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Search results - "Blind),"
penny_17.jpg
John the Blind, Luxembourg mint, Mayhew 26511 viewsmauseus
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-008_2h_11,2mm_0,40g-s.jpg
13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./a1.04./05., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01229 views13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./a1.04./05., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HBRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,1mm, weight: 0,41g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01./a1.04./05.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-001_h_mm_g-s~0.jpg
13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./c1.02./14., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01102 views13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./c1.02./14., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HBRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS-RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01./c1.02./14.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-011_2h_11mm_0,40g-s.jpg
13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./d1.03./20., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #0173 views13.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01./d1.03./20., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HBRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS-RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,40g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01./d1.03./20.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-012_9h_11,2mm_0,31g-s.jpg
13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.01./02., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01153 views13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.01./02., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HDRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,2mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01.01./a2.01./02.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044_C1-057_H-049_Q-007_8h_11,2mm_0,37g-s.jpg
13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.02./03., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01108 views13.01.01. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.01.01./a2.02./03., H-049, CNH I.-057, U-044, #01
avers: HDRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,2mm, weight: 0,37g, axis: 8h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-049, CNH I.-057, Unger-044,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.01.01./a2.02./03.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-044var_C1-057_H-049_Q-001a_10h_12mm_0,30g-s.jpg
13.02. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.02./b2.01./08., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #0182 views13.02. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.02./b2.01./08., H--, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: HBOCRE, Crowned head facing between two lilies, border of dots.
reverse: LADISLAVS RE +/X, (sometimes Lines instead of a legend), cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,30g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.02./b2.01./08.,
Q-001
quadrans
13_04_-a1d2_04-235_,_Bela_II__(1131-1141_AD),_H-050,_C1-059,_U-043,_Q-001,_9h,_11-11,5mm,_0,47g-s.jpg
13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a1d2.04./235., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #0160 views13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a1d2.04./235., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #01
avers: REX BELA, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,0-11,5mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-050, CNH I.-059, Unger-043,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.04./a1d2.04./235.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-043_C1-059_H-050_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a4.07./039., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #0190 views13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a4.07./039., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #01
avers: REX BELA, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-050, CNH I.-059, Unger-043,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.04./a4.07./039.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
13_04_-a8_08_-178_,_Bela_II__(1131-1141_AD),_H-050,_C1-059,_U-043,_Q-001,_9h,_11,3-12mm,_0,39g-s.jpg
13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a8.08./178., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #0160 views13.04. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.04./a8.08./178., H-050, CNH I.-059, U-043, #01
avers: REX BELA, Crowned head facing, the border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of legend cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,3-12,0mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-050, CNH I.-059, Unger-043,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.04./a8.08./178.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-045_C1-061_H-053_Q-001_6h_10,0mm_0,23g-s.jpg
13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./c2.04./35., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #0171 views13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./c2.04./35., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01
avers: + BELA RX, Three stabs ending in a cross, border of dots.
reverse: Wedges in place of the legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:10,5 mm, weight: 0,23 g, axis:6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-053, CNH I.-061, Unger-045,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.07./c2.04./35.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-045_C1-061_H-053_Q-002_10h_10,2mm_0,19g-s.jpg
13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./d1.02./?., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01109 views13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./d1.02./?., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01
avers: + BELA RX, Three stabs ending in a cross, the border of dots.
reverse: Wedges in place of the legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:10,2 mm, weight: 0,19 g, axis:10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-053, CNH I.-061, Unger-045,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.07./d1.02./?., New subtype/sigla variation!,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-001_11,00mm_0,21ga-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./a2.20./34., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #0173 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./a2.20./34., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 11,0 mm, weight: 0,21g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./a2.20./34.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-003_10h_10,30mm_0,21g-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b1.01./42., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #0170 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b1.01./42., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 10,3 mm, weight: 0,21g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./b1.01./42.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-002_10,00mm_0,25ga-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b2.01./44., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #0178 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./b2.01./44., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 10,0 mm, weight: 0,25g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./b2.01./44.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-50_C1-56_H-54_Q-004,_h,_10,8mm,_g-s.jpg
13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./c2.02./53., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01186 views13.08. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.08./c2.02./53., H-054, CNH I.-056, U-050, #01
avers: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 10,80 mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-054, CNH I.-056, Unger-050,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.08./c2.02./53.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
coin398.JPG
322. Numerian30 viewsMarcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus was the younger son of the later emperor Carus, born in about AD 253.
Numerian and his elder brother Carinus were raised to the rank of Caesar in AD 282, soon after their father became emperor.

In AD 282 Numerian accompanied his father to the Danube to defeat the Sarmatians and the Quadi.
Then in December AD 282 or January AD 283 Carus took Numerian with him on his expedition against the Persians to re-conquer Mesopotamia. Meanwhile Carinus stayed in Rome to rule the west.

When Carus died, Numerian succeeded him, thereby becoming joint emperor with his brother Carinus who had been granted the rank of Augustus shortly before Carus' death.

At first, immediately after his father's death, Numerian sought to continue the Persian campaign.
Apparently this was much favoured by Arrius Aper, the prefect of the praetorians and suspect in Carus' death. Conditions for war were favourable. The Persian side was still thought to be weak. But Numerian's initial efforts were not followed by success.
Numerian was to all effect appeared more of an intellectual than a man of war. He wrote poetry, some of which won him critical acclaim in his day.
This lack of ruthless military talent might well have been the reason why Carinus alone had been promoted Augustus, while Numerian remained Caeasar (junior emperor).
And so, after these initial setbacks, Numerian decided it unwise to continue the war.
He sought instead to return back to Rome and the army was not displeased to pull back into Syria were it spent the winter of AD 283.
Thereafter the army set out on its march back west through Asia Minor (Turkey).
Numerian fell ill near Nicomedia, suffering from an eye disease, which he might have caught while still on campaign in Mesopotamia with his father. The illness was explained with severe exhaustion (Today it is believed this was a serious eye infection. This left him partly blind and he had to be carried in a litter.

