKdetha in exe), officina 4.
pierre_p77
philip-I_tetradrachm_bust-left-cuirassed-w-balteus_obv_09_rev_06.jpg
01 - Philip I Tetradrachm - Laureate bust left, wearing balteus, seen from front, cuirassed14 viewsPhilip I Tetradrachm. Regnal Year: 4

obv: Laureate and cuirassed bust left, wearing balteus (sword belt that hangs over the shoulder and across the chest). Seen from the front.
rev: Eagle facing left, tail right, holding wreath in beak and standing on city name.
SC below.

ex Sphinx Numismatics
rexesq
antioch_philip-I_tetradrachm_bust-seen-from-front-cuirassed_01.jpg
01 - Philip I Tetradrachm - Laureate bust left, wearing balteus, seen from front, cuirassed.42 viewsPhilip I Tetradrachm. Regnal Year: 4

obv: Laureate and cuirassed bust left, wearing balteus (sword belt that hangs over the shoulder and across the chest). Seen from the front.
rev: Eagle facing left, tail right, holding wreath in beak and standing on city name.
SC below.

ex Sphinx Numismatics
3 commentsrexesq
V669a.jpg
01 Domitian as Caesar RIC 66927 viewsĆ As, 11.05g
Rome mint, 73-74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PAX AVGVST; S C in field; Pax stg. l., leaning on column, with caduceus and branch
RIC 669 (C). BMC -. BNC 699.
Acquired from Musa Numismatics, August 2019.

The propaganda value of Pax for the Flavian dynasty after the Civil War, the revolt of Civilis, and the Jewish War cannot be underestimated. In her various guises she is one of the most popular types on Vespasian's coinage and shows up quite frequently during the reign on the coins struck for both himself and his sons. This As struck for Domitian as Caesar shows Pax leaning on a column, which likely copies a well known cult image of the goddess.

Tellingly, less than a decade later, Pax would not feature so prominently on Domitian's own coinage as Emperor.

Fine style early portrait.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
T387a.jpg
01 Julia Titi RIC 387140 viewsAR Denarius, 3.22g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVG; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 387 (R). BMC 140. RSC 12. BNC 103.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, February 2017.

A rare variant of the common Venus type for Julia Titi with shortened obverse and reverse legends. NB: Julia's denarii were not struck in plentiful numbers.

Lovely portrait in good metal.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
0122.jpg
0122 - Denarius Gordian III 241 AC20 viewsObv/ IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of G. r.
Rev/ VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing half-l., leaning on shield, holding helmet and transverse scepter.

Ag, 19.9 mm, 3.45 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC VI/131 [R]
ex-Roma Numismatics, jul 2011 – art. #12264
dafnis
0123.jpg
0123 - Denarius Julia Domna 196-211 AC16 viewsObv/ IVLIA AVGVSTA, draped bust of J.D. r.
Rev/ VENVS FELIX, Venus standing facing, head l., holding apple in r.h. and drawing drapery from shoulder.

Ag, 19.0 mm, 2.82 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/88 – RIC IV.1/580 [S]
ex-Roma Numismatics, jul 2011 – art. #12335
1 commentsdafnis
102155.jpg
012a. Domitia101 viewsDomitia, wife of Domitian. Augusta, 82-96 AD.

In 70, Domitia was married to Lucius Aelius Lamia, but she attracted the attention of Domitian, son of emperor Vespasian. Shortly afterwards she was taken from her husband and remarried with the future emperor. They had a son in the next year and a daughter in 74, both died young. Domitian was very fond of his wife and carried her in all his travels. In 83, Domitia Longina's affair with the actor Paris was disclosed. Paris was executed and Domitia received her letter of divorce from Domitian. She was exiled, but remained close to Roman politics and to Domitian.

CILICIA, Epiphanea. Ć 21mm (7.18 gm). Dated year 151 (83/84 AD). Draped bust right / Athena standing left, righ hand extended, left resting on shield; ANP (date) left. RPC I 1786; SNG Levante 1813; SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen -. VF, dark green patina, some smoothing. Very rare, only 1 specimen (the Levante specimen), recorded in RPC. Ex-CNG
ecoli73
Galba_AR-Den_IMP-SER-GALBA-AVG_SPQR-OB-CS_RIC-167_p-241_C-287_Rome_68-69-AD_Rare_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5-18,5mm_3,33g-s.jpg
017 Galba (68-69 A.D.), RIC I 0167, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR/OB/CS in wreath,145 views017 Galba (68-69 A.D.), RIC I 0167, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR/OB/CS in wreath,
avers: IMP-SER-GALBA-AVG, bare head right.
revers: No legends, SPQR/OB/CS legend in three lines within oak wreath.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,33g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 68-69 A.D., ref: RIC-167, p-241, C-287,
Q-001
quadrans
0173.jpg
0173 - Denarius Septimius Severus 198 AC19 viewsObv/L SEP SEVERVS PER AVG P M IMP XI, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/SALVTI AVGG, Salus seated l., feeding serpent coiled around altar.

Ag, 20.1mm, 3.56g
Mint: Eastern mint, Laodicea ad mare (?)
RIC IVa/497a [C] - BMCRE V/631
ex-Roma Numismatics, e-auction 4, lot #688
dafnis
0181.jpg
0181 - Denarius Septimius Severus 196-7 AC31 viewsObv/ L SEPT SEV PERT (AVG IMP V)III, laureate head of Septimius r.
Rev/ MVNIFICENTIA AVG, cuirassed elephant r.

Ag, 17.1 mm, 3.03 g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVa/82 [S] - BMCRE V/168
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e6, lot 364
dafnis
0187.jpg
0187 - Denarius Pompeia 137 BC67 viewsObv/Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, jug; before, X.
Rev/She-wolf suckling twins Romulus and Remus; behind, ficus Ruminalis with birds and to the l. Faustulus; around, SEX PO FOSTLVS; in ex., ROMA.

Ag, 20.6mm, 3.74g
Moneyer: Sextus Pompeius Fostlus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 235/1c [dies o/r: 127/159 (all var.)] - BMCRR Rome 927 - Pompeia 1 - Syd. 461a
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e6, lot 80
1 commentsdafnis
0197.jpg
0197 - Quadrans Tiberius 33-34 AC44 viewsObv/ TI CAESAR DIV AVG F, laureate head of Tiberius l.
Rev/ C CAESAR Q(VINQ) (IN VIN)K bare head of Caligula l.

AE, 17.5 mm, 3.08 g.
Mint: Carthago Nova.
RPC I/184 [3-4 dies]
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e11, lot 182
dafnis
0198.jpg
0198 - Nummus Constantine I 312-3 AC33 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing l., extending r. arm and holding globe with l.h.; star in field; PLN in ex.

AE, 21 mm, 3.44 g.
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/282 [C].
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e11, lot 284.
dafnis
DSC08187_DSC08191_china_10-cash_ND_o-r.JPG
02 - China, Republic - 10 Cash coin26 views-
--
The Republic of China
1920 (ND) - Ten Cash

(Titles in Chinese, some in English)

obv: Crossed Flags.

Weight: 6.5 Grams
Size: 31 mm

ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Tucson, Arizona. USA.
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*NOTE: Coin next to a modern USA State Quarter-Dollar (25 cents) in this photo for size comparison.
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rexesq
DSC08183_china_10cash_ND_w-US-25c_obv.JPG
02 - China, Republic - 10 Cash coin.19 views-
--
The Republic of China
1920 (ND) - Ten Cash

(Titles in Chinese, some in English)

obv: Crossed Flags.

Weight: 6.5 Grams
Size: 31 mm

ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Tucson, Arizona. USA.
--
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*NOTE: Coin next to a modern USA State Quarter-Dollar (25 cents) in this photo for size comparison.
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rexesq
T388aa.jpg
02 Julia Titi RIC 388103 viewsAR Denarius, 3.09g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVGVST; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 388 (C2). BMC 142. RSC 14. BNC 106.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, August 2017.

The most 'common' variant of Julia Titi's Venus denarii. However, I think RIC's frequency rating of 'C2' overstates the case. The same reverse type is also shared with Titus. Stylistic note - many of Julia's portraits have the facial features of either Titus or Domitian Caesar, this example is no exception.

Struck on a large flan in decent style.

8 commentsDavid Atherton
0206_RICII_100.jpg
0206 - Denarius Trajan 103-11 AC20 viewsObv/ IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P, laureate and draped bust of T. r.
Rev/ COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Danubius l. reclined on rocks; above, floating cape; arm resting on urn and hand on bow of boat; DANUVIVS in ex.

Ag, 20.5 mm, 3.60 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC II/100 [S] – BMCRE III/395
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction 16, lot 502.
1 commentsdafnis
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.66 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
0211_RICVII_275.jpg
0211 - Nummus Crispus 323-4 AC14 viewsObv/ CRISPVS NOBIL C, bust of C. l. with helmet and cuirass.
Rev/ BEAT TRA NQILITAS, globe above altar inscribed VOT IS XX; above, three stars; PLON in ex.

AE, 19.5 mm, 2.94 g.
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/275 - CT 9.05.025 [CC]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e27, lot 938.
dafnis
0213_.jpg
0213 - Denarius Faustina II 147-50 AC18 viewsObv/ FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL, togate bust of F. r., with high bun held by string of pearls.
Rev/ Venus togate standing l., holding apple on r.h. and l.h. leaning on rudder and dolphin.

Ag, 18.0 mm, 3.24 g
Mint: Roma
RIC III/517c [S] – BMCRE IV/1074
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction 23, lot 413 (ex-colln E.E: Clain-Stefanelli)
dafnis
0217_RICVII_290.jpg
0217 - Nummus Constantine I 323-4 AC15 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS AG, laureate bust of C. r.
Rev/ Victory advancing r. holding trophy and branch, advancing over captive on ground; around, SARMATIA DEVICTA; in ex., PLON and symbol.

AE, 20.5 mm, 3.78 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/2 [R2] - CT 10.01.003 [C]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e35, lot 1539 (ex-colln of a connoisseur)
dafnis
0218_RICVII_292.jpg
0218 - Nummus Constantine II c.324 AC17 viewsObv/ CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate bust of C. II r.
Rev/ Laurel wreath with VOT X inscribed on two lines inside; around, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM; in ex., PLON and symbol.

AE, 20.1 mm, 4.18 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/292 [C3] - CT 10.01.007 [CC]
ex-Roma Numismatics, auction e35, lot 1586
dafnis
0219_RICIV_1_228.jpg
0219 - Denarius Septimius Severus 209 AC22 viewsObv/ SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head of S.Severus r.
Rev/ PM TR P XVII COS III PP, Neptune naked standing l., cape over shoulder, foot on rock and holding trident.

Ag, 19.2 mm, 3.36 g
Mint: Roma
RIC IV.I/228 – BMCRE V/3
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction 31, lot 474
1 commentsdafnis
augustus_RIC82a.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 19-18 BC54 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS (bare head left, banker's mark on face)
rev: SIGNIS RECEPTIS (Mars standing left, head right, with aquila and standard)
ref: RIC I 82a, RSC 259 (4frcs), BMC 414.
mint: Colonia Patricia
3.41gms, 19mm
Rare

History: The Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus (53 BC, at the Battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Marc Antony (36 BC). It was considered a grave moral defeat and evil omen for the Romans. It required a generation of diplomacy before the Parthians returned them. Their return was considered a great triumph by Augustus, and celebrated like a military victory. He took an ovation entering Rome on horseback and being honoured with a triumphal arch in the year 20 BC. This coin struck in Colonia Patricia (today Cordoba, Spain).
1 commentsberserker
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)83 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
augustus_RIC373.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE as - struck by Ascinius Gallus moneyer (16 BC)67 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST (bare head right)
rev: C ASINIVS C F GALLVS III VIR AAAFF around large SC
ref: RIC I 373, Cohen 369 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
9.60gms, 25mm

Ascinius Gallus, the former moneyer was an important senator, who married Vipsania, the daughter of Agrippa. On the death of Augustus, briefly, he was offered as a possible alternate to the throne, instead of Tiberius. After the death of Vipsania, he was also an ally of Agrippina Senior, and the "leak green party," a possible plot against the throne identified by Sejanus. He was executed for treason by Tiberius during the Praetorian Prefect's nominal rule of the capital.
berserker
238-augustus as.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE as - struck by C. Plotius Rufus moneyer (15 BC)49 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST (bare head right)
rev: C PLOTIVS RVFVS III VIR AAA FF / S.C.
ref: RIC I 389, C.504 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
11.06gms, 28mm

The moneyers were called tresviri aere argento auro flando feriundo, literally "three men for striking (and) casting bronze, silver (and) copper (coins)". The title was abbreviated III. VIR. AAA. FF. on the coinage itself. These men were also known collectively known as the tresviri monetalis or sometimes, less correctly, as the triumviri monetales.
berserker
augustus_RIC381.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE dupondius - struck by Cnaeus Piso Cn F moneyer (15 BC)53 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST in wreath
rev: CN PISO CN IIIVIR A A A F F around large SC
ref: RIC I 381 (R), Cohen 378 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
10.33gms, 25mm
Rare

Augustus was awarded all the powers of the tribunate (tribunitia potestas) in addition to the governing authority of the consulate, cementing him as a supreme individual princeps, or emperor.
berserker
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-473,_C2-029,_U-374b,_Pohl_31-2,__M_REGIS_KARVLI,_Lily_L-I,_Lippa,_1330-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_14,5-14,8mm,_0,63g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01129 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-473, CNH-2-029, U-374.b, #01
avers: ✠•M•REGIS KARVLI, King, facing, helmeted; border of dots.
reverse: Large Lily, L-I, line border.
exergue, mint mark: L/I//--, diameter: 14,5-14,8mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Lipa, (today Lipova, Romania), date: 1330 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-473, CNH-2-029, Unger-374.b, Pohl-31-03,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
Anjou_Károly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD),_Denar,_H-488,_C2-044,_U-385,_Pohl_45,__M_REGIS_KAROLI,_Dragon,_1335_AD,_Q-001,_2h,_11mm,_0,33g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #0173 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-488, CNH-2-044, U-385, P-45, #01
avers: ✠ M REGIS KARVLI, Inside of the line circle, a shield with Angevin fleur-de-lis and Árpádian stripes, annulets flanking and above, line border.
reverse: Winged dragon advancing right the cross above, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,33g, axis:2h,
mint: Hungary, date: 1335 (by Pohl) A.D., ref: Huszár-488, CNH-2-044, Unger-385, Pohl-45,
Q-001


Charles Robert of Anjou
2 commentsquadrans
Karuli-1-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362b, Reverse shield !!!72 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-362b, Reverse shield !!!
avers: ✠ MOnETA REGIS KARVLI; Anjou-Hungarian (!!!) shield in circle of dots; border of dots.
reverse: Lily, bird, crowned head on either side of patriarchal cross, star and circle within crescent above; border of dots.,
exergue, mint mark: bird/bird//-- were struck by Ladislaus Gurhes, diameter: mm, weight: g,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1323 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-362b, Reverse shield !!!, CNH-2-054B, Huszár-446B, Pohl-12,
Q-001
"The reverse is in the style of the Slavonian banaldenars."
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_Den_U-376_C2-021_H-476_REX_KAROLVS_-_Q-001_h_15mm_0,92g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-376, Stilized Anjou lily, #0199 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-376, Stilized Anjou lily, #01
avers: REX•KAROLVS, Crowned bust facing; border of dots.
reverse: Lily; line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 0,92g,
mint: Hungary, Pécs ? (Pohl), date: 1332 A.D., ref: Unger-376, CNH-2-021, Huszár-476, Pohl-33,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_Obulus_U-401_C2-009_H-477_REX_KAROLVS_-_Q-001_6h_11,5mm_0,47g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-377, Stilized Anjou lily, #0191 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-377, Stilized Anjou lily, #01
avers: REX•KAROLVS, Crowned bust facing, border of dots.
reverse: Lily, line border.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter:11,5mm, weight:0,47g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs ? (Pohl), date: 1332 A.D., ref: Unger-401, CNH-2-009, Huszár-477, Pohl-34,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
OTA484-6.png
03. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC676 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.64gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
Lodovicus-I_U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,49g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0176 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-003_15mm_0,53g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #0362 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a, #03
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-003
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14,5mm_0,54g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #0174 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a-var1., #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Dot middle on the face.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var1., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var-2_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,41g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var2, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var2., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-a-var3_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_15mm_0,56g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #0168 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432a.var3, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. Polka dot pattern in headscarves and neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//-- Without mint mark was struck by Johannes Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432a-var3., CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-01,
Q-001
quadrans
Lodovicus-I__U-432-i_C2-89A_H-547_MOnETA-LODOVICI_REGIS-hVnGARIE_Q-001_14mm_0,46g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #0173 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-432i, #01
avers: ✠ MOnЄTA LODOVICI, Saracen's head left, no internal (line) border, border of dots. One-one dot beside of the neck.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS hVnGARIЄ, Patriarchal cross with dots each corner, amongst emission-marks (---), border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: •/•//-- (in avers !), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs (by Pohl), date: 1373-1382A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-432i, CNH-2-089A, Huszár-547, Pohl-89-07,
Q-001
quadrans
030__Lajos_I__AR-Gross,_U-413d,_C2-68,_H-522,_1359-64_AD_Q-001_h,_28,0mm,_g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01182 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Gross, U-413-e, #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICVS DЄI GRACIA RЄX hVnGARIЄ; king enthroned, facing, on the gothic throne in circle of dots, holding sceptre and orb, mint-mark below or by the throne; border of dots. The Saracen's head between the legs under.
reverse: ✠ DALMACIЄ : CROACIЄ : ЄTC; Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, amongst six arches, no mint-mark above the shield, emission-marks around the arches; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: Saracen's head, were struck by Jacobus Saracenus (by Pohl), diameter: 28,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Pécs/Syrmien (by Pohl), date: 1359-1364 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-413-e, CNH-2-068, Huszár-522, Pohl-59-4-a.,
Q-001


Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I__(1342-1382_AD),_H-538,_C2-86,_U-436,_P-77,_AR-Obulus,_R-E-X,_Lily,_1346-57_AD,_Q-001,_10h,_11,5mm,_0,19g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, H-538, C2-86, U-436, P-77, Rare! #0169 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Obulus, H-538, C2-86, U-436, P-77, Rare! #01
avers: R Є X, Hungarian-Anjou shield, the border of dots.
reverse: Large lily, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,19g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, , date: 1346-1367 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Huszár-538, CNH-2-086, Unger-436, Pohl-77,
Q-001

Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou
1 commentsquadrans
LarryW2407.jpg
030 Zeugitana, Carthage, 310-290 BC85 viewsElectrum shekel-didrachm, 18.5mm, 7.43g, nice VF
Head of Tanit left, wreathed with corn; she wears necklace and triple-drop earring; dot before neck / Horse standing right on exergal line; three pellets under exergual line.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Apollo Numismatics
Jenkins V, 282-2; Müller p. 84, 52
3 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Didrachm_Black~0.jpg
030/1 AR Didrachm60 viewsAnonymous. AR Didrachm. Uncertain Mint, 225-214 BC. (6.56g, 23mm, 12h) Obv: Janiform head of the Dioscuri. Rev: Jupiter, hurling thunderbolt and holding sceptre, in galloping quadriga driven by Victory; ROMA on tablet below.

