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Pseudo_Rhodian_Drachm.jpg
31 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Perseus. 179-168 B.C. AR drachm (15 mm, 2.60 g, 12 h). ca. 171/0 B.C. Aristokrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose with bud to left; in left field, club; above, magistrate's name: [ΑΡΙ]ΣΤΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. R. J. H. Ashton, ""Clubs, Thunderbolts, Torches, Stars and Caducei: more Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms from Mainland Greece and the Islands,"" NC 162 (2002), 17 (A6/P5; this coin). Toned. Very fine.
Ex Naville V (18 June 1923), 2669. British Museum Duplicate, Ex: British Museum


The Pseudo-Rhodian drachms were struck, probably by the Macedonians under Perseus but possibly by the Romans, to pay for Mercenaries from Crete and Rhodes who would have been familiar with Rhodian coinage. The coins in the name of the magistrate Aristokrates with the club symbol in the field is the largest known individual issue of pseudo-Rhodian drachms from the Third Macedonian War, and used at least twenty-nine obverse dies.
paul1888
Klazomenai_Silver_Hemidrachm.jpg
20 viewsIonia, Klazomenai. Silver Hemidrachm (1.99 g), ca. 380-360 BC. Kronax, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo facing slightly left. Reverse: KΛ-A below, swan standing left; around, magistrate's name: KPΩ-NAΞ. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 16ff; cf. BMC 23ff. Very Rare.
From the Lee Rousseau Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 200 (12 October 2011), 1799.
The dies used to strike this handsome hemidrachm of Klazomenai are possibly the work of the famous artist Theodotos: they are reminiscent of the tetradrachm from dies of his that he signed in the British Museum's collection.
2 commentspaul1888
rjb_01_07_09.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 14b40 viewsMaximianus I 286-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 14b
mauseus
rjb_fol4_01_09.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 17a41 viewsConstantius I as Caesar 293-305 AD
AE Follis
Obv: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 17a
mauseus
CaliDu01-2.jpg
37 AD Dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus276 viewsorichalcum dupondius (29mm). Rome mint. Struck AD 37.
CONSENSV SENAT·ET·EQ·ORDIN·P·Q·R Gaius seated left on curule chair
DIVVS AVGVSTVS S C radiate head of Augustus facing left
RIC (Gaius) 56; Cohen (August) 87; Foss (Roman historical coins) 60:4
ex old British (Oxford) collection

Minted under Caligula on the occasion of the dedication of a temple to Divus Agustus; the identity of the seated person is uncertain but probably Gaius. The legend 'ET EQ' refers to 'EQVES' (pl. EQVITES), 'horseman'. In the early empire, they were the holders of administrative posts of a class second only to the senators.
In the picture the obverse and reverse have accidentally been switched around.
Charles S
rjb_2009_10_13.jpg
835cf25 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "VICTORIA CARAVSI A"
Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear & shield
Rev "LITiTI AV"
Laetitia/Pax stg left with vertical sceptre
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 835ff, also see RIC 786 for similar obverse)

Obverse die duplicate of two coins in the British Museum, one from the Little Orme hoard (no mintmark in exergue) the other with RSR in the exergue
mauseus
00061x00.jpg
31 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.47 g, 9h)
Roma seated right, holding Victory and spear
G P R F (Genio Populi Romani Feliciter) in circle
Rostovtzev 1576; BM 369

Rostovtsev cites two examples in the British Museum, as well as five more in smaller collections. Thornton could only locate one specimen.
Ardatirion
00033x00~1.jpg
61 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.41 g)
Oleiculture scene: male figure standing right, holding stick and knocking olives from tree to right; star and crescent between; behind, stag(?) standing left; [...]POV above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –

Scenes of the olive harvest are entirely unknown on coinage, but some mosaics and Greek vases illustrate the practice. See in particular an Attic black figure neck amphora in the British Museum (ABV, 273, 116) depicting two men using sticks to knock olives from a tree.
1 commentsArdatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
DSC_2712.jpg
55 viewsBRITISH TRADE TOKENS, Middlesex. London & Middlesex. Robert Reynolds & Co.
CU Halfpenny Token (31mm, 12.42 g, 6 h)
Dated 1799
LONDON & MIDDLESEX, draped bust of William Shakespeare left
HALFPENNY, Abundatia seated left on bale of cotton, extending hand and holding cornucopia; ship to left; 1799 in exergue
D&H 928
Ardatirion
rjb_2011_01_01~0.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 14a37 viewsDiocletianus
AE Follis
Obv: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 14a
mauseus
rjb_2011_02_02.jpg
"Boulogne" (VI) 17b23 viewsGalerius as Caesar
AE Follis
Obv: C VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB C
Laureate bust right
Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI
Genius standing left
-/-//-
Uncertain continental mint (Boulogne?) operating around the time of the British invasion
RIC (VI) Lyon 17b
mauseus
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius86 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
VHC02-coin.jpg
02- BRITISH GUIANA (GUYANA), 4 PENCE, KM26.29 viewsSize: 19.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.0560 oz. Mintage: 60,000.
Grade: Raw VG (minor nicks and marks).
Comments: From an eBay seller in Mexico. I paid around ten times catalog price at the time, but these are tough to find and likely undervalued.
lordmarcovan
VHC03-coin.jpg
03- BRITISH HONDURAS (BELIZE), 25 CENTS, KM923 viewsSize: 27.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.1728 oz. Mintage: 20,000.
Grade: Raw F+ (borderline VF).
Comments: Ex-Dan Lewis, Black Mountain Coins.
lordmarcovan
VHC04-coin.jpg
04- BRITISH HONDURAS (BELIZE), 50 CENTS, KM1022 viewsSize: 35.5 mm. Composition: .925 Silver/.3456 oz. Mintage: 10,000.
Grade: NGC VF Details/Scratches (Cert. # 4080257-001).
Comments: Purchased raw on eBay.
lordmarcovan
RI_064an_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long scepter & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.

3.17g, 18.54mm, 0o

This is an unusual legend with several spelling errors. It is an obverse die match to a coin in the Doug Smith collection (different reverse type). A reverse die match exists in the British Museum (different obverse die).
maridvnvm
RI_064fl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -50 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Mars standing right, resting on spear and shield
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -. RIN (Rivista Italiana di Nvmismatica Vol. XCVI (1994/1995)

2.72g. 17.78mm. 0o

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-
"Die match to example in British Museum, found at the site of a Roman villa in Kent, GB, in 1952. The same obv. die also occurs with the types MONETA AVG and LEG III IT AVG TR P COS.
Bickford-Smith recorded three other specimens, of which I also have plaster casts: his own coll. (probably now in BM), Klosterneuburg, and U.S. private collection. On these the rev. legend apparently ends COS rather than COS II.
This type was clearly struck in 194, when Septimius was TR P II and IMP III or IIII, so TR P IIII IMP II in the rev. legend is an error, the origin of which is obvious: the type is a rote copy of the identical type and legend on denarii of Lucius Verus of 164, Cohen 228-9. The titles apply to Lucius in 164, not Septimius in 194!"
maridvnvm
RI_064ss_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Denarius - RIC 01920 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP-T SEV PERT AVG. Laureate head right
Rev:– SAEC FRVGIF COS, Saeculum Frugiferum., radiate, standing left, holding winged caduceus and trident
Minted in Rome. A.D. 193
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV 19 (Rated Rare); RSC 622.

About 8 examples from 2 reverse dies known to Curtis Clay. This example from a different reverse die to the British Museum example.
maridvnvm
RI_100d_img.jpg
100 - Trebonianus Gallus - Antoninianus - RIC 79 var 14 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped cuirassed bust right
Rev– ADVNTVS (sic) AVS(sic), Trebonianus Gallus riding on horse left, holding hand high in salute and scepter
Minted in Antioch.
Reference(s) – RIC 79 var (reverse legend).

Rare with these reverse legend errors. Possibly the fourth known example all from the same reverse die.

Ex Private British collection, was purchased from English dealer Peter Mimms in 1976
maridvnvm
RIC_---_A_036_No_001_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(3F)_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Alf-36_No-01_Siscia_R_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!144 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FORTVNA REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???), Alföldi 0036.0001,
Q-001
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alföldi lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
1 commentsquadrans
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.31 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
antpius RIC111.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 143-144 AD38 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (laureate head right)
rev: IMPERATOR II (Victory standing front, head left, holding wreath and palm)
ref: RIC III 111, RSC 437, BMC 496
3.40gms, 18mm,

History: Quintus Lollius Urbicus was made governor of Roman Britain in 138. He evidently campaigned against several British tribes: the northern Brigantes, the Votadini, the Selgovae, the Damnonii and the Novantae. Lollius probably also oversaw the initial construction of the Antonine Wall and refurbished many forts. The reverse commemorates Antoninus' second imperatorial acclamation which he accepted in 143 AD for Q. Lollius Urbicus' victory over the Brigantes in Britannia.
berserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
IMG_7900.JPG
154. Carausius (286-293 A.D.)11 viewsAv.: IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG
Rv.: PAX AVG

AE Antoninian Ø20 / 2.6g
RIC V-2 880, uncertain British mint
Juancho
1673_Charles_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1673 CHARLES II AE HALFPENNY9 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1673 in exergue.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3393

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.

On May 17th this year, Louis Joliet, a trader, and Jaques Marquette, a Jesuit missionary, began exploring the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes in America. A month later, on June 17th, they reached the headwaters of the Mississippi River, and descended to Arkansas.
On August 8th a Dutch fleet of 23 ships under the command of Admiral Cornelis Evertsen de Jonge demanded the surrender of New York and on the following day captured it from the British (the city was recaptured by the British though in 1674).
*Alex
MOD_up_to_1899-USA-Vermont-3.jpg
1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
1792_YARMOUTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Yarmouth, Norfolk.23 viewsObverse: LET YARMOUTH FLOURISH :. Coat of Arms of Yarmouth over crossed sprigs of oak. Small incuse rosette countermark in field to right of shield. The Coat of Arms combines three lion's heads from the Royal Arms with the tails of three silver herrings, believed to come from the original arms of Yarmouth.
Reverse: YARMOUTH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; 1792, in panel below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE GLASS WAREHOUSE OF W. ABSOLON • X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 52

This token was issued by William Absolon (1751 – 1815), a British ceramist who, from 1784, sold English and foreign china and glass but also later offered gilding, enameling and painting services at his shop, No 4, at the lower end of Market Row in Yarmouth.
Absolon bought in wares from the Wedgewood, Davenport, Turner and Staffordshire factories, which he then decorated. He painted dessert services with botanical subjects with the Latin name of the plant inscribed on the plate or dish and also his mark; Absolon Yarm and No 25. He also decorated Turner Ware and Cream Ware Jugs adding mottoes, such as; a Trifle from Yarmouth, or Success to the Trade. Absolon died in 1815 and although his business continued, the quality declined. Today, his work attracts high prices at auction.
*Alex
1794_EARL_HOWE.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth, Hampshire.84 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Youthful" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair in long pigtail tied with a ribbon, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LONDON LIVERPOOL OR BRISTOL •.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 13

During the 18th and 19th centuries Emsworth was a busy little port, known for shipbuilding, boat building and rope making. Grain from the area was ground into flour by tidal mills at Emsworth and the flour was then transported by ship to places like London and Portsmouth. Timber from the area was also exported from Emsworth in the 18th and 19th centuries.

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle both fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports. Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both nations as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies.
*Alex
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1795 AE Halfpenny, Emsworth or Portsmouth, Hampshire.51 viewsObverse: EARL HOWE & THE GLORIOUS FIRST OF JUNE. "Elderly" bust of Earl Howe, wearing tricorn hat and with hair tied with a ribbon at back, facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm.
Dalton & Hamer: 23b

This token was probably issued by John Stride, a grocer and tea dealer with a business in Emsworth, and the dies were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon. The token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

Richard Howe, 1st Earl Howe, Knight of the Garter and Admiral of the Fleet was born on 8th March, 1726. He was a British naval officer notable in particular for his service during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary Wars. He died on the 5th of August, 1799.

The Glorious First of June, 1794 was the first and largest fleet action of the naval conflict between Britain and the French during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British, under Admiral Lord Howe, attempted to prevent the passage of a vital grain convoy from the United States, which was protected by the French fleet commanded by Vice-Admiral Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse. The two forces clashed in the Atlantic Ocean, some 400 nautical miles west of the French island of Ushant, on the first of June 1794. During the battle, Howe defied naval convention by ordering his fleet to turn towards the French and for each of his vessels to rake and engage their immediate opponent. This unexpected order was not understood by all of his captains, and as a result his attack, though successful, was more piecemeal than he intended. In the course of the battle the two fleets were so severely damaged that both Howe and Villaret were compelled to return to their home ports.
Both sides claimed victory and the outcome of the battle was seized upon by the press of both countries as a demonstration of the prowess and bravery of their respective navies. France because, despite losing seven of his ships, Villaret had successfully bought enough time for the grain convoy to reach safety unimpeded by Howe's fleet and Britain because, since the French were forced to withdraw their battle-fleet to port, they were left free to conduct a campaign of blockade for the remainder of the war.
*Alex
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1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.62 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
1797_Middlesex_buck_Halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, London, Middlesex.31 viewsObverse: FREEDOM WITH INNOCENCE. Proud stag with large antlers, walking to left.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1042 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Dies engraved by Thomas Willets and manufactured by William Lutwyche or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.
This token, one of the 18th century Political and Social Series of tokens, was likely struck for the use of the “Buck Society” in London.

The Buck Society was made up of eleven united lodges in London and three affiliates in Moorgate, Hatton Garden and Doctor’s Commons. It was one of the many debating societies that emerged in London during the eighteenth century, and were a prominent fixture of society until the end of that century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but, while there were comparable societies in other British cities, London was home to the largest number of them throughout the eighteenth century. The debating societies welcomed participants from both genders and all social backgrounds, making them one of the best examples of the enlarged public sphere of the Age of Enlightenment. However, the increasingly radical political environment, created in large part by the French Revolution in 1789, lead to the tightening of government restrictions and most of the debating societies went inactive when, following the local sedition trials of 1792 and 1793, William Pitt the Younger initiated the 1794 Treason Trials, and the 1795 Seditious Meetings Act.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
1797GeorgeIIICartwheelTwoPence1024.jpg
1797 British Two Pence Cartwheel23 viewsRegal 1797 British Cartwheel Two Pence coin struck by Matthew Boulton
at Soho Mint. This coin grades MS-64 BN. Regal coinage would spell doom
for Conder Tokens which circulated widely in all counties of Britain. In the
far reaches of the countries, Conder Tokens would continue to circulate for
several more years.
Larry M2
Walthamstow_Brutus_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "BRUTUS" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.152 viewsObverse: BRUTUS. Bare head of Lucius Junius Brutus facing left.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm
Bowman: 24 | Withers: 621

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830).

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London. The copper was smelted in "Landore" near Swansea in South Wales and brought by barge around the south coast up the Thames and the Lea to the mill. The copper ingots were then rolled into thin sheets which were sent all over the country to be stamped into coins. The main purpose of the BCC would have been to sell its copper, whether in the form of tokens, or sheets of metal. These penny and half penny tokens were not issued exclusively for use in Walthamstow, the halfpennies in particular do not bear the name of a place where they could have been redeemed except the very tiny BCC found on the ground by Britannia's shield. The copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow were converted into a pumping station in the 1860s and were later incorporated, by Thames Water, into a large water treatment works.

Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the first two consuls of Rome, was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins, he thus became a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
Walthamstow_Mercury_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "MERCURY" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.65 viewsObverse: No legend. Head of Mercury wearing Petasus facing left, caduceus behind.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Davis 36 | Coxall type 3

The principal die engraver was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
Walthamstow_VINCIT_Halfpenny.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.38 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Small laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17, Coxall type 10

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1811_Vincit_Large_head.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.32 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Large laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Die damage, a common feature of these tokens, is visible at 10 o'clock on the obverse.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1812_BRITISH_NAVAL_HALFPENNY.JPG
1812 AE Non-local Halfpenny Token. Stockton on Tees, Yorkshire.20 viewsObverse: ENGLAND EXPECTS EVERY MAN TO DO HIS DUTY •. Bust of Horatio Nelson facing left.
Reverse: BRITISH NAVAL HALPPENNY (sic). Three masted ship, probably H.M.S. Victory, sailing right, 1812 in panel below.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1590 | Davis: 150 (Yorkshire)

The dies for this token were, according to some sources, engraved by Thomas Wyon. Though the manufacturer of the token is unknown, it was most likely struck in Birmingham.

Issued from Stockton on Tees, this token seems to have been struck to commemorate the Battle of Trafalgar which took place in 1805, and in which Nelson was killed. The issuer is uncertain but it was probably Robert Christopher and Thomas Jennett.
Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.
*Alex
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1813 "LION" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.31 viewsObverse: HALFPENNY. A lion walking left; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, small BCC below shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Withers: 610

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
George-4_Third_Farthing_1827.JPG
1827 GEORGE IV AE THIRD FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1827 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3827

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings and fractions facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.

This coin was produced in 1827 exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. The grano, a coin dating from before British rule, was valued at a twelfth of a penny so the decision was made to coin the equivalent in a British denomination. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
George_IV_Half-Farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE HALF FARTHING2 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1828. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 18mm | Axis 12
SPINK: 3826

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

The half-farthing was first issued in 1828, a year later than the third farthing, for use exclusively in Ceylon. However, it is usually considered to be part of the British coin series as Ceylon used British currency at that time.
*Alex
1835_WILLIAM_IV_THIRD_FARTHING.JPG
1835 William IV AE THIRD FARTHING4 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1835. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3850

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
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1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex16 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
VICTORIA_AE_Third-Farthing.JPG
1844 VICTORIA COPPER THIRD FARTHING6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID : DEF : Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3952

This portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
EdwardVIIasPoW1874.JPG
1874. Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. Royal Horticultural Buildings. Taylor 180b105 viewsObv. Head of Edward left ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES PRESIDENT, G MORGAN SC, on truncation BOEHM
Rev. The Royal Horticultural Buildings LONDON ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF ALL FINE ARTS INDUSTRIES AND INVENTIONS on scroll below central medallion MDCCCLXXIV

AE51. Taylor 180b.

This medal is arguably the most complex architectural medal ever undertaken, and in my opinion the most accomplished. The depth of view is truly astounding, though this does not come accross to well in the picture. The depiction of the buildings is used as the cover art of Taylor's "The Architectural Medal: England in the Nineteenth Century", British Museum Publication, 1978.

LordBest
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING33 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY7 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
bp19.jpg
1898 british One Penny9 views1 commentsNORMAN K
George_5_H_Penny_1912.JPG
1912 "H" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1912 and small "H" (for Heaton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4052
SCARCE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The Heaton Mint in Birmingham was founded in 1850 by Ralph Heaton Junior using second-hand equipment purchased from Matthew Boulton's old Soho Mint. Ralph Heaton pioneered the modern mill striking of bronze coins, and in 1860 he was contracted by the Royal Mint to assist it in striking Britain's new bronze penny, half-penny and farthing issues. The Birmingham Mint continued striking these bronze issues for the Royal Mint off and on until the 1880s.
In 1912, the Royal Mint once again subcontracted the Birmingham Mint to strike enough British pennies to meet the demand, and those pennies carry a small 'H' (for Heaton) mintmark to the left of the date on the reverse. During the First World War, the Birmingham Mint was employed in other aspects of metalwork, producing brass and copper tubing for bullets and artillery rounds, but was again contracted to strike more Heaton pennies in 1918 and 1919.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_50_New_Pence_1976.JPG
1976 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE8 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II D.G.REG.F.D.1976. Draped bust of Elizabeth II, wearing tiara, facing right.
Reverse: NEW PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4223 PROOF

This portrait of Elizabeth II was designed by Arnold Machin (1911 - 1999), although his design was approved in June 1964 it was not used for United Kingdom coinage until 1968, after which his portrait of Elizabeth II was used on all British decimal coins until 1984. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin had been given to her as a wedding present from her grandmother, Queen Mary.
*Alex
Elizabeth-2_50_Pence_1999.JPG
1999 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II.D.G.REG.F.D.1999. Head of Elizabeth II wearing tiara facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4610 PROOF

This portrait was designed by the sculptor Ian Rank-Broadley, it appeared on all UK and Commonwealth coinage from 1998 until it was superseded by a new portrait in 2015. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin was given to her as a wedding present by her grandmother, Queen Mary.

This decimal 50 pence was the last British coin to depict the traditional Britannia which had featured on British coinage for more than 300 years, having begun on a farthing under Charles II in 1672. Britannia made her last appearance in 2008 after Gordon Brown personally approved changing the design as one of his last acts as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
*Alex
DidJulSestConMil.jpg
1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
Blindado
207-1_Decimia.jpg
207/1. Decimia or Flavia? - denarius (150 BC)10 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 150 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind.
R/ Luna in biga right, holding whip & reins; FLAVS below; ROMA in exergue.
3.95g; 19mm
Crawford 207/1 (61 obverse dies/76 reverse dies)
- Collection of Frederick Sydney Clark (1923-2016), British collector in East Sussex.
- Toovey's, 01/11/2017, Lot 701.

* Decimius Flavus or Gaius Flavius Fimbria:

This issue has been given to a member of the plebeian gens Decimia, of Samnite origin. The gens was relatively new at the time since its first identified member Numerius Decimius distinguished himself during the Second Punic War (Livy, xxii. 24), and probably received the Roman citizenship as a result. Two Decimii used the cognomen Flavus: a military tribune in 207 named Gaius Decimius Flavus (Livy, xxvii. 14), and his probable son of the same name, who was Urban Praetor in 184, but died immediately after his election (Livy, xxxix. 38).

Three other Decimii are then known: Marcus, Gaius, and Lucius, all ambassadors in Greece in 172-171 (Livy, xlii. 19, 35, 37 respectively). They were possible sons of the Praetor of 184, in which case our moneyer was the son of one of them, although nothing is known of him. However, none of them had a cognomen and Flavus simply meant "blond hair", a rather common cognomen unlikely to feature alone on a coin.

So the name could refer to another gens; it is indeed possible to read it as FLAVIVS. This name, widespread during the Empire after Vespasian, was nevertheless uncommon in the second century and therefore distinctive enough so that the moneyer did not need to add the rest of his name. Besides, only one Flavius is known in this century: the Popularis Gaius Flavius C.f. Fimbria, Consul in 104 alongside Marius. Fimbria was therefore born no later than 146 (the Consulship was reserved to men aged at least 42 years old), a date which would remarkably fit with his father moneyer in 150 and therefore in his 20s. As Fimbria was a novus homo, the moneyership held by his father would testify the ascension of the family before him.
Joss
28-Aethelstan.jpg
28. Aethelstan.37 viewsPenny, 927-939, York mint.
Obverse: +EÐELSTAN REX TO BRIT / small cross; C privy mark at left of cross.
Reverse: +REGNALD MO EFORǷIC / small cross.
Moneyer: Regnald.
1.48 gm., 22.5 mm.
North #672; Seaby #1093.

Aethelstan was the first British king to be styled "King of All Britain" on his coins (Rex Totius Britanniae). Regnald was also a moneyer for the Vikings when they were in control of York.

Provenance: the Schembrai Collection.
1 commentsCallimachus
Clipboard~49.jpg
2nd - 3rd century socketed Iron axe - responsible for de-forestation of europe85 viewsBritish found 2nd-3rd century Iron socketed axe.lorry66
VHC34-coin.JPG
34- INDIA (BRITISH), 1/12 ANNA, KM483, (1901-C).26 viewsSize: 17.5 mm. Composition: Copper. Mintage: 21,345,000.
Grade: NGC MS62 BN (Cert. # 3260363-003).
Comments: Purchased slabbed on eBay, sold, and later bought back when I found it harder to replace than anticipated.
lordmarcovan
VHC37-slab.JPG
37- INDIA (BRITISH), 2 ANNAS, KM488, (1901-C).30 viewsSize: 15 mm. Composition: .917 Silver/.0430 oz. Mintage: 8,944,000 (Calcutta)- 1,706,000 (Bombay).
Grade: NGC MS65 (Cert.# 4080257-018).
Comments: Purchased raw from VCoins seller Frits A. Bodde of Moneta Nova (Germany). I really need to get a proper picture, because the NGC slab image is pretty wretched.
lordmarcovan
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403. Carausius36 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
ecoli
coins358.JPG
501. Constantine I London BEATA TRANQVILLITAS26 viewsLondon

Londinium was established as a town by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD led by the Emperor Claudius. Archaeological excavation (undertaken by the Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London now called MOLAS) since the 1970s has also failed to unearth any convincing traces of major settlement before c.50 — so ideas about Londinium being a military foundation around the Fort that protected London Bridge are now largely discounted.

The name Londinium is thought to be pre-Roman in origin although there is no consensus on what it means. One suggestion is that it derived from a personal name meaning 'fierce'. However, recent research by Richard Coates has suggested that the name derives from pre-Celtic Old European — Plowonida — from 2 roots, "plew" and "nejd", meaning something like "the flowing river" or "the wide flowing river". Londinium therefore means "the settlement on the wide river". He suggests that the river was called the Thames up river where it was narrower, and Plowonida down river where it was too wide to ford. For a discussion on the legends of London and Plowonida see [1]. The story of the settlement being named after Lud is considered unlikely.

Archaeologists now believe that London was founded as a civilian settlement by 50 AD. A wooden drain by the side of the main roman road excavated at No 1 Poultry has been dated to 47 which is likely to be the foundation date.

Ten years later, Londinium was sacked by the Iceni lead by the British queen Boudica. Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire at this date, and recently a military compound has been discovered in the City of London which may have been the headquarters of the Roman fight back against the British uprising.

The city recovered after perhaps 10 years, and reached its population height by about 120 AD, with a population of around 60,000. London became the capital of Roman Britain (Britannia) (previously the capital was the older, nearby town of Colchester). Thereafter began a slow decline; however, habitation and associated building work did not cease. By 375 London was a small wealthy community protected by completed defences. By 410 Roman occupation officially came to an end, with the citizens being ordered to look after their own defenses. By the middle of the 5th century the Roman city was practically abandoned.

RIC VII London 271 R2

ecoli
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I51 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
s49.JPG
516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
ecoli
Carausius-RIC-437.jpg
98. Carausius.19 viewsAntoninianus, 287-293, Colchester mint.
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG / Radiate bust of Carausius.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVG / Virtus standing, with spear and shield.
Mint mark: C
4.05 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #437; Sear unlisted.

Note: This coin is from my British coin collection and is pictured there as well.
Callimachus
Allectus-RIC-130.jpg
99. Allectus.19 viewsQuinarius, 293 - 296 AD, Colchester mint.
Obverse: IMP C ALLECTVS P AVG / Radiate bust of Allectus.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVG / Galley sailing to the right, steersman standing aft.
Mint mark: Q C
2.50 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #130; Sear #13875.

