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Search results - "Brutus"
DenGiunioBruto.jpg
56 viewsDenarius - 54 BC. - Mint of Rome
MARCVS IUNIVS BRVTVS - Gens Iunia
Obv.: Head of Libertas right. LIBERTAS behind
Rev.: Consul L. Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceeded by accensus, all walking left, BRVTVS in ex.
Gs. 3,5 mm. 20,73x18,56
Crawf. 433/1, Sear RCV 397, Grueber 3861.

1 commentsMaxentius
DSC06620-horz.jpg
00 - 01 - Marco Junio Bruto38 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus, al ser adoptado por su Tío toma el nombre de Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus

AR Denario 18,00 mm de 3,60 gr.

Anv: "BRVTVS", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Lucio Junio Bruto a der.
1er.Consul y fundador de la República Romana en el 509 A.C., luego de participar activamente en la conspiración para derrocar a Tarquino "El Soberbio", último Rey de Roma
Rev: "AHALA", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Cayo Servilio Ahala a der.
Magister Equitum (Maestro de caballos) en el 439 D.C., autor del magnicidio del Dictador Espurio Melio en defensa de la República auque muchos autores atribuyen este asesinato a su deseo de convertirse en Rey de Roma

Acuñada por, quizás, el mas famosos de los asesinos de Julio Cesar, unos 10 años antes y a la edad de 31 años cuando desempeñaba uno de sus primeros cargos públicos como Magistrado Monetario. A travéz de esta moneda se atribuye la descendencia paterna de Lucio Junio Bruto y Materna de Cayo Servilio Ahala, dos defensores de la República y magnicidas; además muestra su fuerte defensa de la Res Pública, oposición a la tiranía y convencimiento que existía el homicidio justificable, valores que pondría mas tarde en práctica.
También se cree que esta moneda es una advertencia a Pompeyo "El Grande", quien tenía intensiones de convertirse en Dictador.

Acuñada durante los años 54 A.C. (s/RRC) ó 59 A.C. (s/BMCRR)
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: Craw.RRC 433/2 - Syd. CRR #907 - BMCRR Roma #3864 - RSC vol.I #Junia 30, p.56 y #Servilia 17, p.89 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #398, p.149 - Albert #1362 - Mabbott #4079 - Catalli #617, p.2001 - Vagi #82 - Harlan RRM #3-4, pag.20
mdelvalle
Craw_433_2_Denario_M__Junius_Brutus.jpg
00 - 01 - Marco Junio Bruto27 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus, al ser adoptado por su Tío toma el nombre de Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus

AR Denario 18,00 mm de 3,60 gr.

Anv: "BRVTVS", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Lucio Junio Bruto a der.
1er.Consul y fundador de la República Romana en el 509 A.C., luego de participar activamente en la conspiración para derrocar a Tarquino "El Soberbio", último Rey de Roma
Rev: "AHALA", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Cayo Servilio Ahala a der.
Magister Equitum (Maestro de caballos) en el 439 D.C., autor del magnicidio del Dictador Espurio Melio en defensa de la República auque muchos autores atribuyen este asesinato a su deseo de convertirse en Rey de Roma

Acuñada por, quizás, el mas famosos de los asesinos de Julio Cesar, unos 10 años antes y a la edad de 31 años cuando desempeñaba uno de sus primeros cargos públicos como Magistrado Monetario. A travéz de esta moneda se atribuye la descendencia paterna de Lucio Junio Bruto y Materna de Cayo Servilio Ahala, dos defensores de la República y magnicidas; además muestra su fuerte defensa de la Res Pública, oposición a la tiranía y convencimiento que existía el homicidio justificable, valores que pondría mas tarde en práctica.
También se cree que esta moneda es una advertencia a Pompeyo "El Grande", quien tenía intensiones de convertirse en Dictador.

Acuñada durante los años 54 A.C. (s/RRC) ó 59 A.C. (s/BMCRR)
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: Craw.RRC 433/2 - Syd. CRR #907 - BMCRR Roma #3864 - RSC vol.I #Junia 30, p.56 y #Servilia 17, p.89 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #398, p.149 - Albert #1362 - Mabbott #4079 - Catalli #617, p.2001 - Vagi #82 - Harlan RRM #3-4, pag.20
mdelvalle
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire86 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
Brutus-Syd-907.jpg
013. M. Junius Brutus.58 viewsDenarius, 54 BC, Rome mint.
Obverse: BRVTVS / Bust of L. Junius Brutus.
Reverse: AHALA / Bust of C. Servilius Ahala.
4.09 gm., 19 mm.
Syd. #907; RSC #Junia 30; Sear #398.

The moneyer of this coin is the same Brutus who killed Julius Caesar. However, this coin was minted about a decade earlier. It portrays two ancestors of Brutus:

1. L. Junius Brutus lead the Romans to expel their king L. Tarquinius Superbus. He was one of the founding fathers of the Roman Republic, and was elected one of the first consuls in 509 BC.

2. C. Cervilius Ahala. In 439 BC, during a food shortage in Rome, Spurius Maelius, the richest patrician, bought as much food as he could and sold it cheaply to the people. The Romans, always fearful of kings, thought he wanted to be king. So an emergency was declared and L. Cincinnatus was proclaimed Dictator. Maelius was ordered to appear before Cincinnatus, but refused. So Ahala, as Magister Equitam, killed him in the Forum. Ahala was tried for this act, but escaped condemnation by voluntary exile.
4 commentsCallimachus
Rep_AR-Den_Marcus-Junius-Brutus_BRVTVS_AHALA_Crawford-433-2_Syd-907_Junia-30_Rome_54-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_16,5-18,5mm_3,15g-s.jpg
054 B.C., Marcus Junius Brutus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 433/2, C. Servilius Ahala right, #1148 views054 B.C., Marcus Junius Brutus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 433/2, C. Servilius Ahala right, #1
avers: BRVTVS left, head of L. Junius Brutus right. Border of dots.
reverse: AHALA left, head of C. Servilius Ahala right. Border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 54 B.C., ref: Crawford 433-2, Sydenham 907,
Q-001
quadrans
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar161 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
0010-060np_noir.jpg
1163 - D. Junius L.F. Silanus, As116 viewsAs minted in Rome, 91 BC
No legend, Head of Janus
D SILANVS L F, Prow of galley right
12.08 gr
Ref : RCV # 738

The following comment from : http://www.forumancientcoins.com/historia/historia.htm

"Decimus Junius Silanus was the son of M. Junius Silanus, who commanded the army that was defeated by the Germanic Cimbri in Transalpine Gaul.

Decimus was the stepfather of Marcus Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, having married his mother Servilia. He was elected consul in 63 for the following year ; and in consequence of his being consul designatus, he was first asked for his opinion by Cicero in the debate in the senate on the punishment of the Catilinarian conspirators. He was consul 62, with L. Licinius Morena, along with whom he proposed the Lex Licinia Julia".
Potator II
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius96 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
Walthamstow_Brutus_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "BRUTUS" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.155 viewsObverse: BRUTUS. Bare head of Lucius Junius Brutus facing left.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm
Bowman: 24 | Withers: 621

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830).

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London. The copper was smelted in "Landore" near Swansea in South Wales and brought by barge around the south coast up the Thames and the Lea to the mill. The copper ingots were then rolled into thin sheets which were sent all over the country to be stamped into coins. The main purpose of the BCC would have been to sell its copper, whether in the form of tokens, or sheets of metal. These penny and half penny tokens were not issued exclusively for use in Walthamstow, the halfpennies in particular do not bear the name of a place where they could have been redeemed except the very tiny BCC found on the ground by Britannia's shield. The copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow were converted into a pumping station in the 1860s and were later incorporated, by Thames Water, into a large water treatment works.

Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the first two consuls of Rome, was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins, he thus became a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
Walthamstow_VINCIT_Halfpenny.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.38 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Small laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17, Coxall type 10

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1811_Vincit_Large_head.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.32 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Large laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Die damage, a common feature of these tokens, is visible at 10 o'clock on the obverse.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
Blindado
Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
Blindado
BrutusDenLictors.jpg
1ag Marcus Junius Brutus65 viewsTook his own life in 42 BC after being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Octavian

Denarius, issued as moneyer, 54 BC
Head of Liberty, right, LIBERTAS
Consul L. Junius Brutus between lictors, preceded by accensus, BRVTVS

Seaby, Junia 31

Plutarch wrote: Marcus Brutus was descended from that Junius Brutus to whom the ancient Romans erected a statue of brass in the capitol among the images of their kings with a drawn sword in his hand, in remembrance of his courage and resolution in expelling the Tarquins and destroying the monarchy. . . . But this Brutus, whose life we now write, having to the goodness of his disposition added the improvements of learning and the study of philosophy, and having stirred up his natural parts, of themselves grave and gentle, by applying himself to business and public affairs, seems to have been of a temper exactly framed for virtue; insomuch that they who were most his enemies upon account of his conspiracy against Caesar, if in that whole affair there was any honourable or generous part, referred it wholly to Brutus, and laid whatever was barbarous and cruel to the charge of Cassius, Brutus's connection and familiar friend, but not his equal in honesty and pureness of purpose. . . . In Latin, he had by exercise attained a sufficient skill to be able to make public addresses and to plead a cause; but in Greek, he must be noted for affecting the sententious and short Laconic way of speaking in sundry passages of his epistles. . . . And in all other things Brutus was partaker of Caesar's power as much as he desired: for he might, if he had pleased, have been the chief of all his friends, and had authority and command beyond them all, but Cassius and the company he met with him drew him off from Caesar. . . . Caesar snatching hold of the handle of the dagger, and crying out aloud in Latin, "Villain Casca, what do you?" he, calling in Greek to his brother, bade him come and help. And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against him, he let go Casca's hand, that he had hold of and covering his head with his robe, gave up his body to their blows.
2 commentsBlindado
LHostiliusSasDenGallia.jpg
1ba Caesar's Siege of Massilia11 viewsL Hostilivs Saserna, moneyer
49-44 BC

Denarius, 48 BC

Head of Gallia, right, Gaulish trumpet behind
HOSTILIVS SASTERNA, Diana of Ephesus with stag

Seaby, Hostilia 4

This piece appears to refer to Julius Caesar's siege of Massilia (Marseille) during the civil war in 49 BC.