Crawford 30/1; Sydenham 64.

Traces of corrosion, Good Very Fine.

Ex: Roma Numismatics

From the Andrew McCabe Collection; Ex Goodman
5 commentsPaddy
Maria,_H-565,_C2-113,_U-441,_mARIE_D_R_VnGARIE,_S_LADIS_LAVS_R,_A,_1382_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_14,5-15mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1120 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1
avers: ✠ mARIЄ•D•R VnGARIЄ, Anjou-Hungarian shield in a circle of dots, the lily on each side and above, the border of dots.
reverse: S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on the right side, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/A//--, diameter: 14,5-15,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár(by Pohl), date: 1382 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-565, CNH-2-113, Unger-441., Pohl-111, Rare!
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Maria-(1382-1387(1395)_AD)_U-443-l-var-1_C2-116_H-569_cross-mARIA_R_VnGARI_cross-mOnETA_mARIE_S_Q-001_7h_14mm_0,44g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01114 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA•mARIЄ, Patriarchal cross (inside of border of dots) with dots each corner, border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ mARIA•R•VnGARI, Crown in circle of dots, mint-master's mark (S) below, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//S, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Syrmien?, (by Pohl), date: 1386-1395A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-443-l., CNH-2-116, Huszár-569, Pohl-114-11,
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Maximian_unlist.jpg
032 - Maximian (286-305 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 404, 407 (hybrid unlisted in RIC)44 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMIANUS AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe.
Rev: PAX AVGG, Minerva standing left, leaning on shield, holding olive branch and spear.
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe, * in left field) 292-294 AD.

This coin is a hybrid between RIC 404 (as above but without the * and C(?)) and 407 (with * and C) and not listed in RIC. However Bastien lists this coin (vol 7, nr 488) with five examples cited. Not a very pretty coin but somehow interesting anyway as it turned out. Thanks to Jochen and maridvnvm of the FORUM´s classical numismatics discussion board for the info.

[Sold]
2 commentspierre_p77
Hadrian_AE-quadrans_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_COS-III-P-P-Caduceus_RIC-II-734_Rome_132-134-AD_Q-001_6h_16-17mm_2,50g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0734, Rome, AE-Quadrans, COS-III P P, Winged Caduceus, Very Rare !183 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0734, Rome, AE-Quadrans, COS-III P P, Winged Caduceus, Very Rare !
avers:- HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS, Bust of Hadrian, laureate, right.
revers:- COS III P P, Winged, Caduceus.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 2,50g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 132-134A.D., ref: RIC-II-734-p-, Very Rare !
"BMC p. 464, *, citing Cohen 506 (Gréau Sale, 6 francs).
Strack 495b: two spec. in Vatican, one in Vienna." by Curtis Clay
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_4h,_13,2-14,2mm,_0_62g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575, C2-120A, U-448, P-116, Rare! #0166 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575, C2-120A, U-448, P-116, Rare! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes, and Brandenburg eagle.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2-14,2mm, weight: 0,62g, axis:4h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575, CNH-2-120A, Unger-448, Pohl-116, Rare!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
quadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_H-575,_C2-120A,_U-448,_P-116,_mOnETSIGISmVnDI,_REGISVnGARIE_ET_C_,_1387-9AD,_Q-001,_6h,_13,5mm,_0_39g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #0167 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-575/576, C2-120A/121A, U-448/449, P-116/117, Hybrid variation, Very Rare!!! #01
avers: ✠mOnЄT SIGISmVnDI, Patriarchal (short!) cross.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS VnGARIЄ ЄT C, Four-part shield, Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle. The reverse legend is the same as the Huszár-576, CNH-2-121A, Unger-449, Pohl-117,
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Onforio Bardi(?) (by Pohl), date: 1387-1389 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-575/576, CNH-2-120A/121, Unger-448/449, Pohl-116/117, Hybrid denar, Very Rare !!!
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_H-578,_C2-124A,_U-450-fvar_,_P-118-2,_AR-Den,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_B-_L,_1436_AD,_Q-001,_8h,_15-16mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-fvar., P-118-02, #0178 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-fvar., P-118-02, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side B-•L.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: B/•L//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:8h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, Moneyer: Leonardo Bardi, date: after 1436 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-578, CNH-2-124A, Unger-450-fvar., Pohl-118-02,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_H-578,_C2-124A,_U-450-k,_P-118-4,_AR-Den,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_C-L,_1436_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_14,5-15,5mm,_0_68g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-k., P-118-04, #0168 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450-k., P-118-04, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side C-L.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: C/L//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia : Kosice), Moneyer: Ladislaus Csápy or Leonardo Bardi, date: after 1434-1436 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-578, CNH-2-124A, Unger-450-k., Pohl-118-04,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
Zsigmond,_(1387-1437_AD),_AR-Den,_U-450-g,_C2-124A,_H-578,_mOn_SIG-ISmVnDI,_REGIS_VnGARIE_ET_C_,_Q-001,_5h,_16mm,_0_53g-s.jpg
032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450.g., P-118-18, #01175 views032 Sigismund, ( Sigismund of Luxemburg)., King of Hungary, (1387-1437 A.D.) AR-Denar, H-578, C2-124A, U-450.g., P-118-18, #01
avers: mOn•SIG ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, mint-mark on each side n-*.
reverse: ✠•RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, Shield with Árpadian(Hungarian) stripes.
exergue, mint mark: n/*//--, diameter:15,0-16,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis:5h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare), date: after 1430 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-450.g., CNH-2-124A, Huszár-578, Pohl-118-18,
Q-001

Sigismund of Luxemburg
1 commentsquadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_h_,_P-127-7,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-R_over_cross,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_14-14,5mm,_0,47g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #0161 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.h., P-127-07, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-R over +, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/R over +//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Rudel by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.h., Pohl-127-07,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
2 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD)_Den_U-461-i_C2-135B_H-592_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE_-_n-S_1438-40_AD,_Q-001_6h_13,5-14,2mm_0,44g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01111 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,2mm, weight: 0,44g, axis:6h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-001
quadrans
032_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_i_,_P-127-8,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_n-S,_1440_AD,_Q-002,_11h,_14-14,5mm,_0,39g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #0261 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.i., P-127-08, #02
avers: ✠ m•ALBERTI•R•VnGARIЄ, Patriarchal Cross, n-S, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), a border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: n/S//-- , diameter: 14,0-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis:11h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania: Baia Mare, Stephanus Remetei by Pohl), date:1439 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-461-i., CNH-2-135B, Huszár-592, Pohl-127-08,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_q_,_P-127-9,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_C-Lily,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_13,5-14,5mm,_0,39g-s~0.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #0166 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.q., P-127-09, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, C-⚜, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: C/⚜//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (today Slovakia: Kosice, City coin by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.q., Pohl-127-09,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD),_AR-Den,_H-592,_C2-135B,_U-461_s_,_P-127-11,_m_ALBERTI_R_VnGARIE,_K-P,_1440_AD,_Q-001,_4h,_13,5-14,0mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #0168 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-592, C2-135B, U-461.s., P-127-11, #01
avers: ✠ m•ALBЄRTI•R•VnGARIЄ••, Patriarchal Cross, K-P, in a circle, line border.
reverse: Four-part shield (Hungarian stripes in the middle, Czech lion, Austrian band, Moravian eagle around), the border of dots,
exergue, mint mark: K/P//-- , diameter: 13,5-14,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, Konrad Polner by Pohl), date:1440 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-592, CNH-2-135B, Unger-461.s., Pohl-127-11,
Q-001
This coin was struck under the Interregnum I. (1439-1440 A.D.) with the name of Abert!
1 commentsquadrans
033_Albert_(1437-1439_AD)_Den_U-459-a_C2-134_H-591_MOnETA-ALBERTI_REGIS-_-VnGARIE-_-ETC_Q-001_16mm_0,63g-s.jpg
033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-459-a., #0182 views033 Albert., King of Hungary, (1437-1439 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-459-a., #01
avers: mOnЄTA ALBЄRTI, Patriarchal Cross, C-K, circle; border of dots.
reverse: ✠ RЄGIS•VnGARIЄ•ЄT•C•, circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: C/K//--, diameter: 16mm, weight: 0,63g, axis:h,
mint: Hungary, Kassa (Kaschau, today Kosice by Pohl), date:1438 A.D. (by Pohl),
ref: Unger-459-a., CNH-2-134, Huszár-591, Pohl-126-01,
Q-001
quadrans
V922aaa.jpg
03b Domitian as Caesar RIC 922101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.31g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 922 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Marc Walter, May 2018. Ex Künker eLive Auction 37, 20 October 2015, lot 152.

A rare obverse legend variant of the Pegasus type struck for Domitian Caesar under Vespasian. Here we have 'CAES' instead of the much more common 'CAESAR'. No reverse die links between the two different obverses have been found, perhaps suggesting the 'CAES' issue came slightly later. Out of 240 Domitian Pegasus denarii on acsearch, only 6 have the 'CAES' obverse. The reverse copies a denarius struck for Augustus (RIC 297). Mattingly speculates it refers to Domitian's poetic aspirations.

Curtis Clay's comments concerning this variant - 'I had forgotten about this variety, but find that I had written into my BMC 193: Var. CAES for CAESAR, CNG Website 6247, May 2001 (2.78g). RIC new ed. 922 calls it R2 and cites examples in Glasgow (ill. pl. 10) and Oxford.'

Struck in the very finest of styles.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
domitian as caesar rider on horse.jpg
04 Domitian as Caesar RIC 957160 viewsAR Denarius, 3.44g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V; Horseman, helmeted, in military dress, cloak floating behind him, on horse prancing r., with r. hand thrown upwards and back
RIC 957 (C2). BMC 234. RSC 49. BNC 207.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, September 2007.

Issued at a time when Domitian was aspiring to an Eastern command against the Alani, Mattingly attributes this type to that cause: The rider is Mars calling Rome to the field of battle.

Other theories suggest the rider is either Domitian or a soldier. Curtis Clay has also proposed the idea that this type may well be of a commemorative nature, since much of Vespasian's coinage are copies of past popular types.

A lovely coin in hand, the portrait was the reason this one found a home in my collection.
1 commentsVespasian70
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
csfhpar.JPG
05 Constantius II37 viewsD N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed, A behind.
FEL TEMP - REPARATIO Soldier spearing fallen horseman, Phrygian helmet, sitting on ground, arm(s) up, A left field
PAR in ex
Arles 140 Scarce.
Randygeki(h2)
IMG_4469.jpg
05 Constantius II35 viewsConstantius II
Ae 18, 3.4 g
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing a fallen horseman who is wearing Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, PARL in ex.

Unpublished


RH-CS0501
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
OTA484-3.png
05. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC480 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.12gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
050_Iulia_Domna_(_170-217_A_D_),_AE-23,_Asklepiados,_Archon,_Lydia,_Bagis,_Hygeia_and_Asklepios_Q-001_h_22,5-23,5mm_5,69g-s.jpg
050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Lydia, Bagis, Lindgen A716A., AE-23, Hygeia and Asklepios,68 views050p Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), Lydia, Bagis, Lindgen A716A., AE-23, Hygeia and Asklepios,
avers:- Draped bust right, ΙΟΥ ΔΟ ΜΝΑ CΕΒΑ,
revers:- ΕΠΙ ACKΛEΠIAΔOΥ ΑΡX A B /BAΓHNΩN, Hygeia, on left, standing right, holding serpent, facing Asklepios, on right, standing standing left, leaning on serpent-entwined staff.
exergo: -/-// HNΩN, diameter: 22,5-23,5 mm, weight: 5,69g, axis: 6h,
mint: Lydia, Bagis, date: A.D., ref: Lindgen A716A., BMC p. 37, 31 var. (legend), SNG KOP 27 49(1), Lindgren and Kovacs A716A (same dies),
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-26,_Berytus_in_Phoenecia,_BMC_183_Berytus_in_Phoenecia_Q-001_6h_26mm_13,95g-s.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Phoenicia, Berytus, BMC 183, AE-26, Poseidon striding right,66 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Phoenicia, Berytus, BMC 183, AE-26, Poseidon striding right,
avers:- M AΥP ANTΩNINOC AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- Poseidon striding right, holding trident with his left arm while he is grasping the arm of the nymph Beröe who is kneeling left; holding a small amphora with her right hand.
exe: -/-//BEP, diameter: 26mm, weight: 13,95g, axis: -h,
mint: Phoenicia, Berytus, date: , ref: BMC 183, Lindgren & Kovacs 2268,
Q-001
quadrans
015~4.JPG
06 - Nice, Alpes-Maritimes, France10 views5 francs, aluminium, 25 mm
A/ FRUITS6PRIMEURS // NICE // Fçois VIALE
R/ 5 F
Réfs : Elie 203.1
Gabalor
Galba.jpg
06 Galba51 viewsGalba Denarius. IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right / SPQR OB CS, legend in three lines within oak wreath. BMC 34, RSC 287, RIC 167. Weight 3.29 g. Die Axis 6 hr.

2 commentsmix_val
OTA484-5.png
06. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC450 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.35gms, 21mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
LarryW1921.jpg
0620v Focas, 602-61042 viewsGold solidus, 22.29mm, 4.48g, brilliant, Mint State
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
d N FOCAS PERP AV, crowned, draped and cuirased bust facing, holding globus cruciger in raised right hand / VICTORIA AVGU E, angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by chi-rho monogram in right hand and orb surmounted by cross (globus cruciger) in left; CONOB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Leu Auction 75, Zurich, 25-27 October 1999, lot 1629
cf. Sear 620; DOC 10e 1-5; MIB 9; Wroth (BMC) 10; Tolstoi 8; Ratto 1181 - all with obverse legend ending AVG
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1920.jpg
0631 Focas, 602-61024 viewsGold semissis, 20.03mm, 2.11g, EF
d N FOCAS PER AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORIA AVGU, Victory advancing right, head left, holding wreath and globus cruciger; CONOB in exg.
Scarce, some double-striking
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 631; DO 16; MIB 25; Wroth/BMC 28-9; Tolstoi 29-31; Ratto 1205; CBN 32-4
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1919.jpg
0634 Focas, 602-61044 viewsGold tremissis, 18.18mm, 1.52g, EF
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
dN FOCAS PER AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VICTORI FOCAS AVG, cross potent, CONOB beneath
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 634; DO 19; MIB 27; Wroth/BMC 30-32; Ratto 1206; CBN 40-43
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1918.jpg
0635 Focas, 602-61038 viewsGold half tremissis (1/6 solidus), 14.34mm, 0.72g, aEF
Struck c. 607-610 at Constantinople
dN FOCAS PER AV, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, beardless / VICTORI FOCAS AV, cross potent, CONOB beneath.
Extremely rare with three known specimens; the smallest gold denomination in the Byzantine series.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods; Frank Kovacs
Sear 635; cf. DOC 20; cf. MIB 29
Lawrence Woolslayer
RI 064fi img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -82 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_064fi_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064ft img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)48 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_132ft_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)9 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI 064cs img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 350A23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE pg 83, RIC 350A (Rare), RSC 338a

[SOLD]
maridvnvm
RI_064cv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (6)27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI PRAE ORBIS, Jupiter, seated left, holding Victory and sceptre, at feet eagle
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (6) (Rare), Cohen 240 (6 Francs)

2.87g, 17.33mm, 0o

Shares the same reverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Collection but his example has the more common COS II obverse die. One of the scarcer reverse types.
maridvnvm
LarryW1906.jpg
0658 Focas, 602-61043 viewsBronze follis, 32.24mm, 11.51g, gVF
Struck 603-604 at Nicomedia
d m [FOCA - PE]R AVG, bust facing wearing consular robes and crown with cross on circlet, mappa in right, eagle tipped scepter in left / XXXX, ANNO above, II right, NIKO A in exg
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Harlan Berk
Unpublished with this date: year 2. cf. Sear 658 (years 3 and 4)
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1905.jpg
0666 Focas 602-61047 viewsBronze three-quarter follis (30 nummi), 26.3mm, 10.1g, EF
Struck at Cyzikus, 609-610
[d N FOCAS] PERP AVG, bust facing wearing cuirass, paludamentum, and crown with pendilia and cross on circlet / large XXX, cross above, stigma II (year 8) right, KYZ A in exg. Very rare type, some flatness in the striking.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins; Harlan Berk
Sear 666v; DO 77, note (Longuet collection); MIB 77 (citing two specimens -- Birmingham and Longuet collection)
Lawrence Woolslayer
10624v.jpg
068 AD., Galba, Rome mint, Æ As, RIC 510.155 viewsGalba, Rome mint, 68 AD. (November),
Ć As (26-27 mm / 10.49 g),
Obv.: SER SVLPI GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P , laureate head of Galba right.
Rev.: S - C , Victoria walking left, r. holding wreath and l. palm.
RIC 510 .