Note: This coin is from my British coin collection and is pictured there as well.
Callimachus
Dagger_4.jpg
AE Dagger #0422 viewsNorthwestern Iran (probably Luristan)
1200-800 BC
32cm (12.6”)

Cf. Khorasani (Bronze and Iron Weapons from Luristan), Fig. 2 (page 212)
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 6, #50; (also illustrated on page 70)
Cf. Overleat (The Early Iron Age in the Pusht-I Kuh, Luristan), Fig. 184, #KT.A6-19 (page 216)

From an old British collection, acquired in the 1970s

Description:
Flanged hilt with no wood or ivory remaining, single rivet hole in wedge-shaped pommel, low broad midrib, blade and hilt cast in one piece
1 commentsRobert L3
12330_a45_316.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 8.09g31 viewsPegasos flying left with pointed wing.Rev helmeted head of Athena left with unknown symbol behind.TRIPOD?
not in Calciati or the British Museum Catalogue
Grant H
111-1-AL-Indalo.jpg
AL Monogram - Denarius, Crawford 111/19 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Below, “AL” monogram; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Uncertain
Weight: 4.10 gm.
Reference: Crawford 111/1
Provenance: Indalo (through Ebay), 1-MAR-2014

Comments:
The AL monogram denarii are rare with 16 known specimens, 5 of which are in the British museum and The Bibliothèque nationale de France, each having two, and Kestner, having one.
Steve B5
alexanderx.jpg
Alexander the Great46 viewsObv: Head of beardless Herakles, right, wearing lion skin headdress.
Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in exergue; Charioteer in Biga right, Trident below.
"Alexandria (Antigoneia)" mint, struck c.310-301 BC. Extremely rare!

Attribution to this mint has been questioned of late (Meadows, NC 2004),
although no firmer alternative has yet been put forward. A mint in the Troad
seems to be likely, given that three were found in the excavations at Troy.

This is an extremely desirable and very difficult to find item. It appears that
there are none on any of the modern sales databases, and I know of only
one other that has been offered via a 'small seller' on an online auction site.

There is one in the British museum, at least one in Berlin (I-B), one in
the Portolos collection (Athens); another in Paris (B 80); the three that
were found at Troy, the one offered online, and now this one.
Please feel free to let me know of any other known specimens.

Among the rarest bronzes of the series.
Price 1587; Gaebler p.169, 7 pl.XXXI,26;
Bellinger Troy A1; BM 1921,0213.196.
(dealer's image {edited})
OldMoney
Alexandre le Grand Tetrad..jpg
Alexander The Great Silver Tetradrachm42 viewsPella Mint, 285/275 B.C., 29 mm
Obv: Head of Herakles
Rev: Zeus with eagle, monograms K M
Ref: Price Cat. # 563 of The British Museum
1 commentsJean Paul D
allectus_76~0.jpg
Allectus RIC V, 76183 viewsAllectus 293 - 296, British Empire
AR - Antoninianus, 3.97g, 22.6mm
Camulodunum 293 - 296
obv. IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. LAETI - T [A]VG
Laetitia standing l., holding wreath r. and anchor l.
field: S and P
exergue: C
RIC V, 76; C.16
about VF, portrait!
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
added to www.wildwinds.com

ANCHOR, because the power of Allectus based on his fleet
5 commentsJochen
0131.jpg
Anonymous Quadrigatus17 viewsAnonymous Quadrigatus

RRC 31/1
225-214 bc
6.67 gr

Av:Laureate janiform head of Dioscuri, border of dots.
Rv:Jupiter in quadriga driven by Victory r., holding sceptre and thunderbolt; in ex. ROMA in linear frame, line border

for the type compare to the British Museum coin 31.1.1

ex Bertolami Auct 29, Lot 205, 22.03.2017
1 commentsNorbert
Antiochos_VII_Euergetes.jpg
Antiochos VII Euergetes64 viewsFRONT/ Bust of Eros right. BACK / BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Headdress of Isis, scepter as monogram to left; aplustre and date EOP below. Minted in the Selukid Kingdom. Struck 138-129 BC. Ref: SNG UK 1301.617-620; BMC 52 (British Museum Catalog #52).

EX ; Andreas Reich


From the Sam Mansourati Collection
2 commentsSam
Antoninus_Pius_Victory_Imperator~0.JPG
Antoninus Pius Victory Imperator Sestertius35 viewsAntoninus Pius, Sestertius, Rome, 138 - 161 AD (Struck 143 - 144 AD), 27mm, 26g, RIC 717, Cohen 433, BMCRE 1610
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, Laureate head right
REV: IMPERATOR II - Victory flying to the right holding trophy with both hands
S-C in fields
A very thick and heavy coin for the size.
A British victory type: Antoninus won his second imperatorial
acclamation, recorded in the reverse legend, for a victory of his
governor Lollius Urbicus over the Brigantes. Urbicus also
constructed the Antonine Wall from Forth to Clyde in Scotland.

SCARCE
Romanorvm
abm_ant_pius_imp_ii_as.jpg
Antoninus Pius, as, RIC III, 731b, AD 143-4.55 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, Laureate head right.
IMPERATOR II, S C, Victory advancing right with wreath and palm.
RIC III, 731b, AD 143-4.
Another of this series struck in all metals to commemorate British triumph in 143-4.
Adrianus
abm_antoninus_britannia_as.jpg
Antoninus Pius, as, RIC III, 934, AD 154-5.50 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, Laureate head right.
BRITANNIA COS IIII, S C, Britannia setaed left.
RIC III, 934, AD 154-5.
Struck 154-5 to celebrate the suppression of an uprising in Britain. It has been argued that this type was struck at a travelling British mint but this is far from certain; stylistically the coins are good and could just as easily represent a 'targeted' issue struck at Rome and then shipped to Britain. Certainly, like the earlier Hadrian asses, they are usually found in Britain.
Weight 10.11g.
Adrianus
ANTOME01-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, Medaillon of AD 13961 viewsÆ Medaillon (51,03g, Ø 40,5mm, 10h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, laureate head left.
Rev.: P M TR POT / COS II in two lines low in field, Victory in prancing biga right.
Cohen 647 (300 fr.) var. (bust type); BMCRM 3, p.7 and Pl.VIII,2 var. (bust type), Strack 523 var. (bust type); Banti 303 var. (bust type); Gnecchi 1912 Vol II 36, p.13 var.; and Pl.46,8 var. (bust type)
Ex Naville Numismatics Live Auction 18, November, 2015; ex Kunst und Munzen 29 (Lugano 20-21 May 1993), lot 409.

All references above point to a single specimen in the British Museum. The present specimen has been struck from the same reverse die, but the obverse bust type is completely different: laureate head left, while the BM specimen has draped, cuirassed laureate bust right.
2 commentsCharles S
ANTOAS10-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 533a, As of AD 139 (Fortuna) 147 viewsÆ As (10.6.02g, Ø27m, 12h), minted AD 139, Rome
Obv.: IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, bare head right
Rev.: P M TR POT COS II around, S C in field, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC 533; Cohen 651; Strack 753; BMCRE IV 1137.
ex old British collection (1996)

This type belongs to the second issue after the accession of Antoninus Pius. The names of Aelius and Hadrianus were added to his title to honour his adoptive father who had been deified on Antoninus' insistence and which earned him the title "Pius". In later issues the names of Aelius and Hadrianus will be dropped in later issues to reappear in his fourteenth to fifteenth tribunician year.
Charles S
AntoSec7.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 600, Sestertius of AD 142 (Concordia Exercituum) 90 viewsÆ Sestertius (30.1g, Ø32.5mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 142.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM (around) S C (in field), Concordia standing left, holding Victory and a legionary standard.
RIC 600; Cohen 139 (6 fr.); BMC 1232; Strack 827 (3 coll.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 54 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values II) 4157
ex G.Henzen (2012)

Although RIC 600 rates it as "C" (common), in reality it is very rare: Strack 827 lists it for 3 (of a total of 30) collections only: British Museum, Paris, and Vienna; Banti cites two specimens only.
2 commentsCharles S
AntoSee3.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 717a, Sestertius of AD 143-144 (Victoria)35 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.9g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: IMPERATOR•II• (around), S C (in field), Victory, winged, draped, flying right holding trophy pointing upwards in both hands.
RIC 717a; Cohen 433; BMC 1610; Strack 941
ex G. Henzen

This type commemorates Antoninus Pius' second triumph, awarded to him in honour of the victory won over the rebellious British tribes by Governor Lollius Urbicus in 143 A.D.
Charles S
AntoSEg7-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 717a, Sestertius of AD 143-144 (Victoria)10 viewsÆ Sestertius (27,12g, Ø 32mm, 12h). Rome, AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: IMPERATOR II around, S | C, Victoria standing right holding transverse trophy with both hands.
RIC 717a (C); BMC 1610; Cohen 433; Strack 941; Banti 178 (13 spec.)
Ex CNG Electronic Auction 355, July, 2015.

Issued as part of a series celebrating Antoninus Pius' second triumph, awarded to him in honour of the victory won over the rebellious British tribes by Governor Lollius Urbicus in 143 A.D.
Charles S
AntoSe49-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 767a, Sestertius of AD 145-147 (Slow quadriga)42 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.2g, Ø31mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 145-147.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: COS IIII / S C (in two lines in ex.), Emperor in slow quadriga left, holding eagle-tipped sceptre.
RIC 767a; BMC 1669-73; Cohen 320; Strack 974
from old British collection (1998)
Charles S
AntoAs30.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 934, As of AD 154-155 (Britannia) 66 viewsÆ As (11.26g, Ø27mm, 12h). Rome or British(?) mint. Struck AD 154-155.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: BRITANNIA COS IIII (around), S C (in e.), Britannia seated left on a rock, resting her head upon her hand; shield and vexillum in background.
RIC 934 (S); Cohen 117
ex CNG eAcution; ex J.S. Vogelaar Collection of Romano-British
Charles S
Aphrodite _ British Museum.jpg
Aphrodite664 viewsMarble statue of a naked Aphrodite crouching at her bath1 commentsBacchus
leg_vii.jpg
AR Legionary Denarius LEG VII56 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C, galley r. mast with banners at prow

LEG VII, legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

The VII Claudia Pia Fidelis is one of the oldest Imperial legions, on campaign with Caesar during his conquest of Gaul and Caesar's British invasions. During the civil war against Pompey, the seventh served at Pharsalus in 48BC and later in Africa at Thapsacus. The unit later served with Octavian at the Philippi. The unit seems to have existed into the 4th century AD, where it was recorded guarding the Middle Danube.
3 commentsWill Hooton
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth110 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
Hermione_Triobol___BCD_Peloponnesos_1302_(this_coin).jpg
Argolis, Hermione, ca. 280-250 BC, AR Triobol 23 viewsWreathed head of Demeter Chthonia left.
EP monogram above ΔI, all within wreath of grain.

BCD Peloponnesos 1302 (this coin); HGC 5, 748; Grandjean, Monnayage Group II, Emission 8, D16/R25 (this coin cited).

(15 mm, 2.58 g, 11h)
Auctiones GmbH 47, 24 April 2016, 25; ex- BCD Collection: LHS Numismatics 96, 8-9 May 2006, 1302; ex- GMRH, May 1979, SFr 500 (per BCD ticket); ex- Ashmolean Museum from the E.S.G. Robinson Collection, donated to the Ashmolean, disposed of as a duplicate.

This coin has a notable provenance that can be traced back to the collection of Edward Stanley Gotch Robinson (1887-1976) a classical numismatist and the Keeper of the Coin and Medal Department at the British Museum 1949-1952. He endowed the Ashmolean with his coin collection in 1964. Within three years of his death the Ashmolean disposed of this coin from the collection, despite the type being extremely rare. That's gratitude for you!
n.igma
Ariadne Bacchus British Museum.jpg
Ariadne and Bacchus480 viewsAriadne and Bacchus in the British MuseumBacchus
Diana_of_Ephesus_-_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Artemis, (Diana of Ephesus), in her Temple136 viewsTI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)

The statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the statue, or the temple that housed it, other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt around 330 BC in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The columns and marble of the temple were used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base. The rectangles on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as tables, or altars. However, it is more likely that these are windows in the pediment to facilitate lighting of the statue in the interior of the temple. The Ionic style of the columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
1 commentsLloyd T
Ath_dek_elect_w.jpg
Athens, dekadrachm125 viewsThis is a British Museum electrotype (made by Robert Ready in the late 19th century with his RR mark on the edge) of the largest circulating Greek coin. With the price of these at about $500,000 dollars when they come on the market a good quality reproduction like this is the nearest most of us will come to handling one of them.
48.21 gm, 34 mm; original weighs 42.7 gm.
Manzikert
AthenTetVF.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, 449 - 413 B.C.121 viewsSilver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526, VF, near full crest, Athens mint, 16.410g, 25.1mm, 90o. Obverse: head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; Reverse: AQE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square.

This coin is one of the most familiar of all the coins struck throughout the ancient Mediterranean. The images of Athena and her Owl, while not static, changed undramatically, in an unhurried and deliberate way. Although its production rests firmly during the time that numismatists call the Classical era (479 BC --336 BC), this coin's "style" better reflects the earlier Archaic period.

The Athenian "Owl" (until its debasement as a result of the Peloponnesian War) was the standard of its day. Between the late 5th century BC and the late 3rd century BC, these coins were the currency against which all other coins were measured. This high esteem was due to the Athenian tetradrachms' consistent weight and quality of silver.

"The little elf-like owl dear to ancient Athens had greenish-blue-gray eyes that could see clearly where humans could not. Glaukopis -- the "shining eyed one" was often shortened to glaux, a nickname for the tetradrachm that bore the owl's likeness" (http://notes.utk.edu/bio/unistudy.nsf/0/da0222e2e80272fd85256785001683e4?OpenDocument).

It is only with the emergence of the Imperial coinage of Alexander the Great (beginning quickly after his ascension to the throne in 336 BC) that the ancient world had another coin as widely accepted. As Martin J. Price notes, "“The impressive list of twenty-three mints on Asian soil and one in Egypt, all used to strike Alexander’s imperial coinage during his lifetime, shows that there was a conscious policy of providing this form of money on an empire-wide basis" (Price, Martin J. The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. Zurich: The Swiss Numismatic Society in Association with British Museum Press, 1991. 72).

More than two millennia after the Athenian Tetracrachm was first struck, the 26th President of The United States, Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1858; d. 1919), is said to have carried an Athenian "Owl" in his pocket--to remind him just how beautiful a coin could be.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Schönert-Geiss_#228_Caracalla_City-gate_Augusta_Traiana.jpg
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus74 viewsCaracalla as co-emperor
Governor Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD cf. Stein Reichsbeamte Thracia p.46-7
AE27 13.65g
Ob: [AVT K M AVPHΛIOC | ANTΩNINOC]
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓE CIKINNIOV KΛAPOV A[VΓOVCTH]
Ex: TPAIANHC
City gate with three turrets with battlements

Obverse legend worn away, reverse more detail, dull black patina
Cf. BMC 11 under Trajanopolis; Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 86 # 228 reverse depicted Tafel 10; Mionnet Supp. 2 p.511 #1809 (Trajanopolis)
M & M cites Trell 247, 79 in addition to confirming my attributions above.
The legend is slightly different from the British Museum specimen (=#230). I think this reverse die is more common. Placement of kappa in relation to central tower is an indication of die.

This coin appears to be from Righetti’s collection M & M Auction 15 (21 10 2004) lot 77 Righetti Teil IV!
http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=99790

No tags from auction nor Righetti’s own
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
Augustus_British Museum.jpg
Augustus; September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 1410 viewsAugustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS; September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of the Roman Emperors.Cleisthenes
Belize.jpg
Belize - British Honduras82 viewsKm31 - 5 Cents - 1970 (British Honduras)
Km35 - 10 Cents - 1974 (Belize)
Km99 - 1 Dollar - 1991 (Belize)
Daniel F
GeorgeIIIJubileeB.JPG
BHM 0651. King George III enters the Fiftieth Year of his Reign, 1809.93 viewsObv. Draped of George III, wearing Order, left. KING GEORGE III . ASCENDED THE BRITISH THRONE . OCT . 25 1765. NATIONAL JUBILEE . OCT . 25 . 1809.
Rev. Angel seated upon clouds beneath rays amid attributes of Time, On ribbon above: 1760 GEORGE THE III REIGNS 1809, On ribbon below: LONG LIVE THE KING

White Metal 52mm. BHM 651

LordBest
GeorgeIIIJubileeA.JPG
BHM 0684. King George III, Golden Jubilee of his Reign, 1810.115 viewsObv. Laureate, draped bust of George III, left with short hair.
GEORGIUS III . D : G . BRITANNIARUM REX . FID . DEFEN.
Scroll under bust inscribed: 25 OCT . 1810.

Rev. Arms of Salisbury supported by two double headed eagles.
LUSTRA DECEM COMPLEVIT . REGNAT ADHUC; REGNET QUE DIU. (He has completed fifty years, he still reigns; may he reign long).
AE 48mm. BHM 684.

This medal was produced at the request of Lord Radnor to celebrate the Jubilee in Salisbury. On the 11 August 1810 Lord Radnor ordered six specimens (later reduced to five) in gold, 56 silver gilt, 24 silver and 500 copper bronzed. It should be noted that this piece is the only Küchler medal that cannot have been restruck since the dies were cancelled on completion of the order. See G. Pollard, 'Matthew Boulton and C. H. Küchler', Numismatic Chronicle, 1970, p. 315. See also note to No. 641.
-British Historical Medals 1760-1960, Volume I, pp. 167
1 commentsLordBest
BHM 710.JPG
BHM 0710. The Duke of Gloucester elected Chancellor of Cambridge University, 1811.106 viewsObv. Draped, cuirassed bust of the Duke of Gloucester right, H R H WILLIAM FREDERICK DUKE OF GLOUCESTER
Rev. Inscription within closed wreath of laurel and roses ELECTED MARCH 26 INSTALLED JUNE 29 MDCCCXI, around: CHANCELLOR OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE.

WM48. BHM 710.

William Frederick, second Duke of Gloucester (1776—1834), son of William Henry the first Duke, and Maria, Dowager Countess of Waldegrave. The second Duke served as colonel of the 1st foot-guards in Flanders in 1794 and was promoted to Major-General in 1795. His advancement continued, finally being promoted Field-Marshal in 1816. He was appointed Privy Councillor in 1806 and Governor of Portsmouth in 1827. -from British Historical Medals 1760-1960, Volume I, pp. 173
LordBest
GeorgeIIICentenary1814.JPG
BHM 0780. Centenerary of the Accession of the House of Brunswick, 1814.130 viewsObv. Head right THE ILLUST* HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK ASC* THE THRONE OF THE BRITISH AUG 1ST 1714
Rev. Text within wreath THE CENTENARY OF THE ACC* OF THE HOSUE OF BRUNSWICK TO THE THRONE OF GREAT BRITAIN WAS CELEBRATED IN THE CITY OF CORK ON THE 1ST 2ND AND 3RD OF AUG* 1814 IN THE 54TH YR OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE THE 3D SR DAVID PERRIER MAYOR.
AE 50mm
LordBest
Mudie Princess Charlotte.JPG
BHM 0940. Death of Princess Charlotte 1817. Mudie.159 viewsObv. Draped bust of Princess Charlotte with roses in her hair, three-quarters right HRH PRINCESS CHARLOTTE AUGUSTA
Rev. Britannia seated left weeping, British lion at her feet, urn and broken column behind DIED NOV VI MDCCCXVII in Ex: WEEP BRITAIN THOUGH HAS LOST THE EXPECTANCY AND ROSE OF THE FAIR STATE
BHM 940, Eimer 1097.
AE49 by T Webb & G Mills. Struck by Mudie, not part of his National Series.

The Princess was the only child of George Prince of Wales (later Prince Regent then George IV) and Caroline of Brunswick, born on 7th January 1796. She married Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg on 2nd May 1816 at Carlton House, but died in childbirth on 6th November the following year.
1 commentsLordBest
BHM_1061__Elgin_Marbles_East_IV_24-27.jpg
BHM 1061. The Elgin Marbles, East Frieze IV 24-27.78 viewsObv. THE ELGIN MARBLES DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO HIS MAJESTY GEORGE IV The Royal Coat of Arms with supporters.
Rev. CASTOR POLLUX CERES AND TRIPTOLEMUS THOMASON DIREXIT Hermes, Dionysos(?), Demeter and Ares seated.

AE48

The British Museum writes about the fragment depicted:
24-25. Hermes, a messenger god, sits looking in the direction of the procession. He wears sandals and a traveller's hat (petasos) rests on his knee. The figure who leans on his shoulder is probably Dionysos, god of wine. His left arm was supported by a staff (thyrsos).
26. Demeter, goddess of growing corn, was shown resting her chin (now missing) upon her hand. In Greek art this was a conventional gesture of mourning. Her grief is for her daughter Persephone, who was abducted by the god of the Underworld. In her left hand Demeter holds a torch, the symbol of the Eleusinian Mysteries, of which she was the patron.
27. Ares, god of war, sits with one knee cradled in his hands, while his left foot rests on the haft of a spear. Part of the weapon is just visible below the ankle bone. The rest of it must have been painted on the stone.
LordBest
SoaneBankofEnglandTaylor106a.JPG
BHM 1662. 1834. Sir John Soane, Architect. Bank of England. Taylor 106a.102 viewsObv. Portrait head right JOHN SOANE Signed W WYON A B A MINT
Rev. Elevation of the "Tivoli Corner" of the Bank building A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT FROM THE BRITISH ARCHITECTS MDCCCXXXIV.

AE58.

A gold example of this medal was presented to Sir John Soane, one of Britains premiere architects, in 1834.
LordBest
BithyniaCius(PrusiasAdMare)Gordian-III-Hygieia_1a.jpg
Bithynia, Cius. Gordian III (AD 238–244). Potentially unpublished.21 viewsBithynia, Cius. Gordian III (AD 238–244). Æ 24mm, 7.26 g, ~1h.
Obverse: [Μ] ΑΝΤ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC Α[VΓ?], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: ΚΙΑ – Ν – [Ω]Ν;, Hygieia standing right, feeding a serpent in her arms from a patera held in her right hand.
References: None found, although another example of the same type (and probably dies) is housed in the British Museum (BM 1975-411-66). Also cf. Rec 108 (Tranquillina).
Ex Zlatina Gospodinova, 8-26-2015.
Mark Fox
Bramsen 0546.JPG
Bramsen 0546. Entree a Berlin, 1806.204 viewsObv. Laureate bust right NAPOLEON IMP ET ROI
Rev. The Brandenburg Gate, in ex: L`EMPEREUR ENTRE A BERLIN LE XXVII OCTOBRE MDCCCVI. DENON Dt. * JALEY Ft.

Following the Battles of Jena and Auerstadt the Prussians fled in all directions, hotly pursued by the French. Berlin was abandoned to them and Napoleon entered in triumph. It was here that he issued the famous Berlin decree, banning British goods from his empire, declaring all products from British colonies subject to confiscation.
LordBest
Carausius_RIC_101.jpg
British 1 Carausius14 viewsCARAUSIUS
Rebel Emperor of Britain and Gaul, 287-293 AD.
AE Antoninianus. London mint.
IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre.
RIC 101; Sear'88 #3562. aVF/F
Sosius
Carausius_RIC_101_no_2.jpg
British 1 Carausius11 viewsCARAUSIUS
Rebel Emperor of Britain and Gaul, 287-293 AD.
AE Antoninianus. London mint.
IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / PA-X AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre.
RIC 101; Sear'88 #3562. aF
Sosius
Carausius_RIC_London_98_noflip.jpg
British 1 Carausius12 viewsRIC 98 LondonSosius
Allectus_RIC_55_no_2.jpg
British 2 Allectus12 viewsALLECTUS
Secessionist Emperor in Britain, 293-296 AD
AE Quinarius, London Mint
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Galley travelling left with oars forward;Q[L] in ex.
RIC V-2, 55; Sear (‘88) 3590 aVF
Sosius
Allectus_RIC_33.jpg
British 2 Allectus10 viewsALLECTUS
AE Antoninianus. London mint, 293-296 A.D.
IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right / PAX AVG, Pax standing l., holding olive branch & transverse sceptre, S-P across fields, ML in ex.
RIC V-2 33; Burnett 11. Fine
Sosius
Allectus_RIC_55.jpg
British 2 Allectus9 viewsALLECTUS
Secessionist Emperor in Britain, 293-296 AD
AE Quinarius, London Mint
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Galley travelling left with oars forward;Q[L] in ex.
RIC V-2, 55; Sear (‘88) 3590 aVF
Sosius
Clipboard~44.jpg
British Bronze Age rapier - tangless sword.1400-1000 B.C.84 viewsDated beginning Middle Bronze Age [1400-1000 B.C.]
The Bronze Age rapier or more aptly named 'tangless sword' is nothing at all like the much later sword, such as the lovely 'swept hilt rapier' of the sixteenth century, except that they are both thrusting weapons developed out of the dagger.
Rapiers were used as thrusting or stabbing weapons, which may seem odd, as thrusting swordplay requires considerable skill,while slashing is an easier and more natural style of warfare.
This particular “rapier” was found on a farm, not far from some burial grounds.
its interesting to note that this rapier was broken in antiquity, and was unlikely to have been voitive or burial offering.
On one side a series of chunks can be seen missing. these were caused by slashing blows, either by the owner, or by an aggressor. These blades were designed for stabbing, and are often found with The handle rivet holes torn away, caused by these slashing actions.
As the rapiers were developed, tangs became more prominent, as did the rivet holes... sometimes as many as six holes across the shoulder.
Length - 290mm
Width - 53mm (across shoulder)
Weight - 218.6g
lorry66
celtica_doppia_definitiva.jpg
British Celts, Corieltauvi, Boar Type, (South Ferriby, North Lincolnshire, Uk)23 viewsBritish Celts, Corieltauvi, South Ferriby Boar Type, c. 45 - 10 B.C.
Silverunit, 0.809g, 0°, 14.5mm, VF
D/ simplified boar right, pellet-in-ring, above (off flan), pellet behind, annulet below
R/ horse right, pelleted sun-ring above
Cottam ABC 1800, Van Arsdell 875, BMC 3214 ff.
Provenienza: ex FAC (agosto 2012)
NOTA: frantumata durante il trasporto postale
paolo
e_indiab.jpg
BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY (COLONIAL INDIA, BRITISH)11 views1808
Copper, 10 (X) Cash
laney
e_india_cox.jpg
BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY (COLONIAL INDIA, BRITISH)8 views1808
Copper 20 (XX) Cash
laney
King George V Medal.JPG
British End of War Medal, King George V60 viewsBritish Civilian medal issued in 1919 to commemorate the end of The Great War.
Obverse: QUEEN MARY- KING / GEORGE / V, Juggate busts of Queen Mary and King George left, both wearing ornate crowns.
Reverse: PEACE-VICTORY / THE GREAT WAR, Victory standing facing holding dove and wreath, scene of farmer plowing left, and soldier with artillary gun right.
Dated 1919
38mm, 18.8gm
1 commentsJerome Holderman
PalestineMandate5Mils1941.jpg
British Mandate of Palestine. 1941 5 Mils.32 viewsBritish Mandate of Palestine (ca. 1922-1948). 1941 Copper-nickel 5 Mils (20mm, 2.91g.). 400,000 minted.
Obverse: A hole encircled by a stylized olive wreath and in turn by trilingual inscriptions naming the country. English/Arabic dates appear below the hole, at six o’clock.
Reverse: Large trilingual legends expressing the coin’s value around the hole.
References: KM# 3.
Ex Lukasz Dudek, 12-18-2011.
Mark Fox
PalestineMandate2Mils1942.jpg
British Mandate of Palestine. 1942 2 Mils.35 viewsBritish Mandate of Palestine (ca. 1922-1948). 1942 Bronze 2 Mils (28mm, 7.77g.).
2,400,000 minted.
Obverse: Trilingual spellings of “PALESTINE” in three lines with an English and Arabic date below, the first above the other.
Reverse: A sprig of olive with seven leaves and six olives, engraved as if pressed in a book. Trilingual legends around the sprig, plus an Arabic and English numeral on its right and left, announce the denomination.
References: KM# 2.
Ex Lukasz Dudek, 1-1-2012.
Mark Fox
PalestineMandate5Mils1934.jpg
British Mandate of Palestine. 1934 5 Mils.26 viewsBritish Mandate of Palestine (ca. 1922-1948). 1934 Copper-nickel 5 Mils (20mm, 2.91g.). 500,000 minted.
Obverse: A hole encircled by a stylized olive wreath and in turn by trilingual inscriptions naming the country. English/Arabic dates appear below the hole, at six o’clock.
Reverse: Large trilingual legends expressing the coin’s value around the hole.
References: KM# 3.
Ex Lukasz Dudek, 1-1-2012.
Mark Fox
DSCN5020.jpg
British minim, Atrebates tribe, (under Verica ), 15 - 40 AD. AR 9mm, 29 viewsBritish minim, Atrebates tribe, (under Verica ), 15 - 40 AD.
Obv. Gods head.
Rev. Celtic horse. Monogram.