Somewhere at this time it is believed Arrius Aper, Numerian's own father in-law, had him killed. It;s widely believed that Aper hoped that it would be assumed that Numerian had simply succumbed to his illness and that he, the praetorian prefect, would succeed to the throne in his place.
But why he should have kept up the charade that Numerian was still alive remains a mystery. Perhaps he was waiting for he right moment.
For several days the death went unnoticed, the litter being carried along as usual. Soldiers inquired about their emperor's health and were reassured by Aper, that all was well and that Numerian simply was too ill to appear in public.

Eventually though the stench of the corpse became too much. Numerian's death was revealed and the soldiers realized that Rome had lost yet another emperor (AD 284).

Had it been Aper who hoped to fill the vacancy, then it was Diocletian (still known as Diocles at the time), commander of the imperial bodyguard, who emerged the victor. It was Diocletian who was made emperor by the troops after Numerian's death. It was he who sentenced Aper to death and even executed the sentence himself. Therefore it was he who, benefited most from the deaths of Carus and Numerian. And in his role as body guard he held a key position, enabling him to prevent or enable any action against the emperor. Hence it is unlikely that Diocletian did not have anything to do with the murder of Numerian.

Numerian Antoninianus / Numerian with globe and spear

Attribution: RIC 361
Date: 282-283 AD
Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate bust r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian l. holding globe and spear
Size: 22.39 mm
Weight: 3.5 grams
Description: A nice ant of a scarcer emperor while serving as Caesar
ecoli
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U-049_C-083_H-097_sigla-variation.gif
Animation !!!, 013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-049, Different type of possibile "sigla" variation76 views013 Bela II., (Bela-II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-049, Different type of possibile "sigla" variation
U-049_C-083_H-097_sigla-variation (lot of dot or dots the different place on the same catalog No coins)
Q-001
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Arsakes II., 211-191 BC, Arsakes I (Assar)31 viewsAR dr., 4,08 gr, 17mm;
Sellwood 5.1, Shore 3 , Sunrise 240 (Arsakes I.),
mint: Hekatomphylos ? axis: 12h,
obv.: beardless bust, left, w/bashlyk, diadem w/knot and ribbons, loose cap ties; earring; relatively large, 'blind' bust;
rev.: archer, right, on backless throne; eagle at foot, right; one-line legend left field: APΣAKOY.
Schatz
Heraclius.jpg
BYZANTINE, Heraclius, c.A.D.610-641, AV Solidus121 viewsAlthough Heraclius decisively defeated Parthia, his army was in turn defeated by the invading Muslims when a sandstorm blinded his troops at the battle of Yarmuk and as a result, the Levant, Egypt and North Africa were all lost.2 commentsgoldcoin
18_03_1_1_-a1_06_-07_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Den_,_H-082,_CNH_I_-069,_U-051,_Q-001,_3h,_10,2mm,_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./a1.06./07., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0164 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./a1.06./07., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./a1.06./07.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-051_C1-069_H-082_Q-002_1h_10,8mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./a2.08./22., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0169 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./a2.08./22., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,8mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./a2.08./22.,
Q-001
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Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-051_C1-069_H-082_Q-003_11h_11mm_0,32g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./a4.05./48., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0174 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./a4.05./48., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,32g, axis: 11h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./a4.05./48.,
Q-001
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18_03_1_1_-c2_02_-65_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Den_,_H-082,_CNH_I_-069,_U-051,_Q-001,_6h,_10,5mm,_0,21g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./c2.02./65., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0160 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./c2.02./65., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5mm, weight: 0,21, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./c2.02./65.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
18_03_1_1_-c2_06_-69_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Den_,_H-082,_CNH_I_-069,_U-051,_Q-001,_0h,_10,3-10,6mm,_0,22g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./c2.06./69., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0160 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./c2.06./69., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,3-10,6mm, weight: 0,22, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./c2.06./69.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
18_03_1_1_-c2_07_-70_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Den_,_H-082,_CNH_I_-069,_U-051,_Q-001,_3h,_10,2-10,5mm,_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./c2.07./70., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0161 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./c2.07./70., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2-10,5mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./c2.07./70.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Bela-II_U-051_C1-069_H-082_Q-001_5h_10,4mm_0,29g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0195 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,4mm, weight: 0,29g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75.,
Q-001
quadrans
18_03_1_1_-h1_01_-75_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Den_,_H-082,_CNH_I_-069,_U-051,_Q-001,_5h,_10,4mm,_0,29gz-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0178 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,4mm, weight: 0,29g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75.,
Q-001
quadrans
18_03_1_1_-h1_01_-75_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Den_,_H-082,_CNH_I_-069,_U-051,_Q-002,_6h,_10,6mm,_0,30g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0262 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #02
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,6mm, weight: 0,30g, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.1./h1.01./75.,
Q-002
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-051a_C1-069_H-082_Q-001_0h_10,6mm_0,31g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.03.1.3./c2.01./09., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #0180 viewsCÁC II. 18.03.1.3./c2.01./09., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-082, CNH I.-069, U-051, #01
avers: Central point with small crosses above and below, vertical columns to the left and right, horizontal lines outside the columns, crescents at ends of the columns and the lines, crosses in the fields formed by the columns and lines, points at top and bottom.
reverse: Lines and crescents instead of a legend, cross with points.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,6mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-082, CNH I.-069, Unger-051,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.03.1.3./c2.01./09.,
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quadrans
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-004_mm_g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a2.13./17., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0167 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a2.13./17., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048, Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./a2.13./17.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-001_10mm_0,14ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a4.04./32., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0187 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./a4.04./32., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in a frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10mm, weight: 0,14g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./a4.04./32.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-003_mm_g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.06./54., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0164 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.06./54., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in the frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./c2.06./54.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-048_C1-074_H-089_Q-002_11mm_0,17ga-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.07./55., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #0183 viewsCÁC II. 18.05.1.1./c2.07./55., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-089, CNH I.-074, U-048, #01