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
IMG_2578.JPG
07 Constantius Gallus27 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS NOB CS, BDC, FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, no beard, Phrygian helmet, reaching. SMKB in ex

Cyzikus 107

better pic
Randygeki(h2)
dom_as_caesar_salus_and_snake.jpg
07 Domitian as Caesar RIC-108487 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1084 (C2). BMC 265. RSC 384. BNC 237.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, July 2008.

A most puzzling reverse type issued during the last months of Vespasian's reign before he died on June 24th. Perhaps a reference to Vespasian's illness and his hopeful recovery.

Worn and average with a good portrait.
vespasian70
Galba_RIC_I_168_Clashed_Dies.jpg
07 Galba RIC I 168 Clashed dies25 viewsGalba. AR Denarius. Rome Mint July 68- Jan. 69 A.D. (3.29g, 19.6m, 11h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, laureate head right. Rev: [SPQR/OB]/CS in three lines in oak-wreath. Reverse clashed dies. RIC I 168 (R). RSC 287a.

With complete obverse legends and a high relief portrait, the obverse is worn and the coin is on an oblong flan. The reason I added this to my collection is the reverse. I initially thought the reverse was an obverse brockage, which had been restruck. A more experienced collector pointed out it was produced by clashed dies. An interesting oddity.
Lucas H
galba,_RIC_I_167.jpg
07 Galba, RIC I 16749 viewsGalba July, 68-Jan., 69. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Aug-Oct 68 A.D. (3.07g, 17.8mm, 6h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, bare head right. Rev: SPQR OB CS in 3 lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167, RSC 287, Sear 2109.

Upon the death of Nero, Galba’s troops proclaimed him emperor on April 3, 68 A.D. Governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, he marched on Rome and assumed the throne, but was assassinated in a plot by Otho on January 15, 69 beginning the year of 4 emperors.
1 commentsLucas H
RI_071ae_img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus denarius - RIC 8737 viewsElagabalus Denarius
Obv:– IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, horned, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– INVICTVS SACERDOS AVG, Elagabalus standing holding patera over an altar and branch. Star in right field. Horn on ground to his left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 222
Reference– BMC 209 note. RIC 87 (where it is rated Common citing Cohen). RSC III 58. Cohen 58 (illustrated with star in right field) valued at 50 Fr. No examples in RD.
ex Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG Sale 42, Lot 379, 20th November 2007, ex Barry Feirstein Collection, previously privately purchased from Harlan J. Berk.
Described as Lightly toned and good extremely fine by NAC.
21 mm. 3.11 gms. 0 degrees.

The coin would certainly seem to be scarcer than the "Common" rating given in RIC would imply. No examples in RD, only one example on acsearch (this coin). No examples on Wildwinds (the RIC 87 there would appear to be in error).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
IMG_2215.JPG
08 Constantius II91 viewsConstantius II
351 AD
Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, Pearl diademed draped cuirassed bust right
Reverse: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman bearded, two braids, reaching , SMH Delta in ex., Gamma in left field
22.76 mm 6.2 grams
RIC VIII 82 Heraclea Failmezger 461 CS f

ex Failmezger
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
VHC08-coin.jpg
08- CANADA, 25 CENTS, KM5.20 viewsSize: 28 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.1728 oz. Mintage: 640,000.
Grade: NGC VF30 (Cert.# 4080257-002, Ex-ICCS VF20).
Comments: Purchased in an ICCS holder from eBay, later crossed to NGC.
lordmarcovan
Philip-I-RIC-086a.jpg
08. Philip I.41 viewsAntoninianus, 248 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: SAECVLVM NOVVM / Hexastyle temple with seated statue of Roma.
4.25 gm., 21 mm.
RIC 86a.

This particular reverse type seems to be the only one of the Millennium types to have been minted in Antioch. Characteristics of the Antioch mint on this coin include a left-facing bust and the long obverse legend.
The temple is the Temple of Roma in Rome, begun by Hadrian and complete by Antoninus Pius in 141 AD.
1 commentsCallimachus
84a.jpg
084a Soloninus. AR antoninianus20 viewsobv: SAL VALERIANVS CS rad. drp. bust r. seen from behind
rev: PRINC IVVENT prince std. l. holding batoned spear to r. ensign
hill132
09_Vespasian_RIC_75_(C)Black.jpg
09 Vespasian RIC 75 (C)41 viewsVespasian 69-79 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 74 A.D. (3,2 g, 17 mm) Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PON MAX TR P COS V, winged caduceus.

RIC 75 (C); RSC 362; BMC 138.

Ex: Aeternitas Numismatics
2 commentsPaddy
13451109_10153868296659011_1483308958_n.jpg
09 Vespasian RIC 81832 viewsVespasian 69-79 AD. AE Dupondius. Rome Mint. 75 AD. (12.00g; 26.5mm) Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M P P COS VI, Radiate head right. Rev: FELICITAS PVBLICA S-C, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus & cornucopiae.
RIC 818; C 154

Ex: Naville Numismatics
1 commentsPaddy
10900vn.jpg
092-094 AD., Domitian, Rome mint, As, Virtus, RIC 409.115 viewsDomitian, Rome mint, 92-94 AD.,
Ć As (25-27 mm / 10.98 g),
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P , radiate head of Domitian right.
Rev.: VIRTVTI - AVGVSTI / S - C , Virtus standing right, holding spear and parazonium, left foot on helmet.
RIC 409 ; C 658 .

my ancient coin database
3 commentsArminius
LarryW1922.jpg
0956 Contans II, AD 641-66850 viewsGold solidus, 19.44mm, 4.49g, nearly EF
Struck c. 651-654 at Constantinople
d N CONSTAN[TINU]S PP AV, crowned bust facing, with long beard and mustache, wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand / VICTORIA AVGU I, cross potent on three steps; CO[NOB] beneath.
Areas of flatness in the striking
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Glenn W. Woods
Sear 956; DOC 19j; MIB 23; Wroth/BMC 36; Tolstoi 57; CBN 41
Lawrence Woolslayer
nerva sest-.jpg
096-098 AD - NERVA AE sestertius - struck 97 AD101 viewsobv: IMP NERVA CAES AVG PMTRP COS III PP (laureate head right)
rev: FORTVNA AVGVST (Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 83, C.67 (5frcs)
23.16gms, 33mm
2 commentsberserker
nerva dup-.jpg
096-098 AD - NERVA restitution AE dupondius - struck 96-98 AD46 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS
rev: IMP NERVA CAES AVG REST (rudder superimposed on globe)
ref: RIC 131 (Nerva), C.568 (15frcs)
Rare

Restitutions, or restored coins, is a name given to pieces of money copied from other pieces struck in the past. Nerva restored none of his predecessors’ coins except this to Augustus.
berserker
LarryW1925.jpg
0964 Constans II, AD 641-66853 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.31g, EF
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU Δ, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius (on right), both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CONOB in exergue. Some surface deposits on obverse and a little flatness in the striking affecting both sides.
Certificate of Authenticy by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 964; DOC 30d; MIB 31; Wroth (BMC) 55; Tolstoi 293
Lawrence Woolslayer
trajan as2.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE as - struck 103-111 AD46 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (laureate head right, draped far shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Pax standing left holding branch & cornucopiae, foot on Dacian captive), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 503, C.408(2frcs)
8.76gms, 25mm
berserker
traian as4.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE as - struck 103-111 AD49 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS II PP (laureate head right)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Annona standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopiae; modius with grain ears and prow at her feet), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 492, C.470(3frcs)
11.63gms, 26mm
berserker
trajan as-victory.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE as - struck 99-100 AD43 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM (laureate head right)
rev: TRPOT COS III PP (Victory walking left, carrying shield inscribed SPQR), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 417, C.628(2frcs), Sear RCV (2000 Edition) #3242
10.49gms, 26mm

This issue was struck under his military operations on the Rhine, or somewhat later when he visited Danubian Provinces before entered Rome.
berserker
trajan dup-trophy.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 103-111 AD40 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA ET TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (radiate head right)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (trophy, two shields at base), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 587, C.574(3frcs), BMC906
12.54gms, 27mm
berserker
trajan dup-SPQR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 104-110 AD64 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (radiate head right)
rev: SPQR / OPTIMO / PRINCIPI / S.C. in wreath
ref: RIC II 477, C.584(2frcs)
11.12gms, 26,5mm
berserker
trajan RIC623-R.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 112-114 AD137 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS VI PP (radiate bust right with aegis, drapery on far shoulder)
rev: DACIA AVGVST (Dacia seated left on rock, holds aquila. At her side a child holding corn, in front a child holding grapes), PROVINCIA and S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 623 (S), C.126 (3frcs)
11.36gms, 26mm
Rare

History: D. Terentius Scaurianus, the first governor of Dacia (106–110/112 AD) started to organize the province and it had finished to 112 AD. Scaurianus executed the measures what required to becoming Dacia to the part of the Roman Empire, did the census and the land survey of the conquered areas, even made also several roads. This type of coin is the evidence of that works.
berserker
trajan dupond RIC411.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 99-100 AD47 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM PM (radiate head right)
rev: TR POT COS III PP (Abundantia seated left with scepter, on chair formed of two cornuacopiae), S-C in ex
ref: RIC II 411 (C), C.629(2frcs)
12.40gms, 26mm

After cleaning this coin looks like this, a multi-layered brass dupondius.
berserker
trajan mines coin RIC709-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 104-110 AD72 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC (laureate head right)
rev: METALLI VLPIANI (Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia)
ref: RIC II 709 (R2), Cohen 182 (30frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm
Very rare

Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the name of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Others theorize that these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function,much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. The exact denomination is unclear. Most appear to be quadrans in the 14-17mm range but some larger examples could be considered semisses.
berserker
trajan quadrans RIC691.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 107 AD45 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIANO AVG (laureate bust right)
rev: she-wolf walking right, S-C in ex
ref: RIC II 691 (S), Cohen 338 (6frcs)
3.26gms, 16mm
Scarce
berserker
trajan quadrans RIC704-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 99-102 AD50 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG (laureate head right)
rev: DARDANICI (woman standing left, holding branch and gathering up drapery)
ref: RIC II 704 (R2), C.139 (30frcs), BMCRE 1106 note
mint: Dardanian mines
2.90gms, 16mm
Very rare

Dardania was a region situated in Moesia Superior. For the Romans this was the mining province par excellence; were divided into several mining districts managed by the procuratores. It is unknown why these coins were struck, though many feel that they were made for use at the mines themselves, as payment for the workers. The original denomination of this coin is uncertain.
berserker
trajan sest2.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD43 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (laureate head right)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Spes standing left with flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 519, Cohen 459(4frcs)
27.14gms, 33mm
berserker
trajan RIC564.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD96 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP (laureate head right, drapery at left shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Dacia, in attitude of mourning, seated left on pile of arms; trophy before), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 564, Cohen 534(4frcs), BMC 785
24.33gms, 33mm
1 commentsberserker
trajan_RIC642.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD71 viewsobv: [IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP] (laureate, draped bust right)
rev: [ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA IN POTESTATEM P R REDACTAE] (Trajan standing to the front, head turned right, holding spear and parazonium; on both sides of him and reclining are the three females figures, Armenia, Euphrates, Tigris), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 642 (R), BMC 1039, C.39 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
22.41gms, 33mm
Rare

History: Trajan declared war against the Parthians, after overrunning Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, he defeated in every encounter, establishing several governments, and thereby gaining from the Roman Senate the title of Parthicus.

This coin is worn enough, even the legends are disappeared, too, but shows the result about one of the most impotant Roman conquest.
berserker
trajan sest.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 112-117 AD47 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS VI PP (laureate head right)
rev: SENATVS POPVLVSQVE ROMANVS (Fortuna seated left with rudder & cornucopiae), FORT RED below, S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 651, C.157(4frcs)
25.00gms, 33.5mm
berserker
trajan_RIC243.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR denarius - struck 112-114 AD132 viewsobv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI PP (laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Abundantia standing left, holding cornucopiae and grain ears; at her feet, a child holding a roll), in ex. ALIM ITAL [Alimenta Italiae]
ref: RIC II 243, C.9 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.91gms, 19mm

The Alimenta was a welfare program for poor children and orphans. Credit for designing the program is usually attributed to Nerva, but it was increased and formally organized under Trajan. The Alimenta was funded from several sources. Probably, money from the Dacian Wars was used to initially underwrite the program; however, the long-term existence of the program was insured through 5% interest paid by wealthy landowners on loans and estate taxes. Philanthropy was also encouraged and contributed to the total funding.
Under Alimenta, boys of freemen received 16 sesterces monthly, girls received 12, while children borne out of wedlock received a bit less. The Alimenta was supplemented with a special young girls foundation initiated by Antoninus Pius in honor of his deceased wife Faustina. Municipal magistrates administered the alimentary funds and in turn were supervised by imperial clerks who had the status of knights.
1 commentsberserker
traian quinar01.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR quinar - struck 114-117 AD61 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.NER.TRAIANO.OPTIMO.AVG. GER.DAC
rev: P.M.TR.P.COS.VI.P.P.SPQR
ref: RIC351, C.282 (10frcs)
1.62gms, 14mm
Rare
berserker
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar161 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
2750063-1.jpg
1) Julius Caesar24 viewsIMPERATORIAL ROME
Julius Caesar
AR Denarius (16mm, 2.97 g, 11h)
42 BC. Posthumous issue. Rome mint. L. Mussidius Longus, moneyer.

Laureate head right / Rudder, cornucopia on globe, winged caduceus, and flamen’s cap.

Crawford 494/39b; CRI 116; Sydenham 1096c; RSC 29. Fine, porous, bankers’ marks on obverse.

Property of Princeton Economics acquired by Martin Armstrong. Ex Stack’s (3 December 1996), lot 769.

Ex CNG
RM0008
1 commentsSosius
LarryW1834.jpg
100 Kingdom of Bosporus, Rhescuporis II (III), AD 211–22688 viewsElectrum stater, 7.84g, nearly EF
Struck AD 215/6 at Panticapaeum
BACIΛEWC PHCKOVΠOPIΔOC, diademed and draped bust right; club before / Laureate and draped bust of bearded Caracalla right, BIΦ below.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex; Freeman & Sear
MacDonald 555/2; Frolova 200, pl. 45, 14 (same dies); Sear GIC 5482v (date)
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
850_P_Hadrian_RPC1005.jpg
1005 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple19 viewsReference
RPC III, 1005/2; vA 285

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Radiate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Reverse design octastyle temple on podium of two steps; in pediment, clipeus

11.89 gr
26 mm
6h

Note
Pegasi Numismatics 2017, Auction 36 lot 316 2017 From Hoffman collection
CNG 2011, Auction lot 232 From the Deyo Collection.
CNG 2004, MBS 66, lot 1064
GM 1997, Auction 81, lot 477
Lanz 1995, Auction 74, lot 513
okidoki
coin285.JPG
104a. Faustina 32 viewsFaustina I

Annia Galeria Faustina, "the Elder", was the wife of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, an aunt of Marcus Aurelius, and mother of Faustina the Younger. She was the daughter of the consul Marcus Annius Verus, and married Antoninus around 110 AD. They had two sons and two daughters. She became Augusta upon the accession of her husband. Although Augustan History impugned her character, criticizing her for "excessive frankness" and "levity", she and Antoninus seem to have been happily married until her death in 140 or 141

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: AVGVSTA (Pietas standing left with raised hand, altar at foot left)
ref: RIC III 374 (Ant.Pius), RSC 124 (2frcs)

Corrected attribute...
ecoli
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_CONCORD-MILIT_starCstarP_RIC-V-I-342-RIC-Temp-2949-2nd-off-5th-iss_Cyzicus_272-AD_Q-001_11h_22-23mm_4,35g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2949, RIC V-I 342, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA MILITVM, -/-//*C*, Emperor and Jupiter,66 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, T-2949, RIC V-I 342, Cyzicus, -/-//*C*, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor and Jupiter,
avers:- IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed (B1).
revers:- CONCORD MILIT, Emperor in military dress stg. r., holding short sceptre in l. hand, receiving a globe from Jupiter stg. l., holding long sceptre in l. hand.
exerg: -/-//*C*, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 4,35g, axes: 11h,
mint: Cyzicus, iss-5th, off-2nd, date: 272-A.D., ref: T-2949 (Estiot), RIC V-I 342,
Q-002
quadrans
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina50 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
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107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
11_Domitian_RIC_II_721Black.jpg
11 Domitian RIC II 72149 viewsDomitian 81-96 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 90-91 AD. (3,3 g, 15,5 mm) Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P X, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XXI COS XV CENS P P P, Minerva standing left with thunderbolt & spear, shield at foot.

RIC II 721; RSC 264; BMC 184.

Ex: Aeternitas Numismatics
1 commentsPaddy
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England34 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 4
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
1 comments*Alex
1180-1189_Henry_II_Penny_Short-cross.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR Short-cross Penny, Struck 1180 - 1189 at Winchester, England6 viewsObverse: HENRICVS • REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry II holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GOCELM • ON • WIN. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Gocelm, which is a name of Germanic Frankish origin.
Issue type Class 1b
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1344

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' or 'Tealby' coinage was introduced in England. While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when the short-cross penny, a new style coin of much better workmanship, was introduced.