UK metal detector find. Berkshire. 2012.
Ref. Van Arsdell 480.01.
Possible die match with http://www.finds.org.uk/CCI/details.php?coin_num=91.0039
Lee S
1902_Edward_VII_British_Trade_Dollar.JPG
BRITISH OVERSEAS TRADE. 1902 EDWARD VII AR DOLLAR4 viewsObverse: • ONE DOLLAR •. Britannia standing on shore, facing left, left hand gripping top of shield, right hand holding trident; ship in full sail sailing left behind her; 1902 in exergue.
Reverse: Arabesque design with a Chinese labyrinth, one of the many variations of the Chinese character "shou" for longevity, in the centre, and the denomination in two languages, Chinese and Jawi Malay, the two main languages of the intended areas of circulation.
Diameter: 39mm | Weight: 26.9gms.

The dies were originally designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), who was later responsible for Edward VII's portrait on the British coinage as well as the reverse of that king's iconic florin which has a passing resemblance to the portrayal of Britannia on this coin.

British Trade Dollars were a direct result of the Opium Wars which began when China tried to stop Britain from selling opium to its citizens. The loser, China, had to open up a number of ports to British trade and residence, as well as ceding Hong Kong to Britain. In the decades that followed, merchants and adventurers flocked to these areas, and international trade flourished. Foreign banks were established and silver coins from all over the world began arriving to pay for tea, silk and Chinese porcelain to be shipped abroad. With the extension of British trading interests throughout the East, it became necessary to produce a special Dollar so as to remove the reliance of a British Colony upon the various foreign coins then in circulation. These .900 fine silver British Trade Dollars began being minted in 1895 and were readily accepted as a medium of exchange throughout the area. They continued being minted up until 1935 when production ceased, but coins struck in 1934 and 1935 are very rare because they were not released into circulation and were mostly melted down. The coin was officially demonetised on August 1st, 1937.
To keep up with demand these coins were minted in Bombay (now Mumbai) and Calcutta (now Kolkata) in India as well as at the Royal Mint in London. The London minted coins have no mint-mark but those struck at Bombay have the mint-mark “B” in the centre prong of Britannia's trident and those minted at Calcutta are marked with a small “C” in the ground between Britannia's left foot and the base of her shield. This coin is a product of the Bombay mint.
*Alex
1819_2_Oboli_Ionia.JPG
BRITISH PROTECTORATE, GREEK IONIAN ISLANDS, 1819 GEORGE III AE 2 Oboli (Penny)18 viewsObverse: IONIKON KPATOΣ:. Winged lion of St. Mark standing left, head wearing nimbus crown facing, and holding Bible containing seven arrows in outstretched paw; 1819 below.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, shield leaning at her side, right hand resting on her right knee and holding laurel-branch, left hand holding trident.
Edge: Plain
Diameter: 34mm (Penny) | Weight: 18.4gm | Die Axis: 6h
KM 33 | Pridmore 18
Very Rare

The dies for this coin were engraved by William Wyon and the coin was struck at the Royal Mint in London. This issue, the 2 Oboli, was only struck in 1819.

Britain issued coins for the Ionian Islands based on the obol, equal to a British half-penny, intermittently until 1862. One obol was equal to four lepta up until 1834 when it was revalued at five lepta.
The obol was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece.

The Ionian Islands were seized by the British from the French when the French fleet was defeated off the island of Zakynthos (Zante) in 1809. Britain immediately took possession of Zante, Cephalonia, Kythira and Ithaca and in 1810 took over Santa Maura as well. The islands of Corfu and Paxos remained occupied by the French until 1814 when they too surrendered to the British who then ruled all the islands until 1864.
With de facto British occupation the Ionian Islands were placed under the exclusive "amicable protection" of the United Kingdom. This arrangement was formalised in 1817 when the seven principal islands became the United States of the Ionian Islands formed as a British Protectorate. The seven main islands are represented by the seven arrows held by the winged lion of St. Mark depicted on the coins. The British greatly improved the islands' communications and introduced modern education and justice systems, but after Greek independence was established, the islanders pressed for union with Greece and they were ceded to Greece in 1864 as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George.
*Alex
1820_2_Lepta_Ionia.JPG
BRITISH PROTECTORATE, GREEK IONIAN ISLANDS, 1820 GEORGE III AE 2 Lepta (Farthing)13 viewsObverse: IONIKON KPATOΣ:. Winged lion of St. Mark standing left, head wearing nimbus crown facing, and holding Bible containing seven arrows in outstretched paw; 1820• below.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated on globe facing left, shield leaning at her side, right hand resting on her right knee and holding laurel-branch, left hand holding trident.
Edge: Plain
Diameter: 22mm (Farthing) | Weight: 4.67gm | Die Axis: 6h
KM 31 | Pridmore 21

The dies for this coin were engraved by William Wyon and the coin was struck at the Royal Mint in London.

Britain issued coins for the Ionian Islands based on the obol, equal to a British half-penny, intermittently until 1862. One obol was equal to four lepta up until 1834 when it was revalued at five lepta.
The obol was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece.

The Ionian Islands were seized by the British from the French when the French fleet was defeated off the island of Zakynthos (Zante) in 1809. Britain immediately took possession of Zante, Cephalonia, Kythira and Ithaca and in 1810 took over Santa Maura as well. The islands of Corfu and Paxos remained occupied by the French until 1814 when they too surrendered to the British who then ruled all the islands until 1864.
With de facto British occupation the Ionian Islands were placed under the exclusive "amicable protection" of the United Kingdom. This arrangement was formalised in 1817 when the seven principal islands became the United States of the Ionian Islands formed as a British Protectorate. The seven main islands are represented by the seven arrows held by the winged lion of St. Mark depicted on the coins. The British greatly improved the islands' communications and introduced modern education and justice systems, but after Greek independence was established, the islanders pressed for union with Greece and they were ceded to Greece in 1864 as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George.
*Alex
1862_LEPTON.JPG
BRITISH PROTECTORATE, GREEK IONIAN ISLANDS, 1862 VICTORIA AE Lepton9 viewsObverse: IONIKON KPATOΣ•. Winged lion of St. Mark standing left, head wearing nimbus crown facing, and holding Bible containing seven arrows in outstretched paw; 1862• below.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield at her side, left hand holding trident.
Edge: Plain
Diameter: 16.5mm | Weight: 1.75gm | Die Axis: 6h
KM 34

The dies for this coin were engraved by William Wyon and the coin was struck at the Royal Mint in London.

Britain issued coins for the Ionian Islands based on the obol, equal to a British half-penny, intermittently until 1862. One obol was equal to four lepta up until 1834 when it was revalued at five lepta.
The obol was replaced by the Greek drachma when the Ionian Islands were given to Greece.

The Ionian Islands were seized by the British from the French when the French fleet was defeated off the island of Zakynthos (Zante) in 1809. Britain immediately took possession of Zante, Cephalonia, Kythira and Ithaca and in 1810 took over Santa Maura as well. The islands of Corfu and Paxos remained occupied by the French until 1814 when they too surrendered to the British who then ruled all the islands until 1864.
With de facto British occupation the Ionian Islands were placed under the exclusive "amicable protection" of the United Kingdom. This arrangement was formalised in 1817 when the seven principal islands became the United States of the Ionian Islands formed as a British Protectorate. The seven main islands are represented by the seven arrows held by the winged lion of St. Mark depicted on the coins. The British greatly improved the islands' communications and introduced modern education and justice systems, but after Greek independence was established, the islanders pressed for union with Greece and they were ceded to Greece in 1864 as a gift of the United Kingdom to the newly enthroned King George.
*Alex
British_Virgin_Islands.jpg
British Virgin Islands50 viewsKm4 - 25 Cents - 1973Daniel Friedman
British_West_Africa.jpg
British West Africa57 viewsKm20 - 1/10 Penny - 1943
Km21 - 3 Pence - 1938H
Daniel Friedman
brit_west_indies.jpg
BRITISH WEST INDIES46 viewsBRITISH WEST INDIES - AR 1/8 Dollar, 1822. This "Anchor COinage" was issued for British Colonies in general, primarily in the West Indies. KM #2dpaul7
George III Cartwheel IMG.jpg
British, George III, Cartwheel 2d, BOX50 viewsCartwheel 2d
Obv:- GEORGIUS III . D : G . REX., Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:- BRITANNIA 1797, Britannia seated left holding branch and trident

Actually a box created from two 2d coins.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
BM_cupid.jpg
Bronze Cupid 2nd Century British Museum469 viewsBacchus
Vandal_ab.jpg
Bronze nummus - Vandal kingdom153 viewsVandal kingdom. Æ nummus (10 mm, 0.45 g). Obverse: Diademed and draped bust right. Reverse: Eagle or zoomorphic deity within wreath. Wroth 3:18.

Very rare. A similar coin in British Museum (Wroth 3:18) was purchased from Mr. J. Doubleday in 1849 and was believed to originate from Northern Africa. Probably struck in the Vandal kingdom during the time period from c. 450 to 530. One possibility is that the coin imitates Ostrogothic 10 nummi coins with an uppright eagle minted in Rome for Theoderic the great. The vandal king Thrasamund was married to Amalfrida, the sister of Theoderic, from 500 to 523 AD. The coin may perhaps have been struck during this time period. Another possibility is that the reverse shows the Egyptian god Anubis. Comments and alternative interpretations are welcome.

Ex Poncin collection; CNG 134, lot 455, 2006; Beast Coins Auction I, lot 205, 2009
3 commentsjbc
AntoninusPius_BM.jpg
Bust of Antoninus Pius from the British museum554 views3 commentsareich
LuciusVerus_BM.jpg
Bust of Lucius Verus from the British museum357 viewsareich
MarcusAurelius_BM.jpg
Bust of Marcus Aurelius from the British museum317 viewsareich
Trajan_BM.jpg
Bust of Trajan from the British museum355 viewsareich
collagemaker_2018060_ied4O.jpg
Caligula (Gaius)12 viewsAE21, Corinthian, Issued by P. Vipsanius Agrippa and M. Bellius Proculus, duoviri. Struck 37-38 AD
Obverse: CAESAR AVGVST, bare head of Caligula left.
Reverse: P VIPSANIO AGRIPPA IIVIR, Pegasus flying right, COR below.
References: RPC 1173 (left), BCD Corinth 407, Amandry group XVII pp. 186-189, British Museum (Corinth) 531-533
Justin L
198-217_AD_Roman_Empire_Caracalla_Emperor_On_Horseback_Bronze_25mm_7_66_Grams_29.jpg
Caracalla (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 8 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate head right.
PONTIF TR P XI COS III - Caracalla on horseback left, holding javelin and riding down enemy, SC below horse, PROF AVGG in ex.
Exergue: PROF AVGG




Mint: Rome (208 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 7.66g / 25mm / 12h
References:
RIC IV 438
Acquisition/Sale: discountcoin eBay $0.00
Notes: Jul 31, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection.

Scarce denomination for the reign and period.

PROF AVGG (departure of the Augustii)- Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition.
Gary W2
x6.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius36 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG laureate head right
Rev. PONTIF TR P XI COS III PROF Emperor in military attire, holding spear, on horseback right, enemy kneeling right before, PROF in ex.
Ref. RIC 108, RSC 511, BMC 574
Mint Rome
Year 208

ANTONINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS Antoninus Pius is your Emperor and Augustus
PONTIF TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XI CONSUL III PROFECTIO High Priest, Tribune of the People for the eleventh time, Consul for the third time. Good luck to the Emperor setting out on his (British) expedition

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
caracalla_06.jpg
Caracalla AR Denarius24 viewsObv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate head right
Rev: PONTIF TR P XI COS III - Caracalla on horseback right, enemy before horse; PROF in exergue.
Mint: Rome
Date: 208 AD
Ref: RSC 510, RIC IVa 108
Notes: Scarce denarius, with only 32 specimens in Reka Devnia hoard, commemorating Caracalla's departure from Rome along with Septimius Severus and Geta on their British expedition.
oa
abm_caracalla_british_victory_as.jpg
Caracalla, as, RIC IV.1, 457a, AD 210.33 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right.
PONTIF TR P XIII COS III, S C, Victory standing right inscribing shield.
RIC 457a, AD 210.
Commemorative issue to celebrate the Severan dynasty's alleged British victories.
1 commentsAdrianus
CARASE02.jpg
Caracalla, sestertius of AD 210, two emperors crowned by Victories34 viewsObv.: M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust of Caracalla facing right.
Rev.: CONCORDIAE AVGG (around) S C (in ex.), Caracalla and Geta clasping hands above tripod altar, both holding spears, each crowned by Victory.
RIC -; Cohen -
ex Henzen (1995, "found during dredging in Lagliari harbour, Sardinia" ).
The reverse has been badly double struck but the representation can clearly be seen.

This type is not listed in RIC nor Cohen. Cohen reports a medallion of Caracalla with the same reverse representation. The same reverse is listed in RIC, Cohen and BMC but only for Geta and Septimius Severus. Another related type is listed in RIC 459 (R2) and Cohen 28: Caracalla and Geta clasping hands and holding spears, being crowned by Apollo and Hercules, minted A.D. 210.

A sestertius of Caracalla with the same reverse was in the Santamaria sale of 1938 but was overlooked for inclusion in RIC. It was purchased by Curtis Clay in 1967 and is in the British Museum since 1993. Thus this coin is the second specimen known of this type for Caracalla.
Curtis Clay noted that the obv. and rev. dies of this specimen are both different from the Santamaria-BM specimen. The rev. die was entirely new to him and unknown in combination with a Geta obv. either; the obv. die of this coin is known with TR P XIII (thus dating this coin to AD 210): three emps. sacrificing rev. dies, one being BMC pl. 62.1. (That BM coin has been tooled, and the tribunician number altered to XIIII.).
1 commentsCharles S
CARAUSIUS_2.jpg
CARAUSIUS Antoninianus, RIC 899, Pax 15 viewsOBV: IMP C M CARAVSIVS AVG, radiate and draped bust right
REV: PAX AVG (AVGG?), Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse scepter
2.4g, 17/19mm

Minted at Uncertain British or Continental mint, 287-293 AD
Legatus
carausius_475.jpg
Carausius RIC V, 47572 viewsCarausius 287 - 293, British Empire
AE - Antoninianus, 4.53g, 22mm
London, undated
obv. IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. PA - X - AVG
Pax standing l., holding olive-branch and vertical sceptre
field: left S, right P
RIC V/2, 475; C.215; Webb 532
VF, Portrait!

Coins with SP were mostly struck in London, but the meaning of SP is still unknown.
Jochen
carausius1.jpg
Carausius.AD 286-293. Antoninianus13 viewsCarausius. Romano-British Emperor, AD 286-293. Antoninianus (19mm, 3.65g). Uncertain mint. Radiate and draped bust right / Pax standing left, holding olive branch and scepter. RIC V 881.

Ex Holding History Inc. 10.06.2018
Britanikus
002a.jpg
Celtic and British23 viewsClick picture to enlargemauseus
cunobelin.jpg
Celtic Britain - Cunobelin, Catuvellauni25 viewsCunobelin
British Celts, Catuvellauni
AE unit, 1st cent. AD, before 40
Head l.
CVNOBELIN
Minter seated right, striking coin
TASCIO
Spink 342
Ardatirion
Celts_Ireland_RingMoney_vanArsdell_1-3.jpg
Celtic Ring Money, Eire10 viewsCelts, Eire. 2nd c. BC. AR Ring Money (0.87 gm) of Limerick. Plain ring, proto-money. / Similar to 4-spoked wheel money (rouelles). VF. Bt. Lionheart Antiquities 1999. cf van Arsdell 1-3.
Prior to the use of regular round struck or cast coinage, the Celts employed items of various shapes and metals for trade. Although not conclusively identified as an early form of money, these rings have been found in coin hoards and do bear some resemblance to other Celtic objects accepted as "proto-money," such as small bronze or potin wheels. R.D. Van Arsdale, in his book Celtic Coins in Britain (London, 1989), notes that precious-metal rings such as this may have had multiple functions; as items of personal adornment (many were hair ornaments), as a means of displaying wealth, and as a medium of exchange. The weights and diameters vary, making it difficult to establish whether denominations existed. The authors of ABC (C. Rudd. Ancient British Coins. Aylsham. 2010), on the other hand, regard these as jewelry and ornaments, albeit some ceremonial wealth-storage value attached.
Christian T
train-station_01~0.JPG
Colonial Train Station25 viewsKuala Lumpur Colonial Train Station.
Built by the British during Colonial times. In this shot the building is covered in Malaysian flags to celebrate independence day.
rexesq
WashingtonBeforeBoston.JPG
Comitia Americana - Washington before Boston, 1776.123 viewsObv. Bust of George Washington right, GEORGIO WASHINGTON SVPREMO DVCI EXERCITVVM ADSERTORI LIBERTATIS COMITA AMERICANA [at neck truncation] DU VIVIER / PARIS . F.
Rev. Siege of Boston, HOSTIBUS PRIMO FUGATIS [in exergue] BOSTONIUM RECUPERATUM / XVII MARTII / MDCCLXXVI [at bottom right of canon in the foreground] DU VIV
AE68. 20th century US mint striking.

One of the most encouraging early victories during the Revolutionary War was the British evacuation of Boston on March 17, 1776. During the harsh winter months Henry Knox had transported a number of canon from Fort Ticonderoga in western New York to Boston. As soon as this heavy artillery arrived Washington mounted the canons on Dorchester Heights overlooking the city. Under the threat of bombardment the British troops quickly fled, making Boston the first major city liberated from British occupation. Eight days later, on March 25, 1776, the Continental Congress authorized a medal to commemorate this event. Up through 1787 Congress authorized ten additional medals commemorating war heroes, however no medals were actually produced until 1790. In that year the federal Congress commissioned the Paris mint to produce these long overdue items. The Washington Before Boston medal was considered the most important and was the largest in the series, which is now referred to as the Comitia Americana (or American Congress) medal series. A gold example was presented to Washington along with a collection of eleven silver medals (nine of which were from the eleven medals authorized by congress); the gold exampe is now in the Boston Public Library while Washington's collection of eleven silver medals now resides in the Massachusetts Historical Society.
1 commentsLordBest
commse18b.jpg
Commodus, RIC 560, Sestertius of AD 190 (Ploughing)42 viewsÆ Sestertius (16,57g, Ø 30mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 190.
Ob.: M COMMOD ANT P FE-LIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right
Rev.: COL LAN COM PM TR P XV IMP VIII (around) COS VI (in ex.) S C, Commodus, veiled, as priest, ploughing right with two oxen.

RIC 560; BMC 643; Cohen 39(60fr.); Sear (RCV) 5737

This is a very rare type, found occasionally as Æ-As, but extremely rare as a sestertius. It probably refers to the refounding of Lanuvium, the birthplace of Commodus and the place where he displayed his skills as Hercules by killing lions in the arena.

There has been speculation about the meaning of the first part of the reverse legend COLLANCOM. The traditional expansion of this legend is based on Eckhel (1796), reading the legend as COLonia Lucia ANtoniana COMmodiana, in order to try to relate it to the refounding of Rome. This was followed by Cohen and many other references. The British Museum and RIC expand it slightly differently: "The depiction of the ritual ploughing of the furrow marking out a new foundation refers to Commodus' refounding of Rome as COLonia Lucia ANnia COMmodiana."

Curtis Clay in Forum's discussion board, points to a powerful objection of this interpretation: "Since Commodus still calls himself Marcus on the obverse and was not to switch his praenomen back to Lucius until 191, a year later, why, on the reverse, does he name Rome Lucia and not Marcia?

Chantraine in 1971, following a suggestion of Renier in 1872, proposed what seems to be the solution to the problem: the legend is to be expanded COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana and commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium, which had been a municipium, to the rank of colony.

Commodus did refound Rome too, and this deed is commemorated on very rare mediallions, sestertii, and dupondii struck late in 192, just before his assassination on 31 december. These coins have the same rev. type of emperor plowing, but the legend HERCuli ROMano CONDITORI P M TR P XVIII COS VII P P, 'To the Roman Hercules, the Founder'."

ex cgb.fr (2014).
1 commentsCharles S
Cr_-175_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: $10,000 1884 Scrip Certificate (Cr. 175)8 viewsThe purpose of the British Bondholder Committee was to pool all of the outstanding Confederate Bonds purchased by England with an attempt to collect on them. Bondholders would deposit their bonds into an account and were given this Scrip Certificate in exchange. Payment was never made on the bonds since the Confederacy no longer existed after the War and the U.S. would not honor them.SpongeBob
Cr_-175_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: $10,000 1884 Scrip Certificate (Cr. 175)7 viewsThe purpose of the British Bondholder Committee was to pool all of the outstanding Confederate Bonds purchased by England with an attempt to collect on them. Bondholders would deposit their bonds into an account and were given this Scrip Certificate in exchange. Payment was never made on the bonds since the Confederacy no longer existed after the War and the U.S. would not honor them.SpongeBob
441s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 170 Sisica33 viewsConstantine II AE3 "Vows X" Constantine II CE. 316-340
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C - Laureate head right.
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM- Wreath within is written VOT X.
Ex: (epsilon) SIS (double crescent) Siscia mint: AD 321-324 = RIC VII, 170, page 445 - British Museum. 18.35 mm, 3.0 g.
NORMAN K
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Constantius II Thessalonica RIC 189 (EX: William Turner)31 viewsConstantius II, Thessalonica, 3rd officina, Struck 350 - 355 AD, RIC VIII 189, SRCV 4010, William Turner Collection 448 (this coin)
OBV: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman
G left, SMTS in exergue

Not beautiful by any means but it has good provenance and came from the collection of a noted former author on numismatics.

Ex William Turner Collection. William Turner (1792 - 1867), British diplomat of the early 19th century,
authored his interesting and opinionated Journal of a Tour in Levante (1820) describing his adventures in the area.
This specimen was obtained by Turner in the course of his travels (1812 - 1817).
Romanorvm
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Constantius II, RIC VIII, Arles 141 var.19 viewsConstantius II, AD 337-361
AE 3 (Centenionalis), 4.24g, 24mm, 210°
Arles, 1st officina, 348-350
obv. DN CONSTAN - TIVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
behind bust A
rev. FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
Soldier, helmeted, with shield, spearing fallen horseman, who is sitting beside his horse
and is stretching his hands against the soldier (type FH2 sitting)
in l. field A, in r. field dot
in ex. PAR
ref. RIC VIII, Arles 141 var. (has no A in left field of rev.); LRBC -
scarce, about VF, oval flan

From the Bridgnorth Hoard, Scropshire, England, buried ca. AD 355, unearthed 2007. Preliminary report of the British Museum by Lopez-Sanchez & Abdy under "Bridgnorth, Scropshire"
1 commentsJochen
691CN465.jpg
Cr 352/1b AR Denarius L. Julius Bursio20 viewsRome, 85 BCE
o: Laureate, winged, and draped bust of Apollo Vejovis right; to left, trident above bow
r: Victory driving galloping quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; EX • A • P in ex.
Sydenham 729; Julia 6; Type as RBW 1348
(18.5mm, 4.04 g, 10h)
From the Andrew McCabe Collection.

I have noted some of my other coins whose types bear a variation on the indication of "from the Public Silver", usually interpreted to mean an issue that required a supplementary grant of authority from the Senate outside the normal annual authorization, as all of the coining metal was "public", including the precious metals from time to time appropriated from the temples of the state religion.