avers: Cross in the frame of four crescents and crosses, dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-089, CNH I.-074, Unger-048,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.05.1.1./c2.07./55.,
Q-001
quadrans
18_26_(II_Bela,),_CÁC_II__18_26_a3__,_H-095,_C1-079,_U-047,_Q-004,_2h,_10,3mm,_0,21g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.09.1.1./a3.03./23., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #01154 viewsCÁC II. 18.09.1.1./a3.03./23., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #01
avers: Cross with dots and wedges between two crescents in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,3mm, weight: 0,21g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-095, CNH I.-079, Unger-047,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.09.1.1./a3.03./23.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
CÁC_II__18_9_1_1_-b2_1,_(II__Bela),_H-095,_C1-079,_U-047,_Q-004,_5h,_10,5mm,_0,2g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.09.1.1./b2.01./36., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #01109 viewsCÁC II. 18.09.1.1./b2.01./36., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #01
avers: Cross with dots and wedges between two crescents in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: 5h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-095, CNH I.-079, Unger-047,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.09.1.1./b2.01./36.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_U-047_C1-079_H-095_Q-001_1h_10,7mm_0,21g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.09.1.1./b2.04./39., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #0171 viewsCÁC II. 18.09.1.1./b2.04./39., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #01
avers: Cross with dots and wedges between two crescents in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,7mm, weight: 0,21g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-095, CNH I.-079, Unger-047,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.09.1.1./b2.04./39.,
Q-001
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II_Bela_U-047_C1-079_H-095_Q-003_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.09.1.1./b2.04./39., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #0266 viewsCÁC II. 18.09.1.1./b2.04./39., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #02
avers: Cross with dots and wedges between two crescents in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,5mm, weight: 0,22g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-095, CNH I.-079, Unger-047,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.09.1.1./b2.04./39.,
Q-002
quadrans
II_Bela_U-047_C1-079_H-095_Q-002_2h_10,6mm_0,18g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.09.1.1./c1.04./44., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #0182 viewsCÁC II. 18.09.1.1./c1.04./44., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #01
avers: Cross with dots and wedges between two crescents in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,6mm, weight: 0,18g, axis: 21h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-095, CNH I.-079, Unger-047,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.09.1.1./c1.04./44.,
Q-001
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18_9_1_1_-c2_05_-53_v_,_Anonymous_I__(_Bela_II__1131-1141_A_D_),_H-095,_C1-079,_U-047,_Q-001,_3h,_9,5-9,8mm,_0,17g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.09.1.1./c2.05./53v., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #0161 viewsCÁC II. 18.09.1.1./c2.05./53v., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-095, CNH I.-079, U-047, #01
avers: Cross with dots and wedges between two crescents in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,5-9,8mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-095, CNH I.-079, Unger-047,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.09.1.1./c2.05./53v.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_U-046_C1-081_H-096_Q-001_9,5mm_0,19g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.10.1.02./a2r4.01./07., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #0199 viewsCÁC II. 18.10.1.02./a2r4.01./07., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #01
avers: Crescents and dots in place of the legend, line of dots amongst for wedges between crescents; border of dots.
reverse: Lines and crescents in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,5 mm, weight: 0,19 g, axis: - h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-096, CNH I.-081, Unger-046,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.10.1.02./a2r4.01./07.,
Q-001
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II_Bela_(1131-1141AD)_U-046_C1-081_H-096_Q-003_7h_10,2mm_0,17g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.10.1.04./a2r4.04./16., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #0188 viewsCÁC II. 18.10.1.04./a2r4.04./16., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #01
avers: Crescents and dots in place of the legend, line of dots amongst for wedges between crescents; border of dots.
reverse: Lines and crescents in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:10,2 mm, weight: 0,17 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-096, CNH I.-081, Unger-046,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.10.1.04./a2r4.04./16.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141AD)_U-046_C1-081_H-096_Q-004_h_mm_g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.10.1.06./a2h4.06./17., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #01129 viewsCÁC II. 18.10.1.06./a2h4.06./17., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #01
avers: Crescents and dots in place of the legend, line of dots amongst for wedges between crescents; border of dots.
reverse: Lines and crescents in place of the legend; cross in circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-096, CNH I.-081, Unger-046,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.10.1.06./a2h4.06./17.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-046_C1-081_H-096_Q-002_6h_11mm_0,28g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.10.1.08./a1h4.01./05., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #0194 viewsCÁC II. 18.10.1.08./a1h4.01./05., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-096, CNH I.-081, U-046, #01
avers: Crescents and dots in place of the legend, line of dots amongst for wedges between crescents; border of dots.
reverse: Lines and crescents in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges in the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:11,0 mm, weight: 0,28 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-096, CNH I.-081, Unger-046,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.10.1.08./a1h4.01./05.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_U-049_C-083_H-097_sigla-variation.gif
CÁC II. 18.11.1.1./a1.01./., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, Different type of possibile "sigla" variation102 viewsCÁC II. 18.11.1.1./a1.01./., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, Different type of possibile "sigla" variation
ref: Huszár-097, CNH I.-083, Unger-049, sigla-variation (lot of dot or dots the different place on the same catalog Number coins)
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_U-049_C1-083_H-097_Q-004_3h_10,1mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.11.1.1./a4.04./30., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #0194 viewsCÁC II. 18.11.1.1./a4.04./30., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #01
avers: Horizontally oriented crosses within crescents above and below the line.
reverse: Lines instead of a legend, cross with wedges.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,1mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-097, CNH I.-083, Unger-049,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.11.1.1./a4.04./30.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Bela_U-049_C1-083_H-097_Q-005_1h_9,5-9,7mm_0,17g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.11.1.1./b4.02./44., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #0173 viewsCÁC II. 18.11.1.1./b4.02./44., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #01
avers: Horizontally oriented crosses within crescents above and below the line.