In The Civil Wars, Julius Caesar recorded: While this treaty was going forward, Domitius arrived at Massilia with his fleet, and was received into the city, and made governor of it. The chief management of the war was intrusted to him. At his command they send the fleet to all parts; they seize all the merchantmen they could meet with, and carry them into the harbor; they apply the nails, timber, and rigging, with which they were furnished to rig and refit their other vessels. They lay up in the public stores, all the corn that was found in the ships, and reserve the rest of their lading and convoy for the siege of the town, should such an event take place. Provoked at such ill treatment, Caesar led three legions against Massilia, and resolved to provide turrets, and vineae to assault the town, and to build twelve ships at Arelas, which being completed and rigged in thirty days (from the time the timber was cut down), and being brought to Massilia, he put under the command of Decimus Brutus; and left Caius Trebonius his lieutenant, to invest the city.
Blindado
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Junia_30_denarius.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus19 viewsMARCUS JUNIUS BRUTUS
Moneyer
AR Denarius. (3.5g), 54 BC.

BRVTVS, bare head of L Junius Brutus right / AHALA, bare head of C Servilius Ahala right.

Syd 907, Cr433/2, Junia30; aF

Marcus Junius Brutus (early June, 85 BC – 23 October, 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic. He is best known in modern times for taking a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar ten years after this coin was minted.
RM0032
Sosius
Brutus_Denarius_RSC_5.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus14 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus
AR denarius, 42 BC
Military mint traveling with Brutus in Lycia.

LEIBERTAS, bare head of Libertas right, Deep banker's mark / CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS, Lyre between a quiver and a laurel branch.

Junia 34, Cr501/1, Syd 1287, RSC 5
RM0018
Sosius
image~5.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus52 viewsGold stater, BMCRR II p. 474, 48; RPC I 1701A (Thracian Kings); BMC Thrace p. 208, 1 (same); SNG Cop 123 (Scythian Dynasts), military mint, weight 8.39g, 44 - 42 B.C.; obverse Roman consul L. Junius Brutus (traditional founder of the Republic) in center, accompanied by two lictors, KOΣΩN in ex, BR (Brutus) monogram left; reverse eagle standing left on scepter, wings open, raising wreath in right talon; ex CNG Store

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

2 commentsSosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_12_41_44_PM.png
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus30 viewsBrutus 42 BC, Fourree Denarius
Roman Imperatorial, Brutus 42 BC, Fourree Denarius, 2.47g: Obv: Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right. "L.SESTI PRO Q" Rev: Tripod flanked by an axe and simpulum. "Q CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO CO". RSC 11. L Sestius Pro-Quaestor
Ex Aegean Numismatics Auction, 5/11/17
1 commentsSosius
Postumia_11_Den.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: D. Junius Brutus Albinus28 viewsD Junius Brutus Albinus
AR Denarius, 48 BC.

Head of young Mars right, wearing a crested helmet / BRVTI F ALBINVS, two gallic trumpets in saltire, oval shield above, round shield below.

Cr450/1a; Syd 941, Postumia 11, Sear5 #426

Ex CNG

Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born April 27,[1] ca. 85–81 BC,[2] died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination. Decimus Brutus is not to be confused with the more famous Brutus among the conspirators, Marcus Brutus.
RM0038
Sosius
394-1b_-_Postumia.jpg
394/1b. Postumia - denarius (74 BC)21 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 74 BC)
O/ Bust of Diana right, draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder.
R/ Hound running right; spear below; C POSTVMI in exergue.
3.96g; 17mm
Crawford 394/1b (192 obverse dies/213 reverse dies, both varieties)
- ex Lockdales 145, lot 1414.

* Gaius Postumius At. or Ta. (Albinus Atilianus?):

This variant without the monogram in exergue is very rare; only three reverse dies seem to exist.

The moneyer belonged to the great patrician gens Postumia, but his family is much more difficult to ascertain. The patrician Postumii had few different branches and only one had survived by the 1st century: the Albini. There were also plebeian Postumii.

His obverse with Diana reproduces those of Aulus Postumius S.f. S.n. Albinus (RRC 335/9), and his probable son Postumius A.f. S.n. Albinus (RRC 372/1), thus implying that he was a member of the patrician family. However, the Albini never used the praenomen Gaius. It is nonetheless possible that our moneyer was adopted into the gens, as it occurred with Decimus Junius Brutus (RRC 450), adopted by an Aulus Albinus. The Postumii seem to have had difficulties producing male heirs; they indeed had 9 consulships between 186 and 99 BC, but very few magistrates bore that name in the 1st century. The disaster of the campaign against Jugurtha by the brothers Spurius and Aulus Postumius Albinus might have hit the gens hard; Aulus was also murdered during the Social War (Livy, Periochae, 75).

The monogram in exergue could therefore be deciphered as AT for the plebeian gens Atilia -- the possible family of Gaius Albinus before his adoption. Another moneyer, Lucius Atilius Nomentanus, likewise ligatured the first two letters of his name on his denarii in 141 (RRC 225/1). This theory would explain both the unusual praenomen for the gens and the monogram. His adoptive father could also be one of the two moneyer mentioned above.

Crawford links the moneyer with a Gnaeus Postumius who accused Lucius Licinius Murena, the consul elect for 62, of bribery in the famous Pro Murena by Cicero (56-58), who also says that Postumius was a (unsuccessful) candidate to the praetorship that year. The case was won by Cicero and no doubt that accusing a Consul of bribery did not help his career and the fate of the Albini, as they disappeared from history after this.
1 commentsJoss
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius52 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
RM0002
4 commentsSosius
Longus.jpg
42 BC L. Mussidius Longus132 viewsCONCORDIA
Veiled and diad. head of Concordia right star below chin

L. MVSSIDIVS LONGVS
Shrine of Venus Cloacina consisting of circular platform, inscribed CLOACIN, surmounted by two statues of the goddess

Rome
42 BC

3.42g
Sear 494, RRC 494/42

ex-Canadian Coin

In Roman mythology, Cloacina (Latin, cloaca: "sewer" or "drain") was the goddess who presided over the Cloaca Maxima the main sewer drain in Rome. The Cloaca Maxima is traditionally said to have beeen started by one of Rome's Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Priscus. Despite her Etruscan origins, she later became identified with Venus.

Titus Tatius, who reigned with Romulus, erected a statue to Cloacina as the spirit of the "Great Drain". As well as controlling sewers, she was also a protector of sexual intercourse in marriage. The Romans believed that a good sewage system was important for the success of Rome, as a good sewer system was necessary for the physical health of Roman citizens. Additionally, Romans worshipped Cloacina as the goddess of purity. Cloacina was worshipped as an aspect of Venus at the small Shrine of Venus Cloacina, located in front of the Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum and directly above the Cloaca Maxima. The depiction on the reverse of this coin is that shrine.

The image of Concordia could be interpreted to convey the thought of Unity between the triumvirs to defeat Brutus and Cassius. Venus Cloacina on the reverse conveys the thought of purification for the treacherous murder of the dictator Julius Caesar by men who claimed to be his friends.
4 commentsJay GT4
Marcus_Junius_Brutus_Craw__433_1.jpg
433/1 Marcus Junius Brutus 31 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 54 B.C. (4.01g, 19.1m, 4h). Obv: LIBERTAS, head of Libertas r., hair in bun. Rev: BRVTVS in ex., consul Lucius Junius Brutus walking l., between two lictors, preceded by an accensus. Craw. 433/1, RCV 397.

Brutus, perhaps Caesar’s most famous assassin, shows his political leanings on this coin 10 years before the assassination. Lucius Junius Brutus, the first consul and founder of the Republic reportedly expelled the last Tarquin king from Rome in 509 B.C. This is referred to as “The coin that should have warned Caesar.”
1 commentsLucas H
450_2_Decimus_Junius_Brutus_Craw_450_2.jpg
450/ 2 Decimus Junius Brutus26 viewsDecimus Junius Brutus. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 48 B.C. (3.76g, 18.7m, 3h). Obv: Head of Pietas right, PIETAS behind. Rev: Two joined hands holding a caduceus, ALBINVS BRVTI F below. Craw. 450/2, Syd 942, Postumia 10.

Decimus Brutus Albinus was a cousin of Caesar’s who became instrumental in his assassination in 44 B.C. Decimus Junius Brutus was adopted by Consul Aulus Postumius Albinus, added the cognomen Albinus thereafter. Decimus was the third to strike Caesar on the Ides of March, and the first of the assasins to be killed, albiet by a Gaul chieftan loyal to Antony while escaping from Gaul to join Brutus and Cassius.
Lucas H
Bruti.jpg
48 BC D. Junius Brutus Albinus120 viewsPIETAS
Head of Pietas right

ALBINVS BRVTI F
Clasped hands holding winged caduceus

3.1g

Rome
48 BC

Sear 427,

Decimus Junius Brutus was a distant relative of Marcus Brutus. He was known as one of Caesar's "most intamate associates" and a friend of Mark Antony. Albinus had served under Caesar in both the Gallic Wars and the Civil War. He participated in the siege of Massilia (Marseilles) that held out against Caesar for months. He also commanded a Caesarian fleet.

Plutarch considered Albinus "of no great courage," but Albinus was a faithful and loyal supporter of Caesar. He was to be Consul in 42 BC along with Lucius Plancus. While awaiting the consulship Albinus was to become Governor of Cisalpine Gaul when the post became available in the spring of 44BC

Albinus was approached by Cassius and Labeo to involve him in the conspiracy to murder Caesar. Albinus wanted to make sure Marcus Brutus was involved before agreeing to the plot. After meeting with Brutus he agreed. Both Brutus and Albinus received notification of a meeting of the Senate on March 15th and Albinus agreed to use an exhibition of his Gladiators after the meeting as protection in case things got out of hand after the murder had taken place. Caesar's retired legionaries were all around the city and none of the conspirators knew how they would react at Caesar's death.

At a dinner at the house of Marcus Lepidus on the night of March 14, 44BC Caesar was in attendence along with Decimus Brutus. Towards the end of the night Caesar's secretary approached for him to sign some letters. As he was signing Albinus posed a philosophical question to him: "What sort of death is best?" Caesar answered "A sudden one"

The next morning the Senate awaited Caesar to arrive. Caesr's wife Calpurnia and the auspeces warned Caesar not to attend the meeting. When Caesar delayed the conspirator's sent Albinus to Caesar's house. Albinus convinced Caesar to at least postpone the meeting in person. Antony was against this idea. Caesar was then murered by the conspirators in the Theater of Pompey in the Campus Martius, Albinus being a key player in the conspiracy.
3 commentsJay GT4
BRVTVS.jpg
54 BC M. Junius Brutus AR Denarius.350 viewsLIBERTAS
bust of Libertas right

BRVTVS in ex
Consul L Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceeded by accensus, all walking left, .