Since this coin is ex McCabe, I will quote his notes on the relative rarity of this type directly:
"The British Museum collection has 115 examples of RRC 352/1a or 352/1c with moneyers name L. IVLI BVRSIO, but just 4 examples with EX A. P. Crawford in RRC, p. 605, says that this issue was struck from money left to the Roman people by Ptolemy Alexander I of Egypt, which probably arrived at Rome in 86 BC. Given the rarity of the EX A. P. issue, perhaps the bequest was modest! "
As with the other 3 coins posted in this group, the coin is much better in hand, although the photos of the silver coins are clearer than the bronze.
1 commentsPMah
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Crouching Venus154 viewsThe British museumJohny SYSEL
Domitian_Adlocutio.jpg
Domitian Sestertius, Adlocutio, RIC 288139 viewsDomitian. A.D. 81-96. Æ sestertius (33 mm, 22.94 g). Rome, A.D. 85. Laureate bust right, wearing aegis / Domitian standing right, clasping hands with general over altar; two soldiers behind. RIC 288; Cohen 497. BMCRE 344, RCV 2775, Kampmann 24.129 Near VF. F500 VF2500

The representation on the rev. of this issue is a very controversial one. For some it depicts the arrival in Rome of the general Agricola due to the fact that the scene is first shown in the same year in which Domitian had to recall the British general. In reality the theme has a much more general meaning: in ca. AD 85 the Daci started to invade the Roman province of Moesia. The Roman army was seriously defeated, comparable to the defeats of P. Quinctilius Varus in AD 9. From all over the empire troops were sent to Moesia, in the end 9 legions were stationed against the Daci. In this context the Concordia between the emperor and his army is seen, the handshake over the burning altar remembers the oath of allegiance. By how important the harmony in the army was, is shown by the defection of Antonius Saturninus, legate for the Upper Rhine. This defection forced Domitian in AD 89 to agree to an unsatisfactory peace agreement with the Daci; but this agreement would not last for more than a couple of years.
3 commentsmattpat
East_Carib_Brit__East_Carib__Terr_.jpg
East Caribbean States - British East Caribbean Territories82 viewsKm2 1 cents 1965
Km3 2 cents 1957
Km4 5 cents 1955
Km5 10 cents 1965
Km6 25 Cents 1955
Daniel Friedman
Edward_III.jpg
Edward III AR penny20 views1327-1377
Obv: EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Facing crowned bust.
Rev: CIVITAS LONDON. Longcross with trefoil pellets in each angle.
Cross 1, Lombardic M, Reversed barrred N, wedge tailed R, annulets in each quarter.
Spink – 1584 North - 1149
Purchased from Hammered British Coins August 1 2017
orfew
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Edward VIII7 viewsPenny of Edward VIII (1936)
British West Africa issue
Mint: Kings Norton (Birmingham)
O: EDWARDVS VIII REX ET IND:IMP: ONE PENNY
R: BRITISH WEST AFRICA 1936

Coins of Edward VIII were not produced in the UK other than a few patterns, which are very rare. His early abdication made coinage unnecessary. Coins were produced in his name for some of the territories, including British West Africa (Nigeria and Ghana).

Ex- eBay
Nap
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EGYPT - Hussein Kamil - 1914-191732 viewsEGYPT - Hussein Kamil - 1914-1917 (British Protectorate) AR 5 Piastres, 1917. KM#318.1.dpaul7
Elagabalus_Emperor_on_Horseback.jpg
Elagabalus Emperor on Horseback15 viewsCaracalla, Silver denarius, Rome, 208 AD, 2.483g, 19.2mm, RIC IV 108, RSC III 510,
OBV: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
REV: PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III, Emperor on horseback right, captive at feet

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins

SCARCE

This coin refers to the departure of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition.
The dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius.
Romanorvm
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Elizabeth I6 viewsBritish, House of Tudor. Elizabeth I. 1558-1603. AR sixpence (25.81 mm, 2.94 g, 11 h). Third Issue, 1561-77. struck 1565. ELIZABETH · D · G · ANG · FR · ET · HI · REGINA, crowned bust left, behind, rose; mintmark, crown / POSVI | DEV · AD | IVTORE | M · MEV. / 1565, date atop arms of England divided by cross moline, all within dotted circle; mintmark, crown . SCE 2561. aVF, original toning.ecoli
IVi-113.jpg
Enemy - Caracalla66 viewsAR Denarius, Rome, 209 (2.98gm)
RIC IVi.113, RCV.6870 (S)
Ox: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
O: Laureate head right.
Rx: PONTIF TR P XII COS III
R: Caracalla on horseback galloping left, brandishing spear at fallen enemy - likely British due to the date - who is trampled by horse's forehooves.

ex. Harlan Berk
Paul DiMarzio
Larissa_Head_BCD_Thessaly_II_323_var.jpg
Facing Head of Larissa52 viewsThessaly Greece, the City of Larissa
Obv: Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly l., round curl to the l. of he head, wearing ampyx flanked by two hornlike locks, a pendant earring represented by three pellets in a vertical line, and a simple necklace.
Rev: Horse crouching r., l. foreleg raised and bent (almost parallel with belly/ground), preparing to roll, small plant (control mark) below. ΛAPIΣ above horse and AIΩN in the exergue.
Denomination: Silver Drachm; Mint: Larissa; Date: c. 356 - 342 BC1; Weight: 5.869g; Diameter: 18.3mm; Die axis: 0 º; References, for example: BMC Thessaly p. 30, 61; BCD Thessaly I 1156; BCD Thessaly II 323 var. [same obv. die, but no trident (control mark) below the horse pointing to the left].

Notes:
1This is the date range stated in BCD Thessaly I. This coin appears to fall within Lorber’s Phase Late II or Phase Late III. See Lorber Hoard and Lorber 2008.
The city of Larissa was named after the local water nymph, said to be the daughter of Pelasgos. He was said to be the ancestor of the pre-Greek Pelasgians. According to myth Larissa drowned while playing ball on the banks of the Peneios river. (HGC p. 130).

Provenance: from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

BCD Thessaly I: Nomos AG, Auction 4. Coins of Thessaly, the BCD Collection. (10 May 2011, Zurich).
BCD Thessaly II: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. The BCD Collection of the Coinage of Thessaly. Triton XV Auction. (3 January 2012, New York).
BMC Thessaly: Gardner, Percy. A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Thessaly to Aetolia. London, 1883.
HGC: Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Greece: Achaia Phthiotis, Ainis, Magnesia, Malis, Oita, Perrhaibia, Thessaly, Akarnania, Aitolia, Lokris, Phokis, Boiotia, Euboia, Attica, Megaris, and Corinthia, Sixth to First Centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Vol. 4. Lancaster/London: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc, 2014.
Lorber Hoard: Lorber, Catharine C. “A Hoard of Facing Head Larissa Drachms” in Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau, vol. 79 (2000): 7 - 15.
Lorber, Catharine C. “Thessalian Hoards and the Coinage of Larissa” in American Journal of Numismatics, second series 20 (2008): 119 - 142.

3 commentsTracy Aiello
FavjSe01-2.jpg
Faustina Jr, RIC (A. Pius) RIC 1388(b), Sestertius of AD 148-15214 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.4g, Ø 31mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 148-152 (under Antoninus Pius).
Obv.: FAVSTINAE AVG PII AVG FIL, Draped bust right; hair with locks on forehead and coiled on the back of the head.
Rev.: VENVS around, S C across field, Venus standing left, holding apple and rudder around which is entwined dolphin.
RIC (Antoninus Pius) 1388(b); BMCRE 2147; Cohen 268; Strack 1306; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali, III-2) 137; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4720.
Ex D.Ruskin (Oxford, 1994); from an old British collection.
Charles S
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Faustina Sr, RIC (A. Pius) 1104 var., Sestertius of AD 146-16111 viewsÆ Sestertius (24,56g, Ø33,6mm, 11h). Rome, AD 146-161.
Obv.: DIVAE AVSTINAE, draped bust right with hair waived & coiled on top head.
Rev.: AETERNITAS around, S C in ex., Aeternitas seated left, holding scepter and globe surmounted by phoenix.
RIC (A. Pius) 1104 (var.: obv. legend); BMCRE 1606; Cohen 19 (var.: same); Strack 1255 (only in B.M.); Banti 11 (2 spec.)
Ex FORVM (April 2015).

This is a very rare variant with obv. legend DIVAE FAVSTINAE. Cohen 19 and RIC 1104 describe a veiled bust with this legend; all specimens kown with this legend and bust type, are from the same obverse die: e.g. British Museum, Gadoury (Banti plate) and the Wildwinds (RIC 1104 from Roma Numismatics, 2010).
Charles S
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Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 56, Dupondius of AD 3728 viewsÆ Dupondius (17.0g, 29mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 37.
Obv.: CONSENSV SENAT·ET·EQ·ORDIN·P·Q·R Gaius seated left on curule chair
Rev.: DIVVS AVGVSTVS radiate head of Augustus facing left between S C.
RIC (Gaius) 56; Cohen (August) 87; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 60:4
ex D.Ruskin ex old British (Oxford) collection

Minted under Caligula on the occasion of the dedication of a temple to Divus Agustus; the identity of the seated person is uncertain but probably Gaius. The legend 'ET EQ' refers to 'EQVES' (pl. EQVITES), 'horseman'. In the early empire, they were the holders of administrative posts of a class second only to the senators.
In the picture the obverse and reverse have accidentally been switched around.
Charles S
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Gaius Caligula COS IIII Denarius152 viewsGaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. AR Denarius, 3.67 g. Rome mint. Struck January AD 41.
O: C CAESAR • AVG • PON • M • TR • POT IIII COS • IIII, laureate head right
R: S • P• Q • R •/P P/OB • C • S • in three lines within oak wreath.
- RIC I -; RIC I (1st ed.) 7 = BMCRE 32 = RSC 23a.

Extremely rare denarius of Caligula's fourth consulship, which only lasted from 1 January 41 until his assassination on 24 January. The fourth known.

Although the first of these three rare coins, the British Museum piece, was cataloged in the first edition of RIC I, it was left out of the revised edition. In that edition, Giard notes (p. 110, note *) that the BM piece was a misreading of TR POT III COS III. In fact, the first edition was correct, the piece was not misdescribed. The second known example of this type was sold as lot 56 in the Bourgey sale of 17 December 1913. Ironically, Bourgey misdescribed that coin as TR POT III COS III. A third example sold through CNG, printed auction 78 lot 1723.

"On the ninth day before the Kalends of February at about the seventh hour he hesitated whether or not to get up for luncheon, since his stomach was still disordered from excess of food on the day before, but at length he came out at the persuasion of his friends. In the covered passage through which he had to pass, some boys of good birth, who had been summoned from Asia to appear on the stage, were rehearsing their parts, and he stopped to watch and to encourage them; and had not the leader of the troop complained that he had a chill, he would have returned and had the performance given at once. From this point there are two versions of the story: some say that as he was talking with the boys, Chaerea came up behind, and gave him a deep cut in the neck, having first cried, "Take that," and that then the tribune Cornelius Sabinus, who was the other conspirator and faced Gaius, stabbed him in the breast. Others say that Sabinus, after getting rid of the crowd through centurions who were in the plot, asked for the watchword, as soldiers do, and that when Gaius gave him "Jupiter," he cried "So be it," and as Gaius looked around, he split his jawbone with a blow of his sword. As he lay upon the ground and with writhing limbs called out that he still lived, the others dispatched him with thirty wounds; for the general signal was "Strike again." Some even thrust their swords through his privates. At the beginning of the disturbance his bearers ran to his aid with their poles, and presently the Germans of his body-guard, and they slew several of his assassins, as well as some inoffensive senators. (Suetonius - Life of Caligula 58).
10 commentsNemonater
RS034-Roman-AE_as,_Galba_(ca_68-69_AD)-019700.JPG
GALBA (68-69 AD), AE as, DIVA AVGVSTA, Spanish (Tarraco?) mint, ca. 68 AD53 viewsObverse- SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P P P, laureate head right.
Reverse- DIVA AVGVSTA, female figure (Livia?) standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 67, 28 mm, 11.6 g.
Ex-"king_radio" (eBay), UK, February, 2012.
Comments: Galba can be moderately tough. A lot of his coins (at least the ones within my budget) are pretty miserable looking. I thought this one was pretty decent for the price (which worked out to just a hair over $200 with the exchange rate). I liked it for the clear portrait and name. The almost black patina is not bad at all. The British seller was very friendly and easy to deal with- we ended up swapping several chatty emails.
2 commentslordmarcovan
1824ll.jpg
German States. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Karl II 1823 - 1830 under British rule. Copper 2-pfennig 1824 C.v.C.89 viewsGerman States. Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel. Karl II 1823 - 1830 under British rule. Copper 2-pfennig 1824 C.v.C. CARL HERZOG ZU BRAUNSCHW.U.L., horse galloping left / *II* PFENNING SCHEIDE MUNZE 1824 C.v.C.

KM 1108
oneill6217
2820333.jpg
Geta (as Augustus), 209–11 CE89 viewsAR denarius, Rome mint, 210 CE; 19mm, 3.11g, 6h; BM —, CRB —, RIC —, RSC —. Obv: P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT; laureate bust right. Rx: VICTORI – AE BRIT; Victory seated left on shields, holding shield on right knee and palm. Commemorates victories declared in Britain. Very rare mule; CNG states, “this reverse type is unknown on coins of Geta. It is known, however, for aurei of Caracalla (RIC IV 174). As the reverse die is worn, it is possible that the minters felt the die was too deteriorated to continue producing aurei, but sufficient for striking denarii.” According to Curtis L. Clay, “only one other is known to me, in my collection, from different dies, much less fine, ex Gitbud & Naumann, eBay, 19 March 2011.”

ex CNG eAuction 282, 11 July 2012, lot 333
ex Dr. J.S. Vogelaar Collection, CNG eAuction 215, 29 July 2009, lot 473

Dr. J.S. “Stoffel” Vogelaar (1949–2010), a resident of Bohea, County Mayo, Ireland, but native to Puttershoek, Holland, was a well-known antique, coin, and book dealer. He was an expert in the field of Romano-British coinage and amassed a large collection
3 commentsMichael K5
gstobiORweb.jpg
Geta, Stobi46 viewsStobi mint, Geta, 198-200 A.D. AR,
The only mention that I have found of this coin comes from the British Museum's "Catalogue of Greek Coins. Macedonia, Etc." by Barclay Head (1879) which lists it as:
O: P SEPTI GETA C, Bust of Geta r., wearing cuirass and paludamentum; head bare
R: MVN STOB, Nike advancing l., holding wreath and palm; in field l., crescent
#19 26mm 11.93g
1 commentscasata137ec
constantine_II_ric_184.jpg
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Thessalonica, RIC 1844 viewsConstantine II AE3, AD 316-340. 2.21 g. Obv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Rev: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two Soldiers standing to the front, their heads turned inward at two standards erect between them, each holds a spear and leans on shield. Exe: SMTSA Thessalonica mint: AD 330-333 = RIC VII, 184, page 524 – British Museum.Podiceps
Gold_fanam,_ca_1650,_Dutch_VOC_company,_Southern_India.jpg
Gold "Kanthirava" fanam, ca.1650, Dutch VOC company, Southern India11 viewsNarasimha in the "Yogabhanda" post holding a chakra and a sankh / Degraded Nagari inscription "Sri Kamthi Rava", with the letter "OC" (from VOC?) visible in the middle line. 6mm, 0.34 grams. KM 212; Herrli #6.03.01 . SKU 42274

The coins with a visible letters "OC" in the central line are generally attributed to the Dutch VOC company. The Kanthirava (or "Narasimha") fanams were first minted by the Kanthirava Narasa Raa Wodeyar (1638-1659) of Mystore. His successors in Mysore kept minting these coins without any design changes until the state fell in 1761. The Dutch also issued this type in Pulicat (until ca.1750) and in Tuticorin (from ca.1658 to 1759), the British EIC issued this type in Madras in the 17th and 18th century. After the death of Tipu Sultan in Mysore, this type was again issued in Mysore by the Wodeyar rulers. There is also some evidence that many petty rulers on the Coromandel coast issued Narasimha fanams as well. All these issues are very similar, though dozens of small varieties do exist. Unfortunately, we do not know enough about them to distinguish between the different issues and attribute them to a certain ruler or period, though some coins might show the Dutch VOC initials on the reverse.
_13
Antonivs Protti
HGH-GrBrit-HalfGuinea-1789.JPG
Great Britain, "Spade" type half-guinea of George III, 178938 viewsOld British gold is always fun. I wish I could afford a full guinea, but these days that seems less and less likely. Truth is, I wouldn't be able to afford all the gold that's on my hat now, and wouldn't have it I hadn't bought it back in the early- to mid-2000s when bullion was a lot cheaper.lordmarcovan
JET_GB_To_Hanover.jpg
Great Britain. To Hanover (Cumberland Jack)10 viewsGame counter, gilded bronze; 21.5 mm., 0°

Obv: VICTORIA -- REGINA, bust of Victoria facing left

Rev: TO HANOVER, figure of monkey riding a horse to the right, leaping over a dragon (in the style of St George slaying the dragon), 1837 in exergue.

Edge: milled

When William IV died in 1837, Victoria was crowned Queen of Great Britain. However she was prevented by Salic law, which barred a female from acceding the throne, from also being crowned Queen of Hanover. There was agitation in Britain for the repeal of Hanover's Salic law, to no avail. Her unpopular uncle, Ernest Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland, who was William's oldest male heir, was sent off to Hanover as king. For the first time since the accession of George I in 1714, the unified British and Hanoverian monarchies were split. Ernest's income as King of Hanover was considerably greater than his modest allowance as Duke of Hanover. He therefore hastened to occupy his new throne, and to collect his revenues.

The gaming tokens (commonly known as "jacks") bearing the words "To Hanover" (commonly known as Cumberland Jacks) are satirical pieces. They are usually found with Victoria's portrait on the obverse and the year 1837, in which she and Ernest acceded to their thrones, in the exergue on the reverse. The reverse design is based on that of St. George slaying the dragon found on Britain's gold sovereigns. Instead, they depict Ernest (usually with the face of a monkey) riding a horse and leaping over the dragon in his haste to claim his throne. They express the sentiment that Britain is pleased to welcome Victoria to the throne but bids good riddance to Ernest. They were produced from around the time of Victoria's ascension in 1837 until their production was made illegal in 1883.
Stkp
youth.jpg
Greek Youth - British Museum627 viewsGreek statue of a youth with a 'bowl' haircut2 commentsBacchus
Uncertain_MInt_6A_Hemidrachm_SC_70_1~0.jpg
GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, AR Hemidrachm - Babylonia, Uncertain Mint 6A 114 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion skin.
AΛΕΞANΔPOY Zeus Aetophoros seated left, inverted anchor to left, EP beneath throne.
SC 70.1; HGC 9, 42; Price 3442 (Marathus); Müller 1493; Houghton Group III, Series A, 127.
Issued by Seleukos in the name of Alexander from Babylonia Uncertain Mint 6A, 311-305 BC.
(13 mm, 2.15 g, 7h)

Judge this coin remembering it is a hemidrachm of 13 mm diameter. It does not possess the large palette of a tetradrachm!

This coin is the best of four known examples of this emission and the only one known outside of a museum. It is an obverse die match to an example from the Hersh Collection, now housed in in the British Museum (BM 2002,0101.796). The progression of the die break on Herakles neck indicates that this coin was struck after the Hersh coin.
4 commentsLloyd T
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Hadrian, RIC 571, Dupondius of AD 119 (Fortuna)8 viewsÆ Dupondius (10.2g, Ø26mm, 6h). Rome, AD 119.
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, radiate bust right and draped l.s..
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT COS III around, FORT RED in ex., S | C, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
RIC 571 (S); Cohen 759; Kankelfitz 140/114a
Ex D.Ruskin, Oxford, Dec. 1994, from old British collection.
Charles S
HADRDU05-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 655, Dupondius of AD 125-128 (Aequitas)9 viewsÆ Dupondius (14.6g, Ø27mm, 6h). Rome, AD 125-128.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, radiate head right.
Rev.: COS III around, S C in ex., Aequitas seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae.
RIC 655 (c); Cohen 387; Strack 607; Kankelfitz 139/99d.
Ex D.Ruskin, Oxford, August 1995, from old British collection.
Charles S
HADRAS06-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 714, As of AD 128-138 (Clementia)8 viewsÆ As (11.3g, Ø 27mm, 6h). Rome, AD 128-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, bare and draped bust right.
Rev.: CLEMENTIA AVG COS III P P around, S | C, Clementia standing left, holding patera and sceptre.
RIC 714 var (patera); Cohen 512; Strack 826; Kankelfitz 139/104a
Ex D.Ruskin, Oxford, Nov. 1996 (from an old British collection).
Charles S
HADRDU02-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 974, Dupondius of AD 138-139 (Hilaritas)8 viewsÆ Dupondius (12.6g, Ø26mm, 6h). Rome, AD 138-139.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, radiate head right; drapery on l. shoulder
Rev.: HILARITAS P R around, COS III in ex., S | C, Hilaritas standing left, holding palm branch and cornucopiae; left a little boy, right, a girl.
RIC 974 (C); Cohen 820
Ex D.Ruskin, Oxford, 1994; from old British collection.
Charles S
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS~2.jpg
HADRIANVS BRITANNICUS933 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913.
The reverse shows Hadrian addressing the troops in England, standing on a low plinth, clearly showing the Roman soldiers with their standards.
Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
5 commentsPetitioncrown
26720250.jpg
head of horse from Selene's chariot from east tympanum of Parthenon115 viewsThe British museum Elgin MarblesJohny SYSEL
HONG_KONG_5_CENTS_1901.jpg
HONG KONG - Victoria159 viewsHONG KONG - Victoria, 5 Cents. 1.3577 g., 0.8000 Silver 0.0349 oz. ASW, 15.53 mm. Obv: Crowned head left Rev: Chinese value within beaded circle Note: Coins dated 1866-1868 struck at the Hong Kong Mint; coins without mintmarks dated 1872-1901, were struck at the British Royal Mint. Reference: KM #5.dpaul7
Harness_1.jpg
Horse Harness Junction Ring89 viewsThis ring links two straps allowing both to swing freely. Examples are known with three or four straps. Circa early- to mid-1st century AD. Parallels are known from the British Museum and the Romisches Museum Germany from Sirmium, Holtern and Vindonissa. Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 70, shows two examples from Rhingonheim and Kempten (UK).1 commentsotlichnik
Screenshot_2018-07-11_10_54_18.png
House of Hanover, King George II, Silver 1 Shilling.3 viewsRoyal Mint London 1745 A.D. 5.94g - 25.9mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: GEORGIVS·II· - DEI·GRATIA· - LIMA - Old laureate and draped bust left.

Rev: M·B·F·ET· - H·REX·F·D·B· - ET·L·D·S·R·I· - A·T·ET·E· 17-45 - Four crowned shields arranged to form a cross, Star of the Garter at the centre.

Spink 3703.

In 1745 a great treasure of silver coins had been seized in the North Atlantic by two British privateers, the Duke and the Prince Frederick, from two French treasure ships that had come from Peru. This booty was transported in forty-five wagon loads from the port of Bristol to the mint in London. As the booty principally consisted of 'piece of eight' bearing the Lima mintmark it was requested that coins taken from these prizes might bear the name 'Lima' to celebrate the exploit.
Christian Scarlioli
Hartill-2_6.jpg
Imperial Japan: Anonymous (ca. 14-16th century) AE shima-sen (Hartill-2.6)14 viewsObv: 開元通寶 Kaigen Tsuho
Rev: Blank

References
Munro, Neil G., Coins of Japan, Box of Curios ,1904
Sakuraki et al., Catalogue of the Japanese Coin Collection (pre-Meiji) at the British Museum, Trustees of the British Museum, 2010
SpongeBob
India British.jpg
India - British 76 viewsKm537a - 1 Anna - 1944
Km548 - 1/4 Rupee - 1946
Km552 - 1/2 Rupee - 1944
Daniel F
INDIA_VICTORIA_RUPEE.jpg
INDIA - British19 viewsINDIA - British, Queen Victoria, AR Rupee, 1887. Obv: Victoria facing left; VICTORIA EMPRESS. Rev.: ONE/RUPEE/1887 in ornamental wreath. Reference: KM#492.dpaul7
india_one-rupee_1940_151121_obv_04cut.JPG
India - British India - 1940 - One Rupee Banknote - Obverse26 viewsBritish Empire, India.
One Rupee Banknote - 1940.
-
Obverse
--
-
rexesq
india_one-rupee_1940_151121_rev_04.JPG
India - British India - 1940 - One Rupee Banknote - Reverse8 viewsBritish Empire, India.
One Rupee Banknote - 1940.
-
Reverse - *Slight Yellowing of photo - see obverse photo of this note for comparison.
--
-
rexesq
INDIA_-_EIC_1840_1_RUPEE.jpg
INDIA - East India Company13 viewsINDIA - East India Company (British); AR 1 Rupee, 1840. Obv.: Bust right; VICTORIA QUEEN. Rev.: Denomination in wreath; EAST INDIA COMPANY 1840 around. Reference: KM#458.2.dpaul7
MEWAR_Paisa,_Brit_Prot_Shah_Alam_II.jpg
INDIA - Mewar16 viewsMEWAR - Cu Paisa, British Protectorate; c. 1760-1806, with name Shah Alam II - Bhilwara. Reference: C-3.2dpaul7
Assam,_Rajesvara_Simha,_Gold_Mohur,_11_39g,_Saka_1678,_AD_1756.jpg
INDIA, Assam-Mohur69 viewsAssam, Rajesvara Simha, Gold Mohur, 11.39g, Saka Year 1678, AD 1756

The inscription on the Mohur is in Sanskrit written in the Bengali script, as below:

Obv: Within dotted border "Sri Sri Swargdeo Sri Rajeshwara Simha Nripsya Sake 1678" (God of Heaven, King Rajesvara Simha, Saka Year 1678), a small lion facing left featured below.

Rev: Within dotted border "Sri Sri Har Gouri Charna Kamala Makarand Madhukarysa" (A bee on the nectar of the lotus on the feet of Goddess Gouri or Gauri i.e. Goddess Parvati).

Popular legend has it that the Ahom Kingdom was eight sided hence the rulers of Assam minted their coins in Octagonal shape. The rulers had both an Ahom name (Surem Phaa) as well as a Hindu name (Rajesvara Simha) and dated their coins in SE (Saka Era). The coins of Assam bore legends in Ahom, Bengali, Devanagari and Persian.

Most unusual coin with its unique shape unlike any other coins minted during that period in India. It also represents indigenous skill and craftmanship as well as an independent streak devoid of the Muslim (Sultanate, Mughal) and British influence.
mitresh
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India, British - 1940 - Quarter Anna #015 viewsBritish India
One Quarter Anna
1940
rexesq
__3_(10)_(2).JPG
India, British - 1940 - Quarter Anna #027 viewsBritish India
1940
One Quarter Anna
rexesq
020_17~0.jpg
Iran, Bisitun (Behistun), Kermanshah Province34 viewsOn the road from Hamadan (ancient Ekbatana) to the city of Kermanshah halfway up Mount Bisitun a number of unique bas reliefs from about 520 BC catch the eye. The Achaemenid king Dareios I (522 - 486 BC) had the largest one chiseled into the face of the mountain to tell the world of his triumph over his rival Gaumata and nine other rebels. The sensational part of the relief are the extensive cuneiform inscriptions above, below, and to the sides of the figures. They are in Elamite, Babylonian, and Old Persian, the latter a language which was created on the king’s order since up to then there was no written Persian language. The creation is a mixture of Elamite, Babylonian, and Aramaic. It was not deciphered until the middle of the 18th cent. AD by a British officer, adventurer, and amateur archeologist Sir Henry Rawlinson.
Schatz
Israel1.jpg
Israel - British Mandate (Palestine) (1927-1947)102 viewsKm1 - 1 mil - 1943
Km2 - 2 Mils - 1927
Km3 - 5 Mils - 1927
Km3a - 5 Mils - 1942
Km4 - 10 Mils - 1935
Km4a - 10 Mils - 1943
Km5 - 20 Mils - 1927
Km6 - 50 Mils - 1933
Km7 - 100 Mils - 1927
Daniel F
Iulia_Domna_(193-217)_denarius_(AR).png
Iulia Domna (193-217) denarius (AR)15 viewsObv.: IVLIA AVGVSTA (Draped bust of empress) Rev.: MATER DEVM (Kybele wearing the Mural crown, seated between two lions, holding branch and sceptre) Diameter: 19 mm Weight: 3,15 g RIC 564

According to Cassius Dio, when Domna was jesting with the wife of a Caledonian chieftain about the licentiousness of British women, the wife replied: "We fulfil the demands of nature in a much better way than do you Roman women; for we consort openly with the best men, whereas you let yourselves be debauched in secret by the vilest."
Nick.vdw
ChristPantocratorStCatherines.jpg
Jesus Christ, Pantocrator45 viewsThe iconic image of Christ Pantocrator (Christ, Ruler of All) was one of the first images of Christ developed in the Early Christian Church and remains a central icon of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the half-length image, Christ holds the New Testament in his left hand and blesses with his right.