reverse: Lines instead of a legend, cross with wedges.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,5-9,7mm, weight: 0,17g, axis: 1h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-097, CNH I.-083, Unger-049,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.11.1.1./b4.02./44.,
Q-001
quadrans
CÁC_II__18_11_1_2_-a2_07_--(new)_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Denarius,_H-097,_CNH_I_-083,_U-049,_Q-001,_7h,_9,8mm,_0,23g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.11.1.2./a2.07./after 8 before 9., (New Sigla!), Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #0183 viewsCÁC II. 18.11.1.2./a2.07./after 8 before 9., (New Sigla!), Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #01
avers: Horizontally oriented crosses within crescents above and below the line.
reverse: Lines instead of a legend, cross with wedges.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 9,8mm, weight: 0,23g, axis: 7h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-097, CNH I.-083, Unger-049,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.11.1.2./a2.07./after 8 before 9., New type of Sigla, not recorded!
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-049_C1-083_H-097_Q-001_h_10,0mm_0,23g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.11.1.2./c2.01./24., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #0166 viewsCÁC II. 18.11.1.2./c2.01./24., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #01
avers: Horizontally oriented crosses within crescents above and below the line.
reverse: Lines instead of a legend, cross with wedges.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0mm, weight: 0,23g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-097, CNH I.-083, Unger-049,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.11.1.2./c2.01./24.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-049_C1-083_H-097_Q-003_3h_10,2mm_0,20g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.11.1.2./c3.01./after 26 before 27., (New Sigla!), Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #0187 viewsCÁC II. 18.11.1.2./c3.01./after 26 before 27., (New Sigla!), Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #01
avers: Horizontally oriented crosses within crescents above and below the line.
reverse: Lines instead of a legend, cross with wedges.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,2mm, weight: 0,20g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-097, CNH I.-083, Unger-049,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.11.1.2./c3.01./after 26 before 27., New type of Sigla, not recorded!
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_U-049_C1-083_H-097_Q-002_3h_10,0mm_0,24g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.11.1.2./c4.01./27., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #0168 viewsCÁC II. 18.11.1.2./c4.01./27., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-097, CNH I.-083, U-049, #01
avers: Horizontally oriented crosses within crescents above and below the line.
reverse: Lines instead of a legend, cross with wedges.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 10,0mm, weight: 0,24g, axis: 3h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-097, CNH I.-083, Unger-049,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.11.1.2./c4.01./27.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-052a_C1-087_H-099_Q-001_6h_12,5mm_0,39g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.12.1.1./b2.06./42., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-099, CNH I.-087, U-052, #01.70 viewsCÁC II. 18.12.1.1./b2.06./42., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-099, CNH I.-087, U-052, #01
avers: Cross with crescents containing dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in circle with wedges between the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,5mm, weight: 0,39g, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-099, CNH I.-087, Unger-052a,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.12.1.1./b2.06./42.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-052a_C1-087_H-099_Q-002_6h_12,4mm_0,41g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.12.1.1./h2.01./71., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-099, CNH I.-087, U-052, #0181 viewsCÁC II. 18.12.1.1./h2.01./71., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-099, CNH I.-087, U-052, #01
avers: Cross with crescents containing dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in circle with wedges between the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,4mm, weight: 0,41g, axis: 6h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-099, CNH I.-087, Unger-052a,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.12.1.1./h2.01./71.,
Q-001
quadrans
18_12_1_3_-a3_04_-28_,_Anonymous_I__(Béla_II_,_(1131-1141_A_D_)),_AR-Denarius,_H-100,_CNH_I_--,_U--,_Q-001,_2h,_11-11,8mm,_0,33g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.12.1.3./a3.04./28., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-100, CNH I.--, U--, #0177 viewsCÁC II. 18.12.1.3./a3.04./28., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-100, CNH I.--, U--, #01
avers: Cross with crescents containing dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: 4 lines in place of the legend cross in a circle, a border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0-11,8mm, weight: 0,33g, axis: 2h,
mint: Esztergom , date: A.D., ref: Huszár-100, CNH I.--, Unger--,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.12.1.3./a3.04./28.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
CAC_18_13_1_1_-a6_01-41,_H-102,_C1-090,_U-053,_(Bela-II__(1131-1141_AD)),_Q-001,_10h,_12,0mm,_0,28g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.13.1.1./a6.01./41., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-102, CNH I.-090, U-053, #0170 viewsCÁC II. 18.13.1.1./a6.01./41., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-102, CNH I.-090, U-053, #01
avers: E's and lines in place of the legend, cross in a circle of dots with dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in a circle with wedges between the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,0mm, weight: 0,28g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-102, CNH I.-090, Unger-053,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.13.1.1/a6.01./41.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Bela-II_(1131-1141_AD)_U-053_C1-090_H-102_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
CÁC II. 18.13.1.1./b2.08./56., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-102, CNH I.-090, U-053, #0176 viewsCÁC II. 18.13.1.1./b2.08./56., Anonymous I. (Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.)?), AR-Denarius, H-102, CNH I.-090, U-053, #01
avers: E's and lines in place of the legend, cross in circle of dots with dots in the angles; border of dots.
reverse: Lines in place of the legend; cross in circle with wedges between the angles; border of line.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-102, CNH I.-090, Unger-053,
Kiss-Toth, Sigla: 18.13.1.1/b2.08./56.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
761NN383.jpg
Cr 340/1 AR Denarius L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi6 viewsc. 90 BCE, Rome, 19mm, 3.87gm.
o: Laureate head of Apollo r.; behind, control numeral X(?)
r: Horseman galloping r., w/palm branch; below, L PISO FRVGI / ROMA [mono]; above, XVII
Calpurnia 12. Sydenham 661.
This type, presumably struck at the height of the Social War, is overall common, with nearly 1000 dies each side, and seemingly one control number per die. It is an odd type, if the dating is right, as it speaks neither to the Social War, nor much to the loyalty of the legions. The war was quite intense, and it hardly seems that the legions would be distracted by the Games of Apollo ("home before the leaves fall" as they said in 1914) , or that the Italians would be bought off by a nostalgic sense that they would be cut off from the really cool games in Rome. Perhaps it reflects the blindness/stupidity/narcissism of the Roman Senatorial class that fostered the resentment among the Socii.
As a collecting type, I had not been enthusiastic about it until I learned of some rare variations and also came to appreciate the simplicity of the design. This one, among several I now have, has nice toning and strike. I will not seek all of the variants suggested by Crawford's two pages of control marks...
PMah
GordianIAfr.jpg
Gordian I Africanus / Athena59 viewsGordian I Africanus, Egypt, Alexandria. A.D. 238. BI tetradrachm (22 mm, 12.47 g, 12 h). RY 1.
O: A K M AN ΓOPΔIANOC CЄM AΦ ЄVCЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian I right
R: Athena seated left, holding Nike and spear; in left field, date (L A).
- Köln 2600; cf. Dattari (Savio) 4656 (legend); Kampmann & Ganschow 68.6., Ex Coin Galleries (16 July 2003), 264.