On the night of 14th/15th July 1180 the Winchester mint burnt down, and the fire spread to ‘the greater and better part’ of the city. The production of the new Short Cross coinage had just started earlier in 1180, and Winchester evidently only had one centralized mint building from the beginning of the new coinage. At the time of the fire the mint appears to have had four moneyers (Clement, Gocelm, Henri, and Rodbert), and Short Cross Class Ia2 was in production. After the fire some of the mint’s obverse dies of Classes Ia1 and Ia2 were used at the Wilton mint, apparently as an emergency measure. The coinage of the moneyer Henri ends abruptly at this time and he seems to have been replaced by Adam, whose known issues start in Class Ia2, and at Wilton in Class 1a2 it looks like Osbert replaced Iohan. Osbert continued to issue coins in Winchester after the fire, but he seems to have been regarded as a Wilton moneyer allowed to use the facilities of the Winchester mint. The Winchester coinage of Osbert and three other moneyers (Clement, Reinier, and Rodbert) whose issues end in Class Ib1 was probably restricted to the recoinage of 1180 to 1182. After that only two moneyers remained striking Class Ib2 at Winchester (Adam and Gocelm), and from 1183 to 1184 these moneyers were responsible for a rent of 2 marks each per annum for the use of the mint building.
1 comments*Alex
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Moneyers: Hue (cognate with the modern English name of Hugh) and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
hadrian_RIC546b.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE as - struck 118 AD54 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.DIVI.TRA.PARTH.F.DIVI NER.NEP.TRAIANO.HADRIANO.AVG (laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder)
rev: PONT.MAX.TR.POT.COS.II (legionary eagle between two standards), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 546b (S), C.1182 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
8.68gms, 28mm
Scarce

History: Quintus Marcius Turbo (who was governor of Pannonia [117-118] and later became Hadrian's praetorian prefect) successfully led II Adiutrix against the Sarmatians in 118, this coin probably commemorated the succesfull campaign.
1 commentsberserker
hadrian_quadrans_RIC977(S).jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE quadrans - struck 134-138 AD43 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: COS III (legionary eagle between two standards), S-C in field
ref: RIC 977 (S), Cohen 450 (4frcs)
2.12gms, 16mm
Rare

A very decent and affordable example of this very scarce denomination for Hadrian.
berserker
hadrian_RIC779b.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AE sestertius - struck 134-138 AD76 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP (laureate head right)
rev: - (Nemesis standing right, holding fold of dress with right hand and branch pointed downward in left), S-C across field
ref: RIC II 779b (S), C.1372 (12frcs), BMCRE 1549
mint: Rome
20.57gms, 30mm
Scarce

A nice and scarce Hadrian bronze. This coin shows the original condition with original patina, there’s no corrections or special matters for sharping, and better in hand than the picture allows.
1 commentsberserker
Hadrianus RIC222v.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 134-138 AD34 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS (bare head left)
rev: TRANQVILLITAS AVG COS III P P (Tranquillitas standing left with spear and resting arm on column)
ref: RIC II 222v, C.1439 (2frcs)
2.84gms
Rare
In RIC II there's no 'g'(=bare head left), this is a 222 version.
berserker
hadrian_RIC306d.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 134-138 AD54 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P (laureate head right)
rev: HISPANIA (Hispania reclining left, resting on rock, holding branch, rabbit at her feet)
ref: RIC II 306d, RSC 837 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
2.53gms, 18mm
Scarce
A scarce denarius - part of the famous 'travel series'. Hadrian visited to Hispania at the end of 122 AD, spent the winter at Tarraco (today Tarragona), and here he restored at his own expense the temple of Augustus. He was also in Gades (Cadiz) and Italica (Sevilla), where was the birthplace of emperor Trajan. Hadrian was generous to his settled town, which he made a colonia; he added temples, including a Trajaneum venerating Trajan, and rebuilt several public buildings.
berserker
hadrian_RIC282.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 134-138 AD40 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P (laureate head right)
rev: VICTORIA AVG (Victory advancing right, pulling fold on upper part of dress and pointing branch downwards)
ref: RIC II 282 (C), C.1454 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
3.43gms, 19mm

This coin is probably commemorate the victory of Romans in Bar Kokhba revolt.
berserker
hadrian quinar-.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR quinar - struck 119-122 AD41 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
rev: PM TRP COS III (Victory left, holding wreath & palm)
ref: RIC103, C.1126 (10frcs)
1.25g, 14mm
Rare
berserker
0010-061-2000.jpg
1174 - L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, Denarius 64 viewsRome mint, 90 BC
Laureate head of Apollo right, Δ below chin
Naked horseman galloping right, holding whip; above swan. L.PISO.FRUGI / ROMA at exergue
3,93 gr - 18,8 mm
Ref : RCV # 235, RSC # 12b, RRC # 340/1-Calpurnia 12b-symbol 166
Ex. Naville Numismatics
5 commentsPotator II
1189_-_1199_Richard_I_AR_Denier.JPG
1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France45 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cśur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England22 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer: Andrev, cognate with the modern English name of Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland11 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
Diocletianus_AE-29_IMP-DIOCLETIANVS-P-F-AVG_SACRA-MONET-AVG-G-ET-CAES-S-NOSTR_-A_CrescSIS_Siscia-RIC-VI-138a_var__p-469_303-AD_Q-001_1h_28-29,5mm_9,56-s.jpg
119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 138a, AE-Follis, -/A/ᴗSIS, SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #1135 views119a Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 138a, AE-Follis, -/A/ᴗSIS, SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR, Moneta standing left, #1
avers: IMP DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: SACRA MONET AVG G ET CAES S NOSTR, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.
exergue: -/A/ᴗSIS, diameter: 28,0-29,5mm, weight: 9,56g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date:303 (?) A.D., ref: RIC VI 138a, p-469,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
LarryW1801.jpg
120 Honorius, AD 393–423162 viewsGold solidus, 21.2mm, 4.43g, FDC
Struck c. 408-420 at Constantinople
D N HONORI—VS P F AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / CONCORDI—A AVCC Γ, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, head right, right foot on ship's prow, holding scepter in right hand, Victory on globe in left. Star in left field, CON OB in exergue.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC X, 201; Cohen 3; DO 778v (off B)
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)3 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
121b.jpg
121b Cocstantine I. AE follis 3.1gm19 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: BEATA TRAN_QVILLITAS globe set on alter inscribed VOT/IS/XX above three stars
ex: STR
hill132
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland18 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England16 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)19 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
039~8.JPG
13 - Marseille, France11 views4 francs, laiton, 35 mm.
A/ J. ETCHEPARE - 4 Fs - MARSEILLE
Réfs : Elie 285.1
Gabalor
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.25 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)98 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.62 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Edward_II_AR_Penny_Bury_St_Edmunds.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1307 at Bury St. Edmunds, England4 viewsObverse: + EDWAR R ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: VILL SCI EDMVNDI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.37gms | Die Axis: 12
Rare mint
SPINK: 1465

Class 11c penny with angular backs to C and E's in legends.

Edward II was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England and when Edward I died in July 1307 Edward II became king because his three elder brothers were already dead. Edward II was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.
Unfortunately Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, the best known being Piers Gaveston who he recalled from exile, Edward I having banished him to France due to his bad influence on his son. Furthermore, Edward II gave Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, a title which had previously only been conferred on royalty.
Opposition to the king and his favourite began almost immediately, and in 1311 the nobles issued the 'Ordinances', in an attempt to limit royal control of finance and appointments. Gaveston was twice exiled at the demand of the barons, only for him to return to England shortly afterwards. However, in 1312, he was captured by the barons and executed.
In 1314, Edward invaded Scotland where he was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. So bad was this for Edward's rule that by the following year parts of England had fallen into anarchy and power was in the hands of the barons headed by Edward's cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who had virtually made himself the real ruler of England.
By 1318, Edward and Lancaster had been partly reconciled, but the king now had two new favourites, Hugh le Despenser and his son. When Edward supported the two Despensers' ambitions in Wales the barons banished both father and son. This prompted Edward to fight back and he defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322, Lancaster was executed him and the Despensers were called back to Edward's court.
But now, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, emerged as a focus of opposition. In 1325, she was sent on a diplomatic mission to France where she met and became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled opponent of Edward. In September 1326, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England. There was virtually no resistance and the Despensers were captured and executed. Defeated, Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward who was crowned Edward III in January 1327.
Edward II was imprisoned at Berkeley Castle and later murdered there.
*Alex
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. However Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston and in 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms which included Gaveston being banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Edward's wife, Isabella, was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reputedly horrifically murdered on the orders of the new regime by having a red hot poker inserted into his rectum.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
131p.jpg
131p Cstantius II. AE Centenionalis 9 viewsobv: DN CONSTAN_TIVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. bust l. holding globe
rev: EL TEMP REPARATIO emp. holding eagle-tipped scepter, two captives at feet
ex: ALEA
hill132
RI 132cs img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 118 var. - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (D, retrograde, in right field)53 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Lugdunum (D, retrograde, in right field) Emission 9, Officina 4. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 404. Bastien 436. RIC 118 var. Bust type C.
maridvnvm
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England12 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
1327_-_1377_Edward_III_billon_denier_au_leopard.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, Billon Denier au Leopard, struck 1327 - 1362 at Bordeaux, France6 viewsObverse: + EDVARDVS : REX around beaded inner circle containing legend ANGL between two lines, Leopard facing left above, trefoil of pellets below. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: + DVX AQITANIE around beaded inner circle containing cross pattée. Cross pattée in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.70gms | Die Axis: 3
Second type issue. Very Rare
SPINK: 8090 | Elias: 95c (RR)

Unlike English silver coins which, with few exceptions were maintained at sterling fineness, these small denomination continental coins were often debased. At the time of issue they would have had a good silver appearance, but after some use their color darkened, hence they became known as “Black Money”.
Black money coins were hastily produced in large numbers and often poorly struck. They were the common circulating medium at the time and consequently they became very worn so that, during the ensuing years during which there were frequent re-coinages, they were the first into the melting pot. Surviving examples are therefore now quite rare and most of those that have survived are of a low grade.

*Alex
aelius caesar.jpg
136-138 AD - AELIUS Caesar AR denarius - struck 137 AD47 viewsobv: L AELIVS CAESAR (bare head right)
rev: TR POT COS II (Concordia seated left, holding patera and leaning on cornucopiae), CONCORD in exergue.
ref: RIC II 436 (Hadrian), RSC 1 (12frcs), BMCRE 981(Hadrian)
Scarce
2.91gms, 18mm

Lucius Ceionius Commodus, a sleek Senator from a distinguished Roman family, was plucked from obscurity by Hadrian in 136 and named as his chosen successor, with the adoptive name Lucius Aelius Caesar. The adoption was marked by the appropriate games and ceremonies, but it soon became evident the young heir was consumptive, leading Hadrian to remark that he'd blown several million sesterces to no purpose. As governor of Pannonia did Aelius no good, the wet, frigid climate worsening his condition. In January 138, Aelius died.
berserker
ROBERT_II_AR_Groat_of_Perth.JPG
1371 – 1390, Robert II, AR Groat minted at Perth, Scotland5 viewsObverse: + ROBERTVS DEI GRA REX SCOTORVM. Crowned bust of Robert II facing left, sceptre topped with a lis and with a star at its base before, within double tressure of six arches broken at the king's neck, small trefoils in spandrels, surrounded by beaded inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattée in legend and small crosses in spaces between words. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Reverse: + DnS PTECTOR MS ┼ LIBATOR MS (God is my protector and redeemer) / VILLA DE PERTh X. Long cross pattée dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, pierced mullet in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, cross pattées in both inner and outer legends, but cross set as saltire in inner legend, small cross over crescent after DnS in outer legend. The whole within beaded outer circle.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
SPINK: 5136 | SCBI: 35, 460-72

Robert II's coinage was maintained at the same standard and in the same general style as that of David’s last issue, but coins were struck at Perth and Dundee in addition to those of the Edinburgh mint.

Robert II was the first Scottish king of the Stewart line, he was the son of Walter, the sixth hereditary High Steward of Scotland, and of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Robert II acted as regent during part of the period of imprisonment in England of David II and was himself imprisoned in England when Edward III was declared to be David’s successor. The Scots never accepted this arrangement and, after several years of secret negotiations between David II and Edward III, in 1370 Robert was released. He peacefully succeeded to the throne on David II's death the following year.
Robert II succeeded to the throne at the age of 54 and was viewed by many in his kingdom as past his best. In November 1384 he was effectively deposed by his eldest son John, Earl of Carrick. John, however, was seriously injured after being kicked by a horse, and Robert II's second son, Robert, Earl of Fife, later the Duke of Albany, was appointed as Guardian of Scotland instead. Robert II died at Dundonald Castle on 19 April 1390, and was buried at Scone. He was succeeded by his son John, who confusingly took the name Robert III, probably because in Scotland "John" was a name too closely associated with John Balliol, the erstwhile protégé of Edward I.
*Alex
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England9 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
126-antpius as.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD56 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: IMPERATOR II / S.C. (Victory advancing left, holding shield inscibed BRITAN)
ref: RIC III 732, C.442 ( 6frcs)
11.71gms, 27mm, brass
Scarce
1 commentsberserker
antpius as-concordia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD62 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (Concordia standing left, holding Victory and aquila)
ref: RIC III 678, C.140 (2frcs)
10.26gms, 26mm

This reverse symbolises the concord between the emperor and the army. The reign of Antoninus Pius was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, the Moors in Mauretania (AD150), the Jews in Iudaea (for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar, after the Bar Kokhba revolt), the Brigantes in Britannia (AD 140-145, the Antonine Wall being built ca. 40 miles further north), the different Germanic tribes at the Germania limes, the Alans in Dacia (AD158), and had to put down rebellions in the provinces of Achaia and Egypt (AD154).
berserker
antpius as-apollo.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 145-161 AD39 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: - / S.C. (Apollo standing left, holding patera & lyre)
ref: RIC III 824, C.748 (6frcs)
9.23gms, 25mm
Scarce
berserker
antpius_RIC1039.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 159-160 AD38 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIII (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII (Genius of the Senate standing on cippus within arched temple), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1039 (S), Cohen337 (5frcs)
10.21gms, 23mm
Rare

According to Cohen this temple is a tetrastyle (four columns) design, but just the front columns with the Victories are visible on the coin's reverse. The statue on cippus is maybe Antoninus as personification of Genius?
berserker
antpius dup-aequitas.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE dupondius - struck 149 AD42 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XII (radiate head right)
rev: COS IIII / S.C. (Aequitas standing left holding scales & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 858, C.233 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
13.18gms, 26mm, brass
berserker
antpius dup-indulgentia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE dupondius - struck 153-154 AD74 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XVII (radiate head right)
rev: INDVLGENTIA AVG COS IIII / S.C. (Indulgentia seated left, extending right hand & holding scepter)
ref: RIC III 919, C.455 (2frcs)
13.51gms, 25mm, brass
berserker
antpius sest-victory.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 143-144 AD86 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (laureate head right)
rev: IMPERATOR II / S.C. (Victory flying right, holding trophy in both hands)
ref: RIC III 717, C.433(4frcs)
mint: Rome
23.01gms, 30mm, brass
2 commentsberserker
405-antpius.JPG
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 145-161 AD79 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS IIII (laureate head right)
rev: - / S.C. (Minerva advancing right brandishing javelin & holding shield)
ref: RIC III 779, C.745 (4frcs)
27.54gms, 33mm, brass
berserker
antpius sest-liberalitas.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 147-148 AD101 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII around, S-C on platform, [LIBERALITAS / AVG IIII] in exergue (Emperor seated on platform with outstretched hand, officer behind him, Liberalitas holding account board (abacus) and cornucopiae before him, citizen at left below, receiving generosity, holding out fold of toga)
ref: RIC III 774, Cohen 498 (30frcs)
27.11gms, 30mm, brass
Rare

A rare historical issue with a remarkable reverse "propaganda" type. In this case, it celebrates the emperor's largesse during one of his famous nine donatives, known as "congiaria", to the citizens of Rome. Although originally these donatives were in liquid (oil and wine), by Pius' time they commonly took the form of cash. Aiding the emperor here by communicating the gifts to the citizens is the personification of generosity, Liberalitas.
berserker
antpius sest-.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 149 AD34 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII (laureate bust right)
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, COS IIII in exergue, S C across field (crossed cornucopiae from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of two boys, vis-á -vis)
ref: RIC III 857, Cohen 813 (8frcs), BMC 1825note
23.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

The infants are thought to represent T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in 149 AD. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.
The coin is before cleaning.
berserker
antpius den01-.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 139 AD32 viewsobv: ANTONINVS [AVG] PIVS PP (bare head right)
rev: TR P[OT] COS II (modius with two grain ears & poppy)
ref: RIC III 44, RSC834 (3frcs)
3.26gms, 18mm,
Scarce
berserker
antpius_RIC73.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD40 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (laureate head right)
rev: ITALIA (Italia, towered, seated left on globe, holding cornucopiae and sceptre)
ref: RIC III 73 (C), RSC463 (5frcs), BMC 214
mint: Rome
2.63gms, 18mm,
Scarce

Antoninus had been entrusted with the government of this province as proconsul. He was chosen by Hadrian from among the four men of consular rank under whose jurisdiction Italy was placed, to administer that particular part of Italy in which the greater part of his own holdings lay. The coin probably commemorate this.
berserker
antpius-RIC70.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD27 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (bare head right)
rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI (Genius standing front, head right, with scepter & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 70, RSC 405 (6frcs), BMC 207
3.15gms, 18mm

The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. The genius publicus Populi Romani - probably distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was dedicated, stood in the forum near the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem, and carrying a cornucopiae and sceptre. In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly worshipped. The reverse probably commemorate this (the scepter as Genius attributum is unusual).
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antoninuspius RIC201.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 150-151 AD44 viewsobv: IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT XIIII COS IIII / PIETAS (Pietas standing right, holding hind by the neck & plate of fruits over altar to right)
ref: RIC 201 (S), RSC 616 (5frcs)
3.25gms, 18mm,
Rare

Unusual and rare reverse. Piety meant the right and proper observance of religious ritual, a duty which fell to every citizen, and to the emperor as much or more than to anyone else. In this coin Pietas is holding a bowl of fruits above an altar with one hand, while the other trails a hind for the sacrifice. The bowl of fruits as an offering is also seen in coins showing Fides.
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antpius den02-.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 154-155 AD42 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XVIII (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII (Vesta standing left, holding patera & palladium;altar at feet left)
ref: RIC III 238, C.201 (2frcs)
2.66gms, 18mm,
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antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
faustinaI as2.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AE as - struck 148-161 AD31 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (draped bust right)
rev: AETERNITAS / S.C. (Aeternitas seated left holding phoenix on globe & scepter)
ref: RIC III 1156 (Ant.Pius), C.16 (2frcs)
8.10gms, 25mm,
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faustinaI as.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AE dupondius - struck after 141 AD36 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (a) (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: AVGVSTA / S.C. (Ceres standing left holding corn ears & torch)
ref: RIC III 1169 (Ant.Pius), C.80 (2frcs)
12.33gms, 25mm,
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faustina_I_RIC327.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck 138-139 AD42 viewsobv: FAVSTINA AVG ANTONINI AVG P P (draped bust right, hair elaborately waved in several loops round head and then drawn up and coiled on top)
rev: CONCORDIA AVG (Concordia seated left holding patera & resting arm on cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 327 (S) (AntPius), RSC 146v (6frcs), BMC 41
3.3gms, 19mm
Scarce