The oldest known surviving example of the icon of Christ Pantocrator was painted in encaustic on panel in the sixth or seventh century, and survived the period of destruction of images during the Iconoclastic Disputes that racked the Eastern church, 726 A.D. to 815 A.D. and 813 A.D. to 843A.D., by being preserved in the remote desert of the Sinai, in Saint Catherine's Monastery. The gessoed panel, finely painted using a wax medium on a wooden panel, had been coarsely overpainted around the face and hands at some time around the thirteenth century. It was only when the overpainting was cleaned in 1962 that the ancient image was revealed to be a very high quality icon, probably produced in Constantinople (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Pantocrator).

The Christ Pantocrator Icon at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai

In 544 AD, a cloth bearing an image of Jesus was discovered hidden above a gate in Edessa's city walls. Six years later, an icon was produced at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai.
(See: http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/history.htm)

There are startling similarities between the icon and the image we see on the Shroud of Turin. There are, perhaps, too many similarities for it to be a mere coincidence.

The general placement of facial features including eyes, nose and mouth. In fact, when a transparency of the Shroud face is superimposed over the icon, there are no significant variations.

The hair on the left side (your right) falls on the shoulder and swoops outward. The hair on the other side is shorter.

The eyes are very large.

The nose is particularly thin and long. The face is gaunt.

There is a gap in the beard below a concentration of facial hair that is just below the lower lip.

The neck is particularly long.

It is particularly interesting to note that starting about this time a dramatic change took place in the way Jesus was portrayed on coins, icons, frescoes and mosaics. Before this time, Jesus was usually portrayed in storybook settings such as a young shepherd or modeled after the Greek Apollo.

After the discovery of the Edessa Cloth, images of Jesus were suddenly full-frontal facial images.

The story of the Shroud of Turin is fascinating. It began, for me, ironically when I thought the "story" had finally been laid to rest. Carbon 14 dating conducted in 1988 had just proved that the Shroud was medieval. Along with most, I accepted these results--the fact that two of my former Alma Maters (The University of Arizona and Oxford University) were involved in the testing lent a comfortable sense of closure (to give them their due, scientists from the Institut für Mittelenergiephysik in Zurich, Columbia University, and the British Museum were also involved in the tests). I was re-engaged by the Shroud story in 2005 when an article in the scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal Thermochimica Acta by an equally eminent scientist, Raymond N. Rogers, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, subverted the 1988 tests. Very briefly, the sample cut from the Shroud in 1988 was shown not to be valid. In fact, the article noted, the Shroud was much older than the carbon 14 tests suggested. Curiouser and curiouser. . . and I'll leave the story at this juncture. If you are interested, see the following site:
http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/pantocrator.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Domna_RSC251a.jpg
Julia Domna (wife of Septimius Severus, mother of Caracalla and Geta), 193–217 CE75 viewsAR Denarius, Rome mint, 211 CE, 3.30g. BM 33a (p. 435), RIC-, RSC 251a (C.L. Clay and Vienna). Obv: IVLIA PIA - FELIX AVG; draped bust right. Rx: VOTA PVBLICA; Pietas (Julia?) standing left, dropping incense on lighted altar and holding open box.

Notes: Rare; none in Reka Devnia. A specimen was purchased by the British Museum in 1973; another in the G.R. Arnold Collection sold in the Glendining sale (21 November 1984), lot 113 (a pair of denarii), pl. V (this type illustrated); hammer price for the lot £120.
2 commentsMichael K5
m.PNG
King GEORGE IV7 viewsKing GEORGE IV (1820 TO 1830) Silver Schilling DATED 1826

Obverse:GEORGIUS IV | DEI GRATIA, 1826, bust left

Reverse:BRITTANNIARUS REX FEDEI DEFENSOR, REVERSE: Majestic Crowned Lion standing atop of the Royal British Crown.

Grade:FINE Size:24mm
discwizard
Elizabeth I Shilling, 1560-1561 AD, London.JPG
Kingdom of England - Elizabeth I Shilling, 1560-1561 AD, London38 viewsElizabeth I, AD 1558-1603
London mint, 1560-1561 AD
Crowned bust of queen facing left
ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HI REGINA
Square shield on long cross fourchée dividing the legend
POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV
Martlet mm
Spink 2555
Ardatirion
Macedonian_Kingdom,_Tarsos,_Alexander_III_Tetradrachm_.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Alexander III The Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Tarsos 32 viewsHead of young Herakles right in lion skin headdress, paws tied at neck.
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, pellet under throne. ΔI monogram graffiti before head of Zeus.

Price 2993; Newell Tarsos 3 (Newell’s Officina A, dies IX/25) pl. II, 2 (same dies); Muller 1291.
Tarsos mint 333/2 BC.

(26 mm, 17.18 g, 11h).

ex- Gorny & Mosch.

Newell catalogued forty examples of this type from six obverse and thirty reverse dies indicating a far more prolific issuance than the inaugural Tarsos 1 emission to which it is die linked by five examples struck with Tarsos obverse die III. All of the specimens of Tarsos 3 catalogued by Newell originated in the Demanhur Hoard. Price did not catalog any additional specimens to those noted by Newell in the British Museum Collection, which holds five specimens from the Newell Collection.
2 commentsn.igma
Papius.jpg
L. Papius - AR serratus denarius7 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
²78 BC
¹79 BC
head of Juno Sospita right waering goat skin; bucket behind
Gryphon springing right; jug below
L.PAPI
¹Crawford 384/1 (symbol 11); Sydenham 773; Papia 1; British museum 1902,0206.106
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Solidus

Gens Papia was Samnite origin and family came from Lanuvium.
Johny SYSEL
L_Thorius_Balbus.jpg
L. Thorius Balbus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
²102 BC
¹105 BC
head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress
I·S·M·R (Ivno Seispes Mater Regina)
bull charging right
B
L·THORIVS
BALBVS
¹Crawford 316/1, SRCV I 192, Sydenham 598, RSC I Thoria 1 British Museum: R.7899
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Aurea auctions

Juno Sospita (=Savior) was goddes of fertility and protector of women. She was main deity in Lanuvium.
Bull - Taurus - is pun for moneyer's name Thorius.
Moneyer served as legate under Q. Caecilius Metellus in Spain 79 BC. Cicero wrote that he had lived as there was no pleasure in life.
Johny SYSEL
Lays_of_Ancient_Rome_bmp.jpg
Lays of Ancient Rome107 viewsDate: Undated, circa 1880
Size: 6-3/4 x 8-1/2 in., 222 pages

Written by Thomas Babington Macaulay
James Miller, Publisher

Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay (1800 – 1859) was a British poet, historian and politician. He published this series of popular ballads about heroic episodes in Roman history in 1842.
The tiltle page of this handsomely produced book states this to be a "New Edition" generously illustrated with wood engravings by George Scharf. There is also a tissue-protected front portrait engraving of Macaulay.
James Miller published in New York City from the 1860s to the 1890s. An 1877 "Publisher's Weekly" contains a small announcement that "James Miller, publisher and bookseller, will remove May 1st from his present quarters to 779 Broadway." This dates the book after the 1877 move.
CONDITION: Near Fine. This is an unusually well-preserved copy of a beautifully designed book. It is clean and tightly bound in a hardcover of chocolate-brown cloth with finely detailed gilt, black and blind stamping: gilt and black on front cover and spine, blind stamping on rear cover. Deep brown endpapers match the cloth color. All page edges are gilt.
1 commentsNoah
JCT_Lord_Melchett_Lodge.JPG
Lord Melchett Lodge No. 1153 of B’nai B’rith (St. Catherines, Ontario, Canada)82 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: LORD MELCHETT LODGE No. 1153 and B’NAI B’RITH, within border around rim, candelabra in center with ribbon below, BENEVELENCE, BROTHERLY LOVE and HARMONY in left, right and middle sections of the ribbon, respectively.

Rev: A LUCKY TOKEN and ST. CATHERINES within border around rim, separated by Jewish stars, I HAVE CONTRIBUTED / 25¢ / FOR / CHARITY, in five rows in center.

Ref: none known.

Note: Founded in 1932, the lodge was named after Alfred Moritz Mond (1868-1930), the first Baron Melchett, who first visited Palestine in 1921 with Chaim Weizmann and subsequently became an enthusiastic Zionist, contributing money to the Jewish Colonization Corporation for Palestine and other Zionist causes, writing for Zionist publications, and becoming President of the British Zionist Foundation. The lodge tried to uphold the ideals of “brotherhood,” “benevolence” and “brotherly love and harmony” (and those ideals feature prominently in the obverse design of the token).
Stkp
Lusitania_Goetz_British_copy.jpg
Lusitania medal of Kurt Goetz, British propaganda copy15 viewsAE 55, Iron with bronze cover, 65.32g, 55.26mm, 0°
design by Kurt Goetz, AD 1915
obv. Sinking ocean liner "Lusitania", loaded with cannons, planes and other armaments
Above KEINE BANNWARE (No Contraband Goods!)
Below in 5 lines DER GROSSDAMPFER / = LUSITANIA = / DURCH EIN DEUTSCHES / TAUCHBOOT
VERSENKT / 5.MAY 1915 (The liner Lusitania sunk by a German submarine May 5, 1915)
rev. The death as skeleton sells tickets of the Cunard Line to passengers. At left a man is reading a
newspaper with the headline "U / BOOT / GEFAHR" (Submarine danger). Behind him with top hat the
German ambassador Count von Bernstorff with a wagging finger: Germany has warned about the
submarine danger in the same newspaper.
Above "GESCHÄFT ÜBER ALLES" (Business Above All)

The incorrect date of May 15 (The Lusitania was sunk on May 17) was the cause for the speculation that the sinking was planned long beforehand. Kurt Goetz has corrected his mistake in a second edition but because of the reaction of the world public the medal was withdrawn. The British used the chance to edit a great quantity of propaganda copies to blame the Germans. This specimen is clearly an British copy because of the used MAY (insted of the German MAI). But there are copies with MAI too.

Today it is proven that the Lusitania was misused as military transporter.
Jochen
Trajan_37.jpg
M160 viewsTrajan AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC II, 128, Rome
Date: AD 103-111
Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head r.,
slight drapery on l. shoulder
Reverse: COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory stg. l., half draped,
wreath in r. hand, palm in l.
Size: 18 mm
Weight: 3.50 grams
(Image of Trajan courtesy of Pat Lawrence: British Museum, London)

“His association with the people was marked by affability and his intercourse with the senate by dignity, so that he was loved by all and dreaded by none save the enemy.” - Cassius Dio Roman History LXVIII.15

Pliny’s Panegyric provides evidence that Trajan had senatorial approval. Due to his prowess as a conqueror, the legions also extended their support to the popular emperor. The reverse of this coin is fitting for Trajan. His campaigns against Dacia are perhaps the highlight of his entire reign; so much so, that the senate erected Trajan’s column to commemorate the victory. This impressive stone column (100 ft. high) contains a spiral frieze retelling the glorious Dacian campaign against the “barbarian” ruler Decebalus. Trajan overcame several obstacles, but achieved success through the capture of Sarmizegethusa where the Dacian royal house was plundered. Decebalus escaped, but was pursued relentlessly. He eventually committed suicide rather than risk capture by the “ruthless" Romans. His severed head was recovered and exhibited on the steps leading up to the Capitol in Rome. Upon Trajan’s death in AD 117, a precedent was set which all rulers following him would be measured against.
9 commentsNoah
MALACCA_KEPING.jpg
MALACCA42 viewsMALACCA - British Administration. Cu Keping, 1831. Obv.: Rooster facing right. Legend in Arabic above. Rev.: Arabic script showing value and AH Date. Reference: KM#8.1.dpaul7
Malaysia – Malaya & British Borneo.jpg
Malaysia – Malaya & British Borneo42 viewsKm1 - 5 Cents - 1961Daniel F
00aurelioas.jpg
MARCUS AURELIUS59 viewsAE As. 154-155 AD. 12,57 grs. Draped bust right. Head bare. AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII FIL / Minerva, helmeted, draped, standing left, holding owl on extended right hand and vertical spear in left, round shield at feet right. TR POT VIIII COS II . In fields SC .
Refs. by Curtis Clay.
" This coin is one of the types that is preferentially found in Britain, so may have been struck there from dies cut by Roman engravers, or struck in Rome and shipped in bulk to Britain. On these issues see David Walker, Roman Coins from the Sacred Spring at Bath, 1988, and my own review-article of Walker, The Supply of Bronze Coins to Britain in the Second Century AD, Num. Chron. 149, 1989.On p. 212, note 7, I specifically discuss this TR P VIIII Minerva standing middle bronze of Marcus: Strack 1108 records three specimens, the BM acquired two specimens in 1937, and even before that there had been four specimens in the Croydon Hoard, Num. Chron. 1907, p. 371, pl. 12, 3-4. Walker found only one specimen among the Bath coins, but also 11 of the same type dated TR P VIII, many of which were probably in fact illegible and actually TR P VIIII, though Walker reconstructed VIII since VIIII is not in RIC and therefore (he assumed) rare! In fact Walker pl. 37, 363, read as VIII, is from the same dies as the Croydon coin Num. Chron. 1907, pl. 12.4, which clearly reads TR P VIIII.
All of the "British-association" bronzes in the Croydon Hoard were in extremely fine condition. Since I know Benito wants top condition, it wouldn't surprise me if his new acquistion is in fact identical with one of the four coins of that type contained in that hoard!"

benito
Maxentius_follis.jpg
Maxentius20 viewsAE Follis
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; laur. hd. r.
Rev: VICTOR IA AVGN / REP ; Victory walking left

RIC Rome 272 (Scarce). Officina P is cited from the British Museum.

Scarce
Tanit
CofLondonMedal9ArrivalofAlexandra.JPG
Medal 09. Entry of Princess Alexandra into the City of London.111 viewsObv: Bust of Alexandra ALEXANDRA
Rev: City of London welcomes Princess led by Prince of Wales; on left is Hyman and on right are Peace and Plenty WELCOME ALEXANDRA
Exergue: MAR: 1863 Separated by the Arms of the City of London
Signed: J.S. WYON SC./J.S. & A.B. WYON SC.
Mintage: 350
AE77.

This group of medals, commonly called The City of London Medals, constitutes a series struck by THE CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF LONDON to celebrate the accomplishment of their most notable public works, or to commemorate events of national and civic importance. The standard reference book, published in London, 1894, is NUMISMATA LONDINENSIA, which includes those medals issued from 1831 to 1893. In this wonderful book, the medals are photographed and the events prompting their issue are described in great detail by Charles Welch. Subsequent to the publication of Numismata Londinensia, several other medals have been issued by the Corporation of London. Those medals issued from 1831 to 1973 are described in Coins and Medals, November 1977, where their mintage figures are provided (most of the medals were struck in numbers between 350 and 450; a notable exception is the lead, glass enclosed piece commemorating the Removal of Temple Bar from the City of London, which is extremely rare). Descriptions and other interesting historical notes are included in excellent compendia published more recently. (see British Historical Medals by Laurence Brown, and British Commemorative Medals and their values by Christopher Eimer.)
(shamelessly stolen from historicalartmedals.com)


1 commentsLordBest
2180515.jpg
MEDALS. Sir Edward Stanley G. Robinson. Keeper of Coins at the British Museum19 viewsMEDALS. Sir Edward Stanley G. Robinson. Keeper of Coins at the British Museum, 1912-1952. Æ Medal (51mm, 85.7 g, 12h). P. Vincze, engraver. SCRINII NUMM. IN MUS. BRITT. CUSTODI D. D. D. SOCII ET AMICI, Head of Edward Robinson left / SIC TIBI MVSA MEMOR, Half-nude woman seated left, writing in book set on Ionic column, placing hand on broken jar filled with coins . BHM -. EF.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
Middlesex_478a.jpg
Middlesex 478a17 viewsObv: WE NE’ER SHALL LOOK UPON HIS LIKE AGAIN, bust of David Garrick (British actor 1717 – 1779) to right. C. JAMES F below.

Rev: SIMS RUSSELL COURT, masks of comedy (with a horn through its eye) and tragedy (with a dagger through its eye), a thistle and crown above, sprigs below.

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 478a
SPQR Coins
Middlesex_730.jpg
Middlesex 73045 viewsObv: BRITISH LIBERTY DISPLAYED 1795, a sailor holding a club and seizing a landsman.

Rev: A FREE BORN ENGLISHMAN 1796, a man in chains with his hands bound behind his back and a pad lock on his mouth.

Edge: SPENCE X DEALER X IN X COINS X LONDON X

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 730
SPQR Coins
adfsfhgjk.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Bhutan, British occupation, Period II Copper 1/2 rupee 1820 - 1835.15 viewsBhutan is a tiny and remote kingdom nestling in the Himalayas between its powerful neighbours, India and China.
During the 18th Century, the British, in the form of the East India Company, pressed towards the borders of Bhutan. Skirmishes and wars between the British and the Bhutanese continued until 1865, when a treaty was signed between the British and the Bhutanese in which the Duars were ceded to British India in return for a rent of 50,000 Rupees a year.
oneill6217
heyjyje.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Bhutan, British occupation, Period III Copper 1/2 rupee 1835-1910 KM 7.213 viewsBhutan is a tiny and remote kingdom nestling in the Himalayas between its powerful neighbours, India and China.
During the 18th Century, the British, in the form of the East India Company, pressed towards the borders of Bhutan. Skirmishes and wars between the British and the Bhutanese continued until 1865, when a treaty was signed between the British and the Bhutanese in which the Duars were ceded to British India in return for a rent of 50,000 Rupees a year.
oneill6217
guern4dub.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Guernesey, British protectorate. Bronze 4-doubles. 1874.6 viewsGuernesey, British protectorate. Bronze 4-doubles. 1874. GUERNESEY, arms depicting three lions stacked vertically / Value and date.
KM 5
oneill6217
dub.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Guernsey, British protectorate. Bronze 4-doubles. 1864.13 viewsGuernsey, British protectorate. Bronze 4-doubles. 1864. GUERNESEY, arms with three leaves springing from single stem above / 4 DOUBLES 1864.
KM 6
oneill6217
guernsey3.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Guernsey. Autonomous British Protectorate. Copper 2 Doubles 1858.7 viewsGuernsey. Autonomous British Protectorate. Copper 2 Doubles 1858. GUERNSEY, 3 leaves over shield decorated with three lions / 2 doubles 1858.
KM 4
oneill6217
eastindia1835.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), INDIA, British East India Company, Copper 1/4 Anna, 1835.27 viewsBritish India. East India Company copper 1/4 Anna 1835. Arms between lions / EAST INDIA COMPANY, value within wreath.

KM 446
oneill6217
1881v.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), INDIA, British India, Victoria, Copper 1/2 Pice, 1886.14 viewsBritish India. Victoria. Copper 1/2 Pice 1886. VICTORIA EMPRESS, Crowned bust left / Floral design around value and date in dotted circle.

KM 484
oneill6217
Mudie 23~0.JPG
Mudie 23. English Army Crosses the Pyrenees, 1813.50 viewsObv. Head of Wellington right ARTHUR DUKE OF WELLINGTON
Rev. British lion savaging the French eagle amidsts rocky outcroppings THE ENGLISH ARMY PASS THE PYRENEES. Exergue: MDCCCXIII.

Struck to commemorate the crossing of the Pyrenees by the British army in 1813.
LordBest
Mudie 30.JPG
Mudie 30. Visit of the Allied Sovereigns to England, 1814.73 viewsObv. Helmeted head of Britannia to left BRITANNIA J MUDIE D
Rev. Hercules standing holding trident, Temple of Janus behind, doors closed, prow of ship to right TEMPLVM JANI VISIT OF THE SOVEREIGNS OF RUSSIA AND PRUSSIA in Ex JUNE VI MDCCCXIV.

Issued to commemorate the visit of Czar Alexander of Russia and Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia to England in 1814 following Napoleon's exile to Elba and the cessation of hostilities.
1 commentsLordBest
Mudie_37.JPG
Mudie 37. The Surrender of Napoleon, 1815.106 viewsObv. Uniformed bust of Napoleon NAPOLEON BONAPARTE MUDIE DIR WEBB F
Rev. The Bellerophon and another British ship, SURRENDERED TO H.B.M.S. BELLEROPHON CAPt. MAITLAND.
Exergue: XV JULY. MDCCCXV.
Mudie 37.
LordBest
Jovian_Compound.png
Nummus/Follis of Jovian7 viewsPurchased in London, on a business trip, from Coincraft- across the street from the British Museum. I checked out a few numismatic shops in London, including the ones I was told ‘should’ be more affordable – those were actually rather pricey. I was not too keen on dropping a couple hundred pounds in London, but I also really wanted to not leave town without getting a coin there... I eventually found the Coincraft – which I had been told in advance is the most expensive - to actually be the friendliest towards the casual, low-budget collector.Alex F
NektaneboMed.jpg
PHARONIC KINGS OF EGYPT, Nektanebo II, 360-343 BC40 viewsAE
15 mm (4 mm thick), 4.4 gm
Obv: Ram leaping left, head reverted.
Rev: Scales of Ma'at; countermark with helmeted bust right.
Ref: Weiser 1

A few months ago a friend, upon hearing that I was collecting ancient coins, said he would like to have a coin issued by a pharaoh. Hmm. "I don't think there are any", I replied. I hadn't come across any in my whirlwind but voluminous searching, although I hadn't been searching for such a coin.

Turns out there are some. Nektanebo II, the last native pharaoh of Egypt, issued coins in bronze, gold, and perhaps silver. Prior to that, Egypt did produce some coins for the purpose of international trading-- imitations of Athens, Attica tets, for instance-- but Nektanebo appears to be the first pharaoh to issue coins for local use. Maybe.

Per auction house sales information from half a decade ago, it seems these bronzes were extremely rare. I wonder if a small horde was recently found because the prices have fallen and there are currently six specimens in retail e-stores and at least two more were auctioned off recently.

There is not universal agreement regarding the issuer, purpose, and location of circulation of these coins. Sellers tout it as the "sole pharonic issue"-- I'm sure that boosts desirability-- but it may not be accurate. Hope it is though.

CNG, in the description of this coin (one similar to mine),

Nekht-her-hebet, or Nektanebo II as he was known to the Greeks, was the nephew of Pharaoh Tachos (Djed-her). Placed in command of the Egyptian army in Syria during the Satrapal Revolt, he turned his troops against his own king and took Egypt by force. In 351-350 BC he repelled a Persian invasion but was driven from his throne in 344-343 BC by a second assault. He fled Egypt, found refuge in Ethiopia, and retained control of Upper Egypt for another few years. As the last pharaoh, Alexander sought to connect himself with Nektanebo after conquering Egypt, allowing the rumor that he was in fact his son to spread. Alexander’s connection to the pharaoh lasted, and for years the sarcophagus of Nektanebo II, now in the British Museum, was considered to be Alexander’s own.

The traditional attribution of this issue to Nektanebo, however enticing, has been increasingly contested. Finds of the coins have been consistently noted outside of Egypt. Kevin Butcher has placed the bronzes at Antioch circa 1st century BC, where the leaping ram imagery would fit well.

I wanted this coin for several reasons.

First, well… a pharaoh's coin? That's just cool.

Second, it depicts the Scales of Ma'at. Such a device was used in Jitterbug Perfume, a book by Tom Robbins, one of my favorite authors. In it, at a limbo-like way station, the newly dead have their hearts weighed against a feather. The heart must be light as a feather to move on. I was unaware until seeing this coin that the scene was taken directly from Egyptian mythology.

Third, it is for an almost-finished themed collection I've been working on.

Nektanebo II (translated from Egyptian "Nakhthorheb (meryhathor)" or "Nekht-her-hebet" or "Nekht-harhebi" ; alternate spelling Nectanebo), the last native Egyptian pharaoh, part of the 30th dynasty. His 17 year reign spanned from 360 to 343 BC.
Birth name: Nakht-hor-heb (mery-hathor) “Strong is His Lord Horus, Beloved of Hathor”
Throne name: Snedjem-ib-re Setep-en-inhur “Pleasing to the Heart of Re, Chosen of Onuris”

Additional biographic information about Nektanebo II
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/nectanebo1.htm

About Ma'at, the Scales of Ma'at, and the weighing of hearts:
http://www.egyptartsite.com/judgement.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maat
http://www.aldokkan.com/religion/hall_maat.htm

4 commentsTIF
Fibula-035_Piriform-plate-brooch-enamelled_depicting-fish_Romano-British_after_2nd-centuries_Q-001_36x18mm_3,19g-s.jpg
Piriform plate brooch, enamelled, depicting-fish, Romano-British, Fibula # 035,107 viewsPiriform plate brooch, enamelled, depicting-fish, Romano-British, Fibula # 035,
size:36x18mm,
weight:3,19g
mint: ???
date: after 2nd centuries A.D.,
ref: ???
distribution: Romano-British,
Q-001
quadrans
GRK_Pontos_Amyntos_Sear_3640.jpg
Pontos. Amyntos.11 viewsSear 3640; Malloy 26c; Hoover GC 7, 243; SNG British Museum Black Sea 1205-7; SNG Stancomb 697-698; SNG von Aulock 59.

AE unit, 7.74 g., 21.16 mm. max., 0°

Struck during reign of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 85-65 B.C.

Obv.: Head of Mithradates VI as Dionysus, wearing ivy wreath.

Rev: Thyrsos (staff carried by Dionysus ) leaning against cista mystica (basket housing sacred snakes in connection with the initiation ceremony into cult of Dionysos) draped with panther’s skin, ΑΜΙΣΟΥ below, monogram to left.

Mithradates VI, king of Pontos (c. 120 to 63 B.C.), was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and King Darius I of Persia. He was one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies. Amisos was a rich commercial center under the kings of Pontos, a royal residence and fortress of Mithridates.
Stkp
ScotlandND20Pence.jpg
Post Medieval, Scotland, Charles I, (1637) 20 Pence.42 viewsScotland N.D. (1637) 20 Pence.

King Charles I (1625-49).