Rome, 54 BC.

3.61g

Syd 906, Cr433/1, Junia 31.

Ex-Incitatus
15 commentsJay GT4
0106.jpg
Anonymous (GAR, OGVL, VER series), Denarius14 viewsAnonymous (GAR, OGVL, VER series), Denarius

RRC 350A/2
86 bc

Av: Head of Apollo r., wearing oak-wreath; below, thunderbolt,
Rv: Jupiter in quadriga r., holding reins and thunderbolt.

A number of dies from this issue are inscriben GAR, OVGL, VER on reverse. Crawforod identifies GAR as the orator C. Gargonius, from Ciceros Brutus

Ex Bertolami Fine arts, Auction 24, Numismatics, London, 23.06.2016, #442
Norbert
ANTIOCH.jpg
ANTIOCH - Syria55 viewsANTIOCH - Syria, Bronze AE 27, RPC I 4223; BMC Galatia pg. 154, 25, 41 - 40 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse ANTIOCEWN MHTROPO THS IERAS KAI ASULOU, Zeus seated left holding Nike and scepter; pileus surmounted by star before, date BOG below (= Seleukid year 272).

Data from FORVM catalogue: About the time this coin was minted, the Parthians led by Quintus Labienus and Pacorus I attacked Syria, which was under Marc Antony's authority. Quintus Labienus was the son of Caesar's general Titus Labienus. He served under Brutus and Cassius, and after the battle at Phillipi fled to Parthia, which he had visited before as an ambassador. After several battles against Antony's governor, Saxa, they occupied the entire province and later Asia Minor and Palestine. In Judea, Pacorus deposed king John Hyrcanus II and appointed his nephew Antigonus king in his place. Labienus was killed during a Roman counter attack in 39 B.C. The territory they captured was recovered for Rome. Pacorus retreated to Parthia but died one year later in an attack on a Roman camp.
1 commentsdpaul7
ANTKAI.jpg
Antony and Octavian 301 viewsAntony and Octavian

Α Γ Ω N Ο Θ Ε Σ Ι Α
Bust of Agonotheseia right

ANT KAI within wreath

Æ 22 mm.
11.07g
RPC I, 1552. SNG ANS 819. SNG Copenhagen 375. BMC 64.

Ex-Aegean

Refers to the establishment of Games to commemorate Antony & Octavian's victory over Cassius & Brutus at Philipi in 42 B.C. The cheif organizers of these games were known as Agonothetes; Agonotheseia, who appears on the obverse, was the personification of the Games.

Rare, historical
1 commentsJay GT4
VICAVG.jpg
Augustus52 viewsVIC - AVG
Victory standing left on base holding wreath and palm

COHOR PRAE PHIL
three standards

Philippi, Macedonia mint

27 B.C. - 14 A.D. or later

2.81g 17mm

SGIC 32, RPC 1651

Typically attributed to Octavian to commemorate the defeat of Cassius and Brutus at the battle of Philippi. It is also suggested it may be from the time of Claudius or Nero


Jay GT4
Augustus_Victory_Over_Brutus.jpg
Augustus Victory over Brutus27 viewsAugustus, Philippi, (Macedon Northern Greece) 27 BC - 10 BC, 20mm, 5.64g, BMC 23, Sear 32
OBV: VIC AVG, Victory standing on globe left.
REV: COHOR PRAEPHIL, 3 legionary standards

Commemorates the battle of Philippi, 42 B.C., in which Octavian and Antony defeated the Republican tyrannicides Brutus and Cassius, who subsequently committed suicide. Augustus later settled the veterans of a Praetorian Cohort at Philippi, and he conferred upon them the right to mint coins, of which this is an example. The images on this coin presumably refer to the Emperor's above described victory in 42 BC.
The winged victory standing on a globe representing the cosmos.
Such a coin is delivering, without words but in clear images that everyone would have understood, the message that Augustus now rules the world.
All the old political institutions were reestablished and the "dignity" of the Senate was restored, but actual power was now in the hands of one man alone.
Romanorvm
Philippi.jpg
Battle of Philippi commemerative coin22 viewsPhilippi, Macedonia, 41 B.C. - 68 A.D.
Obverse: VIC - AVG, Victory standing left on base holding wreath and palm
Reverse: COHOR PRAE PHIL, three military standards

The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars of the Second Triumvirate between the forces of Mark Antony and Octavian (the Second Triumvirate) against the forces of Julius Caesar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus in 42 BC, at Philippi in Macedonia.
Dk0311USMC
1bruto.jpg
Bruto, denario (54 a.C.)13 viewsRoma, M. Iunius Brutus, denario (54 a.C.)
Ag, 3.70 gr, 18 mm, qBB
D/ LIBERTAS; testa della Libertas.
R/ BRVTVS; il console L. Iunius Brutus tra due littori con fascio; davanti a loro l'accensus.
Crawford 433/1; Varesi 702.
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 7 aprile 2018, numero catalogo 390); ex asta "Cesare" di Varesi-Tinia del 7 aprile 2018, lotto 472.
paolo
brut1.jpg
BRUTUS26 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC,military mint. 3.69 gm. Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right. L. SESTI PRO Q. / Tripod between axe to left and simpulum to right. Q. CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS. Crawford 502/2. RSC 11. Smyth XIV/39.
CNG 194892.
benito
411.jpg
BRUTUS 113 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC,military mint. 3.69 gm. Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right. L. SESTI PRO Q. / Tripod between axe to left and simpulum to right. Q. CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS. Crawford 502/2. RSC 11. Smyth XIV/39.
CNG 194892.
benito
00brut2.jpg
BRUTUS41 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC,military mint . 3.77 g, 12h. Laureate head of Apollo right . COSTA down right, LEG up left. / Trophy consisting of helmet, cuirass, figure eight shield, and two spears. BRVTVS IMP. Crawford 506/2. RSC 4. Smyth IX/6.
CNG 757131.
1 commentsbenito
Brutus_Koson.jpg
Brutus Gold Stater 189 viewsRoman Consul Brutus in center accompanied by two lictors
KOΣΩN in ex. BR monogram on left.

Eagle standing left on scepter, wings open raising wreath in left claw.

Eastern mint, Dacia? 43-42 B.C.

8.38g

Choice aUNC

RPC I 1701; BMC Thrace p. 208, 1; BMCRR II 48; Crawford 433/1

Ex-ANE, Ex CNG

Clickable for larger image

For an excellent write up/ theory on these coins including a fascinating metalurgy report:
http://www.calgarycoin.com/reference/articles/koson/koson.htm

And of course the numiswiki article:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=Koson
15 commentsJay GT4
LarryW1818.jpg
Brutus, Proconsul and Imperator, committed suicide 42 BC or Thrace, Koson, dynast 50-40 BC16 viewsAV stater, 18.7mm, 8.51g, 0deg, EF
KOΣΩN in ex, BR monogram left, Roman consul, Brutus, in center accompanied by two lictors, dot circle / Eagle standing left on sceptre, wings open, raising wreath in left foot, dot circle
RPC I 1701; BMC Thrace p. 208, 1; BMCRR II 48; Crawford 433/1
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
LarryW1824.jpg
Brutus, Proconsul and Imperator, committed suicide 42 BC or Thrace, Koson, dynast 50-40 BC26 viewsAV stater, 18mm, 8.39g, 0deg, Choice EF
KOΣΩN in ex, BR monogram left, Roman consul, Brutus, in center accompanied by two lictors, dot circle / Eagle standing left on sceptre, wings open, raising wreath in left foot, dot circle
RPC I, 1701; BMC Thrace p. 208, 2; BMCRR II 48
Consigned to Forvm
1 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
brut2.jpg
BRUTUS.21 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC,military mint . 3.77 g, 12h. Laureate head of Apollo right . COSTA down right, LEG up left. / Trophy consisting of helmet, cuirass, figure eight shield, and two spears. BRVTVS IMP. Crawford 506/2. RSC 4. Smyth IX/6.
CNG 757131.
benito
brutus.jpg
BRVTVS/ AHALA16 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus, as moneyer, AR Denarius. 54 BC. BRVTVS, bare head of L Junius Brutus right / AHALA, bare head of C Servilius Ahala right. Syd 907, Cr433/2, Sear RCV I: 398, RSC Junia 30. Depicts Lucius Junius Brutus and C. Servilius Ahala, two tyrannicides, related to Marcus Junius Brutus from father's and mother's side.1 commentsPodiceps
Albinus_denar1.jpg
C. Vibius Pansa - D. Iunius Brutus Albinus19 viewsC. Vibius Pansa und D. Iunius Brutus Albinus.
Denarius, 48. AR 3.83 g.
Obv: C. PANSA Mask of bearded Pan r.
Rev: ALBINVS. BRVTI. F Two hands clasped around caduceus.

Cr. 451/1. Syd. 944. Seaby Vibia 22.
Tanit
762NN409.jpg
Cr 433/2 AR Denarius M. Junius Brutus25 viewsAR Denarius 54 bce Rome 4.09 gm 17.5 mm
o: BRVTVS, downwards behind head of L. Iunius Brutus r, border of dots
r: AHALA, downwards behind head of C. Servilius Ahala r, border of dots
Junia 30; Servilia 17; Sydenham 932

This type has always puzzled me. It clearly depicts the two anti-tyrants in the Junia family tree, L. Junius Brutus and C. Servilius Ahala. (Crawford uses the phrase "tyrannicides", but Brutus did not kill Tarquin and Ahala seems to have sucker-stabbed Maelius in anger.) Young Brutus, or whatever his name was when he was a moneyer, clearly chose to put them on his coins at the time when Pompey's prominence in the state was at its peak; Caesar was in Gaul or Britain, and could not help him. This decision as to coinage, therefore, seems to me extremely unhealthy. Roughly the same number of dies have been identified for both of Brutus's moneyer issues, so it is unlikely that this type is an indiscretion that was quickly withdrawn. So, was Brutus being played or deployed by Pompey against Caesar? Pompey was ostentatiously NOT claiming the dictatorship, so why "warn" him, especially when a "warning" from a 30-ish year old aspiring politician who maybe had held a staff officer's post would not likely impress Pompey, "the teenage butcher"? Worth, I think, exploring a bit.
2 commentsPMah
Republik_19.jpg
Cr. 433/1, Republic, 42 BC, M. Junius Brutus28 viewsM. Junius Brutus
AR Denarius, 42BC, Rome
Obv.: LIBERTAS, Head of Libertas right.
Rev.: BRVTVS, Consul L. Junius Brutus walking left between two lictors, carrying fasces over shoulder; accensus to left.
Ag, 19mm, 3.87g
Ref.: Crawford 433/1
Ex Münzkabinett Heinrich
Ex Gitbud & Naumann, auction 39, lot 826
2 commentsshanxi
D_Junius_Brutus_Albinus.jpg
D Junius Brutus Albinus Denarius 48 B.C.70 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 427, Sydenham 942, Crawford 450/2, RSC I Postumia 10, VF, Rome mint, 48 B.C.; obverse head of Pietas right, hair in a bun, cruciform earring and pearl necklace, PIETAS behind; reverse clasped hands holding winged caduceus, ALBINVS·BRVTI·F below; Lovely dark toning with iridescent blue highlights.