Coins of Faustina Senior struck during her lifetime are much rarer than the later DIVA issues struck in commemoration of her.
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faustina_I_RIC343.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck 150 AD41 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (draped bust right)
rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE (front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before, statue of Faustina within)
ref: RIC III 343 (S) (AntPius), RSC 1 (10frcs), BMC 339
3.34gms, 18mm,
Scarce

This coin represents the aedes, or templum, with which, after her death, the elder Faustina was honoured by Antoninus Pius. According to Capitolinus, it was situated in the Via Sacra, and was at first dedicated to Faustina alone. But, after the decease of the husband, religious rites were paid therein to him also. A nice coin with an image of a building which still stands today in Rome.
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faustina1 RIC374.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck after 141 AD66 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: AVGVSTA (Pietas standing left with raised hand, altar at foot left)
ref: RIC III 374 (Ant.Pius), RSC 124 (2frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm,
Scarce
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faustina1 RIC350.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck after 141 AD38 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (veiled & draped bust right)
rev: AETERNITAS (Aeternitas standing left, holding globe and scepter)
ref: RIC III 350 (AntPius), C.32 (2frcs)
3.03gms, 17mm,
Scarce

The veiled bust is scarcer.
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faustina1 RIC344.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck after 141 AD27 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (draped bust right)
rev: AETERNITAS (Juno standing left, hand raised, holding scepter)
ref: RIC III 344 (AntPius), RSC 26 (12frcs), BMC 345
3,26gms, 17mm,
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138a.jpg
138a Valentinian I. AE3 2.6gm21 viewsobv: DN VALENTINI_ANVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REI PVBLICAE Victory adv. l. holding wreath and palm
ex: R/R-F//rSISCS.
hill132
Henry_IV_AR_Hardi.JPG
1399 - 1413, Henry IV, AR Hardi d'Argent, Struck 1399 -1453 at Bordeaux, Aquitaine, France12 viewsObverse: ERIC R ANGLIE ✤ Crowned and robed half-length figure of Henry facing under Gothic canopy, holding sword in right hand, left hand raised with finger pointing in benedictory or admonitory position. Mullet over crown, rosette either side of crown. Rosette in legend.
Reverse: FRA-CIE ✤ DNS AQI ✤ Long cross collarino, pattée at the ends, extending through legend. Fleur de lis with roundel underneath in second and third quarters; lion passant, guardant in first and fourth quarters, roundel over lion in fourth quarter. Rosettes in legend.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.13gms | Axis 10
SPINK: 8147 | Elias: 233h
Ex. Bazas Hoard | Ex. Jean Elsen (Belgium) | Scarce

The last series of these Anglo-Gallic coins was likely struck under more than one Henry and they have not currently been differentiated by ruler because the legends and types are generic. However, over time, Anglo-Gallic issues suffered from regular debasement and a deterioration in workmanship, the size, weight and quality of the strike of this coin would therefore all seem to point to it being an early example.

The Bazas Hoard
This hoard was discovered in May 2004 by a builder at Bazas in south West France when he was renovating his house. Bazas was a regional centre in the middle ages. The hoard consisted of a mixture of medieval coins which had been minted in Spain, Portugal, Italy, England, the Netherlands and various French duchies. Of the 1010 coins found, 157 were gold, 300 were silver and the remainder were billon. The oldest coin was a King Jean II franc from 1360 and the rarest coin was a gold castellano from the time of Henry IV of Castile, of which only one other example is known to exist.

Henry IV
In 1399, Henry, Duke of Lancaster, overthrew his cousin, Richard II and took the throne as Henry IV, ruling until his death in 1413. Henry's first major problem as monarch was what to do with the deposed Richard. After an early assassination plot against Henry was foiled in January 1400, Richard died in prison, allegedly of starvation. Though Henry was suspected of having had Richard murdered, it was also claimed that he took his own life.
Henry, also known as Henry Bolingbroke, was a grandson of Edward III and when he took the throne he asserted his grandfather's claim to the Kingdom of France. He founded the Lancaster branch of the House of Plantagenet and he was the first King of England since the Norman Conquest whose mother tongue was English rather than French.
Early in his reign, Henry hosted the visit of Manuel II Palaiologos, the only Byzantine emperor ever to visit England, and he gave monetary support to Manuel II to aid him against the Ottoman Empire.
Despite the example set by most of his recent predecessors, after their deaths, Henry and his second wife, Joan of Navarre, Queen of England, were buried not at Westminster Abbey but at Canterbury Cathedral, on the north side of Trinity Chapel and directly adjacent to the shrine of St Thomas Becket.
2 comments*Alex
20150620_163536-horz.jpg
14 Hadrian RIC 22222 viewsHadrian 117-138 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 132-134 AD. (3.47g, 18.47mm) Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Bare head right. Rev: TRANQVILLITAS AVG P P, Tranquillitas standing left, holding sceptre, resting left elbow on column, COS III in exergue.
RIC 222; RSC 1440a

Ex: Tyche Numismatics
Paddy
tiberius memorial as.jpg
14-37 AD - AUGUSTUS memorial AE as - struck under Tiberius (22/23-(?)30 AD)53 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER (radiate head of Augustus left)
rev: Altar with double panelled door, uncertain ornaments in top, S-C either side of altar, PROVIDENT in ex.
ref: RIC I 81 (Tiberius), BMC146, C.228 (5frcs)
10.33gms, 26mm
Scarce
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drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
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tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
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tiberius RIC58-RR.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE As - struck 36-37 AD55 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (laureate head left)
rev: PONTIF MAX TR POT XXXVII, S-C to left and right of rudder placed vertically across banded globe, small globe at base of rudder
ref: RIC 58 (R2), Cohen 13 (2frcs), BMC 117
10.58gms, 26mm
Very rare
1 commentsberserker
tiberius sest-.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE sestertius - struck 22-23 AD57 viewsobv: CIVITATIBVS ASIAE RESTITVTIS (Tiberius seated left on curule chair with patera and scepter)
rev: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS P M TR POT XXIIII / S.C.
ref: RIC I 48 (S), Cohen 3 (15frcs), BMC70
23.46g, 34mm
Very rare

The obverse legend refers to Tiberius' donations and tax remissions to twelve Asian cities devastated by an earthquake in 17 A.D., and another two cities which suffered an earthquake in 23 A.D.
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tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
schnurrbart-coin.jpg
14. Celtic AR tetradrachm - GALLIERKOPF / SCHNURRBART type - 2nd-1st century (?)490 viewsobv: Apollo head (?) with a mustache right
rev: Rider left, under the horse is rosette with a central point
ref: Göbl OTA 349 (Gallierkopf/Schnurrbart), Pink 349 (Gallischer Einflus); Dessewffy 1224; Dembski 1273-1278 (Kopf mit Schnurrbart); Kostial -; LaTour 9866;
mint: unknown
9.87gms, 24mm

The obverse is one of the most beautiful and the most characteristic product of the (east) celtic coinage. The tipical gallic (or Apollo ?) head without beard and the thick pleated hair belongs to celtic coins of Noricum, and this motive probably got to the Munkács area with transmit of Boii. Maybe that's why Pink is classified in category of Western influence coins (unter Westlichem Einfluss).
Reverse rider holds a zickzack line (lightning?) in right hand, while with his left hand is based on the horse (see: LaTour 9866)
Other description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
2 commentsberserker
LarryW1833.jpg
140 Marcian, AD 450-45764 viewsGold solidus, 20.8mm, 4.48g, brilliant, gEF
Struck at Constantinople
D N MARCIA-NVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly to right, holding spear and shield decorated with horseman spearing a fallen enemy / VICTORI-A AVCCC Z, Victory standing half left holding a long jeweled cross resting on ground, star in right field, CON OB in exergue
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
DOC 481; RIC 510; Sear 4322v
Lawrence Woolslayer
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141cs_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 5316 viewsObv:– IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust seen from the rear.
Rev:– IOVI TVTATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left with Victory & scepter, eagle at feet
Minted in Lugdunum (P in exe), Emission 5, Officina 1. Autumn 287- Autumn 289 A.D.
References:– RIC V part 2 Lugdunum 53 Bust Type C, Bastien 143
maridvnvm
Henry_V_AR_Penny_of_York.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, AR Penny struck at York, England3 viewsObverse: + HENRICVS REX ANGLIE. Crowned facing bust of Henry V, mullet (left) and trefoil (right) at each side of crown, all within circle of pellets. Pierced cross in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS ‡ EBORACI. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle, incuse quatrefoil in centre of cross.
York, Class F (Local dies)
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 0.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1788

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
*Alex
1421_Henry_V_AR_Double-Turnois.JPG
1413 - 1422, Henry V, Billon Niquet (Double Tournois) struck in 1421 at Rouen, France27 viewsObverse: + H REX ANGL HERES FRANC. Crowned lion passant facing left, fleur-de-lis above. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend = Rouen mint.
Reverse: + SIT NOME DNI BENEDICTV. Cross pattée with lis in angles and lombardic 'h' in centre. Pellet mintmark below first letter of legend.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 8162 | Elias: 260 (Scarce)[/b.]

This Anglo-Gallic coin, colloquially called a “leopard” after its obverse design, bears the titles of Henry V as king of England and heir to the French kingdom.

Henry V was King of England from 1413 until his sudden death on 31st August 1422. He is thought to have died from dysentery contracted during the siege of Meaux in France. He was 36 years old and had reigned for nine years. He was the second English monarch of the House of Lancaster.
During the reign of his father, King Henry IV, Henry had acquired an increasing share in England's government due to his father's declining health. After his father's death in 1413, Henry assumed control of the country and asserted the pending English claim to the French throne.
In 1415, Henry embarked on war with France in the ongoing Hundred Years' War between the two countries. Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.
In 1420, after months of negotiation with Charles VI of France, the Treaty of Troyes was signed recognising Henry V as regent and heir apparent to the French throne. To seal the pact Henry married Charles' daughter, Catherine of Valois. Henry's sudden death however, prevented the prospect of the English King taking the French throne from ever taking place.
Immortalised in the plays of Shakespeare, Henry V is known and celebrated as one of the great warrior kings of medieval England.
2 comments*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France31 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
faustina2 RIC502(AntPius).jpg
145-161 AD - FAUSTINA Junior fouree denarius - struck 153-154 AD33 viewsobv: FAVSTINA AVG P II F (draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA (Concordia seated left, holding flower & resting left arm on cornucopiae set on globe below seat)
ref: RIC III 502a (Ant.Pius), C.54 (6frcs)
3.45gms, 18mm
berserker
RI_146cs_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Antoninianus - RIC 62217 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOV ET HERCV CONSER AVGG, Jupiter facing right holding globe and sceptre, facing Hercules facing left, holding Victory on globe, club and lion's skin
Minted in Antioch (A //XXI dot). A.D. 285-295
Reference:– RIC V Pt. 2 622
maridvnvm
Constans_AE-3-Follis_CONSTAN-S-PF-AVG_VICTOR-IA-AVG-G_Chi-Ro_csillag-Gamma-SIS-csillag_RIC-VIII-122_Siscia_AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 181, -/chi-ro//*ΓSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA AVG, Scarce!, #168 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 181, -/chi-ro//*ΓSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA AVG, Scarce!, #1
avers:- CONSTAN-S-PF-AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA-AVG, Victory advancing left, head right, holding a wreath in each hand, Chi-Rho in right field.
exerg: -/Chi-Rho//*ΓSIS*, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 1,19g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 347 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 181, p-362,
Q-001
quadrans
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland11 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
Constantius-II_AE-3_CONSTANTIVS-P-F-AVG_VICTORIAE-DD-AVG-QQ-NN_A_AQS_RIC-VIII-80-p-322-8-B5_Aquilea_347-48-AD_Q-001_0h_15mm_1,45gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VIII 080, AE-4 Follis, A//AQS, VICTORIAE D D AVG G Q N N, Two Victories standing, facing each other,64 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VIII 080, AE-4 Follis, A//AQS, VICTORIAE D D AVG G Q N N, Two Victories standing, facing each other,
avers:- CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Cs16, D5, Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE D D AVG G Q N N, Two Victories standing, facing each other, each holding a wreath and palm.
exergo: A//AQS, diamater: 15mm, weight: 1,45g, axis: 0h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 347-48 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-080, p-322,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-RE-PARATIO_A-A_AQTdot_RIC-VIII-113-p-324_Aquilea_348-50-AD_Q-001_5h_24-26mm_4,74,59ga-s~0.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VIII 113, AE-2 Follis, A/-//AQT•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy,82 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VIII 113, AE-2 Follis, A/-//AQT•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy,
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the bust
rever:- FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Helmeted soldier to left shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, Horseman wears Phrygian helmet and sits to right and rises both hands.
exergo: A/-//--;A/-//AQT•, diameter: 24-26mm, weight:4,74g, axis:5h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-113, p-324,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-3_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_CONS-A-star_RIC-VIII-93-p-454-Cs1-D3_Constantinopolis_348-51-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_18mm_1,78g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 093, AE-3 Follis, -/-//CONSA*, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Phonix, Scarce!168 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 093, AE-3 Follis, -/-//CONSA*, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Phonix, Scarce!
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Radiate phoenix standing right on globe.
exergo: -/-//CONSA*, diameter: 18mm, weight: 1,78g, axis: 11h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 348-51 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-93, p-454, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Constantinopolis,_RIC_VIII_106,_AE-Follis,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO,__#915;-dot,_CONS_#920;,_351-5AD,_Q-001,_6h,_22-22,5mm,_5,39g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 106, AE-2 Follis, Γ/•//CONSΘ, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, #1121 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 106, AE-2 Follis, Γ/•//CONSΘ, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, #1
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, (Cs1,D3,) Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Soldier standing left, right knee raised, spearing fallen horseman, who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, no beard, clutching horse's neck, Γ left, • right.
exergue: Γ/•//CONSΘ, diameter: 22,0-22,5mm, weight: 5,39g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 351-355 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 106,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-3-silvered_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-RE-PARATIO_Gamma_SMNA_RIC-VIII-084-p-478-Cs1-D3_Nicomedia_351-55-AD__Q-001_6h_21,5-24mm_5,11ga-s~1.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Nicomedia, RIC VIII 084, AE-2 Follis, Γ/-//SMNA, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy,142 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Nicomedia, RIC VIII 084, AE-2 Follis, Γ/-//SMNA, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy,
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears Phrygian helmet and is reaching backwards; shield on ground to right .
exergo: Γ/-//SMNA, diameter: 21,5-24mm, weight: 5,11g, axis: 6h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 351-55 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-084, p-478,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Rome,_RIC_VIII_204,_AE-24,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_GLORIA_ROMANORVM,_star,_RP,_350-1_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_24mm,_4,46g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VIII 204, AE-2 Follis, -/*//RP, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1126 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VIII 204, AE-2 Follis, -/*//RP, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, G3, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, holding globe, A behind head.
reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Emperor in military dress, on horseback, galloping right, (no shield), spearing barbarian wearing a Phrygian helmet and with outstretched arms kneeling left in front of the horse, shield and broken spear beneath horse. Star in the upper right field.
exergue: -/*//RP, diameter: 23,5-24mm, weight: 4,46g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 350-351 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 204,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_A_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_III_star-SIRM_RIC-VIII-21-p-386-Cs1-D3_Sirmium_351-55_AD_Q-001_0h_23-24,5mm_5,28gs.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 021, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, 67 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 021, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard,
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the busts.
rever:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor diademed, and military dress standing, faceing, head left, above him star. In each hand he holds a standard with Chi-Rho on the banner. "III" in the left field.
exergo: A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, diameter: 23-24,5mm, weight: 5,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-021, p-386,
Q-001
quadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Sirmium_RIC_VIII_044,_AE-2,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO,_Delta,__S__A_SIRM,__2nd_series_p-387,_351-55AD,_Q-001_0h_20,5-21,5mm_4,47g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 044, AE-2 Follis, Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1120 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 044, AE-2 Follis, Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "Δ" behind teh bust.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left, knee raised, spearing a fallen horseman who is bare-headed. "•S•" in left field, "A" beneath horse.
exergo: Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 4,47g, axis:0h,
mint: Sirmium, 2nd. series(Δ behind teh bust), date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 044, p-387,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-001_7h_16,5mm_2,66g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #191 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, (reaching type).
exergo: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 16,5mm, weight:2,66g, axis:7h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-002_6h_17-18,3mm_2,33g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #276 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #2
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, (reaching type).
exergo: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 17,0-18,3mm, weight:2,33g, axis:6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_A-star_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_A_dotASISdot_RIC-VIII-289-p-369-Cs1-D3_Siscia_350-AD_Scarce_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 284, AE-2 Follis, A/*//--, A/-//•ASIS•, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, Scarce !64 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 284, AE-2 Follis, A/*//--, A/-//•ASIS•, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, Scarce !
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the busts,"*" in front.
rever:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor diademed, and military dress standing, faceing, head left, above him star. In each hand he holds a standard with Chi-Rho on the banner. "A" in the left field.
exergo: A/*//--, A/-//•ASIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 350 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-284, p-369, 3rd.-off., Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG-A-star_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_A_dot-Gamma-SIS_RIC-VIII-289-p-369-Cs1-D3_Siscia_350-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_23,5-25mm_4,42g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 289, AE-2 Follis, A/*//--, A/-//•ΓSIS*, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, Scarce ! 200 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 289, AE-2 Follis, A/*//--, A/-//•ΓSIS*, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, Scarce !
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the busts,"*" in front.
rever:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor diademed, and military dress standing, faceing, head left, above him star. In each hand he holds a standard with Chi-Rho on the banner. "A" in the left field.
exergo: A/*//--, A/-//•ΓSIS*, diameter: 21,5-22mm, weight: 4,12g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 350 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-289, p-369, 3rd.-off., Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-P-F-AVG_HOC-SIGNO-VICTOR-ERIS_A_-_III_ESIScrescent_RIC-VIII-304E-p-471-Cs1-D3_Siscia_350-51-AD_Q-001_0h_21,5-22,5mm_4,87ga-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 304E, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//ЄSISᴗ, HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing left, Scarce !152 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 304E, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//ЄSISᴗ, HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing left, Scarce !
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the busts.
rever:- HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, Constantius standing left, holding labarum with Chi-Rho and spear, being crowned by Victory. III in left field.
exergo: A/-//--, III/-//ЄSISᴗ, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 4,87g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 350-351 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-304E, p-371, 5th.-off., Scarce !
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_A_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_III_ESISdot_RIC-VIII-304-p-371-Cs1-D3_Siscia_350-51_AD_Scarce_Q-001_5h_22,5mm_6,15g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 307, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//ESIS•, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, Rare !65 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 307, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//ESIS•, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, Rare !
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the busts.
rever:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor diademed, and military dress standing, faceing, head left, above him star. In each hand he holds a standard with Chi-Rho on the banner. "III" in the left field.
exergo: A/-//--, III/-//ESIS•, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 6,15g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, date: 350 351 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-307, p-371, 5th.-off., Rare !
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_A-SIS-star_RIC-VIII-327-p-374-Cs1-D3_Siscia_354-5-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_23,5-25mm_4,42g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 327, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, III/*//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #1181 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 327, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, III/*//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding Victory on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on the banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship.
exergo: A/-//-, III/*//ASIS, diameter: 23,5-25mm, weight: 4,42g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 354-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-327, p-374, 1st.-off., c,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_H-behtheNeck_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_III_star_A-SIS_RIC-VIII-327-p-374-Cs1-D3_Siscia_354-5-AD_Q-002_axis-5h_22-24mm_5,41g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 327, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, III/*//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #2132 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 327, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, III/*//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #2
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding Victory on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on the banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship.
exergo: A/-//-, III/*//ASIS, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 5,41g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, date: 354-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-327, p-374, 1st.-off., c,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-3_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_A-SIS_RIC-VIII-350-p-375-Cs1-D3_Siscia_351-55-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,59g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 350, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy,113 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 350, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy,
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears Phrygian helmet and is reaching backwards; shield on ground to right .
exergo: -/-//ASIS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,59g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 351-55 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-350, p-375,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_A-_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_B_star_dotTSEdot_RIC-VIII-133-p-_Thessalonica_350-AD_Q-001_5h_21,6-23mm_5,12g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 133, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, B/*//•TSЄ•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #2126 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 133, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, B/*//•TSЄ•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #2
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, (Cs1,D3,) Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the bust.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on the banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship.
exergo: A/-//-, B/*//•TSЄ•, diameter: 21,6-23mm, weight: 5,12g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 354-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-133, p-414,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-RE-PARATIO_A-_B-star_dotTSAdot_RIC-VIII-133-p-414_Thessalonica_-AD_S_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 133, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, B/*//•TSA•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #179 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 133, AE-2 Follis, A/-//-, B/*//•TSA•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, (Cs1,D3,) Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the bust.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on the banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship.
exergo: A/-//-, B/*//•TSA•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 354-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-133, p-414,
Q-001
quadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Thessalonica,_RIC_VIII_172,B,_AE-3,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO,__#915;-star,_starTSBstar,_350-5AD,_Q-001,_11h,_23,3-24mm,_5,40gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 172, AE-2 Follis, Γ/*//*TSB*, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor and captive, #1122 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 172, AE-2 Follis, Γ/*//*TSB*, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor and captive, #1
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, (Cs1,D3,) Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Emperor in military dress advancing left, treading on captive (Phrygian helmet), holding Victory on a globe and a chi-rho standard, Γ left, star right.
exergue: Γ/*//*TSB*, diameter: 21,6-23mm, weight: 5,12g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 350-355 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 172, p-418, LRBC #1671,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
0020-018~0.jpg
1479 - Sextus Pompeius and Q. Nasidius, Denarius300 viewsMint moving with Sextus Pompeius, Sicily, 42-39 BC
NEPTVNI, head of Pompey the great right, trident before head, dolphin below
Q.NASIDIVS at exergue, galley sailing right, star in upper field
3.92 gr
Ref : HCRI # 235, RCV # 1390, Crawford # 483/2, Sydenham # 1350, Cohen # 20
Ex Freeman & Sear, Ex Barry Feirstein collection (NAC auction # 42/279)
Ex Roma Numismatics
3 commentsPotator II
RI 148g img.jpg
148 - Galerius - RIC VI Lugdunum 161b26 viewsObv:– MAXIMIANVS NOB CS, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, right hand holding patera, left hand holding cornucopiae, altar to left
Minted in Lugdunum (A in right field, PLC in exe). A.D. 301 - 303
References:– RIC VI Lugdunum 161b (Rare)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
20150620_163405-horz.jpg
15 Antoninus Pius RIC 17533 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-161 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 144-148 AD. (3.45g, 18.53g) Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P F TR P XII, Laureate head right. Rev: COS IIII, Annona standing facing, head left, with grain-ears over modius & anchor.
RIC 175; RSC 284