Scotland was the first country in the British Isles to put a 20 Pence coin into circulation.
BCNumismatics
price_3578.jpg
Price 3578 (2)61 viewsM to the left. Φ under the throne. One of the early Babylon issues. I couldn't find any other sales of a 3578 - only examples in the British Museum (all similar wear) Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger 326 lot 1629 Feb 16 20172 commentsChance Vandal
Indore_KM-56_2.jpg
Princely States of India, Indore: British Protectorate (AH1173-1221 / 1759-1806) AR ¼ rupee, Maheshwar, AH1208 (KM#56.2)15 viewsSpongeBob
IVi-107.jpg
PROFECTIO - Caracalla50 viewsAR Denarius, Rome, 208 (3.52gm)
RIC IVi.107, RCV.6874 (S)
Ox: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
O: Laureate head right.
Rx: PROF (in ex) PONTIF TR P XI COS III
R: Caracalla on horseback pacing right, holding spear.
Commemorates Caracalla's departure from Rome along with his father Septimius Severus and brother Geta on their British expedition.

ex. Harlan Berk
Paul DiMarzio
IVi-108.jpg
PROFECTIO - Caracalla55 viewsAR Denarius, Rome, 208 (3.58gm)
RIC IVi.108, RCV.6874v (S)
Ox: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
O: Laureate head right.
Rx: PROF (in ex) PONTIF TR P XI COS III
R: Caracalla on horseback pacing right, holding spear, enemy right before horse.
Commemorates Caracalla's departure from Rome along with his father Septimius Severus and brother Geta on their British expedition.

ex. Harlan Berk
Paul DiMarzio
0047.jpg
Q. Antonius Balbus, Denarius12 viewsRRC 364/1c
83-82 b.c.

"The issue presumable forms part of the preparations made to resist the return of Sulla; the symbolism of victory and triumph clearly reflects the expectations of Q. Antonius Balbus, as Praetor deputed to strike the issue, and his associates." (Crawford)

"Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in B.C. 82 was appointed praetor in Sardinia, from whence he was driven by L. Philippus, the legate of Sulla, and slain. (Livy, Epit. 86)" (Grueber, British Museum I)

ex B. Peus nachf. Auct 398, lot 340
Described as:
Republikanische Prägungen Denar. Q. Antonius Balbus 83/82 v. Chr. 3.81 g. Kopf des Jupiter, Stz. A und Punkt / Victoria in Quadriga. Cr. 364, 1c; Syd. 742a. Sehr schön
Norbert
WC51837.jpg
Queen Victoria (1819 - 1901)72 viewsAR British Crown
O: Crowned and veiled (Jubilee) bust left.
R: St. George on horseback right, slaying dragon.
28.18g
39mm
KM#765
4 commentsMat
13528899_1132024050203053_7343109708134358914_n.jpg
Queen Victoria British Silver "Widow Head" Florin 12 viewsType: Queen Victoria British Silver "Widow Head" Florin
Origin: Great Britain Cat. Num.: KM# 781
Era / Ruler: Victoria Face Value: 1 Florin
Issued from: 1893 Issued until: 1901
Alignment: Medal M Desgr. / Engr.: Thomas Brock, Edward Poynter
Obverse: Victoria mature veiled bust left
Reverse: Crowned shields of England, Scotland and Ireland
Edge: Reeded
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.9250
Weight(g): 11.3104g
Weight(Oz): 0.36 Oz
Net Content: 0.34 Oz (10.46g)
Bullion Value: $6.58
Diameter: 28.00mm
The British two shilling coin, also known as the florin, was issued from 1849 until 1967. It was worth one tenth of a pound, or twenty-four old pence. It should not be confused with the medieval gold florin, which was nominally worth six shillings.
In 1968, in the run-up to decimalisation, the two shilling coin was superseded by the decimal ten pence coin, which had the same value and initially the same size and weight. It continued in circulation, alongside the ten pence, until 1993, when the ten pence was reduced in size.
Antonivs Protti
Trajan_RIC_561_var.jpg
RIC 561 var.14 viewsAs, 103-111
Obv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P
Laur. r., dr.
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI – S C
Dacia seated l. in attitude of mourning on shield and arms; before her, a trophy.

10.32g, 17 mm

Woytek 245 f (1 known in the British Museum, obverse struck from the same die).
klausklage
Trajan_AE25_FAC.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Trajan, AE25 Abdera Thrace Nike61 viewsObverse: AYTO TPAIANW KAISARI CEBACTW, laureate bust right.
Reverse: GERMA DAKI-KW - ABDHREITAI, Nike standing left on Pedestal, holding Wreath and Palm.

Diameter: 25.6 x 26.2 x 1.6 mm, Weight: 7.41 g, Die axis: 180 degrees
Mint: Abdera, Thracia, 102 - 117 A.D. Reference: RPC 803


On 29 July last year Michel Amandry kindly contacted me, after my inquiry with the British Museum's Coins and Medals Department, about this coin. Michel mentioned that only two examples had been known, one in the Ashmolean Museum collection, Oxford (= NC 1953, 21/2 and pl. I, n°2) and the other found during excavations at Abdera (Abdera excavations E 91/N 56).With many thanks to Michel, this coin will be cited in the upcoming RPC Volume III (British Museum Press, 1 October 2015)
Masis
a25.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caracalla antoninianus36 viewsCaracalla AD 196-217 Silver Antoninianus VF
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear and leaning on shield. Rome mint: AD 213-217 = RIC IVi, 311d (s) Scarce, page 259 - British Museum
1 commentsNico
Carausius,_286_287_-_summer_293_A_D_.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Carausius, 287 A.D. London mint60 viewsCarausius, 286/287-293 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, 3.85g, 24.8mm, 180o, Gvf, exotic “British” style. London mint. Minted 287 A.D. Obv: radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG. Rev: Providentia Ref: standing left holding rudder and cornucopia, PROVID AVG. Ex. Scott Collection. RIC -.

Extremely rare, possibly unpublished or unique

FORVM ref: "Although RIC lists numerous varieties of Providentia reverses, this particular reverse, with rudder, PROVID AVG, and no mintmarks is unlisted. RIC notes that London issued coins without mintmarks in 287 A.D. As this was the beginning of "British Empire" coinage, coins were often irregular and overstruck on older coins".
1 commentsBard Gram O
Carausius,_286_287_-_summer_293_A_D_~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Carausius, 287 A.D. London mint317 viewsCarausius, 286/287-293 A.D. Bronze antoninianus, 3.85g, 24.8mm, 180o, Gvf, exotic “British” style. London mint. Minted 287 A.D. Obv: radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG. Rev: Providentia Ref: standing left holding rudder and cornucopia, PROVID AVG. Ex. Scott Collection. RIC -.

Extremely rare, possibly unpublished or unique

FORVM ref: "Although RIC lists numerous varieties of Providentia reverses, this particular reverse, with rudder, PROVID AVG, and no mintmarks is unlisted. RIC notes that London issued coins without mintmarks in 287 A.D. As this was the beginning of "British Empire" coinage, coins were often irregular and overstruck on older coins".
2 commentsBard Gram O
Galba.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galba Orichalcum AS42 viewsSER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS AVGVS S-C, Liberty standing left with pileus & scepter. RIC 295 (?). 12.6 grams

*There is some confusion over this coins RIC (Roman Imperial Coin) number. It appears that it should be RIC 295, as suggested by a curator at the British Museum, but it has been suggested that it could be RIC 460a. This confusion has arisen due to the missing part of the reverse legend. RIC 295 would mean that the missing part would read AVGVS, whereas RIC 460a would have PUBLICA. We cannot be sure until we see another coin similar which has the same die, which can tell us what the other half of the missing reverse legend is.*
Stuart Francis
GallienusAor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus Ant.- Pax33 viewsAntoninianus 18x19.4 mm
Obv. GALLIENUS AVG
Head right, radiate
Rev. PAX AVG
Pax standing left

This coin is from a British hoard,
found 2002, probably buried
about 271-272 AD.
Fairly decent portrait. Gallienus
frequently looks like he was shorted
in the nose department. His rather odd
pebbly beard or sideburns show well.
1 commentsgparch
Gordian-III-RIC-177-87~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Gordian III.84 viewsAntoninianus, 238-239 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: AEQVIT LIBER / Body and feet of Aequitas holding scales; Body and feet of Libertas holding pileus (Liberty cap) .
5.00 gm, 22 mm.
RIC #177 over #187.

This is the exact coin that is described (but not pictured) in the footnote to RIC 231 (vol. IV, part III, p. 39):

"231. A strange Antoninianus (G. B. Pears Coll.) shows rev. type of AEQVIT[AS] apparently overstruck with type of LIBER[TAS] -- obv. of Gordian III, rev. of Philip overstruck with rev. of Trebonianus Gallus (?)."

There is a plaster cast of this coin in the British Museum. This cast is illustrated in Roger Bland's "unpublished" thesis on the coinage of Gordian III from Antioch: plate 10 18/21.

For more info, see http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=105681.0
1 commentsCallimachus
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, HADRIAN - EXERC BRITANNICUS168 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913.
The reverse shows Hadrian addressing the troops in England, standing on a low plinth, clearly showing the Roman soldiers with their standards.
Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
1 commentsPetitioncrown
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, HADRIANVS BRITANNICVS1175 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913. Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
21 commentsPetitioncrown
149.jpg
Roman Empire, Lucius Verus AE Sestertius289 viewsLucius Verus AE Sestertius. IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare headed, cuirassed bust right / CONCORD AVGVSTOR COS II, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus standing opposite, clasping hands. SC in ex.

POSSIBLY UNIQUE

Apparently this arrangement of the rev. legend is rare: usually it's COS II in exergue and S - C in field. Of seven specimens in the British Museum, only one has the arrangement like this one, with COS II in circular legend and SC in exergue.

That BM coin, no. 862, has a cuirassed bust like this, but head laureate rather than bare.

THIS COIN IS CERTAINLY UNPUBLISHED, IF NOT UNIQUE.
EXTREMELY FINE
Ex Künker 2007

- Thanks to Curtis Clay for his invaluable assistance.
1 commentsTrajan
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-PF-AVG_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Siscia_Q-001_axis-0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Siscia, FORTVNA REDVX, Bust-F, -/-//XXIT, Extremely Rare!!!449 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in RIC, Siscia, FORTVNA REDVX, Bust-F, -/-//XXIT, Extremely Rare!!!
avers:- IMP-C-PROBVS-PF-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
revers:- FORTVNA-REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alfoldy lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
exergo: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???),Alföldi typ-36, No 1,
Q-001
quadrans
Ephesus,_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Roman Ephesus37 viewsIonia, Ephesus, Claudius, 41-54, AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm

TI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left.
DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.

RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.

(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h).

The Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the temple other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt at the direction of Alexander III the Great around 330 BC, in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt, it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The marble of the temple was used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four-tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base, the same as that found on the Parthenon. The rectangles visible on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as depictions of tables, or altars attended by flanking figures. However, architectural reconstructions of the temple show these rectangles as windows permitting light into the temple interior, a fact supported by the presence of pediment window frame moldings amongst the remains of other temples from the period in Asia Minor. The Ionic style of the temple’s columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
4 commentsn.igma
Lsemisuncia.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Luceria - AE Semuncia - Crawford 97/822 viewsRome, The Republic.
L Series, circa 211-208 BCE.
AE Semuncia (3.52g; 18mm).

Obverse: Mercury head facing right, wearing winged petasus.

Reverse: Prow r; above ε; be ROMA; before L; above, ε (mark-of-value).

References: Crawford 97/8; Sydenham 178g (R5); Kestner-Hannover 1090; BMCRR (Italy) ----.

Provenance: Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 24 (22 Jun 2016), Lot 371.

There are only four examples of this rare semuncia of Luceria in the Paris collection. There were no examples in the British Museum collection at the 1910 publication of BMCRR.
1 commentsCarausius
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius65 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius
411607.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Tiberius Claudius Nero, AR Serrate Denarius23 viewsRome. The Republic.
Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.n. Nero, 79 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (4.13g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Diana facing right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; S.C, before.

Reverse: Victory driving biga galloping right; A.LXXXVIII below; TI CLAVD TI F AP N, in exergue.

References: Crawford 383/1; Sydenham 770a; BMCRR ;Claudia 5.

Provenance: Ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Fall 2015), Lot 411607; CNG Inventory 735603 (August 2003); Numismatica Ars Classica N (26 June 2003), lot 1540; Eton College Collection [Sotheby’s (1 December 1976), lot 195].

The moneyer is Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of Tiberius ("TI F") and grandson of Appius ("AP N"). He served under Pompey in the war against the pirates in 67 BCE, and was the grandfather of the Roman emperor Tiberius. There are two series of control marks for the reverse: one, marked from I to CLXV; the second marked with letter A and I to CLXXXII. Each reverse control mark has only one die. The letters S.C on the obverse mean that this coin was struck by special Senatorial decree, as opposed to routine coinage which was still authorized by the Senate but not specially marked. The reason for the special decree is not certain in this case. The obverse of the coin may refer to the introduction of the worship of Diana by the Sabines from whom the Claudii originated, though Crawford disputes this reading. The reverse may refer to the Second Punic War victories of C. Claudius Nero.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes.
2 commentsCarausius
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Roman Usurper, Allectus (Romano-British Emperor ), AE Quinarius. Provenance: UK Metal Detecting find from Broadway, Worcestershire.12 viewsLondon 293-296 A.D. 2.24g - 20.4mm, Axis 7h.

Obv: IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG - Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVG - Galley rowing left. Mintmark QL.

RIC V-II 55.
scarli
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Roman Usurper, Carausius (Romano-British Emperor), AE Antoninianus. Rare.6 viewsLondon 287-293 A.D. 3.06g - 21.3mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: IMP CAR[AVSIVS PF AVG] - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: CONCOR[D MILIT] - Clasped hands.

RIC V-II 25; Sear 13565 var.
scarli
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS~0.jpg
Roman, HADRIAN, BRITANNICVS766 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913. Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
5 commentsPetitioncrown
73476p00.jpg
Roman, Romano-British Empire, Carausius, Mid 286 - Spring or Early Summer 293 A.D.35 viewsRA73476. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 473 (R2), Webb Carausius 523, Hunter IV 130, Cohen VII 185, SRCV IV -, Linchmere-, Burton Latimer -, Bicester -, VF, fantastic portrait with unusual style, green patina, scratches, tight flan, reverse slightly uneven and off center, spots of corrosion, weight 2.517 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 180o, unmarked mint, c. mid 292 - mid 293; obverse IMP C CARAVSIVS P F I AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, late reign tetrarchic portrait type, long necked variety; reverse ORIENS AVG (the rising sun of the Emperor), Sol standing slightly left, nude but for cloak over shoulders, raising right hand commanding sunrise, globe in left hand, S - P flanking across field, exergue blank; from the Charles Peters Carausius Collection; very rareJoe Sermarini
Romano-Celtic3_copy.jpg
Romano-Celtic Radiate16 viewsBarbarous British Romano Celtic Radiate, ca. 300 AD, Obv: Ruler right; Rev: Figure stg., traces of inscription. Excellent example of this type.Molinari
Romano-Celtic1_copy.jpg
Romano-Celtic Radiate18 viewsBarbarous British Romano-Celtic Radiate, ca. 300 AD, Obv: Ruler right; Rev: Figure stg. Nice green patina, well struck.Molinari
st-peter-1b.jpg
S.1006 St. Peter59 viewsViking penny in the name of St. Peter of York ca. 910-920
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: probably York
S.1006 (var.)
N.551 (var.)
O: ZCIIIT R, tree and key symbols
R: +B.RACEC

This a rare variant of the "swordless" St. Peter coinage, with a blundered version of "Sancti Petri" in one line, instead of the usual two lines.

Viking coinage in York began at around the start of the 10th century with a coinage in the names of Cnut and Siefred, a probably short-lived coinage but one which survives in great numbers due to the Cuerdale hoard. Subsequently, an anonymous coinage in the name of St. Peter follows, of which this coin is probably a late type. After the St. Peter coinage there was an inscribed coinage in the names of Ragnald and Sihtric Caech, Hiberno-Norse kings from Ireland who conquered Northumbria. A subsequent anonymous second coinage in 920s in the name of St. Peter features a sword (probably the Sword of Carlus, a 9th century Irish Viking hero), and Thor's hammer. The Vikings wrangled with the kings of Wessex throughout the 10th century until king Eadred of England brought Northumbria into the English fold. Viking coinage continued, mostly in the name of the kings of York, until the mid 10th century, culminating with Eric Bloodaxe.

All Viking coinage from York is rare, but the Cnut, Siefred, and St. Peter coinages are the most common, due to their survival in several large hoards.

The one-line St. Peter coins make up a rare subset of the earlier swordless type. There are only a handful known, and they all feature symbols, including the tree, the key (St. Peter's key to heaven), a candelabra, a star or propeller, and a large cross.

This particular coin is a die match to a coin in the British Museum, BMC 1141, which was found in Geashill, Ireland.

Ex- Hanson Historica Auction, PAS NMS-BDD828, EMC 2013.0245
2 commentsNap
edward-iii-groat-1.jpg
S.1570 Edward III7 viewsGroat of Edward III (1327-1377)
Mint: London
Pre-treaty
Series Gc
S.1570
O: +EDWARD D G REX ANGL Z FRANC D HYB
R: +POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEV CIVITAS LONDON

Edward III, the great medieval warrior-king, hero of battle of Crecy, was a major figure that transformed England into a contemporary English states. He lived long enough to see some of it unravel during his lifetime, but his legacy has remained one of England's greatest figures.

Ex- Hammered British Coins
Nap
sceat-1a.jpg
S.785 Anglo-Saxon sceat26 viewsPrimary phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Series E
Type 53
S.785
N.150
Abramson 91-10
Metcalf 258-62
O: Degenerate head (porcupine)
R: Stepped cross (sunburst)

Unusual type with a stepped cross design that degenerated and on this coin looks more like a sunburst. The "porcupine" design is found on Series E sceattas, which are Frisian in origin, though several British designs copy this, as would be expected given the trade between these societies.

Ex- Comptoir Général Financier
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fledgling-1.jpg
S.832 Anglo-Saxon sceat20 viewsEclectic Anglo-Saxon sceat
S.832
"Fledgling" type
O: Wolf head right, protruding tongue (or a serpent facing the wolf)
R: Creature (possibly fledgling) right, walking with triquetra tail

This unusual type is only known from a few examples, and is not represented in the British Museum collection or in Rigold's papers. The wolf face is similar to some coins of series K, while the creature, sometimes called a fledgling, seems to have hands with fingers, a beak, a body twisted into a triquetra and a three-pronged tail. I don't see the "fledgling" but the name has stuck to some extent so I'll go with convention.

Ex- Jon Mann
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aethelred-i-hnifula.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Hnifula)61 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Hnifula
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Booth var i
Abramson 84-10
O: +EDILRED
R: +HNIFVLA
Motif: 1/1a

Hnifula is the rarest of Æthelred's five/six moneyers (depending on whether one considers Eanbald a moneyer or the Archbishop).

The name Hnifula is a little obscure in its origin; it certainly is not a common Anglo-Saxon name. It sounds similar to Hunlaf, a later moneyer, but is probably not the same individual. The name might be related to the Old English word 'hnifol', a word that means forehead.

There are two coins of Hnifula documented in the EMC, a third in the Hermitage museum in St. Petersburg (SCBI 50: 35), a fourth worn example in the Norwich Castle Museum, two in the British Museum, from the Hexham hoard (BMC 429 and 430), and one pictured on Tony Abramson's website. This example is not one of those seven. It is from the same dies as BMC 429, the Norwich Castle specimen, the Abramson coin, and the Hermitage specimen. The other three specimens are from a different set of dies. With only two dies known for these eight examples, it suggests Hnifula's coinage for this issue was probably quite small.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
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eanred-cynwulf-1.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Cynwulf)53 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Cynwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
O: EAIRED REX (retrograde)
R: CYNVALF
Motif: 4/4

Cynwulf was one of Eanred's earlier moneyers, and his coins are silver sceats. They are fairly scarce. He is also known to coin for Archbishop Eanbald II.

This particular coin was struck from dies not listed in Pirie. This is not so surprising, as the source collections of York and Leeds are relatively weak in early silver sceat varieties, especially compared with their strength in the copper stycas from the later period of Eanred's reign to the end of Osberht's. I cannot track a die match through the Early Medieval Corpus either, though it is similar to several coins listed. I did note though that the coin seems to be a die match to one of the sceats found at Hexham (Eanred:24) in the Adamson plates, reproduced by Pirie in 'Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria'. The coins from Hexham form the backbone of the British Museum's Northumbrian collection, which as yet has not been illustrated in a Sylloge.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
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eanred-badigils-1a.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Badigils)9 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Badigils
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie unlisted, Phase II Group Ciii
Abramson 2(unlisted obverse)/3
O: ƎɅ++NREⱭ R (retrograde)
R: +BADIGILS
Motif: 1/6

Badigils is a rare moneyer of Eanred. There is speculation that the name Badigils is related to other names seen on coins of Eanred: namely Aldates and Gadutels. They may even all be the same person. If this is not the case, Badigils was an unrelated moneyer whos name is probably Beadugils. Only a few coins of this moneyer have been found.

This coin is unlisted in Pirie, but mentioned as extant in section Phase II, Group Ciii. The coin itself seems to be a die match to a coin found at Hexham, illustrated by Adamson (Eanred:188). It is not the same coin. Adamson's plates were reproduced by Pirie for 'Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria'.

Known coins of Eanred/Badigils include 4 in the British museum (from Hexham hoard), 1 in the Yorkshire museum, 1 in another Northern Museum (SCBI 48: 265, from Bolton Percy), two coins listed in E. J. E. Pirie's "Early Northumbrian coins at auction, 1981" (one of which I believe is the aforementioned SCBI 48: 265, the other one I believe is the present coin), and supposedly 2 others in private collections traced by Abramson. There are four examples drawn on Adamson's plates of the Hexham hoard, which are probably the 4 in the British Museum.

Ex- York Coins, CNG eAuction 324 (lot 755 [part]), Peter Moffat, ?Stanley Gibbons. Probably ex- Charles Winn, William Fennell, Bolton Percy. I think this coin is plated in BNJ 51: Early Northumbrian Coins at Auction, 1981, coin #4 (However due to poor quality of the image I can't be 100% certain)
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eanred-wihtred-2.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Wihtred)28 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Wihtred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie 160
Phase II, Group A
O: +EANRED REX
R: +ǷINTRMᛞ
Motif: 1/1

Rare styca of Eanred with moneyer's name in runic letters. Only used on this single reverse die. The Yorkshire museum has an impressive six specimens of this coin, there was one in the Mack collection (EMC 1020.0404), 3 other individual metal detecting finds recorded in the Early Medieval Corpus (EMC 2000.0372, EMC 2001.0304, EMC 2008.0098), one in UKDFD (5444), two on Adamson's plates from Hexham hoard (presumably are in British Museum) and two in the Peter Moffat collection (one is this coin). There are certainly other unrecorded specimens out there.

Besides what appears to be a high rate of survival from this die pair, the obverse die was also used to strike coins from 7 other reverse dies of Wihtred, and 5 reverse dies of the moneyer Monne. This is quite unusual for a single die to produce that quantity of coins.

Ex- eBay, Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
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redwulf-odilo.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Odilo)77 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Odilo
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
Pirie 1705
Phase II, Group Ciii
Abramson 4-20/27f
O: +REDVLF RE
R: +ODI.LO (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

This coin may be a derivative or descendant issue, made during the irregular period of civil war c.850, years after Redwulf's brief reign (844). Metallurgical studies (Gilmore and Pirie, BAR: 180) of a sister coin to this one (same dies) show a significant difference in the composition of coin compared to other coins from Redwulf's reign. Interestingly, this coin's obverse die is known to have been paired with reverses of the moneyers Brother, Forthred, and Monne, along with somewhat blundered reverses in the names of Alghere, Herreth, and Coenred, as well as Odilo.

Three other coins inscribed Redwulf/Odilo can be traced: two in the Yorkshire museum (YM1628 and YM 1628a) and one in Denmark's Royal Collection in Copenhagen (SCBI 4: 368). The two in the Yorkshire collection are from the same die pair as this coin, the one in Copenhagen is from a different reverse die, not retrograde.

This particular coin appears to be identical to the specimen illustrated in the first volume of the British Numismatic Journal in 1903. I am not sure whether it belonged to the author, Major Creeke, or to Nathan Heywood, whom Major Creeke credits with lending some specimens for his research. In "Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society" vol XV (1897), Heywood lists a styca of Redwulf/Odilo as being in his collection, and being absent from the British Museum's collection.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 643), Peter Moffat, Major A. B. Creeke (or Nathan Heywood), plated in BNJ 1: The regal sceatta and styca series of Northumbria, 1903
1 commentsNap
wiglaf-1a.jpg
S.934 Wiglaf (Redmund)44 viewsPenny of Wiglaf, king of Mercia (second reign) 830-839
Moneyer: Redmund
Mint: Probably London
S. 934
N 401.2
O: +VVIGLAF REX M
R: N +REDMV D

Penny of Wiglaf, king of Mercia. Wiglaf was king from 827-839. His reign was interrupted from 829-830 by the conquest of Mercia by Ecgberht of Wessex, who took London in 829. The occupation was short lived however, and Wiglaf regained his throne the next year.

Despite a relatively long rule (compared to other 9th century Mercian kings), coins of Wiglaf are excessively rare. There are two major types, one with a portrait of the king by the moneyer Aethelhun, and a nonportrait type by the moneyers Burgherd and Redmund. Redmund also struck coins for King Ecgberht when he occupied Mercia. The portrait coins are typically assigned to Wiglaf's first reign while the nonportrait type is given to the second reign, but this is a guess at best. There are 8 coins (of all types) documented in the Early Medieval Corpus, but one is a forgery. Another is a fragment. Only one is the portrait variety. There are two other portrait coins in the British Museum and two non-portrait coins that have yet to be added to the corpus, giving a total known extant specimens of 11.

This particular coin is chipped, but otherwise readable and is of different dies than any other known specimen, and is the only non-portrait coin without reverse lunettes, and also does not have any pellets.