Ex Hess / Divo 314
Ex Moneta Nova
Not the famous Brutus but still one of the assasins of Caesar.
1 commentsPhiloromaos
Albinus_denar2.jpg
D. IUNIUS BRUTUS ALBINUS26 viewsD. IUNIUS BRUTUS ALBINUS
Denarius.
Roma, 48.
Obverse: PIETAS; Pietas.
Reverse: ALBINVS BRVTI F; Two hands, caduceus.

Cr. 450/2. Syd. 942
Tanit
brutus.jpeg
D. Junius Albinus Bruti6 viewsD. Junius Albinus Bruti, 48 BC AR Denarius,
Obverse: Head of Pietas right, PIETAS behind
Reverse: Two clasped hands in front of winged caduceus, ALBINVS.BRVTI.F below
jimbomar
D_Junius_Brutus_Albinus_1_opt.jpg
D. JUNIUS ALBINUS Denarius, Syd 942, Clasped hands15 viewsOBV: Hd of pietas r; PIETAS
REV: Clasped hands on caduceus; ALBINVS BRVTI.F.
3.91g. 19mm
Legatus
0111.jpg
D. Junius Brutus Albinus, Denarius21 viewsD. Junius Brutus Albinus, Denarius

RRC 450/3b
48 bc

Av: Head of A. Postumius r.; around, A POSTVMIVS COS
Rv: Wreath of corn-ears, within which ALBINV / BRVTI F.

From the close assosiate of Caesar, designated Consul of 42, and later co conspirator (Et tu, Brute?).
According to Crawford "There is no convincing candidate to whom to assign the portait"

Ex Bertolami Fine arts, Auction 24, Numismatics, London, 23.06.2016, #545
Norbert
Decimus_Junius_Brutus.png
Decimus Junius Brutus – Postumia-1025 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC. Decimus Junius Brutus Denarius 48 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.38 g, 7h). Rome mint. Bare head of Pietas right PIETAS behind / Clasped hands holding winged caduceus ALBINVS BRVTI F below. Crawford 450/2; CRI 26; Sydenham 942; Postumia 10; SRVC 427Bud Stewart
5RtnDs362PimEpH97TbDBcd85Y4j3e.jpg
Decimus Junius Brutus – Postumia-1336 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC AR denarius (18mm, 3.89g) Rome mint. Decimus Junius Brutus, adapted by A Postumius Albinus. 48 BC. A.POSTVMIVS.COS, bare head of the Consul Aulus Postumius Albinus / ALBINVS BRVTI F. in wreath. Syd 943, Cr450/3b, Postumia 13, SPCV 428, HCRI 271 commentsBud Stewart
EB0365_scaled.JPG
EB0365 Decimus Junius Brutus, Pietas / Hands clasping caduceus17 viewsDecimus Junius Brutus Albinus, AR Denarius, 49-48 BC.
Obv: Head of Pietas right, PIETAS behind.
Rev: Two right hands clasping caduceus, ALBINVS BRVTI F below.
References: Syd. 942.
Diameter: 18 mm, Weight: 3.845 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
23345430.jpg
Greece, Philippi202 viewsPhilippi is site of famous battle. Marcus Antonius and Octavius defeated Brutus and Cassius.
Philippi is also the first place in Europe where St. Paul evangelized. He was kept in prison there too.
Johny SYSEL
Brutus_Koson~0.jpg
GREEK, Brutus, Koson, Stater283 viewsRoman Consul Brutus in center accompanied by two lictors
KOΣΩN in ex. BR monogram on left.

Eagle standing left on scepter, wings open raising wreath in left claw.

Eastern mint, Dacia? 43-42 B.C.

8.38g

Choice UNC

RPC I 1701; BMC Thrace p. 208, 1; BMCRR II 48; Crawford 433/1

Clickable for a larger image
5 commentsJay GT4
00097q00.jpg
GREEK, Brutus, Koson, Stater57 viewsFull ID:
SKYTHIA. Geto-Dacians. Koson, mid 1st century BC. Stater (Gold, 20 mm, 8.35 g, 12 h). KOΣΩN Roman consul accompanied by two lictors advancing left; before, monogram. Rev. Eagle standing left on scepter, holding wreath in its right talon. Iliescu 1. RPC I 1701A. A lustrous and very sharply struck example. Virtually as struck.


From an American collection, formed in the early 2000s.
Ex-Leu Numismatik, Web Auktion 9, Lot 97

This coin used to be slabbed and received 5/5 twice, see here:
https://www.ngccoin.com/certlookup/4241215-001/NGCAncients/
3 commentsIstinpolin
Koson_Stater.jpg
GREEK, Brutus, Koson, Stater FDC121 viewsRPC 1701A
8.44 grams
Richard T3
HadrianLibertas.jpg
Hadrian Libertas Denarius69 viewsHADRIAN (117-138). Denarius. Rome.
O: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate bust right, with slight drapery.
R: COS III, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
- RIC 175.

The pileus liberatis was a soft felt cap worn by liberated slaves of Troy and Asia Minor. In late Republican Rome, the pileus was symbolically given to slaves upon manumission, granting them not only their personal liberty, but also freedom as citizens with the right to vote (if male). Following the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., Brutus and his co-conspirators used the pileus to signify the end of Caesar's dictatorship and a return to a Republican system of government. The pileus was adopted as a popular symbol of freedom during the French Revolution and was also depicted on some early U.S. coins. - FAC
3 commentsNemonater
fc15.jpg
Joe Geranio Collection -Cn. Domitius L.f. Ahenobarbus. 41-40 BC. AR Denarius23 viewshe Republicans. Cn. Domitius L.f. Ahenobarbus. 41-40 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.61 g, 7h). Uncertain mint along the Adriatic or Ionian Sea. Head right / Prow right surmounted by a military trophy. Crawford 519/2; CRI 339; Sydenham 1177; Domitia 21. Fine, lightly toned, minor porosity and scratches, banker’s mark on each side.

Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus accompanied his father at Corfinium and Pharsalus on the side of Pompey. After his pardon by Julius Caesar, he retired to Rome in 46 BC. After Caesar's assassination, Ahenobarbus supported Brutus and Cassius, and in 43 BC was condemned under the terms of the Lex Pedia for complicity in the assassination. Ahenobarbus achieved considerable naval success against the Second Triumvirate in the Ionian theater, where this denarius was certainly minted, but finally, through the mediation of Gaius Asinius Pollio, he reconciled with Mark Antony, who thereupon made him governor of Bithynia. He participated in Antony's campaign against the Parthians, and was consul in 32 BC. When war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Ahenobarbus initially supported Antony, but, disgusted by Antony’s relationship with Cleopatra, sided with Octavian shortly before Actium. His only child, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, was married to Antonia Maior, the daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their son, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, married Agrippina Minor, the sister of the emperor Caligula, and was the father of the emperor Nero. Anyone may use as long as credited to Joe Geranio Collection.
Joe Geranio
brutus_EID_MAR_denar.jpg
JUNIA 52 - BRUTUS EID MAR denarius (replica)281 viewsobv: BRVT IMP L PLAET CEST (bare head of Brutus right)
rev: EID MAR (liberty cap and two daggers)
ref: RSC 15, Syd 1301, Cr502/4, Albert1617
3.53gms, 18mm
replica

This coin commemorates the most important single day event in ancient history. With this famous reverse type Brutus commemorates his assassination of Julius Caesar on the notorious Ides of March, 44 BC, and claims that the deed was done to secure liberty for the Roman people (the liberty cap).
Somewhat more than 50 of these remarkable coins exist. The fact that a lot of people would like to own one, along with the additional fact that most of these coins are in museums, has created the justifiable price structure that exists today.
berserker
AlbinusBrutus.jpg
Junius Brutus Albinus41 viewsHead of Pietas right

ALBINVS BRVTI F
Clasped hands holding winged caduceus

3.1g

Rome
48 BC

Sear 427; Crawford 450/2; Sydenham 942; RBW 1577

Decimus Junius Brutus was a distant relative of Marcus Brutus. He was known as one of Caesar's "most intamate associates" and a friend of Mark Antony. Albinus had served under Caesar in both the Gallic Wars and the Civil War. He participated in the siege of Massilia (Marseilles) that held out against Caesar for months. He also commanded a Caesarian fleet.

Plutarch considered Albinus "of no great courage," but Albinus was a faithful and loyal supporter of Caesar. He was to be Consul in 42 BC along with Lucius Plancus. While awaiting the consulship Albinus was to become Governor of Cisalpine Gaul when the post became available in the spring of 44BC

Albinus was approached by Cassius and Labeo to involve him in the conspiracy to murder Caesar. Albinus wanted to make sure Marcus Brutus was involved before agreeing to the plot. After meeting with Brutus he agreed. Both Brutus and Albinus received notification of a meeting of the Senate on March 15th and Albinus agreed to use an exhibition of his Gladiators after the meeting as protection in case things got out of hand after the murder had taken place. Caesar's retired legionaries were all around the city and none of the conspirators knew how they would react at Caesar's death.