Perhaps the most reluctant of Emperors, Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus) was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus before committing suicide.

According to Edward Gibbon:

"An iniquitous sentence had been pronounced against some opulent youths of [Africa], the execution of which would have stripped them of far the greater part of their patrimony. (…) A respite of three days, obtained with difficulty from the rapacious treasurer, was employed in collecting from their estates a great number of slaves and peasants blindly devoted to the commands of their lords, and armed with the rustic weapons of clubs and axes. The leaders of the conspiracy, as they were admitted to the audience of the procurator, stabbed him with the daggers concealed under their garments, and, by the assistance of their tumultuary train, seized on the little town of Thysdrus, and erected the standard of rebellion against the sovereign of the Roman empire. (...) Gordianus, their proconsul, and the object of their choice [as emperor], refused, with unfeigned reluctance, the dangerous honour, and begged with tears that they should suffer him to terminate in peace a long and innocent life, without staining his feeble age with civil blood. Their menaces compelled him to accept the Imperial purple, his only refuge indeed against the jealous cruelty of Maximin (...)."

Because of the absence of accurate dating in the literary sources, the precise chronology of these events has been the subject of much study. The present consensus among historians assigns the following dates (all in the year 238 A.D.) to these events: March 22nd Gordian I, II were proclaimed Emperors in Africa; April 1st or 2nd they were recognized at Rome; April 12th they were killed (after reigning twenty days); April 22nd Pupienus and Balbinus were proclaimed Emperors; June 24th Maximinus and his son were assassinated outside of Aquileia; July 29th Pupienus and Balbinus were assassinated and Gordian III proclaimed as sole Augustus.
3 commentsNemonater
HUN_Bela_II_Huszar_49.JPG
Huszár 49; Toth-Kiss 13.1.1 sigla b2.1/7; Unger 44; Réthy I 57; Frynas H.11.2; Adamovszky A85; Kovács pp. 191 ff.80 viewsHungary. Béla II, the Blind (1131-1141)

AR denar (average: .39 g., 10.0-11.5 mm.), .26 g., 11.06 mm. max., 90°

Obv: HD RE, Crowned head facing, between two lilies.

Rev: + LADLAVS RE, cross with wedges.

Struck in Esztergom.

Huszár rarity 9, Toth-Kiss rarity 25, Unger rarity 35, Frynas rarity S.

Ladislaus/László I (1077-1095) was canonized in 1192. His name typically appeared, albeit in an increasingly decaying form, on the reverse of 12th century emissions such as this.
Stkp
HUN_Bela_II_Huszar_50.JPG
Huszár 50; Toth-Kiss 13.4 sigla a1c1.4/220; Unger 43; Réthy I 59; Frynas H.11.1; Adamovszky A89; Kovács pp. 193 ff.61 viewsHungary. Béla II, the Blind (1131-1141)

AR denar (average: .37 g., 11.0-12.0 mm.), .34 g., 12.03 mm. max.

Obv: REX BELA, Crowned head facing.

Rev: Lines instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.

Struck in Esztergom.

Huszár rarity 2, Toth-Kiss rarity 20, Unger rarity 5, Frynas rarity C.
Stkp
HUN_Bela_II_Huszar_53.JPG
Huszár 53; Toth-Kiss 13.7 sigla d1.1/36; Unger 45; Réthy I 61; Frynas H.11.3; Adamovszky A92; Kovács pp. 194 ff.28 viewsHungary. Béla II, the Blind (1131-1141)

AR denar (average: .19 g., 9.0-11.0 mm.), .14 g., 9.94 mm. max.

Obv: + BELA RX, surrounding three vertical bars ending in crosses.

Rev: Lines and wedges instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.

Struck in Esztergom.

Huszár rarity 7, Toth-Kiss rarity 35, Unger rarity 24, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
HUN_Bela_II_Huszar_54.JPG
Huszár 54; Toth-Kiss 13.8 sigla a3.7/41-42; Unger 50; Réthy I 56; Frynas H.11.8; Adamovszky A83; Kovács pp. 196 ff43 viewsHungary. Béla II, the Blind (1131-1141)

AR denar (average: .21 g., 10.5 mm.), .19 g., 10.53 mm. max.

Obv: Three columns, above them two crescents, E-E to the sides.

Rev: Lines and crescents instead of an inscription, cross with four wedges.

Struck in Esztergom.

Huszár accepted the attribution of this emission to Béla II “only with reservation.” It had been attributed by Réthy (in 1899) to Stephen II (István II in Hungarian) (1116-1131) and by Hóman (in 1916) to Béla II, which attribution was accepted by Unger (in 1958). More recently, Frynas but apparently not Toth-Kiss, shares Huszár's reservations.

Huszár rarity 9, Toth-Kiss rarity 40, Unger rarity 30, Frynas rarity N. Toth-Kiss catalog number and position (between 41 and 42) for unrecorded sigla assigned by József Géza Kiss via personal email communication on December 14, 2018.
Stkp
Chandragupta_II,_Gold_Dinar,_7_75g,_Archer_type.jpg
India, Gupta Empire, Chandragupta II, Gold Dinar, Archer Type78 viewsGupta Empire, Chandragupta II Vikramaditya, Gold Dinar, 7.75g, Archer type

The above coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya is a celebration of the exquisite and sublime skills of the artist who designed the die for this coin which demonstrates why the Gupta Age is called the golden period of Indian history. This time period saw all round development in science, astronomy, poetry, sculptor, metallurgy etc and coinage was no different with original coins bearing Indian motifs introduced by the Guptas.

The above coin is more of a tribute to the skills and artistry of the die engraver than the image that the coin itself bears. In the above coin, the die cutter has managed to achieve the following objectives simultaneously:

1. The features of the King is portrayed as extremely youthful. 'Chir-Yauvana' or Eternal Youth is an elixir that mankind, and more so the Ruler, has sought since time immemorial. This coin shows how the die cutter wishes the King to be remembered amongst his subjects and for posterity as a handsome youthful King.