Ex- Downies, Glendinings 1992, Bonser 1123, EMC 2001.0960
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Scarce_gold_fanam_issued_by_Zamorinds_of_Calicut_(ca_1300-1790_AD),_Vira_Raya_type,_Calicut_(Kozhikodde)_mint,_India.jpg
Scarce gold fanam issued by Zamorinds of Calicut (ca.1300-1790 AD), Vira Raya type, Calicut (Kozhikodde) mint, India135 viewsThe normal abstract Boar / Lion type of a Calicut variety. Calicut (Kozhikodde) mint. 9mm, 0.38 grams. Herrli #1.12

The anonymous gold fanams were continuosely issued by the Zamorinds of Calicut for hundreds of years until the city and the mint were taken by Haidar Ali and later by the British.
3 commentsAntonio Protti
Scarce_gold_fanam_issued_by_Zamorinds_of_Calicut_(ca_1300-1790_AD),_Vira_Raya_type,_Calicut_(Kozhikodde)_mint,_India9mm,_0_36_g,_gold.jpg
Scarce gold fanam issued by Zamorinds of Calicut (ca.1300-1790 AD), Vira Raya type, Calicut (Kozhikodde) mint, India 85 views9mm, 0.36 g, gold.
Notes: The normal abstract Boar / Lion type of a Calicut variety. Calicut (Kozhikodde) mint. 9mm, 0.36 grams. Herrli #1.12

The anonymous gold fanams were continuosely issued by the Zamorinds of Calicut for hundreds of years until the city and the mint were taken by Haidar Ali and later by the British

1 commentsAntonio Protti
Sear_0281.jpg
Sear 028121 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.65g, diameter 9mm. Wroth ( i.e. the old British Museum Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards catalogue) attributed this type to Hilderic, but it is most likely a Byzantine imperial issue: from the mint at Carthage (or possibly another North African mint) and struck soon after the end of the Vandalic War in 534. Abu Galyon
Severus_RIC231.jpg
Septimius Severus, 193–211 CE90 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 209 CE; 3.34g. BMCRE 357, C 536 (Gosselin Sale, 5 Fr.), RIC 231. Obv: SEVERVS – PIVS AVG; head laureate r. Rx: PM TR P XVII COS III – PP; Septimius, laureate, bearded, and in military dress, on horse charging left, about to hurl spear at enemy on ground, who defends himself with spear and shield.

Notes: First special issue of the joint reign of Severus and Caracalla commemorating victories in Britain. Rare; according to Harlan J. Berk, Ltd., this type may specifically refer to "Severus’s attack on the tribes of Scotland: not in Paris in Cohen’s day, nor in the British Museum by 1975, though by a fluke the Reka Devnia hoard contained five specimens."

Provenance: Ex Berk BBS 175 (May 2011), lot 218; ex CNG 41 (19 March 1997), lot 2009.
3 commentsMichael K5
SeptimiusBrit.jpg
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.14 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 241, RSC 542, gVF, Rome mint, AD 210; Obverse: SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right; Reverse: P M TR P XVIII COS III P P, Neptune standing left, holding trident dolphin, foot on globe. Ex Maridvnvm.


Septimius Severus

His health fading and weak from gout, Severus would set out one last time on military campaign. This time it was Britain which demanded the emperor's attention. The Antonine Wall had never really acted as a perfectly successful barrier to the troublesome barbarians to the north of it. By this time it had in fact been virtually abandoned, leaving the British provinces vulnerable to attack from the north. In AD 208 Severus left for Britain with his two quarrelsome sons. Large military campaigns now drove deep into Scotland but didn't really manage to create any lasting solution to the problem.

Lucius Septimius Severus died at York, England, 4 February, 211.

Throughout his reign Severus was one of the outstanding imperial builders. He restored a very large number of ancient buildings - and inscribed on them his own name, as though he had erected them. His home town Lepcis Magna benefited in particular. But most of all the famous Triumphal Arch of Severus at the Forum of Rome bears witness to his reign.
(http://www.roman-empire.net/index.html)


Septimius Severus, a native of Leptis Magna, Africa was proclaimed emperor by his troops after the murder of Pertinax. He is at the same time credited with strengthening and reviving an empire facing imminent decline and, through the same policies that saved it, causing its eventual fall. Severus eliminated the dangerous praetorians, unified the empire after turmoil and civil war, strengthened the army, defeated Rome's most powerful enemy, and founded a successful dynasty. His pay increases for the army, however, established a severe burden on Rome. Future emperors were expected to increase pay as well. These raises resulted in ever-increasing taxes that damaged the economy. Some historians believe high taxes, initiated by Severus policies, played a significant role in Rome's long-term decline. . . (Joseph Sermarini).


Severus had clear political vision, still he cared nothing for the interests of Rome and Italy. He nourished within himself the Punic hatred of the Roman spirit and instinct and furthered the provincials in every way. He was revengeful and cruel towards his opponents, and was influenced by a blindly superstitious belief in his destiny as written in the stars. With iron will he labored to reorganize the Roman Empire on the model of an Oriental despotism. . .

Severus rested his power mainly upon the legions of barbarian troops; he immortalized them upon the coinage, granted them, besides large gifts of money and the right of marriage, a great number of privileges in the military and civil service, so that gradually the races living on the borders were able to force Rome to do their will. . .

During the reign of Severus the fifth persecution of the Christians broke out. He forbade conversion to Judaism and to Christianity. The persecution raged especially in Syria and Africa.
Written by Karl Hoeber. Transcribed by Joseph E. O'Connor.
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII. Published 1912. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
septsev1.jpg
Septimus Severus Sestertius4 viewsSeptimus Severus Sestertius
Rome AD 210

Obv.: L SEPT SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Rev.: VICTORIAE BRITTANNICAE SC , two Victories stg. face to face, holding between them shield attached to palm-tree, at base of which, two British captives seated back to back.

RARE

RIC 796
Tanit
rr_1073_revised_Large.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Neptune and Naval Trophy88 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]
Obv: [MAG or MA (ligatured) G]⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER; Portrait of Neptune facing r., diademed and bearded, trident over l. shoulder. Border of dots.
Rev: [PRAE (AE ligatured) F⦁CLAS⦁ET⦁ORAE (AE ligatured)]⦁MAR (ligatured) IT⦁EX⦁S⦁C⦁; Naval trophy with trident on top and anchor on bottom, prow stem on l. and aplustre on r., at base two representations of Charybdis and two dog heads of Scylla. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location1; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC2; Weight: 3.89g; Diameter: 17mm; Die axis: 30º; References, for example: Sear CRI 333; BMCRR v. II Sicily 15, 16, and 17 variant3; Sydenham 1347 variant3; Crawford RRC 511/2a or 2b4.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁ET⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁EX⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Sear CRI, Crawford RRC, Sydenham, and DeRose Evans (1987) all place the minting of this coin type in Sicily, but they do not reference a possible location. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily suggests Messana.
2This is the date range argued for in Estiot 2006 (p. 145). Estiot recommends returning to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.562 proposes 38 - 36 BC and Sydenham, p. 210 adopts the same datation. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 offers a time between late summer 36 and September 36 BC.
3Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily 15, 16, and 17 and Sydenham 1347 only list a reverse legend containing MAR (ligatured) I but the coin here is MAR (ligatured) IT.
4It is impossible to see the full obverse legend, so it cannot be determined if MA is ligatured or not. The reverse legend is clearly the first variety of 2a or 2b, a variety not found on 2c.

Provenance: from the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland; acquired from Hess AG in Luzern, from the Ernst Haeberlin collection, Cahn & Hess, Frankfurt, July 17, 1933, lot 2889.

Photo credits: Shanna Schmidt Numismatics

Sources

Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
7 commentsTracy Aiello
Sextus_Pompey_Scylla.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Pharos and Scylla66 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]
Obv: MAG⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER; Pharos of Messana, Neptune on top standing r. with r. hand on a trident and l. hand on a rudder, resting l. foot on prow. Galley sailing l., aquila atop a tripod placed in prow and a scepter tied with a fillet in stern. Border of dots.
Rev: PRAEF⦁ORAE⦁MARIT⦁ET⦁CLAS⦁S⦁C [AEs and MAR ligatured]; Scylla attacking l. wielding a rudder in both hands, the torso of a nude woman with two fishtails and the foreparts of three dogs as the lower body. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location1; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC2; Weight: 3.566g; Diameter: 19.8mm; Die axis: 225º; References, for example: BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 variant3, Sydenham 1349 variant3; Crawford RRC 511/4d; Sear CRI 335b.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁ET⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.557 and Sear CRI, p. 203 suggest Messana as a possible mint location. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 124 hesitatingly suggests Mitylene (on the island of Lesbos).

2This is the date range suggested by Estiot 2006, p. 145, as she recommends going back to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.556 proposes 38 - 36 BC. Sydenham, p.211 follows Grueber. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 submits 35 BC.

3Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 and Sydenham 1349 list MAR (ligatured) I but the coin here is clearly MAR (ligatured) IT. Neither Grueber nor Sydenham record MAR (ligatured) IT as part of this reverse legend for this coin type. Crawford and Sear do.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker, édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
7 commentsTracy Aiello
rr_1074_revised_Large.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Pompey the Great and Neptune with Catanaean Brothers35 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]

Obv: [MAG⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER]; portrait of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus r.; behind jug; before lituus. Border of dots.
Rev: above, [PRAE (AE ligatured) F]; in exergue, CLAS⦁ET⦁[ORAE (AE ligatured)⦁MAR (ligatured) IT⦁EX⦁S⦁C]; Neptune standing l., wearing diadem, aplustre in r. hand, cloak over l. arm, r. foot on prow,; on either side a Catanaean brother bearing one of his parents on his shoulders1. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location2; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC3; Weight: 3.68g; Diameter: 17mm; Die axis: 30º; References, for example: Sear CRI 334; BMCRR v. II Sicily 7, 8, 9, and 10; Sydenham 1344; Crawford RRC 511/3a.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁ET⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁EX⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily appears a bit hesitant in his pronouncement that the representation of the Catanaean brothers in fact refers to Sextus’ title Pius (p. 561), but Sear CRI appears to have no such hesitation when he states “...the type illustrates the theme of ‘Pietas’ in connection with the assumption of the name Pius.” (p.203). DeRose Evans (1987) goes further (pp. 115 - 116), arguing that Sextus chose the Catanaean brothers (“...he consciously identifies himself with the south Italian heroes”) as a way to deliberately contrast his Pietas with that of Octavian’s.
2Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily tentatively suggests Catana as a possible location and Sear CRI follows suit.
3This is the date range argued for in Estiot 2006 (p. 145). Estiot recommends returning to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.560 proposes 42 - 38 BC and Sydenham, p. 210 follows suit. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 offers a time between late summer 36 and September 36 BC.

Provenance: From the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland, acquired from Hess AG in Luzern prior to 1975. Ex Dr. Jacob Hirsch 33, 17 November 1913, lot 1058

Photo credits: Shanna Schmidt Numismatics

Sources

BMCRR: Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker, édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
2 commentsTracy Aiello
BeFunky_Collage~2.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion 3mm 0.09g circa 480-470 BC very rare Jenkins list one coin in the British Museum24 viewsHorse head right.Rev two dots,mark of valueGrant H
249560_m.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion 3mm 0.09g circa 480-470 BC very rare Jenkins list one coin in the British Museum34 viewsBridle horse head to right in circle of dots.Rev Two pellets {mark of value} in linear circle.2 commentsGrant H
BeFunky_Collage~4.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion 3mm 0.09g circa 480-470 BC very rare Jenkins list one coin in the British Museum28 viewsHorse head right.Rev two dots mark of value.Grant H
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Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion circa 480-475 0.11g22 viewsBridled. horse head right in dotted circle.Rev two dots for value.
Jenkins Gela 199 one coin listed the British Museum.very rare
Grant H
Lusitania_Medal.jpg
Sinking of the RMS Lusitania Medallion, 191523 viewsObv: KEINE BANNWARE “No Contraband,” a depiction of the sinking of the R.M.S. Lusitania. Cannons and an airplane can be seen on her deck. Exergue: DER GROSSDAMPFER = LUSITANIA = DURCH EIN DEUTSCHES TAUCHBOOT VERSENKT 5 MAI 1915 ”The liner Lusitania sunk by a German submarine 5 May 1915” (the actual date of the sinking was May 7th)

Rev: GESCHÄFT ÜBER ALLES. ”Business above all,” A crowd of men, one reading a newspaper, standing clamoring to buy tickets from Death at the window of a ticket office. CUN[ARD] LINIE above ticket window, CUNARD to the right of window, FARHKARTEN AUSGABE ”Ticket Office” below. Exergue: K. G.

Designer: Karl Goetz

Note: This medallion is a British copy made for propaganda purposes. It is estimated that over 300,000 copies were produced and sold for 1 shilling each. It came in a presentation box, and included propagandist literature.

Cast iron, Diameter: 55.24 mm, Axis: 0⁰
Matt Inglima
1a_50_75.jpg
Sinope, Paphlagonia43 views125-100 B.C.
Bronze AE21
8.30 gm, 21 mm
Obv: Bust of Artemis right wearing stephane, bow and quiver over shoulder.
Rev: ΣINΩ-ΠHΣ to either side of tripod with lebes
Sear 3712;
BMC 13, p.100, 51;
SNG Vol: IX 1524 British Museum
HGC 7, 417;
[SNG Cop 313]
2 commentsJaimelai
0_026.JPG
Spanish Cob 1 real (Santa Maria de La Consolacion)40 viewsSpanish Cob 1 real, recovered from the Santa Maria de La Consolacion

"She was heavily loaded with silver coins intended for Panama. Soon after leaving port she was pursued by two pirate ships commanded by the famous pirate Bartholomew Sharpe. To save the treasure from the pirates, the Spanish captain ran the ship aground on the rocks of Isle de Muerto (Island of Death), Ecuador in July of 1681. The Spanish then burned the ship, depriving the pirates of the valuable treasure. Enraged, the pirates landed and slaughtered 140 Spanish survivors."

"The Spanish treasure ship Santa Maria de la Consolocion left Callao, Chile in 1681, bound for Panama, where her precious cargo that was to be transported across the isthmus and then shipped onto Spain. Because of a delay in getting its silver coins from the mint in Potosi, Bolivia, she was forced to sail alone, after the rest of the South Sea Armada had departed. The lone galleon was soon attacked by a fleet of six British pirate ships. The captain attempted to defend his precious cargo by landing his ship on a small island named Isla de Muerto (Island of the Dead) in the Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador. The vessel accidentally hit a reef and began to sink. To prevent the treasure from falling into the hands of the pirates, the captain set the ship afire. The pirates, furious that the ship had been burned, captured and beheaded the estimated 350 passengers and crew of the ship. Neither the pirates, nor the returning Spaniards were able to recover the treasure from the shark infested waters. "
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
ALLECTUS_PAX_ML.JPG
Struck A.D.293 - 296, ALLECTUS, AE Antoninianus minted at Londinium (London, England)3 viewsObverse: IMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Allectus facing right.
Reverse: PAX AVG. Pax standing facing left, holding olive-branch in her right hand and transverse sceptre in her left; across field, S- A; in exergue, ML.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 3.9gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V ii : 28

Allectus, a chief minister under Carausius, murdered the British Emperor soon after the capture of Boulogne by Constantius in A.D.293 and took his place. Constantius invaded Britain in A.D.297 in a two pronged attack. Allectus was caught off balance and he was defeated and killed near Farnham as he hurriedly marched west to meet the invaders.
*Alex
URBSROMA_TRS.JPG
Struck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Treveri (Trier)4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, double crescent or plate in perspective symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 542

This coin is from the Grassmoor Hoard, Derbyshire, England. This hoard, consisting of some 1375 coins, was deposited about A.D.340. It was found by a metal detectorist near Chesterfield on 7th January 2001. The find site at Grassmoor lies close to the route of a Roman Road, the modern-day A61, running south from Rotherham to Derby. However, there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the immediate area so it is thought that the hoard was either buried by a traveller along the road or by someone living close to the nearby Chesterfield fort, which seems to have been abandoned by this date. All the coins were professionally conserved and identified by the British museum. Some of the coins from the hoard were retained by the British Museum to be displayed both there and at the Chesterfield Museum, the remainder were put up for auction and this is one of those.
*Alex
Athalaric.JPG
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoths, Athalaric 526-534 AD, Rome Mint75 viewsObv: Bust of Justinian Right, ...NIAN...
Rev: Monogram of Athalaric in Wreath
Wroth 47-56, p. 66-67
MEC 135
British Museum Catalog of Western and Provincial Byzantine COins #47-48, plate 8, #16-17
Laetvs
roman_buckles_4.jpg
Sword Belt (Cingulum) Hinged Buckle105 viewsThis buckle, with iron hinge and portion of the belt plate, is for a Roman military sword belt - a cingulum or balteus. Circa 1st century AD. It can be distinguished by the buckle design and the fleur-de-lys pin. Examples are found in Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 62 #8 (from Rheingonhiem Germany) and #19 (from Velsen Netherlands). A silver example is found in the Dura Europos excavation report volume 7, page 77, # 52. Examples can be seen in the British Museum and the Romische Museum in Germany. It likely dates to the first half of the 1st century AD.otlichnik
Belt_1a.jpg
Sword Belt Plate 1st century122 viewsThis large rectangular sword belt (cingulum) late is made of bronze with niello inlay in a vine design and traces of silvering and dates to the early 1st century AD. Similar examples can be seen in the legionnary's sword belt display in the British Museum and in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 62, #1-4 from Hod Hill UK and Rheingonheim Germany. When new the sword belt would have been covered in these shiny silvered plates with their with black decoration.otlichnik
Sancroft_Medal_.jpg
temp. STUART, William Sancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1677-1690, AR Medal by George Bower 1688 29 views* GVIL · SANCROFT · ARCHIEPISC · CANTVAR · 1688 Bust of William Sancroft, the Archbishop of Canterbury, wearing camauro and canonical robes, facing right.
Seven medallions of the Bishops committed to the Tower of London: Bishops Henry Compton (middle – London), Francis Turner (upper right, proceeding clockwise – Ely), Thomas Ken (Bath), Sir John Trelawney (Bristol), Thomas White (Peterborough), John Lake (Chichester), and William Lloyd (St. Asaph); twelve stars around; signed GB·F· (George Bower fecit) below.

MI 622/37; Eimer 288b. By G. Bower. Dated 1688.

(51 mm, 53.45 g, 12h).

CNG 85 (15 September 2010) Lot 1562: California Collection of British Historical Medals.

This remarkable medallion portrays no less than eight people directly associated with a historical event that did much to shape the modern secular British democracy. In 1687, King James II enacted unilaterally and against the will of the Parliament the Declaration of Indulgence as the first step in establishing the freedom of religion in England. The ensuing protest concerned the legality of James right to make the dispensation in the absence of the support of Parliament, plus the absence of a guarantee that the Anglican Church would remain as the established church. Many leaders within the clergy refused to read the Declaration in church from the pulpit as instructed by the King in early 1688. This culminated in a petition to the King against the reading of the Declaration. The petition originated from the hand of the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Sancroft, depicted on the obverse of the medal and was signed by the six other bishops identified around the margin of the reverse of the medallion. Bishop Henry Compton, depicted in the centre of the reverse, was included on the medal due to his earlier dissent to the King’s approach to Catholicism, for which James removed him from office.

The seven bishops who signed the petition were charged with seditious libel and imprisoned in the Tower of London in May 1688. Brought to trial before the Court of the King’s Bench, the bishops were acquitted. This served as a precursor to James’ deposition shortly thereafter.

This medal was issued following the trial, in commemoration of the action taken by William Sancroft and his fellow bishops in refusing to follow James II’s edict to read the Declaration of Indulgence from the pulpit. The medal connects directly with one of the key events in British history, which lead ultimately to the deposition of James II by his son-in-law and daughter, William III and Mary II of Orange on 5 November 1688. As a direct result of the action of the seven bishops, the right to petition the king was enshrined in the new Bill of Rights in 1689. Simplistically, some people see this medal as a testament to religious intolerance, although the issues of the time that brought it into being were far more complex, involving matters of secular authority, constitutional right, and the very basis of power in the evolving secular democratic British state. This is demonstrated by the decision of Sancfroft and five of the seven bishops that they could not swear allegiance to the new protestant King William III, for to do so would be a repudiation of their prior sworn loyalty to the deposed Catholic King James II. As a result, Sancroft was dismissed from his role in 1690 and died in relative obscurity three years later.

Few coins, or medals, connect so directly with history and in doing so depict so many influential participants. The medal was the work of George Bower (d. 1690) a medallist who worked in London from 1650-1689. He had been appointed to the position of Engraver of the Royal Mint and Embosser in Ordinary in 1664.
2 commentsn.igma
King_Songthom_bulletcoin.jpg
Thailand "ancient" Ayudhaya, Silver bullet coin -- 1 Baht, King Songthom, 1612 - 1628 AD101 viewsAyudhaya Kingdom; King Songthom, 1612 - 1628 AD; AR "Bullet" Coin, 14.7 gms, EF.

The kingdom of Ayutthaya (Thai: อยุธยา) was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. King Ramathibodi I (Uthong) founded Ayutthaya as the capital of his kingdom in 1350 and absorbed Sukhothai, 640 km to the north, in 1376. Over the next four centuries the kingdom expanded to become the nation of Siam, whose borders were roughly those of modern Thailand, except for the north, the Kingdom of Lannathai. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Indians, Japanese and Persians, and later the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, British and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the city walls. The court of King Narai (1656-1688) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris.

After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called its golden age, a relatively peaceful episode in the second quarter of the eighteenth century when art, literature, and learning flourished. There were foreign wars. The Ayutthaya fought with Nguyen Lords (Vietnamese rulers of South Vietnam) for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. But a greater threat came from Burma, where the new Alaungpaya dynasty had subdued the Shan states.

In 1765 Thai territory was invaded by two Burmese armies that converged on Ayutthaya. The only notable example of successful resistance to these forces was found at the village of Bang Rajan. After a lengthy siege, the city capitulated and was burned in 1767. Ayutthaya's art treasures, the libraries containing its literature, and the archives housing its historic records were almost totally destroyed, and the city was left in ruins.

The country was reduced to chaos. Provinces were proclaimed independent states under military leaders, rogue monks, and cadet members of the royal family. The Thais were saved from Burmese subjugation, however, by an opportune Chinese invasion of Burma and by the leadership of a Thai military commander, Phraya Taksin.

All that remains of the old city are some impressive ruins of the royal palace. King Taksin established a capital at Thonburi, across the Chao Phraya from the present capital, Bangkok (Kruen Thep).

The ruins of the historic city of Ayutthaya and "associated historic towns" in the Ayutthaya historical park have been listed by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.

The city of Ayutthaya was refounded near the old city, and is now capital of the Ayutthaya province.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ayutthaya_kingdom
Cleisthenes
2007_09110236.JPG
The British museum - Nereid monument172 viewsTetrastyl temple in ionic styl built by pieces from Xanthos in Lycia.
Johny SYSEL
FAEROE ISLANDS.jpg
THE FAEROE ISLANDS89 viewsTHE FAEROE ISLANDS - 10 Ore, 1941. Denmark was occupied by Germany during World War II; British troops occupied the Faeroe Islands during this time. The Faeroe Islands coins were struck in London. KM #4. 1 commentsdpaul7
26720289.jpg
The Lion of Knidos128 viewsThe British MuseumJohny SYSEL
Auguse05-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 68, for Divus Augustus, sestertius of AD 36-37 (Elephant quadriga)38 viewsÆ sestertius (24.3g, Ø36mm, 12h) Rome mint, struck AD 36-37.
Obv.: DIVO / AVGVSTO / SPQR in three lines above four elephants with their riders advancing left drawing an ornamented car with the statue of Augustus holding a branch and a sceptre.
Rev.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXIIX around large S C.
RIC (Tiberius) 68 (R); BMC 138:125; Cohen 305; Sear (RCV 2K) 1784; Foss (RHC) 56:4
ex 19th century British collection
Charles S
Daric.jpg
Time of Darius I - Xerxes II132 viewsACHAEMENID PERSIAN EMPIRE. Time of Darius I - Xerxes II Circa 485-420 B.C.E. AV daric. 16mm, 8.36g. O:Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear and bow. R: Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B (pl. XIII, 27).

In 550 BC Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire by amalgamating the Iranian tribes of the Medes and the Persians. Cyrus then looked to the west. His army defeated the Lydians and their king Croesus in 547 BC and in the following year the Persian army marched into the kingdoms of Ionia, Caria and Lykia, on what is now the west coast of Turkey.

It was there that the Persians first came into contact with coinage. From here it spread over the next century throughout the Persian Empire as far as Afghanistan and Egypt. After conquering Lydia in 547 BC, the Persians adopted the Lydian tradition of minting coins. Soon the local 'lion and bull' croesid coins were replaced by a new Achaemenid coinage.

The gold daric, named after the Persian king Darius I (521-486 BC), and the silver siglos (or shekel) were the main denominations. An archer, representing the Persian king, appeared on the obverse (front) of the coin. The reverse consisted of a rectangular punch. These coins were minted in the western part of the Achaemenid Empire. Their production continued long after the death of Darius, until the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great at the end of the fourth century BC. (Comments from britishmuseum.org)

After the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah, the Jews were taken into the seventy-year Babylonian captivity. When ancient Persia took control of Babylon, Haman, the royal vizier, convinced King Ahasuerus to destroy all the Jews. Esther, Ahasuerus's queen and, unknown to him, a Jew, interceded on behalf of her people. By law the King could not rescind the order to slaughter the Jews, so he issued a second decree that permitted the Jews to defend themselves with armed force.

The King replaced Haman with Mordecai, a palace official, cousin and foster parent of Esther. The Jews defeated Haman, killing his ten sons that were leading the attacks, and then hanged Haman. The day after the battle was designated as a day of feasting and rejoicing. Scholars identify King Ahasuerus as the historical king Xerxes I, 486 - 465 BCE. Xerxes is the Greek version of his name but the Babylonians knew him as Khshayarsha. The Hebrew name Ahasuerus, appears to be derived from Khshayarsha, with the letter A added at the beginning.
3 commentsNemonater
titus_as_caesar_cap_and_trophy.JPG
Titus as Caesar RIC-1076100 viewsAR Denarius, 2.89g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 1076(C). BMC 258. RSC 334.
Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT VIII COS VII; Trophy, below, captive kneeling r.

Variously this reverse has been attributed to an Agricola victory in Britain or a 'Judaea Capta' type. It seems more likely to be a 'Judaea Capta' type because Titus does not share the type with Vespasian. One would think a British victory would have been celebrated on both coinages. It seems more likely to be a type that reminds the Roman populace of the young Prince's role in the Jewish War nine years before.

A very decent example of the type with a better than average portrait.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
V1440Amd.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC-1440A107 viewsAR Denarius, 2.69g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 1440A. BMC 467 var. RSC 39 var. RPC 843 var.
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI E (sic); Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N Sneh Collection, lot 742. Acquired from Ponterio, c. 2003.

This denarius features an engraver's error in the obverse legend. Instead of ending in the normal F the engraver mistakenly engraved an E. It is also an obverse die match to the unique British Museum aureus RIC V1437. A wonderful example of aurei and denarii sharing dies! The coin has been assigned by Carradice as V1440A (obv 2B) in the upcoming RIC II addenda.

Not only is this coin interesting for the engraver's error and die link - it's also in excellent style with an outstanding portrait. Truly a gorgeous coin.


6 commentsDavid Atherton
Titus Denarius captive.JPG
Titus RIC 01385 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Rome Mint, 24 June-1 July 79 AD
RIC 1 (R). BMC 1. RSC 334a.
Obv: IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT VIII COS VII; Male captive kneeling r., hands bound behind back, in front of trophy, consisting of helmet, cuirass, crossed swords (?), and round shield
Acquired from Hail Cesare, August 2004.