At a dinner at the house of Marcus Lepidus on the night of March 14, 44BC Caesar was in attendence along with Decimus Brutus. Towards the end of the night Caesar's secretary approached for him to sign some letters. As he was signing Albinus posed a philosophical question to him: "What sort of death is best?" Caesar answered "A sudden one"

The next morning the Senate awaited Caesar to arrive. Caesr's wife Calpurnia and the auspeces warned Caesar not to attend the meeting. When Caesar delayed the conspirator's sent Albinus to Caesar's house. Albinus convinced Caesar to at least postpone the meeting in person. Antony was against this idea. Caesar was then murered by the conspirators in the Theater of Pompey in the Campus Martius, Albinus being a key player in the conspiracy.
2 commentsJay GT4
1446_Koson~0.jpg
Koson/Cotis - AV stater19 viewsGeto-Dacians
c. 50-25 BC
togate L. Junius Brutus between two lictors left
KOΣΩN
eagle left, holding wreath and scepter in talon
Iliescu 2; RPC I 1701B; BMC Thrace p. 208, 2.
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Paulus_Lepidus.jpg
L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus - AR denarius13 viewsRome
²67 BC
¹62 BC
Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right
PAVLLVS LEPIDVS_CONCORDIA
L Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left
TER
PAVLLVS
¹Crawford 415/1, SRCV I 366, RSC I Aemilia 10, Sydenham 926
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,84g 20-19,5mm

On reverse scene moneyer commemorates his ancestor L. Aemilius Paullus who had defeated Macedonian king Perseus in the battle of Pydna. TER stands for tertius since it was his third triumph.
Moneyer was elected consul in 50 BC and was bribed by Julius Caesar who need his support. Paullus had used money to reconstruction of basilica Aemilia on Roman Forum. Paullus opposed the second triumvirate and his brother Marcus Aemilius Lepidus order his death but he managed to escape and join Brutus. After Brutus' defeat he was pardoned and spend his remaining years at Miletus.
Johny SYSEL
brutus.jpg
M. Junius Brutus47 viewsM. Junius Brutus, 54 BC. AR denarius.
Obverse- Bust of Libertas right.
Reverse- The consul L. Junius Brutus walking left between two lictors preceded by an accensus.
Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906a; Junia 31a. 19 mm, 3.71 g.
2 commentsb70
brutusahala~1.jpg
M. JUNIUS BRUTUS15 viewsAR denarius. 54 BC. 3,87 grs. Head of L. Junius Brutus right / Head of Caius Servilius Ahala right.
Crawford 433/2. RSC Junia 30.

benito
1367_433-1_Brutus.jpg
M. Junius Brutus - AR denarius21 viewsRome
¹²54 BC
head of Libertas right with hair rolled wearing drop pendant earring and necklace
LIBERTAS
L. Junius Brutus between two lictors left, accensus in front of them
BRVTVS
¹Crawford 433/1, Sydenham 906, RSC I Junia 31, BMCRR 3861, Russo RBW 1542, SRCV I 397
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Rauch
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
brutus_Cr433.JPG
M. Junius Brutus, Crawford 433/1159 viewsM. Junius Brutus, 85 BC - 42 BC, the most famous of Caesar's assassins
AR - Denar, 3.96g, 19mm
54 BC
obv. Bust of Liberty r., no jewels in hair above forehead.
LIBERTAS to l.
rev. The consul L. Junius Brutus walking l. between two lictores preceded by an
accensor.
exergue: BRVTVS
Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906a; Junia 31a
EF

The rev. type recalls the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, the last King of Rome, by L. Junius Brutus, the moneyer's ancestor, who in 509 BC was elected the first consul of the newly formed Republic. 'Libertatem et consulatum L. Brutus instituit.' (Tacitus Ann. 1, 1)
This type illustrates the strong republican view of M.Junius Brutus! Caesar should had know that
4 commentsJochen
319_Greek_BMC23.JPG
MACEDONIA, Philippi . Ae-20 of Augustus, 27 BC-14 AD.13 viewsReference.
BMC 23; Sear 32; RPC I 1651;SNG ANS 677; SNG Copenhagen 305

Obv. VIC-AVG
Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath and Palm

Rev. COHOR-PRAEPHIL
Three Legionary standards

5.61 gr.
20 mm

Extra:
Commemorates the battle of Philippi, 42 B.C., in which Octavian and Antony defeated the Republican tyrannicides Brutus and Cassius,
okidoki
philippi_RPC1651.jpg
Macedonia, Philippi, anonymous, RPC 165164 viewsAE 19 (Semis?), 6.72g
struck about AD 41-68
obv. VIC - AVG
Victoria advancing r. on prow, holding palmbranch in l. arm and wreath in
raised r. hand
rev. COHOR - PRAE / PHIL
around three standards
RPC 1651; SNG ANS 674-681; SNG Copenhagen 305-306
EF, brown patina, extraordinary good condition for this type

In 42 BC at the city of Philippi Octavian, the later emperor Augustus, defeated Brutus and Cassius, the assassins of Caesar. Following the battle, Philippi became a Roman colony and discharged veterans receiving land allotments settled permanently in the area. Special privileges were allowed to these Roman colonists, such as exemption from taxes and the right to own and market property, and to struck their own coins.

The Victory on the obv. resembles the famous Nike of Samothrace.
Jochen
marcus-antonius-denarius.jpg
Marcus Antonius AR denarius-3,93 grams- 18 mm-itinerary mint- 42 b.C. 211 viewsobverse: M.ANTONI IMP, bust of Marcus Antonius right
reverse: III VIR RPC, radiate & draped bust of Sol facing on a disk within distyle temple

Crawford 496/1- Cohen 12 (5fr.)- Sear 1467

This coin was minted during Antony's military campaign against Brutus and Cassius in Greece.

The tyrannicide Cassius gained some notoriety for robbing the temple of Helios in the city of Rhodes; he was said to have left untouched only the chariot of the sun. This type of Antonius reproaches Cassius for that robbery and constitutes a promise to avenge the god of the sun (see F. X. Ryan, SNR 84, 2005, 84–86).
4 commentsL.e.
brutusahala~0.jpg
MARCUS JUNIUS BRUTUS49 viewsAR denarius. 54 BC. 3,87 grs. Head of L. Junius Brutus right. BRVTVS behind / Head of Caius Servilius Ahala right.AHALA behind.
Crawford 433/2. RSC Junia 30.
benito
Junia_31.JPG
Marcus Junius Brutus64 viewsObv: LIBERTAS, head of Libertas with her hair in a bun, facing left.

Notice the interesting placement of the banker's mark by Libertas' eye. It almost gives the illusion that she is weeping. But for whom?

Rev: Lucius Junius Brutus (consul 509 BC) walking in procession left, between two lictors (official bodyguards) carrying axes, preceded by an accensus (public official who saw to civic functions), BRVTVS in exergue.

Footnote: A decade after he issued this denarius Marcus Junius Brutus' name would go down in infamy as the main conspirator in the assassination of Julius Caesar. His actions would plunge Rome into turmoil that would last for many years. Brutus' deep Republican sentiments are displayed in this issue honoring his illustrious ancestor Lucius Junius Brutus who deposed the last Etruscan King of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, in 509 BC and established the Republic.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 54 BC

4 grams, 19 mm, 270°

RSC Junia 31, S397
2 commentsSPQR Coins
Brutus2.jpg
Marcus Junius Brutus - RSC 432 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus - Silver Denarius
Obverse: LEG COSTA, Laureate head of Apollo right
Reverse: IMP BRVTVS, Trophy, holding shield and crossed spears
Minted: Late summer-autumn 42 BC. Military mint traveling with Brutus and Cassius in Western Asia Minor or Northern Greece.
Size: 3.56gm, 18mm
ID: Crawford 506/2; CRI 209; Sydenham 1296; RSC 4
Misc: Pedanius Costa, legate
1 commentsickster
48790.jpg
Marcus Junius Brutus as Imperator, Denarius 42 B.C. Syd 128788 views
AR Denarius
2.97g.
Grade F, filled hole.
OBV: LEG COSTA, hd. of Apollo r.
Rx: trophy with shield and spears, IMP BRVTVS
Cr.506/2; Syd.1287
recycled, photo, looks better in-hand.
3 commentscliff_marsland
IMG_9380.jpg
Marcus Junius Brutus, 54 BCE22 viewsObverse: head of Liberty right
Legend: LIBERTAS

Reverse: accensus, two lictors and consul L. Junius Brutus, all walking left, BRVTVS in ex.
1 commentsAquilaSPQR
Antony_Sol.jpg
Mark Antony228 viewsM ANTONI IMP
Bare head of Marcus Antonius right, bearded

III VIR R P C
Distyle temple containing facing bust of Sol on disk

Epirus? Autumn of 42 BC

3.44g

Sear 1467
Scarce
Ex-Incitatus

David Sear in "The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators" says:

The reappearance of IMP in Antony's titulature suggests that this issue is subsequent to the second battle of Philippi (23 October), though as the Triumvir is still bearded it must have been struck quite soon after the deaths of Brutus and Cassius before orders had been given for the modification of the portrait. With Caesar's murder now avenged both Antony and Octavian could shave the beards which they had worn as a sign of mourning."
11 commentsJay GT4
ANTVARVS.jpg
Mark Antony denarius100 viewsBare head of a bearded Mark Antony right

C VIBVS VARVS
Fortuna standing left holding Victory and cornucopiae

Rome 42 BC

3.25g

Rough but much better in hand!

Sear 1466, RRC 494/32

ex-Londinium

Fortuna holding Victory shows the confidence the Triumvirs had in defeating the Ruplicans, namely Brutus and Cassius. Varus also struck this type for Octavian. It is interesting to note that on the evidence of stylistic similarity it is possible that the die-engraver responsible for the triumviral portraits was later transferred from the Capitoline mint to Antony's military mint outside the city.

The fact that Antony is again shown bearded is in reference to his mourning for Caesar's death. Only after Caesar was avenged would Antony be shown as a typical clean shaven Roman.
4 commentsJay GT4
LEG_VI.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG VI 100 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

Rev LEG VI legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

The photo appears to show this as LEG VII but in hand you can see that the second I is a scratch
Background History on the VI Legion

Raised in Cisalpine Gaul in 58 BC by Julius Caesar, the Sixth Legion served with him during his tenure as governor and was withdrawn to Spain in 49 BC where it earned the title “Hispaniensis”.

Later seeing action at Pharsalus in 48 BC, Julius Caesar took the 6th to Alexandria to settle the dispute in Egypt with Cleopatra. Alexandria was laid to siege and the 6th was almost wiped out losing almost two thirds of its entire manpower. Julius Caesar eventually triumphed when reinforcements arrived.