2. The body of the King is lithe, supple, muscular and well proportioned. This complements and brings out the relative youthfulness of the King. I can almost visualize the thoughts running in the die engravers mind as he thinks of the message to be conveyed by this coin 'Hail the King, Glory be to Him, our benevolent King, our Protector, the Strong and Valiant Chandragupta'.

3. The King exudes an aura of energy, vigour and vitality even as he stands in the 'dvibhanga' pose (head and torso inclined to the right with lower limbs in opposite direction, a common feature applied in Indian sculptor and classical dance, especially Odissi). The King appears calm, composed and serene. This is a delicate balance that has admirably been achieved by the die cutter. You can actually sense the King trying to communicate with you and about to step out of the coin to hold your hand and draw you back into time.

4. The King holding a Bow in his left arm while drawing an Arrow from his right hand only accentuates the powerful image of the King as a young, energetic warrior who is well disposed and endowed with the bodily strength to overcome his enemies and detractors. Symbolically, the bow and arrow represent the female and male energy as also love and death-wish, respectively. It is well acknowledged that a person has manifestations of both the feminine and masculine aspects that reveal themselves interchangeably. The soft features of the King together with his slender frame accentuates the feminine aspect while the weapons of war amplifies his masculinity. The die engraver has blended these two concepts perfectly.

5. The swaying 'mudra' or pose of the standing King is a feature of Gupta coins to reflect the King as divine and higher than a mere mortal as a man's body is imperfect being straight, rigid and stiff. The graceful sway is achieved by giving a curve or twist at the neck (head) and waist (out thrust hips), the Dvibhanga pose, or the neck, waist and knee, the Tribhanga pose. This is done to reflect that the King's body is aligned alike to the statues of the Gods and Goddesses at the temple with which the common man can more closely associate the King's divinity. The die cutter has achieved this admirably.

6. Similarly, the image of the Goddess on the Reverse is slim and sensual without being erotic. The Goddess holds a flower by a short stalk in her upraised left arm, a 'pasa' or noose in her right hand and sits in the yogic 'Padmasana' posture atop a Lotus. It must be remembered that these symbols on the coin are a depiction of the iconographic manifestation of the ancient Hindu philosophy. The Lotus flower blooms amidst the muck and filth of muddy swamps and marshes and symbolizes man's ability to rise, similar to the Lotus flower, from the dark depths of ignorance and gain happiness with the beauty and radiance of spiritual knowledge. The open flowers of the Lotus that blossoms and spreads out signifies the Sun, an essential life nourishing source as well as the light that destroys ignorance and illuminates wisdom. The 'pasa' (noose or lasso) signifies an attachment to worldly matters as well as the capability of the God to capture evil and (blind) ignorance.

Its a pity we do not have any details of the die engravers name in the historical records but given the finesse and fine style achieved in executing the portrayal of the King on the coin, I am certain he must have been a person held in high esteem for his die engraving skills. Perhaps he may even have been the same person who was also the chief architect of the fabulous temples built during the reign of Gupta Kings.

All in all, this is a great masterpiece of the Gupta miniature art on a Gold Coin of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya. It is my all time favourite coin simply because of the beautiful rendition of the Kings feature, body, posture and message it seeks to convey.
2 commentsmitresh
Jan_I_k~0.jpg
Jan I (John the Blind of Luxembourg), AD 1310-13465 viewsAR Prague Groschen (Prager Groschen), 3.2g, 29mm, 19h; Kutná Hora mine and mint, 1300 onwards.
Obv.: Crown surrounded by two concentric legends, inner IOHANNES PRIMVS, outer DEI GRATIA REX BOEHME,
Rev.: ++GROSSI:PRAGENSES*; Lion rampant left.
Reference: Fiala 817; Saurma 396
John Anthony
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Lays of Ancient Rome107 viewsDate: Undated, circa 1880
Size: 6-3/4 x 8-1/2 in., 222 pages

Written by Thomas Babington Macaulay
James Miller, Publisher

Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron Macaulay (1800 – 1859) was a British poet, historian and politician. He published this series of popular ballads about heroic episodes in Roman history in 1842.
The tiltle page of this handsomely produced book states this to be a "New Edition" generously illustrated with wood engravings by George Scharf. There is also a tissue-protected front portrait engraving of Macaulay.
James Miller published in New York City from the 1860s to the 1890s. An 1877 "Publisher's Weekly" contains a small announcement that "James Miller, publisher and bookseller, will remove May 1st from his present quarters to 779 Broadway." This dates the book after the 1877 move.
CONDITION: Near Fine. This is an unusually well-preserved copy of a beautifully designed book. It is clean and tightly bound in a hardcover of chocolate-brown cloth with finely detailed gilt, black and blind stamping: gilt and black on front cover and spine, blind stamping on rear cover. Deep brown endpapers match the cloth color. All page edges are gilt.
1 commentsNoah
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LUXEMBOURG 1946 50 FRANCS SILVER UNC COIN11 viewsGrand Duchy – Charlotte (1919 – 1964)
Obv: PRINZ • JEAN • VU • LETZEBURG / • 50 F •, bare head left of Prince Jean, small arms at lower left and right

Rev: • JANG • DE • BLANNEN • mounted armored figure of John The Blind riding right, his sword drawn. Below: 26 – VIII – / 1346-1946, at lower right,
Antonivs Protti
JCT_National_Association_for_the_Jewish_Blind.JPG
National Association for the Jewish Blind76 viewsAE token, 31.5 mm., undated.

Obv: ••••• NATIONAL ASSOCIATION ••••• and FOR THE JEWISH BLIND in border along rim, man and woman walking with a cane in center.

Rev: HAPPINESS / YOU / WILL FIND in three rows above heart and WHEN YOU HELP THE BLIND below heart along rim.

Ref: None known.

Note: No information is known about this organization.
Stkp
JCT_National_Association_for_the_Jewish_Blind_2.JPG
National Association for the Jewish Blind190 viewsAE token, 31.5 mm., undated?

Obv: ••• NATIONAL ASSOCIATION ••• and FOR THE JEWISH BLIND N.Y.C. 58 in border along rim, Light, above crowd of people reaching upward toward rays of light, in center.