This reverse may be commemorating a British victory or another reminder of the Judaean one.
The coin was minted during the first week of Titus' reign, needless to say its a rare type.

Definitely one of my favourite coins in the collection. The condition alone is enough to take your breath away.
9 commentsVespasian70
titus1.JPG
Titus RIC 37110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.33g
Rome mint, 79 AD
RIC 37 (R). BMC 35. RSC 294.
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XV COS VII P P; Capricorn l., below, globe

This denarius is part of the 3rd issue minted by Titus in 79 after September when he was awarded IMP XV. This same type was reportedly found in the ruins of Pompeii casting doubt on the traditional dating of the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius to August*. The same reverse type was minted by Vespasian just before his death and is itself a copy of a type minted by Augustus. Denarii from the 3rd issue seem to be rarer than those of the 2nd issue.

Reasonably centered in good metal with a typical "bull necked" portrait of Titus. Both an obverse and reverse die match to the RIC plate coin.

*Dr. Richard Abdy of the British Museum has examined the coin in question and concluded the reading is actually IMP XIIII.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
titus_l_trophy.jpg
Titus RIC 5096 viewsAR Denarius, 3.29g
Rome Mint, 79 AD
RIC 50 (R2). BMC 32. RSC 297.
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XV COS VII P P; Trophy; below, captive kneeling r.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

Titus minted quite a flurry of coins after his father Vespasian's death in June of 79 AD. Many are quite common and are a continuation of themes and types issued under Vespasian. The left facing portraits from this series are much scarcer than right facing.

A Judaea Capta type (or perhaps a reference to a British victory?), this left facing portrait of the type is rated R2 by RIC. Normally the left facing types were issued at ratio of 1:10 against right facing, this one seems to have been minted on an even smaller scale.

Curtis Clay provided the following information:

"Not in Cohen with portrait left, nor acquired by Paris in the meantime; their two specimens, nos. 28-9, both have portrait right.
Reka Devnia hoard: 3 spec. with bust right, none with bust left.
BM 32 has a specimen with head left, acquired in the remarkably rich Hamburger Collection of Jewish coins in 1908. BM 32 is the only specimen listed, and also illustrated, by RIC 50. It is from different dies than David's specimen, and is less well preserved.
Carradice and Buttrey must have known at least one other specimen of this denarius to justify rating it R2 rather than R3. I think it would have been helpful if, for every R2 coin, they had listed every specimen known to them!"

A decent example of the type with good toning and fine style.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
T104a.jpg
Titus RIC-10478 viewsAR Denarius, 3.15g
Rome Mint, 80 AD
RIC 104(R). BMC 40. RSC 306a.
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P; Captives, two, back to back, seated either side of trophy (man on l., woman on r.)
Ex Lanz, eBay, October 2017.

Rare variant of the two captives type with the male and female captives swapping places. The reverse commemorates an Agricolan British victory, perhaps the occasion when his legions reached the river Tay garnering Titus his 15th imperial acclamation. Some scholars in the past have attributed the reverse as a 'Judaea Capta' type, this is incorrect. The two captives echoes a Gallic victory type struck for Julius Caesar. The shields, like those on Caesar's denarii, are Celtic not Judaean in form. Additionally, H. Mattingly in BMCRE II correctly proposed the reverse alluded to a British victory.


Even though the coin is a bit worn it still has good eye appeal. Even wear and well centred.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
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Trade Dollar - 1911 Bombay195 viewsBritish Trade Dollar, 1911-B
ONE DOLLAR
1911
rexesq
Walker-734.jpg
Umayyad Caliphate: Anonymous (710 AD) AE Fals, NM, ND (Album-145; Walker-734)19 viewsThis Fals is assumed to be minted in an unknown mint in Northern Africa around 710 AD (90 AH) based on the Arabic legend of "Praise be to Allah" which is indicative of Northern African coins as per Walker.

Obv: Arabic legend in two lines within circle, بسم الله (In the name of God)
Rev: Arabic legend in two lines within circle, الحمد لله (Praise be to Allah)

Reference

Walker, John R. A Catalogue of the Arab-Byzantine and Post-reform Umaiyad Coins: With 31 Plates. London: British Museum, 1956
SpongeBob
JP2TurinShroudBW.jpg
Vatican 500 Lire John Paul II 1998 Silver26 viewsVatican 500 Lire John Paul II, 1998, Silver; KM Y-292. Obverse: Pope John Paul II; Reverse: Head of the Turin Shroud. BU. Ex ECIN.

Pope John Paul II
(Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. II, Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan Paweł II) born Karol Józef Wojtyła on 18 May 1920; he died 2 April 2005. He reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later, making his the second-longest pontificate in modern times after Pius IX's 31-year reign. He is the only Polish pope, and was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Adrian VI in the 1520s. He is one of only four people to have been named to the Time 100 for both the 20th century and for a year in the 21st. Although not yet formally canonized, he was made the patron of World Youth Day for 2008 in Sydney, Australia. He started those days for youth in 1986.

His early reign was marked by his opposition to communism, and he is often credited as one of the forces which contributed to its collapse in Central and Eastern Europe. In the later part of his pontificate, he was notable for speaking against war, fascism, communism, dictatorship, materialism, abortion, contraception, relativism, unrestrained capitalism, and what he deemed the "culture of death".

John Paul II was Pope during a period in which the Catholic Church's influence declined in developed countries but expanded in the Third World. During his reign, the pope traveled extensively, visiting over 100 countries, more than any of his predecessors. He remains one of the most-traveled world leaders in history. He was fluent in numerous languages: his native Polish and also Italian, French, German, Dutch, English, Spanish, Croatian, Portuguese, Russian and Latin. As part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he canonized a great number of people.

In 1992, he was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. On 2 April 2005 at 9:37 p.m. local time, Pope John Paul II died in the Papal Apartments while a vast crowd kept vigil in Saint Peter's Square below. Millions of people flocked to Rome to pay their respects to the body and for his funeral. The last years of his reign had been marked by his fight against the various diseases ailing him, provoking some concerns as to leadership should he become severely incapacitated, and speculation as to whether he should abdicate. On 9 May 2005, Pope Benedict XVI, John Paul II's successor, waived the five year waiting period for a cause for beatification to be opened.

John Paul II emphasized what he called the "universal call to holiness" and attempted to define the Roman Catholic Church's role in the modern world. During his lifetime, he personally experienced many of the pivotal events of the 20th century and he was a towering and at times controversial figure on the world stage. He spoke out against ideologies and politics of communism, Marxism, Socialism, imperialism, hedonism, relativism, materialism, fascism, Nazism, racism and unrestrained capitalism. In many ways, he fought against oppression, secularism and poverty. Although he was on friendly terms with many Western heads of state and leading citizens, he reserved a special opprobrium for what he believed to be the corrosive spiritual effects of modern Western consumerism and the concomitant widespread secular and hedonistic orientation of Western populations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia--http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_John_Paul_II

John Paul II was a scholar (he earned--as opposed to being awarded--two doctorates in philosophy); he was an author (numerous works of "non-fiction"); he was a poet and dramatist. In his youth he was an actor. Well know for his athleticism, he was an avid enviromentalist.


The Shroud of Turin

The story of the Shroud of Turin is fascinating. It began, for me, ironically when I thought the "story" had finally been laid to rest. Carbon 14 dating conducted in 1988 had just proved that the Shroud was medieval. Along with most, I accepted these results--the fact that two of my former Alma Maters (The University of Arizona and Oxford University) were involved in the testing lent a comfortable sense of closure (to give them their due, scientists from the Institut für Mittelenergiephysik in Zurich, Columbia University, and the British Museum were also involved in the tests). I was re-engaged by the Shroud story in 2005 when an article in the scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal Thermochimica Acta by an equally eminent scientist, Raymond N. Rogers, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, subverted the 1988 tests. Very briefly, the sample cut from the Shroud in 1988 was shown not to be valid. In fact, the article noted, the Shroud was much older than the carbon 14 tests suggested. Curiouser and curiouser. . . and I'll leave the story at this juncture. If you are interested, see the following site:
http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/pantocrator.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VespasianDidrachmWeb.jpg
Vespasian with Titus as Caesar234 viewsVespasian, with Titus as Caesar. Cappadocia, Caesarea-Eusebia mint, struck 76/77 C.E. AR Didrachm (23mm, 7.16 g, 12h). Provincial style, Dated RY 9.
O: Laureate head right; Greek legend, AYTOKPA (Emperor) KAICAP (Caesar) OYECΠACIANOC (Vespasian) CEBACTOC (Augustus)
R: Titus, laureate and in military outfit, standing facing, holding spear and parazonium; Greek legend TITOC (Titus) AYTOKPATWP (Emperor) KAICAP (Caesar) ET Θ in exergue (ETOYC is the Greek word for year. Regnal Year Θ or theta the 9th letter of greek alphabet.) RPC 1649; Sydenham, Caesarea 72. From the Bruce R. Brace Collection.

A rather rare coin. The British Museum has 2 specimens, this is only the 2nd example I have ever seen on the market. RPC 1649 lists two other examples with ETOYC abbreviated as ET: Berlin ex Imhoof, published by him in Swiss Num. Review 1898; and Seaby's Bulletin, Sept. 1982, D 75.

Vespasian was proclaimed emperor in Alexandria on July 1, 69, how does year 9 equal 76-77?
The regnal years at Alexandria began on August 29 of each year and continued through August 28 of the following year. In some cases two regnal years are counted in the same calendar year, for example Vespasian in 69. The first regnal year is counted for the portion of time he ruled in 69 till August 28 and his second year started August 29, 69 into 70.

A Roman parazonium is a long triangular dagger, 15 to 19 inches long, wide at the hilt end and coming to a point. In Roman art, it is frequently carried by Virtus, and is also sometimes carried by Mars, or Roma, or the Emperor, giving them the aura of courage. The parazonium was a symbol of rank and was used to rally the troops. An officer would exchange his parazonium for a gladius or a spatha if he was directly threatened during a battle.
10 commentsNemonater
victory.jpg
Victory - British Museum664 viewsA small bronze Victory - 1st CenturyBacchus
valerian-I_ant_emperor-seated_tater_00.JPG
VII - Valerian Antoninianus - Emperor Seated "PM TR P V COS IIII P P"17 viewsAncient Rome
Emperor Valerian I (253 - 260 AD)
Silver/billon Antoninianus. Struck 257 AD.

obv: IMP CP LIC VALERIANVS PF AVG - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right of Emperor Valerian. Seen from the Front.

rev: PM TR P V COS IIII P P - Emperor seated left in curule chair, holding globe and sceptre.

Weight: 3.2 Grams
Size: 21.5 mm
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* This particular Roman coin of the Emperor Valerian I (253 - 260 AD), struck in The Year of Our Lord, 257, was originally found in the British Isles, a well known area which the Romans occupied for several centuries and attempted to settle.
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2 commentsrexesq
Fibula-075_Roman-Lion-Zoomorf-3D-enamelled_Q-001_35x21mm_8,52g-s.jpg
Zoomorphic 3D Lion, AE Roman Enamelled Fibula, Fibula #075, Romano-British type,237 viewsFibula #075, AE Roman Zoomorphic 3D Lion Enamelled Fibula,
type: Roman Zoomorphic 3D Lion Enamelled Fibula, Romano-British type.
Lion walking to right. There are eight enamelled circular cells on its body within which traces of light blue and orange are visible. It has a mane represented by two ridges with incised wavy lines. This example is unusual as all four paws arc shown.
size: 35x21mm,
weight: 8,52g,
date: ater the 2nd centuries A.D.,
ref: Hattatt (Oxf. 2012,reprint): Fig.:222, No 1194, p-363,
distribution: Romano-British,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
CaracallaRIC108.jpg
[1004b] Caracalla, 28 January 198 - 8 April 217 A.D.29 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 108, RSC 510, VF, 2.967g, 19.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, 208 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse PROF PONTIF TR P XI COS III, Emperor on horseback right, captive at feet; scarce. Ex FORVM.

This coin refers to the departure of Caracalla, Septimius, and Geta on their British expedition. Our dating of this departure to the year 208 depends on these coins dated TR P XI for Caracalla and TR P XVI for Septimius (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (Caracalla)

Michael L. Meckler,
Ohio State University

Caracalla was born 4 April 188 in Lyon, where his father was serving as governor of the province of Gallia Lugdunensis under the emperor Commodus. The child's name originally seems to have been Lucius Septimius Bassianus, the cognomen commemorating the family of the boy's Syrian mother, Julia Domna. When he was seven years old, his name was changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. The name change was a way of connecting the family of Severus to that of the Antonines. Caracalla was a nickname taken from the name of a type of cloak popularized by the emperor, but this nickname, originally derisive, was never used officially.


From the time of his name change to Antoninus, Caracalla was the designated heir of Severus. Less than three years later he was proclaimed emperor, officially joining his father as co-rulers of the empire. At the age of 14 he was married to the daughter of the praetorian prefect Plautianus Publia Fulvia, Plautilla, but the teenager despised his wife. The marriage ended less than three years later after the execution of Plautianus for treason, and there were no children.

Squabbling and rivalry developed between Caracalla and Geta, who was only 11 months younger than his brother. Severus felt the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother. Within two years of the imperial family's arrival in Britain, Severus' health began to deteriorate, but his sons' relationship showed no signs of improvement. Severus died 4 February 211. Caracalla was 22 years old, Geta 21.

The brothers returned to Rome as joint emperors, but they eyed each other with suspicion and failed to cooperate on government appointments and policy decisions. Caracalla was being advised to have Geta murdered, and after at least one unsuccessful attempt, Geta was killed in late December 211. The murder led to a wholesale slaughter of Geta's supporters and sympathizers, and soldiers were allowed to wreak havoc on the residents of Rome. The looting and bloodshed lasted for at least two weeks, and one contemporary source claims 20,000 people were killed.

The year 212 saw a flurry of administrative reforms under the young emperor's leadership. Soldiers received increases in pay and in legal rights, but the most noteworthy change was the bestowal of Roman citizenship upon all free residents of the empire. This grant of universal citizenship, called by scholars the Constitutio Antoniniana, allowed for greater standardization in the increasingly bureaucratic Roman state. Construction was also well underway on the magnificant baths in Rome that would bear the emperor's name. The main building seems to have been completed four years later, but the entire complex was not finished until the reign of Alexander Severus.

Caracalla spent little time in Rome after the spring of 213. A visit to Gaul and a military campaign along the borders of Upper Germany and Raetia occupied much of the rest of the year. Winter may have been spent in Rome, but the following year Caracalla made a journey to the East in preparation for a war against the Parthians. Along the way, the emperor displayed an increasing fascination and identification with Alexander the Great. Like the Macedonian prince, however, Caracalla would not survive an expedition to the East. Only his ashes would return to Rome.

Civil war in the Parthian realm between brothers and rival kings Vologaeses VI and Artabanus V brought instability to the entire region, and Caracalla wished to take advantage of that instability to increase Roman control. Osroene was annexed in 213, but an attempt in the same year to take over Armenia backfired. Caracalla's campaigns in the East seemed designed to harass the Parthians more than anything else. In 215, Caracalla suspended plans to invade Parthia after Vologaeses handed over two political refugees, although Roman troops were sent into Armenia. The following year the emperor led his troops into Mesopotamia after being rebuffed in his request to marry the daughter of Artabanus. Roman armies were generally unopposed in their forays, the Parthian forces having retreated farther east. The Romans returned back across the Euphrates, wintering in Edessa.

Between campaigning seasons, Caracalla made a notorious visit to Alexandria in the fall and winter of 215-16. Rioting accompanied the imperial visit, and retribution was swift. The governor of Egypt was executed as were thousands of the city's young men. Alexandria was cordoned off into zones to prevent the free movement of residents, and games and privileges were revoked.

The emperor visited Alexandria for intellectual and religious reasons, staying at The Serapeum and being present at the temple's sacrifices and cultural events. Earlier, during the German war, the emperor visited the shrine of the Celtic healing-god Grannus. Caracalla also visited the famous temple of Asclepius in Pergamum and fully participated in its program, which involved sleeping inside the temple compound and having his dreams interpreted.

It was this religious devotion that led to Caracalla's murder in 217. Although suspicious of the praetorian prefect Macrinus, Caracalla allowed himself to be accompanied by only a small, select corps of bodyguards on an early spring trip from the camp at Edessa to the temple of the moon-god at Carrhae, about 25 miles away. During the journey back on 8 April 217, Caracalla was killed. The returning guards claimed the emperor was ambushed while defecating, and that the alleged assassin was one of their own, a soldier named Martialis. Martialis was himself killed by the avenging guards, or so the story went. Suspicion was strong that Macrinus arranged the entire affair.

Caracalla's violent end seemed appropriate for an emperor who, early in his reign, had his own brother killed. Yet the moralizing about fratricide by both ancient and modern historians obscures the energetic, reformist and even intellectual character of Caracalla's reign. Some of the reforms, especially the pay raise for soldiers, would prove burdensome for future emperors, but the changes brought about in the little more than five years of Caracalla's sole rule would have long-lasting implications throughout the empire for generations to come.


Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Justinan1Nikomedia.jpg
[1611a] Justinian I, 4 April 527 - 14 November 565 A.D.68 viewsBronze follis, S 201, choice VF, 22.147g, 43.8mm, 180o, 2nd officina, Nikomedia mint, 541 - 542 A.D.; Obverse: D N IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, globus cruciger in right, shield decorated with a horseman brandishing a spear, cross right; Reverse: large M, cross above, ANNO left, Xu (= year 15) right, B below, NIKO in ex; full circle strike on a huge flan. Ex FORVM.



De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Justinian (527-565 A.D.).

James Allan Evans
University of British Columbia

Introduction
The reign of Justinian was a turning-point in Late Antiquity. It is the period when paganism finally lost its long struggle to survive, and when the schism in Christianity between the Monophysite east and the Chalcedonian west became insurmountable. From a military viewpoint, it marked the last time that the Roman Empire could go on the offensive with hope of success. Africa and Italy were recovered, and a foothold was established in Spain. When Justinian died, the frontiers were still intact although the Balkans had been devastated by a series of raids and the Italian economy was in ruins. His extensive building program has left us the most celebrated example of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture that still survives: Hagia Sophia in modern Istanbul. His reign was a period when classical culture was in sharp decline and yet it had a last flowering, with historians such as Procopius and Agathias working within the tradition inherited from Herodotus and Thucydides, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary who wrote some of the most sensuous poems that the classical tradition has ever produced. The Codex Justinianus, the Institutes and the Digest of Roman jurisprudence, all commissioned by Justinian, are monuments to the past achievements of Roman legal heritage. Justinian's reign sums up the past. It also provides a matrix for the future. In particular, there was the bubonic plague, which appeared in Constantinople in 542, for the first time in Europe, and then travelled round the empire in search of victims, returning to the capital for a new crop in 558. The plague ended a period of economic growth and initiated one of overstrained resources.

The 'Nika' Revolt
The 'Nika' Revolt which broke out in January, 532, in Constantinople, was an outburst of street violence which went far beyond the norms even in a society where a great deal of street violence was accepted. Every city worth notice had its chariot-racing factions which took their names from their racing colors: Reds, Whites, Blues and Greens. These were professional organizations initially responsible for fielding chariot-racing teams in the hippodromes, though by Justinian's time they were in charge of other shows as well. The Blues and the Greens were dominant, but the Reds and Whites attracted some supporters: the emperor Anastasius was a fan of the Reds. The aficionados of the factions were assigned their own blocs of seats in the Hippodrome in Constantinople, opposite the imperial loge, and the Blue and Green "demes" provided an outlet for the energies of the city's young males. G. M. Manojlovic in an influential article originally published in Serbo-Croat in 1904, argued that the "demes" were organized divisions of a city militia, and thus played an important role in the imperial defense structure. His thesis is now generally disregarded and the dominant view is that of Alan Cameron, that demos, whether used in the singular or plural, means simply "people" and the rioting of the "demes", the "fury of the Hippodrome", as Edward Gibbon called it, was hooliganism, which was also Gibbon's view. Efforts to make the Greens into supporters of Monophysitism and the Blues of Orthodoxy founder on lack of evidence. However, in support of Manojlovic's thesis, it must be said that, although we cannot show that the Blue and Green "demes" were an organized city militia, we hear of "Young Greens" both in Constantinople and Alexandria who bore arms, and in 540, when Antioch fell to the Persians, Blue and Green street-fighters continued to defend the city after the regular troops had fled.

Justinian and Theodora were known Blue supporters, and when street violence escalated under Justin I, Procopius claims that they encouraged it. But since Justinian became emperor he had taken a firmer, more even-handed stand. On Saturday, January 10, 532, the city prefect Eudaemon who had arrested some hooligans and found seven guilty of murder, had them hanged outside the city at Sycae, across the Golden Horn, but the scaffold broke and saved two of them from death, a Blue and a Green. Some monks from St. Conon's monastery nearby took the two men to sanctuary at the church of St Lawrence where the prefect set troops to watch. The following Tuesday while the two malefactors were still trapped in the church, the Blues and Greens begged Justinian to show mercy. He ignored the plea and made no reply. The Blues and Green continued their appeals until the twenty-second race (out of twenty-four) when they suddenly united and raised the watchword 'Nika'. Riots started and the court took refuge in the palace. That evening the mob burned the city prefect's praetorium.

Justinian tried to continue the games next day but only provoked more riot and arson. The rioting and destruction continued throughout the week; even the arrival of loyal troops from Thrace failed to restore order. On Sunday before sunrise, Justinian appeared in the Hippodrome where he repented publicly and promised an amnesty. The mob turned hostile, and Justinian retreated. The evening before Justinian had dismissed two nephews of the old emperor Anastasius, Hypatius and Pompey, against their will, from the palace and sent them home, and now the mob found Hypatius and proclaimed him emperor in the Hippodrome. Justinian was now ready to flee, and perhaps would have done so except for Theodora, who did not frighten easily. Instead Justinian decided to strike ruthlessly. Belisarius and Mundo made their separate ways into the Hippodrome where they fell on Hypatius' supporters who were crowded there, and the 'Nika' riot ended with a bloodbath.

A recent study of the riot by Geoffrey Greatrex has made the point that what was unique about it was not the actions of the mob so much as Justinian's attempts to deal with it. His first reaction was to placate: when the mob demanded that three of his ministers must go, the praetorian prefect of the East, John the Cappadocian, the Quaestor of the Sacred Palace Tribonian and the urban prefect Eudaemon, Justinian replaced them immediately. He hesitated when he should have been firm and aggravated the situation. It may well have been Theodora who emboldened him for the final act of repression. Procopius imagines Theodora on the last day engaging in formal debate about what should be done, and misquoting a famous maxim that was once offered the tyrant of Syracuse, Dionysius the Elder "Tyranny is a good shroud." Theodora emends it to "Kingship is a good shroud" and readers of Procopius may have thought wryly that the emendation was unnecessary. The formal debate, and Theodora's great scene, was probably a creation of Procopius' imagination, but a splendid one.

The 'Nika' revolt left Justinian firmly in charge. The mob was cowed and the senatorial opposition that surfaced during the revolt was forced underground. The damage to Constantinople was great, but it cleared the way for Justinian's own building program. Work in his new church of Hagia Sophia to replace the old Hagia Sophia that was destroyed in the rioting, started only forty-five days after the revolt was crushed. The two leaders of the Hippodrome massacre, Mundo and Belisarius, went on to new appointments: Mundo back to Illyricum as magister militum and Belisarius to make his reputation as the conqueror of the Vandals in Africa. The 530s were a decade of confidence and the 'Nika' riot was only a momentary crisis.

(for a detailed account of the reign of Justinian I, see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinia.htm)

Last Years
Misfortune crowded into the final years of Justinian's reign. There was another Samaritan revolt in midsummer, 556. Next year, in December, a great earthquake shook Constantinople and in May of the following year, the dome of Justinian's new Hagia Sophia collapsed, and had to be rebuilt with a new design. About the same time, the plague returned to the capital. Then in early 559 a horde of Kutrigur 'Huns' (proto-Bulgars) crossed the frozen Danube and advanced into the Balkans. It split into three columns: one pushed into Greece but got no further than Thermopylae, another advanced into the Gallipoli peninsula but got no further than the Long Wall, which was defended by a young officer from Justinian's native city, while the third, most dangerous spearhead led by the 'Hun' khan, Zabergan himself, made for Constantinople. Faced with this attack and without any forces for defense, Justinian called Belisarius out of retirement, and Belisarius, using a scratch force, the core of which was 300 of his veterans, ambushed the Kutrigur horde and routed it. Once the immediate danger was over, however, Justinian recalled Belisarius and took charge himself. The news that Justinian was reinforcing his Danube fleet made the Kutrigurs anxious and they agreed to a treaty which gave them a subsidy and safe passage back across the river. But as soon as they were north of the Danube, they were attacked by their rivals the Utigurs who were incited by Justinian to relieve them of their booty. The Kutrigurs raided Thrace again in 562, but they and the Utigurs were soon to fall prey to the Avars who swept out of the Asian steppes in the early 560s.

There was discontent in the capital. Street violence was on the increase again. There were bread shortages and water shortages. In late 562, there was a conspiracy which almost succeeded in killing the emperor. The chief conspirator was Marcellus, an argyroprates, a goldsmith and banker, and the conspiracy probably reflected the dissatisfaction of the business community. But Justinian was too old to learn to be frugal. He resorted to forced loans and requisitions and his successor found the treasury deeply in debt.

What remained of the great emperor's achievement? His successor Justin II, out of a combination of necessity and foolhardiness, denied the 'barbarians' the subsidies which had played a major role in Justinian's defense of the frontiers, and, to be fair, which had also been provided by emperors before him. Subsidies had been part of Anastasius' policy as well, but that was before the plague, while the imperial economy was still expanding. The result of Justin II's change of policy was renewed hostility with Persia and a shift of power in the Balkans. In 567 the Avars and Lombards joined forces against the Gepids and destroyed them. But the Lombards distrusted their allies and next year they migrated into Italy where Narses had just been removed from command and recalled, though he disobeyed orders and stayed in Rome until his death. By the end of the century only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands. On the eastern frontier, Justin alienated the Ghassanid allies and lost the fortress of Daras, a reverse which overwhelmed his frangible sanity. For this Justinian can hardly be blamed. No one can deny his greatness; a recent study by Asterios Gerostergios even lionizes him. But if we look at his reign with the unforgiving eye of hindsight, it appears to be a brilliant effort to stem the tide of history, and in the end, it was more a failure than a moderate success.

Copyright (C) 1998, James Allan Evans. Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

The Church we know today as Hagia Sophia - or Divine Wisdom, its true name - was dedicated by the Emperor Justinian in 537AD. Through many visitudes Justinian's cathedral church of Constantinople still stands, its soring vaults and amazing dome testiments to the human spirit, the engineering talents of its builders and Divine inspiration. In the same fashion that Vespasian's Collesium (the Flavian Amphitheatre) is symbolic of Rome, Justinian's Hagia Sophia is a symbol of Byzantium.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.167 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


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