Julius Caesar took his “Veteran Sixth Legion” with him to Syria and Pontus. The Legion then served in Pontus under Caesar in 48 BC and 47 BC. This culminated in the battle of Zela where victory was won by Legio VI.

During Caesar’s African war against Scipio, the Sixth Legion deserted en masse from Scipio to reinforce Caesar and fought under him.

The legion was disbanded in 45 BC after Munda establishing a colony at Arelate (Arles), but was re-formed by Lepidus the following year (44 BC) and given over to Marcus Antonius the year after that. Following the defeat of the republican generals Cassius and Brutus in successive battles at Philippi in 42 BC and the subsequent division of control between Antony and Octavian, a colony was again formed from retired veterans at Beneventum in 41 BC (this is the colony which it is believed became Legio VI Victrix) and the remainder of Legio VI Ferrata was taken by Antony to the East where it garrisoned Judea.

Legio VI fought in the Parthian War in 36 BC.

Another Legio VI Victrix evidently saw action at Perusia in 41 BC, which presents us with a problem because the official Legio VI Ferrata was at that moment with Anthony in the East. This is explained in Lawrence Keppie's excellent book The Making of the Roman Army - from Republic to Empire (pp.134); “Octavian did not hesitate to duplicate legionary numerals already in use by Antony. The latter had serving with him legio V Alaudae, legio VI Ferrata and legio X Equestris. Soon we find Octavian's army boasting of a legio V (the later Macedonica), legio VI (the later Victrix) and legio X (soon to be Fretensis). Of these, legio V and legio X, and less certainly legio VI, bore under the empire a bull-emblem which would normally indicate a foundation by Caesar; but the true Caesarian legions with these numerals (Alaudae, Ferrata and Equestris) were with Antony.”

It would seem, therefore, that Octavian had again used the veterans of Caesars Sixth Legion, this time from those left at Beneventum, to form the core of his own Sixth Legion used at Perusia.

Both Legio VI’s (Ferrata and Victrix) fought at the Battle of Actium, after this event the legio VI Ferrata was dispatched back to Judea and the next time we hear of the legio VI Victrix was in Spain.

Legio VI Ferrata was severely mauled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC by the forces loyal to Caesar's nephew and heir, Octavian. Following the Battle of Actium, another colony of veterans seems to have been created at Byllis, probably together with soldiers from other legions, and the remainder of VI Ferrata was moved to Syria/Judea where it was to remain.

From 9 BC to 73 AD the VI Ferrata was garrisoned the area of Judea. It was in this time frame that Jesus Christ was tried before Pontius Pilatus, the Roman Governor of Judea.

From 54 AD to 68 AD the Legion served under Corbulo at Artaxata and Tigranocerta against the Parthians. In 69 AD the Legion returned to Judea and fought in the Jewish Civil War. As the Jewish Civil War wound down, the sixth was placed under Mucianis and fought against Vitellius. Legion VI was largely responsible for Mucianis victory over the forces of Vitellius during the brief Roman Civil War .
Titus Pullo
Scarpus~0.jpg
Mark Antony Scarpus denarius102 viewsM ANTO COS III IMP III
Head of Jupiter Ammon right

ANTONIO AVG SCARPVS IMP
Victory walking right holding wreath and palm

Cyrene summer of 31 BC
2.86g
Sear 1486

In the will of Caesar, Scarpus received one eighth of certain legacies after the legacies given to Octavian. He along with his cousins from the will became heirs to his great uncle.

Scarpus became an ally to Mark Antony and commanded for him against the war on Marcus Brutus and Cassius Longinus. In the years leading up to Actium 31 BC, Antony appointed Scarpus to the military command of Cyrenaica. Scarpus had with him four legions to command. During his time in Cyrenaica Scarpus had control of the currency mint in Cyrene, as he became a moneyer. Scarpus had issued various coins bearing Antony’s name and Scarpus’ name was inscripted as an issuer of these coins.

After Antony & Cleopatra were defeated by Octavian at Actium, Scarpus withdrew his support from Antony and gave his support (including his legions) to Octavian. Antony after the defeat sailed back to North Africa and sent messengers to Scarpus for help.
Scarpus refused to see Antony’s messengers and put them to death. He gave his legions to Gaius Cornelius Gallus, Octavian’s lieutenant to command.

Augustus then appointed his cousin as Governor of Cyrenaica. Scarpus as he did for Antony, became a moneyer and issued various coins bearing Augustus’ name. On these coins, Scarpus had his name inscripted as an issuer of the coins.
2 commentsJay GT4
Antony_fouree.jpg
Mark Antony unofficial fouree307 viewsANT IMP III VIR R P C
Bare head of Mark Antony right, lituus behind

CN DOMIT AHENOBARBVS IMP
Prow of galley right star above

Corcyra? Summer 40BC
2.08g

Sear 1472

Ex-ANE

Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus was a republican admiral who accompanied Brutus to Macedonia after Caesar's assassination. He was given command of the fleet in the Adriatic. After Cassius and Brutus were defeated at Philippi, Ahenobarbus turned to piracy and was in command of up to 2 legions and 70 ships. He was reconciled to Antony's side by Asinius Pollio and after the Pact of Brundisium he was given back his civic rights and was appointed Governor of Bithynia. He remained loyal to Antony almost to the end but deserted him just prior to Actium, dying shortly after of illness.
1 commentsJay GT4
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Philippi, RPC I 165142 viewsMacedon, Philippi, Time of Augustus, Circa 31 B.C.-14 A.D.AE, 19mm 4.56g, RPC I 1651, SNG ANS 677, SNG Copenhagen 305
O: VIC AVG, Nike standing left on globe, holding wreath and palm
R: COHOR PRAE PHIL, three military standards
(minted to commemorate the victory of Octavian and Marc Antony over Brutus and Cassius)
2 commentscasata137ec
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Q. Caepio Brutus (= M. Junius Brutus)47 viewsAR denarius, 20.51mm (4.15 gm).

LIBERTAS, bust of Libertas right, wearing cruciform earring and necklace of pendants; hair in knot; now jewels in hair above forehead / The consul L. Junius Brutus walking left, between two lictors; preceded by an accensus; BRVTVS in exergue. Rome mint, struck c. 60 BC.

Crawford (RRC), 433/1; Sydenham (CRR), 906a; RSC Junia, 31a; RCTV, 397.
1 commentssocalcoins
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE55 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus and Lentulus Spinther, 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.91g; 20mm).
Military Mint (Smyrna?).

Obv: BRVTVS; axe, simpulum and knife.

Rev: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/7; HCRI 198; Sydenham 1310; BMCRR East 80-1; Junia 41.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos14 (17 May 2017) Lot 301]; ex Munzhandlung Basel 6 (18 Mar 1936), Lot 1483; ex Trau Collection [Gilhoffer & Ranschburg & Hess (22 May 1935), Lot 37].

The sacrificial implements on the obverse refer to Brutus' membership in the college of Pontifs. The implements on the reverse refer to Spinther's membership in the augurate since 57 BCE.

Spinther was the son of P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that his father clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. His father was an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, who was liked by Julius Caesar and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, his father was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, both Spinthers sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther senior would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck coins for both Brutus and Cassius.
3 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus with Casca Longus, AR Denarius - Crawford 507/239 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus with Casca Longus. 42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 21mm).
Military mint, 42 BCE.

Obverse: CASCA LONGVS; Neptune's head facing right; trident below.

Reverse: BRVTVS IMP; Victory advancing right on broken scepter, holding filleted diadem and palm.

References: Crawford 507/2; HCRI 212; Sydenham1298 (R6); BMCRR (East) 63; Junia 44; Servilia 35.

Provenance: Ex V.L. Nummus Auction 12 (15 Sep 2019) Lot 68; Brüder Egger Auction 45 (12 Nov 1913) Lot 871.

Publius Servilius Casca Longus was one of the leading conspirators against Julius Caesar, and he was Tribune of the Plebs at the time of the assassination. Plutarch reports that a nervous Casca was the first to stab Caesar on the Ides of March with a glancing blow: “Casca gave him the first cut, in the neck, which was not mortal nor dangerous, as coming from one who at the beginning of such a bold action was probably very much disturbed. Caesar immediately turned about and laid his hand upon the dagger and kept hold of it. And both of them at the same time cried out, he that received the blow, in Latin, ‘Vile Casca, what does this mean?’ and he that gave it, in Greek, to his brother [Gaius] ‘Brother, help!’” [Plutarch: Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans, Arthur Clough (Ed.)] After Caesar’s assassination, Casca was given command of Brutus’ fleet. Nothing is known of Casca following the Battle of Philippi in October 42 BCE, where he likely perished or committed suicide in the aftermath.

The Neptune obverse refers to Casca’s naval command and the naval superiority of the conspirators before Philippi. Coins of the conspirators are replete with depictions of liberty and victory, and this coin is no exception. The reverse, with its broken scepter, clearly alludes to the assassins’ hope to eliminate monarchy in the Roman state and restore the Republic. Some authors have speculated that Victory is breaking the regal diadem on this type, although I don’t think that is abundantly clear.
8 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus, 43-42 BCE30 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Brutus, 43-2 BC
AR Denarius (3.76 g; 21 mm)
Mint traveling with Brutus

Obv: LEIBERTAS. Liberty head facing right.

Rev: CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS. Lyre with quiver and filleted olive branch.

References: Crawford 501/1; HCRI 199; Smyth (1856) IX/11(this coin described).

Provenance: Ex NAC 84 (2015), Lot 859; NAC 9 (16 Apr 1996), Lot 758; NAC 4 (27 Feb 1991), Lot 289; NAC 2 (21 Feb 1990), Lot 481; Duke of Northumberland Collection [Sotheby's, 4 Nov 1982, Lot 475], acquired before 1856.

Liberty is a common theme on coins of the tyranicides who claimed to have liberated The Republic from the regal aspirations of Julius Caesar; so it's no surprise to find Libertas prominent on this coin of Brutus. Sear points out that the reverese is likely derived from the frequent depiction of lyres, quivers and fillteted branches on Lycian Leage coins. This issue was iikely struck in Lycia.