Ex: Tyche Numismatics
1 commentsPaddy
normal_20150620_104944-horz~0~0.jpg
15 Antoninus Pius RIC 18127 viewsANTONINUS PIUS 138-161 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 148-149 AD. (3.22g; 18.42mm) Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, Laureate head right. Rev: COS IIII, Salus standing facing, head left, holding patera & rudder on globe, feeding a serpent entwined around altar.
RIC 181; RSC 281; BMC 670

Ex: Tyche Numismatics
Paddy
20151128_131731-horz.jpg
15 Antoninus Pius RIC 29920 viewsANTONINUS PIUS 138-161 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint.159-160 A.D. (3.23g; 17.09mm) Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXIII, Laureate head right. FELICITATI AVG COS IIII, Felicitas standing left, holding globe & cornucopia.
RIC 299; RSC 374

Ex: Tyche Numismatics
Paddy
Faustina_Grey.jpg
15 Faustina RIC 350a19 viewsDiva Faustina I. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. after AD 141. (3.46g, 19mm, 6h) Obv: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA, Draped bust right. Rev: AETERNITAS, Providentia standing left, holding globe and sceptre.
RIC 350a.

Ex: Roma Numismatics
Paddy
Faustina_White.jpg
15 Faustina RIC 35627 viewsDiva Faustina I. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. After 141 AD. (3.27g; 18mm) Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, Draped bust right. Rev: AVGVSTA, Ceres veiled standing left, holding torch and sceptre.
RIC 356; Cohen 96. BMC 399

Ex: Naville Numismatics
Paddy
LarryW1802.jpg
150 Leo I the Great, AD 457-474105 viewsGold solidus, 21.7mm, 4.50g, Mint State
Struck c. AD 462 or 466 at Constantinople
D N LEO PE—RPET AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, head slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield with horseman motif on left arm / VICTORI—A AVCCC Θ, Victory standing half left holding long jeweled cross; star to right, CON OB in exg.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
RIC 605; DOC 528; MIRB 3b
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
1526_-_1530_Henry_VIII_AR_Halfgroat.JPG
1509 - 1547, HENRY VIII, AR Half-groat, Struck 1515 - 1530 at York, England under Archbishop Thomas (Cardinal) Wolsey3 viewsObverse: HENRIC•VIII•D•G•R•AGL•Z•F•. Youthful profile crowned bust of Henry VIII facing right within circle of pellets. Mint-mark: Voided cross.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms on cross fourchée; T - W in upper field divided by shield; galero (cardinal's hat) below.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 8
Virtually uncirculated but with a dark, almost black, tone
SPINK: 2346

The T W on the reverse of this coin refers to Thomas Wolsey, known to posterity as Cardinal Wolsey, one of the most powerful figures at the court of Henry VIII. Although this coin is undated, the issue of Henry VIII's second coinage only began in 1526 and so, since Cardinal Wolsey died in 1530, it must have been struck between those two dates.

Cardinal Wolsey
When Henry VIII became King of England in 1509 he appointed Thomas Wolsey to the post of Almoner, a position that gave him a seat on the Privy Council and an opportunity for establishing a personal rapport with the King to such an extent that by 1514 Wolsey had become the controlling figure in virtually all matters of state. In 1515, he was awarded the title Archbishop of York and this, followed by his appointment that same year as Cardinal by Pope Leo X, gave him precedence over all other English clerics. His ecclesiastical power advanced even further in 1523 when the Bishop of Durham, a post with wide political powers, was added to his titles.
After Wolsey attained the position of Lord Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, he had achieved more power than any other Crown servant in English history and during his fourteen years of chancellorship Wolsey, who was often alluded to as an alter rex (other king), used his power to neutralise the influence of anyone who might threaten his position..
In spite of having made many enemies, Cardinal Wolsey retained Henry VIII's confidence until, in 1527, the King decided to seek an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Henry asked Wolsey to negotiate the annulment with the Pope and in 1528 the Pope decided to allow two papal legates, Wolsey himself and Cardinal Campeggio, to decide the outcome in England. Wolsey was confident of the outcome, but Campeggio took a long time to arrive, and then he delayed proceedings so much, that the case had to be suspended and the Pope decided that the official decision should therefore be made in Rome and not in England.
After his failure to negotiate the annulment, Wolsey fell out of favour with Henry and in 1529 he was stripped of his government office and property, including the magnificent Palace of Hampton Court, which Henry took as his own main London residence.
Wolsey was however permitted to retain the title of Archbishop of York and so he travelled to Yorkshire, for the first time in his career, to carry out those duties.
Now that he was no longer protected by Henry, Wolsey's enemies, including it is rumoured, Ann Boleyn, conspired against him and Henry had him arrested and recalled to London to answer to charges of treason. But Wolsey, now in great distress, fell ill on the journey back to the capital and at Leicester, on 29 November 1530, aged about 57, he died from natural causes before he could be beheaded.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_BRIT_MNT.JPG
154 - 155 A.D. ANTONINUS PIUS AE AS (Britannia mint)17 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 9.4gms | Die Axis: 7h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, the many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant. It is possible though that the issue was struck at Rome and produced locally in Britannia as well.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
*Alex
ANTPIUS_BRIT_ROM_MNT.JPG
154 - 155, ANTONINUS PIUS, AE AS24 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA COS IIII, Britannia seated facing left on rock, shield and vexillum in background; in exergue, S C.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 12.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
RIC III: 934 | RCV: 4296 | Cohen: 117 | BMC: 1971
SCARCE

The bronze coins of Antoninus Pius bearing the "Britannia" reverse type have been found in considerable quantities in Britain, but are not generally recorded from Roman sites in France and Germany. The old theory that the "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius were minted in Britain is therefore not improbable, though it is possible that the issue was both issued at Rome and produced locally in Britannia. The many "Britannia" issues of Antoninus Pius found in Coventina's Well, Carrawburgh, seem to have come from only a few dies, suggesting that the place of mintage for them was not far distant.
The reverse type of Britannia seated on a rock, eventually adorned Great Britain's coinage many centuries later when the design was reintroduced by Charles II in 1672.

Dedications to Coventina and votive deposits were found in a walled area, now called “Coventina's Well”, which had been built to contain the outflow from a spring near the site of a Roman fort and settlement, on Hadrian's Wall. Now called Carrawburgh, the site is named as Procolita in the 5th century “Notitia Dignitatum”. The remains of a Roman Mithraeum and Nymphaeum were also found near the site.
1 comments*Alex
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
1547 - 1553, EDWARD VI, AR Shilling, Struck 1551 - 1553 at London, England46 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*Alex
Mary_Tudor___as_found.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England5 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.

*Alex
1594_Elizabeth_I_Sixpence.JPG
1558 - 1603, ELIZABETH I, AR Sixpence struck in 1594 at London, England17 viewsObverse: ELIZAB•D•G•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•REGI• Crowned bust of Elizabeth I of England facing left. Tudor rose behind bust and mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Reverse: POSVI DEV:ADIVTOREM:MEV: Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; 1594 above; mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 2578A

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
1 comments*Alex
JAMES_VI_AE_HARDHEAD.JPG
1567 - 1625, JAMES VI (James I of England), Billon Hardhead (Twopence) struck in 1588 at Edinburgh, Scotland4 viewsObverse: •IACOB•6•D•G•R•SCOTO•. Crown above IR within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Reverse: •VINCIT•VERITAS• Crowned lion rampant facing left, two pellets (mark of value = twopence) behind, all within inner circle of pellets. Quatrefoil mintmark in legend.
Second issue, November 1588.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5518

James VI issued billon and copper coins in much smaller quantities than that of previous monarchs, none at all being struck during the first sixteen years of his reign. After his accession to the English throne, James established a currency of similar weight and fineness in both countries although a 12:1 ratio between the Scottish and English denominations was still maintained.

James VI acceded to the throne of Scotland when only 1 year old on his mother’s abdication in 1567. A council of regency was established and his good education was largely due to George Buchanan. He married Anne of Denmark in 1589. The death of Elizabeth I left James as her nearest heir and he inherited the throne of England in 1603 and ruled both England and Scotland until his death in 1625. Following the gunpowder plot of 1605 James ordered severe sanctions against Roman Catholic priests and it was during his reign that the King James, or ‘authorised’ version of the Bible, still used today, was first published.

*Alex
IMG_2229.JPG
16 Constantius II imitation (Failmezger, Plate coin)88 viewsConstantius II imitation (Failmezger, Plate coin)

Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, Long-necked diademed cuirassed bust right
Reverse: Blundered legend, soldier spearing fallen horseman, Phrygian helmet, sitting on ground, arm(s) up, II left.

Size: 23.49 mm 6.g

Failmezger 462aCS (This Coin)
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
RI 160cs img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 10523 viewsFollis
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding right hand high in salute and globe.
Minted in Trier. T in left field, F in right field, BTR in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 105
maridvnvm
James_I_AR_Sixpence.JPG
1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London2 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: •QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above. Mintmark (rose) in legend.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
verus_dup_RIC1445.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE dupondius - struck 165-166 AD28 viewsobv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (radiate head right)
rev: TR POT VI IMP III COS II (parthian captive seated right at base of trophy, hands tied behind back, arms before), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1445 (M.Aurelius) (C), C202 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
12.08gms, 24mm
Scarce

History: Between 162 and 166 Verus was in the East, nominally commanding a campaign against the Parthian empire for the control over the Armenian kingdom. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus generals were entrusted with real command of the legions. Cassius led the overall campaign, destroyed the city of Seleucia on the Tigris and burned to the ground the palace at the capital Ctesiphon; Priscus led the invasion of Armenia that took the capital of Artashat (Artaxata); Martius Verus is limited only to the mention of his name by the ancients, but he was later the governor of Cappadocia. Lucius Verus received the title Parthicus Maximus in Aug. 165 AD.
berserker
lverus_RIC1309.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 162 AD37 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.L.AVREL.VERVS.AVG (laureated head right)
rev: CONCORD.AVGVSTOR.TRP.II (Verus and Aurelius standing with clasping hand), COS II in ex, S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1309 (M.Aurel) (C), C.36 (4frcs)
mint: Rome
23.03gms, 30mm

This coin is better in hand than the picture allow.
History: Never before had Rome been ruled jointly by two emperors, but their authority was not shared equally. Marcus clearly had more power than his younger brother, although officially his only additional title was "pontifex maximus," while Lucius was simply "pontifex".Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.
berserker
Divus Verus RIC1507 - RR.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 169 AD101 viewsobv: DIVVS VERVS (bare head of Divus Verus right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (elephant quadriga advancing left, atop car shrine containing statue of Divus Verus seated left, raising hand), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1507 (M.Aurelius), C.53 (30frcs), BMCRE (Marcus) 1369
23.51gms, 30mm, bronze
Very Rare
History: In the end of 168 AD as Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus were returning home from the fontier of south Pannonia, Lucius suddenly became ill with symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and was dead at the age of 38 near Altinum (Altino). The older Emperor accompanied the body to Rome, where he offered games to honour his memory. After the funeral, the senate declared Verus divine to be worshipped as Divus Verus.
2 commentsberserker
faustina2 RIC745(M.Aurelius).jpg
161-176 AD - FAUSTINA Junior AR denarius - struck 176-180 AD27 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA (draped bust right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (throne with scepter across it, peacock below & standing right)
ref: RIC III 745 (M.Aurelius), RSC 73 (3frcs) , BMC 723
2.10gms, 18mm
Scarcer type
berserker
faustinaII RIC1706.jpg
161-176 AD - FAUSTINA Junior sestertius - struck 176-180 AD25 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA PIA (draped bust right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (large altar decorated with palms), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1706 (M.Aurelius), Cohen 76 (10frcs), BMC 1579
21.31gms, 29mm
Scarce
berserker
m.aurel dup-thunderbolt.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE dupondius - struck 177 AD33 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TRP XXXI (radiate head right)
rev: IMP VIIII COS III PP / S.C. (winged thunderbolt)
ref: RIC III 1219, C.378 (6frcs.)
10.44gms, 24mm,
Scarce
berserker
maurel_RIC1179.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE dupondius - struck 177 AD45 viewsobv: M.ANTONINVS.AVG.GERM.SARM.TRP.XXXI (radiate head right)
rev: IMP.VIII.COS.III.PP (trophy of base of wich are seated Marcomann (German) woman on right, and Markomann (German) with hands bound behind him on left), S-C in field, DE GERM in ex.
ref: RIC III 1179 (S), C.157 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
13.00gms, 25mm
Scarce