Rev: THIS / MEDALLION / IS AWARDED / IN APPRECIATION / FOR YOUR AID / IN THE CAUSE /OF THE BLIND in SEVEN rows, laurel leaves along rim.

Ref: None known.

Note: No information is known about this organization.
Stkp
Numerian_33.jpg
S99 viewsNumerian as Caesar Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 361, Rome, scarce
Date: AD 282
Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI I-VVENTVT, Prince stg. l. holding baton and scepter
"delta" KA in exergue
Size: 21.1 mm
Weight: 3.2 grams

After the sudden death of Carus in August AD 283, the command of the Persian expedition passed on to his 30 year old son, Numerian. Numerian, although a very responsible and capable man, was merely given the title of Caesar by his father, while his older brother, Carinus, governed the western provinces as joint Augustus. This was most likely due to the fact that Numerian was known for his poetry, not his ability to rule. While off on his Mesopotamian campaign, Numerian developed a serious eye infection which left him partially blind. After a successful campaign and the capture of Ctesiphon, Numerian ordered the withdrawal of Roman troops. On the return trip as they crossed Asia Minor, Numerian was allegedly murdered by his father-in-law, praetorian commander Lucius Flavius Aper. The murder remained undetected until the stench of the emperor’s rotting corpse revealed the heinous deed. Upon their arrival at Nicomedia in November AD 284, Aper was “tried” and convicted of the murder without being given much of a chance to prove his case. Aper was killed by Diocles, commander of the bodyguard, who ran him through with his sword. With Numerian dead and Aper now out of the way, the troops proclaimed Diocles, who then became known as Diocletian, as the new emperor. This would be the beginning of a brand new era in Roman history.

“Numerian, the son of Carus, was of excellent character and truly worthy to rule; he was notable, moreover, for his eloquence, so much so, in fact, that even as a boy he declaimed in public, and his writings came to be famous, though more suitable for declamation than in keeping with Cicero's style. In verse, furthermore, he is said to have had such skill that he surpassed all the poets of his time… The speech, moreover, which he sent to the senate is said to have been so eloquent that a statue was voted him not as a Caesar but as a rhetorician, to be set up in the Ulpian Library with the following inscription: ‘To Numerian Caesar, the most powerful orator of his time.’" –Historia Augusta The Lives of Carus, Carinus, and Numerian XI
1 commentsNoah
SeptimiusBrit.jpg
Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.14 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 241, RSC 542, gVF, Rome mint, AD 210; Obverse: SEVERVS PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right; Reverse: P M TR P XVIII COS III P P, Neptune standing left, holding trident dolphin, foot on globe. Ex Maridvnvm.


Septimius Severus

His health fading and weak from gout, Severus would set out one last time on military campaign. This time it was Britain which demanded the emperor's attention. The Antonine Wall had never really acted as a perfectly successful barrier to the troublesome barbarians to the north of it. By this time it had in fact been virtually abandoned, leaving the British provinces vulnerable to attack from the north. In AD 208 Severus left for Britain with his two quarrelsome sons. Large military campaigns now drove deep into Scotland but didn't really manage to create any lasting solution to the problem.

Lucius Septimius Severus died at York, England, 4 February, 211.

Throughout his reign Severus was one of the outstanding imperial builders. He restored a very large number of ancient buildings - and inscribed on them his own name, as though he had erected them. His home town Lepcis Magna benefited in particular. But most of all the famous Triumphal Arch of Severus at the Forum of Rome bears witness to his reign.
(http://www.roman-empire.net/index.html)


Septimius Severus, a native of Leptis Magna, Africa was proclaimed emperor by his troops after the murder of Pertinax. He is at the same time credited with strengthening and reviving an empire facing imminent decline and, through the same policies that saved it, causing its eventual fall. Severus eliminated the dangerous praetorians, unified the empire after turmoil and civil war, strengthened the army, defeated Rome's most powerful enemy, and founded a successful dynasty. His pay increases for the army, however, established a severe burden on Rome. Future emperors were expected to increase pay as well. These raises resulted in ever-increasing taxes that damaged the economy. Some historians believe high taxes, initiated by Severus policies, played a significant role in Rome's long-term decline. . . (Joseph Sermarini).


Severus had clear political vision, still he cared nothing for the interests of Rome and Italy. He nourished within himself the Punic hatred of the Roman spirit and instinct and furthered the provincials in every way. He was revengeful and cruel towards his opponents, and was influenced by a blindly superstitious belief in his destiny as written in the stars. With iron will he labored to reorganize the Roman Empire on the model of an Oriental despotism. . .

Severus rested his power mainly upon the legions of barbarian troops; he immortalized them upon the coinage, granted them, besides large gifts of money and the right of marriage, a great number of privileges in the military and civil service, so that gradually the races living on the borders were able to force Rome to do their will. . .

During the reign of Severus the fifth persecution of the Christians broke out. He forbade conversion to Judaism and to Christianity. The persecution raged especially in Syria and Africa.
Written by Karl Hoeber. Transcribed by Joseph E. O'Connor.
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII. Published 1912. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Silver_punchmarked_drachm,_Samprati_(216-207_BC),_Mauryan_Empire,_India_(G_H574).jpg
Silver punchmarked drachm, Samprati (216-207 BC), Mauryan Empire, India (G/H574)25 viewsFive punched symbols (shown above) / Banker's mark. 19x12mm, 3.24 grams. Pataliputra mint. Mitchiner ACW 4197-4199; Gupta/Hardaker ISPC VI IV F 145 (#574). SKU 41440

Samrat Samprati was an emperor of Maurya dynasty. He was the son of Ashoka's blind son, Kunala. He succeeded his cousin, Dasharatha as Emperor of the Maurya Empire and ruled almost the entire present-day Indian subcontinent.
_10
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
Vlasto_1464.JPG
Taras, Calabria31 views325-280 BC
AR Diobol (11mm, 0.77g)
O: Head of Athena facing slightly left, wearing triple-crested helmet decorated with Skylla; club to left, [TAPAΣ] above.
R: Herakles standing right, strangling the Nemean lion; club to left, AP monogram between Herakles legs.
Vlasto 1464; Cote 558; SNG ANS 1476; cf HN Italy 1062
Scarce
ex Marcantica Ancient Coins