This coin holds the oldest, verifiable provenance in my collection. It is from the Duke of Northumberland Collection, catalogued by Admiral William Smyth in his 1856 book, "Descriptive Catalogue of A Cabinet of Roman Family Coins Belonging to His Grace the Duke of Northumberland," and subsequently sold by Sotheby’s in 1982. The Smyth book has no plates (line drawn or otherwise), but it does contain detailed descriptions of the collection coins with weights in grains. This coin is among those described in Smyth’s book, therefore it must have been acquired by the Duke’s family before 1856. Smyth described the collection as being in the Duke’s family for many years, so the ownership history conceivably dates to the 18th century.
1 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 502/214 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Brutus, 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.76g; 17mm).
Military Mint, Spring-Summer 42 BCE.

Obverse: L·SESTI - PRO·Q; Veiled and draped bust of Libertas, facing right.

Reverse: Q·CAEPIO·BRVTVS·PRO·COS; Tripod with axe on left and simpulum on right.

References: Crawford 502/2; HCRI 201; Syd 1290; BMCRR East 41; Junia 37; Sestia 2.

Provenance: Ex Alan J. Harlan Collection [Triton XXII (9 Jan 2019), Lot 951]; Kunker 288 (13 Mar 2017) Lot 314; Theodor Prowe Collection [Hess (20 May 1912) Lot 933].

Marcus Junius Brutus was posthumously adopted by his maternal uncle, Quintus Servilius Caepio. Afterward, Brutus sometimes used the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, which both honored his uncle and advertised his maternal descent from Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala. Ahala was a Roman Republican hero who had killed someone with regal aspirations. In his early political career, Brutus issued coins with the portrait of Ahala on one side (see Crawford 433/2; http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-144687). Following the assassination of Caesar, Brutus resurrected his use of the name Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, as on this coin, again alluding to this Servilian connection in his family tree. Combined with the bust of Liberty on the obverse of this coin, the message is clear: that the assassins were liberators from monarchy in the old Republican tradition of their ancestors. The reverse shows the symbols of Brutus’ membership in the college of priests.

This example comes from the collection of Theodor Prowe of Moscow, one of the great collections of the early 20th century, which was auctioned in three separate 1912 sales by Bruder Egger (Greek) and Hess (Roman).
2 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Cassius, AR Denarius - Crawford 500/133 viewsRome, The Imperators.
C. Cassius Longinus. 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.38g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Smyrna.

Obverse: C. CASSI – IMP; tripod with cauldron and laurel fillets.

Reverse: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/1; HCRI 219; Sydenham 1308; BMCRR (East) 79; Cassia 14.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 121; P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 168.

This coin was struck for Cassius, one of the chief assassins of Julius Caesar, when Brutus and Cassius met in Smyrna, circa early 42 BCE. The tripod obverse type was borrowed from a slightly earlier Aureus produced for Cassius by his legate, M. Aquinus. The tripod may reference Cassius’ membership in one of the sacred colleges. Cassius was elected to the augurate in 57 BCE, to which the implements on the reverse of this coin certainly allude. The coin was produced on Cassius’ behalf by P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, who also produced coins for Brutus at the same time. For more information on Spinther, see my example of his Brutus denarius at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-145289

Until the discovery of a large, mint-state, hoard in the early 2000’s, this was one of the rarest types in the Roman Republican series. While recent hoard examples of the type are scarce, old provenanced examples, like this, remain extremely rare.
2 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, D. Junius Brutus Albinus, AR Denarius - Crawford 450/27 viewsRome, The Republic.
D. Junius Brutus Albinus, 48 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.94g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Pietas facing right, her hair tied-up in a knot, wearing necklace and cruciform earing; PIETAS behind.

Reverse: Two hands clasping caduceus; ALBINVS·BRVTI·F, below.

References: Crawford 450/2; HCRI 26; Sydenham 942; BMCRR 3964; Postumia 10.

Provenance: Ex Goldberg 80 (3 Jun 2014), Lot 3067; Jacob K. Stein Collection [Gemini V (6 Jan 2009) Lot 246]; displayed at Cincinnati Art Museum, 1994-2008, no. 138.

Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, not to be confused with his cousin, Marcus Brutus, lived on a similar trajectory to his cousin. He was first close with Julius Caesar, having served in the Gallic Wars and on Caesar’s side in the civil war against Pompey. Eventually, Albinus joined the conspiracy to assassinate Caesar. After the assassination, the Senate gave him control of Cisalpine Gaul where he came under assault by Antony who wanted control of the province. Albinus was killed by Gauls while trying to escape to Macedonia to join the other Liberators. This coin type was struck during the civil war between Caesar and Pompey when Albinus sided with Caesar. The reverse type, with its symbols of concord, alludes to Caesar’s policy of reconciliation during the war.

This particular example was part of a 182-coin exhibit at the Cincinnati Art Museum from 1994-2008. The intense, rainbow toning on the reverse can perhaps be attributed to the reverse being the “display” side during that 14-year museum run.

1 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Marc Antony, AR Denarius28 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marc Antony, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.95g; 18mm).
Military mint travelling with Antony, 42BCE.

Obverse: Antony's bearded head right; M ANTONI - IMP (ligate).

Reverse: Facing bust of Sol within distyle temple; III - VIR - R·P·C, around.

References: Crawford 496/1; HCRI 128; Sydenham 1168; BMCRR (Gaul) 62; Antonia 34.

Provenance: Italian export permit No. 13168 of 2018; ex Nomisma 32 (2006), Lot 129.

This coin was likely struck shortly after Brutus’s and Cassius’s defeat at Philippi in 42 BCE. Antony is still shown with his beard of mourning (he and Octavian would not shave until Caesar’s assassination was avenged), and it’s likely that the die engravers had not yet been instructed to remove the beard following Philippi. This is the last bearded image of Antony to appear on his coinage. There were two versions of this coin type: one with IMP spelled the standard way; the other with IMP ligate, as on this example. The ligate version is the scarcer version of the two. The reverse type emphasizing Sol was a common theme on Antony’s eastern coinage, perhaps reflecting his growing enchantment with eastern Hellenistic culture.
2 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN IMPERATORS, BRUTUS184 viewsQ. Caepio Brutus, AR Denarius - Military Mint travelling in Lycia, spring-early summer 42 BC
LEIBERTAS Head of Libertas right. / CAEPIO-BRVTVS-PRO-COS Plectrum, lyre, and filleted laurel branch. Crawford 501/1; CRI 199; Sydenham 1287; RSC 5; Sear (Millennium) 1432; Seaby, Brutus 5. Minted in the spring to early summer of 42 BC by a military mint traveling with Brutus in Lycia.
(18 mm, 3.71 g, 5h)
3 commentsLloyd T
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ROMAN IMPERATORS, BRUTUS54 viewsThe Republicans. Brutus. Spring-early summer 42 BC.
AR Denarius (20mm, 3.75 g, 5h). Military mint traveling with Brutus in Lycia.
Bare head of Libertas right / Plectrum, lyre, and laurel branch tied with fillet.
Crawford 501/1; CRI 199; Sydenham 1287; RSC 5.
1 commentselmele
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ROMAN REPUBLIC - M. Junius Brutus - AR Denarius53 viewsRome, The Republic.
Rome Mint.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.84g; 19mm).

Obverse: BRVTVS; head of L. Junius Brutus facing right.

Reverse: AHALA; head of C. Servillius Ahala facing right.

References: Crawford 433/2; Sydenham 907; BMCRR 3864; Junia 30.

Provenance: Ex Barry Feirstein Collection [NAC 45 (2008) Lot 14]; ex NAC 11 (1998), Lot 279.

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. The coin depicts Brutus' illustrious ancestors on both sides of his family. The Brutus side is Lucius Junius Brutus, who expelled the Tarquin kings from Rome and became consul in 509 BCE. The Ahala side is C. Servilius Ahala who was celebrated by Cicero for having slain a traitor. At this point in his political career, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny.
3 commentsCarausius
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Roman Republic / Marcus Junius Brutus / AR Denarius. 54 BC 43 viewsObverse : LIBERTAS, Head right.
Reverse : Consul L Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceeded by accensus, all walking left / BRVTVS in ex.
Wt., : 3,20 grs.
Syd 906, Cr433/1, Junia 31. Rare.

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
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Roman Republic, 54 BC, Junia9 viewsAR Denarius (3.5g, 18mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck 54 BC. Monneyer: M.Junius Brutus
Obv. BRVTVS behind bare head of L.Junius Brutus the Ancient, facing right.
Rev. AHALA behind bare head of Caius Servilius Ahala.
Sear (RCV) 307; Seaby (RSC I.): Junia 30
Charles S
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Clodius Turrinus Fourre148 viewsObv: Anepigraphic, Head of Apollo facing right;
Rev: Diana Lucifera bearing two torches, standing facing, bow and quiver on her shoulder, P. CLODIVS to right, M.F. to left.
Denarius subaeratus, (3,01 g, 18 mm)

Reproducing RRC 494/23, RSC Claudia 15 of ca. 42 B.C.The original coin would have been struck under the second triumvirate, possibly the year Cassius and Brutus were defeated at Second Philippi.
Syltorian
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Junius Brutus AR Denarius 54 BC.204 viewsLIBERTAS
bust of Libertas right

BRVTVS in ex
Consul L Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceeded by accensus, all walking left, .

54 BC.
Syd 906, Cr433/1, Junia 31.
3 commentsJay GT4
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, M. Junius Brutus, AR Denarius - Crawford 433/135 viewsRome, The Republic.
M. Junius Brutus, 54 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Libertas, facing right, her hair up, wearing necklace of pendants and cruciform earing; LIBERTAS behind.

Reverse: L. Junius Brutus walking left with two lictors and an accensus; BRVTVS in exergue.

References: Crawford 433/1; Sydenham 906; BMCRR 3862; Junia 31.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Michael Phillip Collection [Stack's Bowers 2016 NYINC Auction (12 Jan 2016) Lot 31131]; Stack's Auction, 7-8 Dec 1989, Lot 3233; Frederick S. Knobloch Collection [Stack's (3-4 May 1978), Lot 511].

Struck by chief assassin of Caesar during his early political career. At this time, Brutus was in opposition to Pompey, and it's likely that this coin type is intended to remind the general public of Brutus' pedigree against tyranny. Brutus’ ancestor, Lucius Junius Brutus, overthrew the Etruscan kings of Rome and helped form the Republic, becoming one of the first Consuls in 509 BCE. The reverse of this coin shows Lucius Junius Brutus, as Consul, walking with his attendant lictors and accensus. Liberty on the obverse alludes to the overthrow of the monarchy – a role that the moneyer himself would play 10 years after this coin was struck.