This dupondius celebrates Roman victory a series of wars on the empire’s northern frontier known as the Bellum Germanicum et Sarmaticum. The reverse of this coin speaks of these campaigns with the inscription DE GERM(ANIS) encompassing a military trophy flanked by two captives. The bound men would have come from the barbarian nations that occupied lands across the Danube, for in recent years the Romans had won wars against the Marcomanns, the Quadi, the Jazyges and the Sarmatians.
Many other types celebrated Roman victories in this theatre, and they became the centrepiece of coin propaganda of the era. Considering these wars were not only a source of great financial strain, but they annually cost the lives of many young men, it was essential for Marcus Aurelius to demonstrate success in the form of attractive coin types showing bound barbarians and trophies.
berserker
M.Aurelius RIC890.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 163-164 AD45 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS P M (laureated bearded head right)
rev: VICT AVG TR P XVIII IMP II COS III (Victory standing right holding trophy a captive Armenian at her feet), S-C in field
ref: RIC 890 (S), Cohen 984 (12 Francs 1878), BMC 1092
21.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

History: After the death of Antoninus Pius the parthian king, Vologaesus III run over Armenia in 161 AD. The Expeditio orientalis was started the next year from Capua,Italy. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus were entrusted with command of the legions while Marcus Aurelius conducted affairs of the state back in Rome. The 5 year campaign (161 – 166 AD) against Parthia proved to be as decisive as any war in recent Roman history. A Roman candidate once again sat the Armenian throne and Parthia had been thoroughly defeated. This coin commemorate the end of the first phase of the Parthian War.
berserker
maurel sest-victory.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 166 AD48 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT XX IMP IIII COS III (Victory standing facing, head right, holding palm & placing shield inscribed VIC PAR on palm tree), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 934, C.810 (12frcs)
28.42gms, 33mm,
Similar to RIC931
berserker
maurel sest-victory2.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 166 AD53 viewsobv: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT XX IMP IIII COS III (Victory standing facing, head right, holding palm & placing shield inscribed VIC PAR on palm tree, at base arms), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 931, C.807(12frcs)
20.27gms, 30mm,
berserker
M.Aurelius RIC1006.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 170-171 AD38 viewsobv: IMP M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXV
rev: : /PRIMI/DECEN/NALES/COS III/S-C (in five lines within laurel wreath)
ref: RIC III 1006 (S), Cohen 497 (12frcs)
24.22gms, 29mm,
Scarce

This issue commemorates the tenth anniversary of the sole reign of Aurelius, with vows to celebrate its completion, and in anticipation of another decade.
berserker
MAurel RIC1021.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172 AD43 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANIA SVBACTA IMP VI COS III (Germania seated left at foot of trophy), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1021 (S), Cohen 215 (10frcs)
22.84gms, 30mm,
Very rare

History: In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
MAurel RIC1058.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 172-173 AD37 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureate head right)
rev: GERMANICO AVG IMP VI COS III (trophy of arms, German {Marcomann} woman seated left below, in attitude of mourning, on two shields; German standing to right, his head turned and his hands bound behind him), SC in ex.
ref: RIC III 1058 (S), Cohen 227 (15frcs)
22.46gms, 30mm,
Very rare
History: In the second half of the second century was the most important and dangerous invasion of the Marcomanni. Their leader, Ballomar, had formed a coalition of Germanic tribes, they crossed the Danube and achieved a smashing victory over 20,000 Romans near Carnuntum. Ballomar then led the larger part of his host southwards towards Italy, while the remainder ravaged Noricum. The Marcomanni razed Opitergium (Oderzo) and besieged Aquileia. The army of praetorian prefect Furius Victorinus tried to relieve the city, but was defeated and its general slain.
In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Danube into Marcomannic territory. Although few details are known, the Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This fact is evident from the adoption of the title "Germanicus" by Marcus Aurelius, and the minting of coins with the inscription "Germania subacta". This rare coin is one of them.
berserker
marcus aurelius RIC1077.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 173 AD34 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVII (laureated bearded head right)
rev: [RESTITVTORI ITALIAE IMP VI COS III S C] (Aurelius standing left holding sceptre and raising kneeling figure of Italia who holds a globe)
ref: RIC 1077 (S), Cohen 538 (10frcs), BMC 1449
21.80gms, 29mm,
Rare

Aurelius is here portrayed as the Restorer of Italy. Although this type is normally used to refer to a defeated enemy, in this instance what Aurelius is restoring is the security of the homeland by defeating the Germanic tribes threatening Italy.
berserker
maurel sest-consecratio.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 180 AD41 viewsobv: DIVVS M ANTONINVS AVG (Marcus Aurelius bare head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (eagle standing right on garlanded altar, head left), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 657 (Commodus), C.85(6frcs)
25.16gms, 30mm
Scarce
berserker
M.Aurelius RIC662(commodus).jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 180 AD39 viewsobv: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS (Marcus Aurelius bare head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (garlanded funeral pyre of four tiers surmounted by statue of Aurelius in facing quadriga), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 662 [Commodus], Cohen 98 (20frcs), BMC 399
21.14gms, 29mm
Rare

The Rogus, or Funeral Pile, as a mass of quadrangular shape, filled at the bottom with combustibles, on which again a second tier was placed of similar form and appearance, but narrower and furnished with openings; to this a third and a fourth were added, each gradually diminishing in size, till the whole resembled a watch-tower.
berserker
divomaurel_RIC661(Comm).jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 180 AD65 viewsobv: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS (Marcus Autrelius bare head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (Statue of Aurelius in quadriga drawn by elephants), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 661 (Commodus), Cohen 95 (30 frcs)
18.31gms, 28mm
Very rare

The last ’Good Emperor’, Marcus Aurelius died at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, possibly of the plague, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son. Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war.
1 commentsberserker
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
COMMONWEALTH_HALFGROAT.JPG
1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
20151128_132316-horz.jpg
17 Marcus Aurelius RIC 12320 viewsMarcus Aurelius 161-180 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. December 164 - August 165 AD. (2.96g: 17.84mm) Obv: ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS, Bare head right. Rev: P M TR P XIX IMP II COS III, Mars standing right, holding spear and shield on ground.
RIC 123; RSC 472.

Ex: Tyche Numismatics
Paddy
20151220_143547-horz.jpg
17 Marcus Aurelius RIC 22211 viewsMarcus Aurelius 161-180 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 169-170 AD (3.44g; 18.87mm) Obv:M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIIII, Laureate head right Rev: SALVTI AVG COS III, Salus standing left, holding sceptre and feeding serpent arising from altar
RIC 222; RSC 546

Ex: Tyche Numismatics
Paddy
20150620_153817-horz.jpg
17 Marcus Aurelius RIC 27526 viewsMarcus Aurelius 161-180 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 172-173 AD. (3.61g, 18.90mm) Obv: Obv: M ANTONINVS AVG TRP XXVII, Laureate, cuirassed bust right. Rev: IMP VI COS III, Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear.
RIC 275v; C 283

Ex: Tyche Numismatics
1 commentsPaddy
RI_170cp_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Amiens 4839 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, A behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him. He is bare headed
Minted in Amiens (//AMB). 353 AD.
Reference:- RIC VIII Amiens 48 (C)

Ex John Casey Collection

22 mm, 5.08g

John was employed at Durham between 1972 and 2000, retiring as Reader in Archaeology. He was a well-known Romanist and numismatics scholar who undertook excavations at the Roman forts of Brecon Gaer (nr Aberyscir) and Segontium (Gwynedd), the Roman town of Venta Silurum (Caerwent), the Roman temple at Lydney (Gloucestershire) and the Greta Bridge vicus in County Durham.

His books included Coins and the Archaeologist (1974, 2nd ed. 1988), The end of Roman Britain (1979), Roman coinage in Britain (1980), Understanding Ancient Coins (1986). He was the author of numerous articles on Roman coinage and hoards, including the finds from Piercebridge.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170cs_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Thessalonica 133 24 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, A behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing left, in a galley; Victory on a globe in right hand and holding labarum in left hand; Victory at the tiller of the galley right
Minted in Thessalonica (B | * //Dot TS? Dot). 1st March - 25th December 350 AD.
Reference:- RIC VIII Thessalonica 133 (S)
maridvnvm
LarryW1929.jpg
170 Constans II, AD 641-66857 viewsGold solidus, 20.2mm, 4.48g, EF
Struck AD 661-663 at Constantinople
[legend blundered and fragmentary], facing busts of Contans II with long beard (on left), and Constantine IV, beardless (on right), each clad in chlamys, Constans wearing plumed crown (or helmet), his son wearing simple crown, cross in upper field between their heads / VICTORIA AVGU H, cross potent on three steps between facing standing figures of Heraclius (on left) and Tiberius, both beardless, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand; CoNoB in exergue.
Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear, ACCS
Sear 964; DOC 30g; Wroth 58; Tolstoi 304; Ratto 1606
Lawrence Woolslayer
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing5 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
3875b.jpg
177 AD., Commodus, sestertius, DE SARMATIS, mint of Rome, RIC 1576 (Marcus Aurelius)103 viewsCommodus, sestertius, DE SARMATIS, mint of Rome, 177 AD.
Obv.: [I]MP L AVREL COMMODVS - AVG GERM S[ARM] , laureate head of the young Commodus right.
Rev.: TR P II [CO]S P [P] / S - C / DE SARMATIS , pile of arms.
RIC 1576 (M. Aurelius) ; C 95

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
151-crispina dup.jpg
177-183 AD - CRISPINA AE dupondius - struck 177 AD29 viewsobv: CRISPINA AVGVSTA (draped bust right)
rev: IVNO LVCINA / S.C. (Juno standing left, holding patera & scepter)
ref: RIC III 680(Commodus), C.24 (3frcs)
11.53gms, 25mm
Scarce
berserker
crispina RIC672a(commodus).jpg
177-183 AD - CRISPINA AE sestertius - struck 180-183 AD46 viewsobv: CRISPINA AVGVSTA (draped bust right)
rev: SALVS (Salus seated left, feeding serpent coiled around altar from patera held in right hand), S-C in field
ref: RIC 672a(Commodus), Cohen 33 (6frcs), BMC 420
24.04gms, 29mm
Scarce
berserker
crispina fourre denar.jpg
177-183 AD - CRISPINA fouree denarius - struck 180-183 AD36 viewsobv: CRISPINA AVGVSTA (draped bust right)
rev: VENVS (Venus standing left, holding an apple)
ref: RIC III 286a (Commodus), C.35 (3frcs)
Scarce
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commodus RIC452.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE sestertius - struck 185 AD32 viewsobv: [M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS BRIT] (laureate head right)
rev: [P M TR P X IMP VII COS IIII P P] / S-C (Victory seated right on pile of arms, inscribing sheild on her knee), VICT BRIT in ex.
ref: RIC III 452, Cohen 946 (10frcs), BMC 560
21,06gms, 26mm
Scarce

The edge of this coin is missing, but it has nice green patina
berserker
commodus RIC468b.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE sestertius - struck 186 AD71 viewsobv: M COMMODVS ANT P - FELIX AVG BRIT (laureate head right)
rev: P M TR P XI - IMP [VII] - COS V P P (Commodus standing left on platform, raising hand and holding scepter, facing four soldiers to left), S C across fields, FID EXERCIT in ex.
ref: RIC III 468b, Cohen 136 (20frcs)
23.63gms, 30mm
Very rare
ex Numismatic LANZ

Historical background: Under Commodus reign Sextus Tigidius Perennis was the Pretorian Prefect who exercised the chief responsibilities of government in the Roman Empire. In 185 Perennis was implicated in a plot to overthrow the emperor by his political rival Marcus Aurelius Cleander, and Commodus gave them permission to execute him as well as his wife and sons. After this Commodus received the title of FELIX. This coin shows when the emperor proclaimed the executions to soldiers, and the FIDES EXERCITUS means the aggreement between the emperor and the legions.
berserker
commodus RIC472.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE sestertius - struck 186 AD53 viewsobv: M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT (laureate head right)
rev: SAEC FEL P M TR P XI IMP VII COS V P P (Victory standing right, foot on a helmet, inscribing VO DE {for VOTA DECENNALIA – here 177-186 AD} on a shield set upon a palm), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 472 (R), Cohen 670 (6frcs), BMC 584
18.18gms, 27mm
Rare

The Decennial vows were reckoned as accomplished, not at the beginning but at the termination of the tenth year of an emperor’s reign. This coin is also commemorate the victory in Britannia 183-184 AD.
1 commentsberserker
commodus RIC9.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 180 AD43 viewsobv: M COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG (laureate cuirassed bust right)
rev: TR P V IMP III COS II P P (trophy of arms with two captives - a man and a woman sitting in german shields)
ref: : RIC 9, RSC 791 (8frcs), BMC 9
3.03gms, 18mm
Scarce

History: Under the command of Marcus Valerius Maximianus, the Romans fought and prevailed against the Quadi in a decisive battle at Laugaricio near (modern Trencín, Slovakia). The movie Gladiator (2000) start with a fictional account of a final battle of the Marcomannic Wars.
berserker
divus aurelius.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 180 AD27 viewsobv: DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS (bare head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (eagle standing left on bar with wreath in beak)
ref: RIC 267 [Commodus] (S), RSC 80 (3frcs), BMC 14
2.21gms, 18mm
Rare
berserker
commodus den01-.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 AD39 viewsobv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT PP
rev: CONC COM PM TRP XVI COSVI (Concordia standing left, holding patera & scepter)
ref: RIC III 219, C.45 (30frcs)
2.41gms, 17mm
Rare

History: In 190 AD Commodus named Rome after himself, Colonia Commodiana, adding the prenomina of LUCIA ANTONINIANA. This coin is belong to the group of the loyalty of the cohorts, Concordia Commodi Augusti.
berserker
commodus_RIC218.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 AD39 viewsobv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P (laureate head right)
rev: APOL PAL P M TR P XVI COS VI (Apollo attired in the stola, holding the plectrum in the right hand and resting his left on the lyre, which surmounts on a short column)
ref: RIC III 218 (S), C.24 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
2.7gms, 17mm
Scarce

Apollini Palatino – this coin has reference to the temple, which Emperor Augustus erected at Rome, in honour of his guardian divinity in the Palatium. This temple was destroyed by fire during the reign of Julian the Apostate.
berserker
commodus_RIC259a.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 or 192 AD35 viewsobv: L AEL AVREL COM-M AVG P FEL (laureate head right)
rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVG (Hercules standing right, his foot is placed on the prow of a vessel, resting club on treetrunk right and holding thunderbolt; clasping hands with Africa, who wears elephantskin on head, in her left hand holding sistrum, at her feet lion)
ref: RIC III 259a (R), RSC 643 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
2.86gms, 18mm
Rare

This coin legend and type is regarded to the African fleet of corn transports. The elephant's head, the sistrum, and the lion are attributes peculiar to Egypt and to Africa proper, which were the granaries of Rome. But Commodus having sent his ships for freights of corn is on this coin represented paying worship to Hercules, and he himself plants his foot on the prow of one of the vessels, as if showing care for his new colony.
1 commentsberserker
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.89 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex19 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
Leopold_20centimes2.jpg
1861: Twenty centimes of Leopold I24 viewsKing Leopold I. 20 Centimes. 1861.

Lion surrounded by legend L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE 20 Cs. / 10 Centimes surrounded by LEOPOLD I ROI DES BELGES 1861. Cupro-nickel.
Belisarius
5fr.jpg
1869: Five franks of Leopold II13 viewsKing Leopold II. Silver 5 Francs. 1869

Coat of arms of Belgium, surrounded by foliage, surrounded by the legend L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE ("Strength through Union") 1869 / Neoclassical portrait of Leopold II, surrounded by legend LEOPOLD II ROI - DES BELGES.
Belisarius
1004861.JPG
19 Constantius Gallus97 viewsConstantius Gallus, Caesar 351-354 AD. AE 3. DN CONSTAN-TIVS NOB CS, bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust rt. / FEL TEMP- REPARATIO, no beard, Phrygian helmet, reaching. SMK[]
Cyzikus 107
Randygeki(h2)
Belgium2fr.jpg
1923: Two francs of Albert I (fr)9 viewsKing Albert I. 2 Francs (French version). 1923.

Belgica, the female personification of Belgium, kneeling in mourning with sword and shield slung BELGIQUE / Caduceus with inter-twined snakes BON POUR 2 F 1923
Belisarius
dime_1929_dr-martin_obv_03_rev_02.JPG
1929 Dime - Dark Toning7 views~
~~
USA, 1929 'Mercury Dime'. Struck at the Philadelphia Mint in Pennsylvania.
A gift from an elderly man I worked for who collected coins and was a professor of the classics at Princeton University. You can see quite a bit of good detail on this coin remaining, the dark toning kinda makes it less noticeable, but I really like this little guy!
~~
~
rexesq
dime_1929_dr-martin_obv_02_rev_01_a.JPG
1929 Dime - Dark Toning5 views~
~~
USA, 1929 'Mercury Dime'. Struck at the Philadelphia Mint in Pennsylvania.
A gift from an elderly man I worked for who collected coins and was a professor of the classics at Princeton University. You can see quite a bit of good detail on this coin remaining, the dark toning kinda makes it less noticeable, but I really like this little guy!
~~
~
rexesq
pertinax den-.jpg
193 AD - PERTINAX AR denarius - struck January-March 193 AD83 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.P.HELV.PERTIN.AVG (laureate head right)
rev:OPI.DIVIN.TR.P.COS.II (Ops seated left, holding two corn ears, left hand on top of throne)
ref: RIC IVi 8 (R2), C.33 (60frcs)
2.43gms
Very rare

This coin is ugly, worn and holed, but... it's a Pertinax.