A few words on those men accompanying Brutus on the reverse:

The lictors were attendants who carried fasces and accompanied the consuls at all times. They proceeded before the senior consul and cleared his path and they walked behind the junior consul. They also made arrests, summonses and executions. A consul had twelve lictors.

The accensi were civil servants that also accompanied the magistrates in addition to lictors and acted as heralds. They typically walked behind the magistrate, but an early custom had them precede the consul in the months when the lictors did not walk before him. This appears to be the scene depicted on this coin – the accensus precedes Brutus and one of the lictors is behind him.
5 commentsCarausius
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ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius71 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius
Iunius_Brutus.jpg
RRC 433/1 (Iunius Brutus)82 viewsObv. Head of Libertas right, LIBERTAS behind
Rev. L. Iunius Brutus (cos 509 B.C.) walking left between two lictors, preceded by an accensus, BRVTVS in exergue
Rome, 54 B.C.
19,8 mm, 3,96 g
References: RRC 433/1, Sear 397, RSC Junia 31

M. Iunius Brutus (who was then called Q. Servilius Caepio Brutus due to his adoption) struck this coin to honour his ancestor, the great L. Iunius Brutus who had led the rebellion against the kings, created the Res Publica and became the first consul. Brutus chose to represent Liberty on the obverse, to accompany the creator of the Republic, which was already having serious troubles at the time the coin as struck.

This really should have been a warning to Caesar: 10 years later, the moneyer of this coin would attempt to continue the family tradition and kill another "king".

4 commentsSyltorian
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RRC 494/23 (Clodius Turrinus) Subaeratus92 viewsObv: Anepigraphic, Head of Apollo facing right;
Rev: Diana Lucifera bearing two torches, standing facing, bow and quiver on her shoulder, P. CLODIVS to right, M.F. to left.
Denarius subaeratus, (3,01 g, 18 mm)

Reproducing RRC 494/23, RSC Claudia 15 of ca. 42 B.C.The original coin would have been struck under the second triumvirate, possibly the year Cassius and Brutus were defeated at Second Philippi.
Syltorian
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RRC413/1 (L. Cassius Longinus)41 viewsbv. Anepigraphic, draped vestal virgin facing left, shallow vessel (culullus) behind, control letter (L?) before; punch marks.
Rev. Male togate figure left, left hand on hips, right hand placing a tablet inscribed with V(ti rogas) in a cista. LONGIN(VS) IIIV(ir) ro right.
Rome, 63 B.C. or 52 B.C.
RRC 413/1, Sear 364, RSC Cassia 10

This coin was struck by the brother of the famous Cassius who, with Brutus, was the head of the conspiracy to kill Caesar. L. Cassius rose to proconsul under Caesar, and was Tribune of the People in 44 B.C. He was later reconciled to the triumvirs, however (Appian B.C. 5.7).

On both sides of the coin, the allusion is made to L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla (cos. 127 B.C.; censor 125 B.C.), who was responsible for the condemnation of wayward Vestals, which had previously been acquitted by the Pontifex Maximus (Cassius Dio 26.87, Asconius, Comm. in Pis. 32). The penalty for the Vestals would have been live burial, and for their accomplices, death by flogging.

While he was a tribune of the people (137 B.C.), Cassius Longinus introduced the secret vote for jury trials (following the Lex Gabinia of 139 B.C., which had made the vote at elections secret). This made Cicero (consul the year this coin seems to have been struck) see Ravilla as a traitor to the Boni (Cicero, de leg. 3.35, pro Sest. 48.103). The scene thus shows a voter placing a tablet marked with Vti Rogas ("as you ask", "aye") in the polling box. A "nay" would have been marked "A(ntiquo)".
Syltorian
RRC415-1.jpg
RRC415/1 (L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus) 93 viewsObv. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled head of Concordia facing right, graffito.
Rev. TER above trophy with togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus on right, three captives on left, PAVLLVS in exergue.
18-19 mm, 3,94 gr.
Rome, ca. 63/2 B.C.
References: RRC415/1, RSC Aemilia 10, Syd. 926, Sear 366

Motif: It has been suggested that L. Aemilius Paullus took up the watchword of Cicero's consulate during and after the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 B.C.): Concordia Ordinum. The reverse shows the general L. Aemilius Paullus (no direct relation to the moneyer), who defeated King Perseus in the Third Macedonian War, at the Batle of Pydna. Here, the Macedonian phalanx originally had the upper hand, but broke apart over rough ground, allowing the Romans to enter the gaps between the huge sarissas and cut the phalangites down with their Spanish swords. Paullus took Perseus and his sons, Philip and Alexander, prisoner, as well as their daughter (unnamed and unrepresented on the coin). They were paraded in his triumph. The people reacted badly to this, feeling sympathetic towards the children, but by 63 B.C., this does not seem to have mattered anymore. Paullus triumphed three times in his life, hence the "TER" above the trophy.

Moneyer: The moneyer was the brother of the later triumvir M. Lepidus, and would himself rise through the cursus honorum. Paullus would become quaestor (59 B.C.), praetor (53 B.C.) and reach the consulship (50 B.C.), before siding with Brutus and Cassius and ending up on the proscription list. He was pardonned after Philippi, but exiled himself to Miletus.
1 commentsSyltorian
RRC415-1_-_Graffito.jpg
RRC415/1 (L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus), Graffito85 viewsObv. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled head of Concordia facing right, graffito.
Rev. TER above trophy with togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus on right, three captives on left, PAVLLVS in exergue.
17 mm, 3,79 gr.
Rome, ca. 63/2 B.C.
References: RRC415/1, RSC Aemilia 10, Syd. 926, Sear 366

It has been suggested that the moneyer, L. Aemilius Paullus, took up the watchword of Cicero's consulate during and after the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 B.C.): Concordia Ordinum. The reverse shows the general L. Aemilius Paullus (no direct relation to the moneyer), who defeated King Perseus in the Third Macedonian War, took him and his sons Philip and Aexander prisoner (what happened to the daughter is not recorded), and led them in his triumph. The people themselves did not apparently appreciate the introduction of children into the triumph, but by 63 B.C., this does not seem to have mattered anymore.

The moneyer was the brother of the later triumvir M. Lepidus, and would himself rise through the cursus honorum, to quaestor (59 B.C.), Praetor (53 B.C.) and Consul (50 B.C.), before siding with Brutus and Cassius and ending up on the proscription list. He was pardonned after Philippi, but exiled himself to Miletus.

This coin also bears graffito, spelling out HAEMI. The significance is unknown, and may indicate the owner; if the last latter is to be read as an O, it might be a dedication or a receiver.
Syltorian
koson_RPC1701A.jpg
Thracia, Olbia, Koson, RPC I 1701A233 viewsKoson, died 29 BC, king of Thracia
AV - Stater, 8.39g, 20.4mm
struck ca. 40-42 BC
obv. The Roman consul L. Junius Brutus togated walking l., accompanied by two
lictores holding fasces above r. shoulder
left field: monogram BR (or BA?)
exergue: KOSWN (in Greek)
rev. Eagle with open wings, standing on sceptre l., holding wreath in r. claw
ref. Iliescu 1; RPC I, 1701A; BMC Thrace p.208, 2; BMCRR II p.474, 48
FDC

Attributed to M. Junius Brutus, struck after the assassination of Caesar for Dacian mercenaries . Obv. inspired by the famous denar Crawford 433/1 of M.J.Brutus 54 BC. Rev. copied from the denar Crawford 398/1 from Q. Pomponius Rufus 73 BC.
But there are other hypotheses too:
1. Struck by Cotiso, king of Dacia for Brutus' Dacian mercenaries. His name appears in the odes of Horace, lib. II, 8.18 and in Sueton, The deified Augustus, LXIII.
2. Struck not earlier than the first half of the 16th century as an inofficial issue in northern Romania.
But now we have new results of spectral-analytical researches which are speaking for ancient gold!
1 commentsJochen
Koson_RPC1701B.jpg
Thracia, Olbia, Koson, RPC I 1701B21 viewsKoson, died 29 BC, king of Thracia
AV - Stater, 8.44g, 18.87mm, 0°
probably restrike by the Dacians after the death of Brutus in 42 BC
obv. The Roman consul L. Junius Brutus togated walking l., accompanied by two
lictores holding fasces above r. shoulder
without monogram in l. field!
exergue: KOSWN (in Greek)
rev. Eagle with open wings, standing on sceptre l., holding wreath in r. claw
ref. Iliescu 1; RPC I, 1701B; BMCRR II p.475, 50
EF

This edition without the BR monogram is of distinct coarser style than the type with monogram. Referring to new spectral-analytical researches the gold of these type contains Sn and Sb, is not refined, but equal to the alluvial gold found in the rivers of Transsylvania like the gold of the bracelets from Sarmizegetusa. Probably it is a restrike of the Dacians after the death of Brutus in the battle of Philippi. The removing of the monogram is a strong argument against the theory that the monogram means BA(silews) and speaks for BR meaning Brutus. After his death it was not opportune to put his name on the coins.
Jochen
tomis_lysimachos_AMNG2480.jpg
Thracia, Tomis, in the name of Lysimachos, AMNG I/2, 248040 viewsLysimachos, kingdom of Thracia
AV - Stater, 8.30g, 20mm, 0°
Tomis, 44-42 BC
obv. head of deified Alexander r., diademed and with horn of Ammon, behind dot and
monogram(?)
rev. BASILEW[S] l., LYSIMAXOY r.
in between Athena Nikophoros sitting l., in extended r. hand holding Nike, crowning the
name of the ruler, l. elbow leaning on shield, spear leaning behind, QEM in l. field,
TO in field below throne; under throne trident to l., dolphin above and below
ref. AMNG I/2, 2480, pl. XXI,6 (crude style, portrait is reminiscent of Pharnakes II); De Callatay p.141 (D4/R1);
Fabricius 308 (obv. same die); Müller 273; SNG Copenhagen 1091(same dies); SNG Stockholm 839 (obv. same die)
EF, mint state
pedigree:
ex Harlan J.Berk

Imitation of a gold stater of Lysimachos (323-281 BC), struck to pay the Thracian mercenaries of Brutus, the assassin of Julius Caesar, for his campaign against Octavian and Marcus Antonius. The style more crude than the original. There is an alternative interpretation: Issued under Mithridates VI, 88-87 BC.
Jochen
   
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