Publius Helvius Pertinax was commander of an equestrian unit in Moesia Superior (or Pannonia Inferior), on the Middle Danube in 167 AD, and fight against the Yaziges. He was also the commander of the First legion Adiutrix, stationed at Brigetio (modern Szöny) between 171-174 AD. Pertinax played an important role during the campaigns against the Marcomanni. It is very likely that I Adiutrix and the two newly founded legions II Italica and III Italica were grouped together in a single task-force. According to the historian Herodian, Pertinax freed the provinces of Noricum and Raetia completely, and took part in the attacks on the Quadi and Sarmatians north of the Danube.
2 commentsberserker
severus_RIC5.jpg
193 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius67 viewsobv: [IMP CAE L SEP] SEV PERT AVG (laureate head right)
rev: [LEG] II ADIVT (eagle standing left; standard on either side), in ex. [TRP COS]
ref: RIC IVi 5 (S), C.260 (10frcs)
mint: Rome
3.12 gms, 17 mm
Scarce

During the civil war of 193, II Adiutrix supported the governor of Pannonia Superior, Lucius Septimius Severus, took part in his march on Rome, and probably in his campaign against his rival Pescennius Niger as well.
3 commentsberserker
septsev sest.jpg
193 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS sestertius 40 viewsobv: IMP CAES L SEPT SEV PERT AVG (laureate head right)
rev: VIRT AVG TR P COS (Virtus standing left, holding Victory & spear reversed), S-C in field
ref: RIC IVi 657 (S), C.753 (8frcs)
17.42gms, 25-28mm
Scarce
2 commentsberserker
9711a.jpg
193 AD Clodius Albinus Caesar, Sestertius RIC 50111 viewsClodius Albinus Caesar, Sestertius, Rome mint 193 AD
Obv.: D [C]LODIVS AL - BINVS CAES , Head, bare, r.
Rev.: PROVID - AVG COS / S - C , Providentia standing l., holding wand over globe and sceptre.
RIC IV, part I, p. 51, no. 50 ; C 59

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus was born in Hadrumetum (modern Sousse in Tunisia) and came from a prominent senatorial family. He held high office under Marcus Aurelius and continued under Commodus, becoming consul in 187 and governor of Britain in 191. After the murder of Pertinax and the purchase of the Empire by Didius Julianus, Albinus, joined by his rivals Pescennius Niger and Septimius Severus, made preparations to march on Rome. Severus got there first and, in order to free himself for battle in the East, had Albinus proclaimed Caesar and made him his heir. Needless to say, after his defeat of Niger, Severus turned on Albinus and had him declared a public enemy in 195. Albinus was hailed emperor in Lugdunum in either late 195 or early 196, and spent the next year raising troops: Severus moved into Gaul with his army in 196 and in a huge battle outside Lugdunum on 19 February, defeated Albinus who then committed suicide.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
c albinus RIC7.jpg
193-195 AD - CLODIUS ALBINUS Caesar AR denarius - struck 194-195 AD142 viewsobv: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES (bare head right)
rev: MINER PACIF COS II (Minerva standing facing with olive branch, shield & spear)
ref: RIC IVi 7, C.48 (12frcs)
mint: ? , 2.87gms, 17mm
Rare

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus, Governor of Britain and Gaul, was declared "Caesar of the West" in 193 and made co-regent with Severus late in 195. However, these concessions to his considerable power were only the means by which Severus averted a direct conflict with Albinus until he was ready for one. Early in 197 when Severus' own position was more secure, he attacked Albinus at Lugdunum (Lyons). Albinus was murdered or committed suicide on 19 February 197.
berserker
jdomna_RIC632.jpg
193-196(?) AD - JULIA DOMNA AR denarius49 viewsobv: IVLIA DOMNA AVG (draped bust right, hair coiled and waved)
rev: VENERI VICTR (Venus half naked standing to r., holding an apple and a palm and leaning on a column)
ref: RIC IVi 632, C.194 (5frcs)
mint: Emesa and Laodicea (or probably Rome)
3.5gms, 18mm
Scarce

Julia Domna was the wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Caracalla and Geta. She was a great support for Severus in serving her family and the empire. A staunch opponent to Severus' praetorian prefect Plautianus, she attempted to turn his influence from the emperor. Her attempts to mitigate in the hatred between her two sons did not succeed. However, she seems to have prevented them from splitting the empire between them, fearing an all-out civil war. Perhaps this was one of the turning points of Roman history. If the empire had been divided at this time, future history may have become wholly different. Her greatest tragedy was probably the death of Geta in her arms from the murderers instigated by Caracalla. Nevertheless she continued serving the empire and Caracalla until, he too, was murdered. After bearing Caracalla's ashes to Rome, she starved herself to death.
2 commentsberserker
Alberti.jpg
1930: Five francs of Albert I (nl)5 viewsKing Albert I. Cupro-nickel 5 Francs or 1 Belga. 1930.

Bust of Albert I facing left, legend ALBERT KONING - DER BELGEN / EEN BELGA - 5 FRANK 1930 surrounded by wreath and crown.
Belisarius
Belgium_(1939)_-_5_Francs.jpg
1939: Five francs of Leopold III13 viewsKing Leopold III. Cupro-nickel 5 Francs. 1939.

Seated lion, right, with 1939 / Three provincial coats of arms.
Belisarius
septsev_RIC32.jpg
194 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius39 viewsobv: L SEPT SEV PERT - AVG IMP III (laureate head right)
rev: LIBERO PATRI (Bacchus [Liber] standing left, holding oenochoe [wine-cup] over panther on left and thyrsus in other hand)
ref: RIC IVi, 32 (S), RSC 301 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
2.89 gms, 17 mm
Rare

In Roman mythology, Liber was originally associated with husbandry and crops, but then was assimilated with Dionysos. He is the consort of Ceres and the father of the goddess Libera. His festival, the Liberalia, was on 17 March when young men celebrated the arrival of manhood.
1 commentsberserker
septsev_RIC417.jpg
194-195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius22 viewsobv: IMP CAE.L.SEP.SEV.PERT.AVG.COS.II (laureate head right)
rev: SAECVL FELICIT (seven stars above crescent)
ref: RIC IVi 417 (S), C 628 (3frcs)
mint: Emesa
3.20gms, 17mm
Scarce

Seven stars are found more often than any other number. They might have had different meanings on different coins. It is sometimes said that they represent the five planets known in classical times plus the sun and the moon, but that idea is hard to sustain on coins which show the moon as well. Another theory is that they represent the Pleiades, a constellation sometimes known as the Seven Sisters.
berserker
septsev_RIC40.jpg
194-195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius26 viewsobv: L.SEPT.SEV.PERT.AVG.IMP.IIII (laureate head right)
rev: APOLLINI AGVSTO (sic!) (Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre)
ref: RIC IVi 40 (S), C.42 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.30gms, 17mm
Scarce

The reverse legend is APOLLINI AGVSTO instead of APOLLINI AVGVSTO.
It was in memory of the veneration rendered by Augustus to Apollo, that this coin was struck, in which the name itself of Augustus is given to that deity, who is represented in the same costume and attitude. (Numiswiki)
See also my Antoninus Pius AE As (RIC III 824)
1 commentsberserker
septsev_RIC702.jpg
195 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS sestertius31 viewsobv: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII (laureate head right)
rev: DIVI M PII F PM TRP III COS II PP (Septimius Severus standing left on left, holding Victory and spear, being crowned by Roma to right, holding parazonium), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC IVi 702 (R), C.128 (15frcs)
mint: Rome
20.11gms, 28mm
Rare

This coin is commemorated that Septimius Severus adopted himself into the family of Marcus Aurelius. The reverse legend DIVI Marci PII Filius shows the false assumption of an illustrious genealogy, Severus rendered himself particularly acceptable to the soldiers and to the uneducated classes of people. It was also from this circumstance that he acquired the power of conferring upon his son Bassianus (Caracalla) the name of Antoninus.
berserker
5fr_Leopold_iii.jpg
1950: Five francs of Leopold III/Baudouin (nl)17 viewsKing Leopold III or Baudouin. 5 Francs. 1950.

An oak branch underneath a crown, legend: 5 FR. BELGIE. / Head of Ceres and a cornucopia.
Belisarius
100francs.jpg
1950: Hundred francs of Leopold III (fr)21 viewsKing Leopold III. Silver 100 Francs. 1950.

Belgian coat of arms with legend 100 FR - BELGIQUE / Busts of all Kings of the Belgians (left to right: Leopold III, Albert I, Leopold II, Leopold I) with crown and star.
Belisarius
jdomna sest.jpg
196 AD - JULIA DOMNA sestertius 35 viewsobv: IVLIA AVGVSTA (draped bust right)
rev: HILARITAS (Hilaritas standing left, holding long palm and cornucopiae), S-C in field
ref: RIC IVi 855 (SeptSev), C.73 (8frcs)
20.12gms, 28mm
Scarce
2 commentsberserker
caracalla_RIC04.jpg
196-198 AD - CARACALLA denarius 29 viewsobv: M AVR ANTONINVS CAES (draped bust right)
rev: SEVERI AVG PII FIL (sacrificial implements: lituus, axe, jug, simpulum & sprinkler)
ref: RIC IVi 4, RSC 587 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
3.42gms, 17mm
Scarce
berserker
A_new_coin__Blackadjust_.jpg
196/1 AE As30 viewsAnonymous [Star]. Ć As. Rome Mint. c 169-158 BC. (32 mm, 17.95 g, 4 h) Rev: Laureate head of Janus; above, I. Obv: Prow of galley right; above, star; before, I; below, ROMA.
BMCRR 461; Syd 264; Crawford 196/1

Reddish-brown patina with some black spots. Nearly very fine.
A duplicate from the RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. Purchased privately from Frank Kovacs in 1988

Ex: Triskles
Paddy
1i.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6B 56 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross. The coin differs with a Circular legend

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.35mm

Weight 2.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

This coin is listed in CLBC as rare, it differs from the normal coin is the circular legend. Other variations of this coin appear in Isaacs attire. This coin brags of a beautiful green yellow Patina and an unusually detailed reverse.
Simon
PCrassusDenAmazon~0.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus17 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps; a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2~1.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus35 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
2 commentsBlindado
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
Blindado
GordianIIIAntLaetitia.jpg
1cl Gordian III21 views238-244

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP GORDINVS PIVS FEL AVG
Laetitia standing right with wreath & anchor, LAETITIA AVG N

RIC 86

Continuing his story of the deaths of Balbinus and Pupienus, Herodian wrote: Leaving the corpses exposed in the street, the praetorians took up Gordian Caesar and proclaimed him emperor, since at the moment they could find no other candidate for the office. Proclaiming that they had only killed the men whom the people did not want to rule them in the first place, they chose as emperor this Gordian who was descended from the Gordian whom the Romans themselves had forced to accept the rule. Keeping their emperor Gordian with them, they went off to the praetorian camp. . . . Gordian, at the age of about thirteen, was designated emperor and assumed the burden of the Roman empire. . . .

Eutropius continued the story: After Gordian, when quite a boy, had married Tranquillina at Rome, he opened the temple of Janus, and, setting out for the east, made war upon the Parthians, who were then proceeding to make an irruption. This war he soon conducted with success, and made havoc of the Persians in great battles. As he was returning, he was killed, not far from the Roman boundaries, by the treachery of Philip who reigned after him. The Roman soldiers raised a monument for him, twenty miles from Circessus, which is now a fortress of the Romans, overlooking the Euphrates. His relics they brought to Rome, and gave him the title of god.
Blindado
TraianDecSestDacia.jpg
1cq Trajan Decius24 views249-251

Sestertius

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, MP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG
Dacia standing left holding draco standard, or staff surmounted by a donkey's head, DACIA SC

RIC 101b

The Byzantine historian Zosimus recorded in his New History: [Philip], thinking that he had by these means established himself in the possession of the empire, he made an expedition against the Carpi, who had plundered all the country about the Ister. . . . As there were at that time many disturbances in the empire, the eastern provinces, which were uneasy, partly, owing to the exactions of exorbitant tributes, and partly to their dislike of Priscus, their governor, who was a man of an intolerably evil disposition, wished for innovation, and set up Papianus for emperor, while the inhabitants of Moesia and Pannonia were more inclined to Marinus.

Philip, being disturbed by these events, desired the senate cither to assist him against such imminent dangers, or, if they were displeased with his government, to suffer him to lay it down and dismiss him quietly. No person making a reply to this, Decius, a person of illustrious birth and rank, and moreover gifted, with every virtue, observed, that he was unwise in being so much concerned at those events, for they would vanish of themselves, and could not possibly long subsist. And though the event corresponded with the conjecture of Decius, which long experience in the world had enabled him to make, Papianus and Marinus being taken off, yet Philip was still in fear, knowing how obnoxious the officers in that country were to the army. He therefore desired Decius to assume the command of the legions in Moesia and Pannonia. As he refused this under the plea that it was inconvenient both for Philip and himself, Philip made use of the rhetoric of necessity, as the Thessalians term it, and compelled him to go to Pannonia to punish the accomplices of Marinus. The army in that country, finding that Decius punished all that had offended, thought it most politic to avoid the present danger and to set up a sovereign who would better consult the good of the state, and who, being more expert both in civil and military affairs, might without difficulty conquer Philip.

For this purpose they clothed Decius in purple, and notwithstanding all his apprehensions of future mischances, compelled him to assume the supreme authority. Philip therefore, on hearing that Decius was thus made emperor, collected all his forces to overpower him. The supporters of Decius, though they knew that the enemy had greatly the advantage in numbers, still retained their confidence, trusting to the general skill and prudence of Decius in affairs. And when the two armies engaged, although the one was superior in number, yet the other so excelled it in discipline and conduct, that a great number of Philip's partisans were slain and he himself amongst them, together with his son, on whom he had conferred the title of Caesar. Decius thus acquired the empire.

The Scythians, taking advantage of the disorder which every where prevailed through the negligence of Philip, crossed the Tanais, and pillaged the countries in the vicinity of Thrace. But Decius, marching against them, was not only victorious in every battle, but recovered the spoils they had taken, and endeavoured to cut off their retreat to their own country, intending to destroy them all, to prevent their ever again, making a similar incursion. For this purpose he posted Gallus on the bank of the Tanais with a competent force, and led in person the remainder of his army against the enemy. This expedition exceeded to his utmost wish; but Gallus, who was disposed to innovation, sent agents to the Barbarians, requesting their concurrence in a conspiracy against Decius. To this they gave a willing assent, and Gallus retained his post on the bank of the Tanais, but the Barbarians divided themselves into three battalions, the first of which posted itself behind a marsh. Decius having destroyed a considerable number of the first battalion, the second advanced, which he likewise defeated, and discovered part of the third, which lay near the marsh. Gallus sent intelligence to him, that he might march against them across the fen. Proceeding therefore incautiously in an unknown place, he and his army became entangled in the mire, and under that disadvantage were so assailed by the missiles of the Barbarians, that not one of them escaped with life. Thus ended the life of the excellent emperor Decius.

Eutropius wrote: DECIUS, a native of Lower Pannonia, born at Budalia, assumed the government. . . . When he and his son had reigned two years, they were both killed in the country of the Barbarians, and enrolled among the gods.
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HerEtruscAntImplements.jpg
1cs Herennius Etruscus13 views251

Elder son of Decius, he was named Caesar in 250 and Augustus the next year. He died in battle with his father.

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C
Sacr. Implements, PIETAS AVGVSTORVM

RIC 143
Blindado
049n.jpg
2 Countermarks on obverse of Geta ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA AE24282 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Ć 24. A.D. 198-209. Obv: (ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, (1) on bust, (2) behind bust. Rev: (AΔPIΠETP-AMHTPOΠ) or similar. Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 48. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.28 g. CM(1): •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm.Howgego 801 (19 pcs). CM(2): Second application of same CM. Collection Automan.Automan
Bithynia_Kalchedon,_AR_Drachm_4th_Cent__BC.jpg
2. Bithynia, Kalchedon, 340-320 BC, AR Siglos 17 viewsBull standing left on grain ear, KAΛX above.
Granulated mill-sail incuse square.

SNG BM Black Sea 112; SNG von Aulock 482; Sear 3738.

(18 mm, 5.31 g).
Ephesus Numismatics.

The symbolism of the bull and the heifer on the obverse of the coins of twin cities of Kalchedon (Asia Minor) and Byzantion (Europe) respectively is striking and points to a shared identity. They stood astride the southern entrance to the Bosporus. Both were 7th century BC foundations of Megara and jointly they controlled the vital grain trade from the Black Sea into the Mediterranean.

The grain ear upon which the bull of Kalchedon stands alludes to this fact. That of the dolphin beneath the Heifer of Byzantion is a reflection of the maritime orientation of the city and the bountiful pods of dolphins that even to this day frolic in swift flowing waters of the Bosporus beneath the old city walls of Constantinople which succeded Byzantion and was in turn succeded by Istanbul.

The twin cities merged in the modern era to become the great and fascinating metropolis of Istanbul. Ancient Kalchedon dominated the Asian side of the Bosporus. The remains of the ancient city lie be
n.igma
20 francs Or Belgique 1882.jpg
20 Francs From Belgium, LĂ©opold II54 viewsAU, 21 mm. , Belgium, 1882
Obv: LEOPOLD II ROI DES BELGES, 1882
Rev: L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE, 20 FRS
Jean Paul D
20francs Or Napoleon B An 12.jpg
20 Francs From France, NAPOLEON58 viewsAU, 21mm. , Paris, France, 1803/1804
Obv:BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL
REV: REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, 20 Francs, AN 12
AN 12 means the 12th year from republican calendar= from september 24th 1803 to september 22 nd 1804
Jean Paul D
geta RIC6-Castor.jpg
200-202 AD - GETA Caesar denarius22 viewsobv: P SEPT GETA CAES PONT (draped bust right)
rev: CASTOR (Castor standing left in front of horse, reins in right hand & scepter in left)
ref: RIC IVi 6, RSC 12(10frcs), BMC 216
mint: Rome
3.02gms, 18mm
Scarce
This piece was minted in the name of Geta, who served as Caesar under Septimius Severus from 198-209 AD. The reverse features Castor, patron of the knights. Castor and Pollux are better known together as The Dioscuri, and their specific depiction individually is very infrequently seen. Geta was the second Castor in his coins.
berserker
Rep_Roma.jpg
200/1 Pinarius Natta18 viewsPinarius Natta. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 149 BC. (4.01g, 18mm, 12h) Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind. Rev: Victory driving biga right, NAT below, ROMA in linear frame.
Crawford 200/1; Sydenham 382; BMC 756

Ex: Roma Numismatics; From the Andrew Mccabe Collection

A most excellent coin. Nice crisp strike and really appealing tone.
Paddy