There are many stories in Greek mythology regarding the goddess Athena; Her involvement in the War of the Giants, the contest with Poseidon to determine the patron of Athens, Her weaving contest with Arachne, the Judgment of Paris, and the blinding of Teiresias for viewing Her while bathing are among the most commonly known.
But it is Her assistance to Herakles during his Twelve Labors which concerns us here, the first of which, the slaying of the Nemean lion, is depicted on the reverse of this coin.
Enodia
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Thrace, Byzantium, Caracalla; 46 viewsThe origins of Byzantium are shrouded in legend. The traditional legend has it that Byzas from Megara (a town near Athens) founded Byzantium in 657 BC when he sailed northeast across the Aegean Sea. Byzas had consulted the Oracle at Delphi to ask where to make his new city. The Oracle told him to find it "opposite the blind". At the time, he did not know what this meant, but when he came upon the Bosporus he understood: on the opposite eastern shore was a Greek city, Chalcedon, whose founders were said to have overlooked the superior location only 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) away. Byzas founded his city there on the European coast and named it Byzantium after himself. It was mainly a trading city due to its location at the Black Sea's only entrance. Byzantion later conquered Chalcedon, across the Bosporus on the Asiatic side.

After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus, the city was besieged by Roman forces and suffered extensive damage in 196 AD.[4] Byzantium was rebuilt by Septimius Severus, now emperor, and quickly regained its previous prosperity. It was bound to Perinthos during the period of Septimius Severus. The location of Byzantium attracted Roman Emperor Constantine I who, in 330 AD, refounded it as an imperial residence inspired by Rome itself. (See Nova Roma.) After his death the city was called Constantinople (Greek Κωνσταντινούπολις or Konstantinoupolis) ("city of Constantine"). It remained the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, which is called the Byzantine Empire by modern historians.
ecoli
LeoVI_SBCV1729.jpg
[1640aii] Leo VI, the Wise, 6 January 870 - 11 May 912 A.D.54 viewsBronze follis, SBCV 1729, DO 8.6, nice VF, 5.122g, 25.3mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, c. 886 - 912 A.D.; Obverse: LEON bASILVS ROm, bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia in left hand; Reverse: + LEON/En QEO bA/SILVS R/OMEOn, legend in four lines. Ex FORVM.

Leo VI "the Wise" or "the Philosopher" (Greek: Λέων ΣΤ΄, Leōn VI), (September 19, 866 – May 11, 912) was Byzantine emperor from 886 to 912 during one of the most brilliant periods of the state's history.

Background
Leo was born to Eudokia Ingerina who was at the time mistress of Emperor Michael III and wife of his Caesar Basil. Which of the two men was his father is uncertain. He was officially acknowledged by Basil as his son, but he apparently regarded Leo as Michael's son and favored his undisputedly biological son Constantine.

On the night of September 23-September 24, 867, Michael was assassinated by Basil who succeeded him as Emperor Basil I. As the second eldest son of the Emperor, Leo was associated on the throne in 870 and became the direct heir on the death of his older half-brother Constantine in 879. However, he and his father hated each other and Basil almost had Leo blinded as a teenager. On August 29, 886, Basil died in a hunting accident, though he claimed on his deathbed that there was an assassination attempt in which Leo was possibly involved.

Domestic Policy
One of the first actions of Leo VI after his succession was the reburial of Michael III in Constantinople, which may have contributed to the suspicion that he was Michael's son. Seeking political reconciliation, the new emperor secured the support of the officials in the capital, and surrounded himself with bureaucrats like Stylianos Zoutzes and the eunuch Samonas. His attempts to control the great aristocratic families (e.g., the Phokadai and the Doukai) occasionally led to serious conflicts. Leo also attempted to control the church through his appointments to the patriarchate. He dismissed the Patriarch Photios of Constantinople, who had been his tutor, and replaced him with his own 19-year old brother Stephen in December 886. On Stephen's death in 893, Leo replaced him with Zaoutzes' nominee, Antony II Kaleuas, who died in 901. Leo then promoted his own imperial secretary (mystikos) Nicholas, but replaced him with his spiritual father Euthymios in 907.

Leo completed work on the Basilica, the Greek translation and update of the law code issued by Justinian I, which had been started during the reign of Basil.

Foreign Policy
Leo VI was not as successful in battle as Basil had been. In indulging his chief counselor Stylianos Zaoutzes, Leo provoked a war with Simeon I of Bulgaria in 894, but was defeated. Bribing the Magyars to attack the Bulgarians from the north, Leo scored an indirect success in 895. However, deprived of his new allies, he lost the major Battle of Boulgarophygon in 896 and had to make the required commercial concessions and to pay annual tribute.

The Emirate of Sicily took Taormina, the last Byzantine outpost on the island of Sicily, in 902. In 904 the renegade Leo of Tripolis sacked Thessalonica with his Muslim pirates (an event described in The Capture of Thessalonica, by John Kameniates). In 907 Constantinople was attacked by the Kievan Rus' under Oleg of Novgorod, who was seeking favourable trading rights with the empire. Leo paid them off, but they attacked again in 911, and a trade treaty was finally signed. The admiral Himerios, a relative of Leo's last wife, Zoe Karbonopsina scored some successes against the Muslim fleets in 908 and raided Cyprus in 910, but in 912 a fleet of 112 dromons and 75 pamphyloi was soundly defeated in its attempt to conquer Crete.

Fourth Marriage Dispute
Leo VI caused a major scandal with his numerous marriages which failed to produce a legitimate heir to the throne. His first wife, whom Basil had forced him to marry, died in 897, and he married Zoe Zaoutzaina, the daughter of his adviser Stylianos Zaoutzes, though she died as well in 899. Upon this marriage Leo created the title of basileopatōr ("father of the emperor") for his father-in-law.

After Zoe's death a third marriage was technically illegal, but he married again, only to have his third wife die in 901. Instead of marrying a fourth time, which would have been an even greater sin than a third marriage (according to the Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos) Leo took as mistress, Zoe Karbonopsina. He married her only after she had given birth to a son in 905, but incurred the opposition of the patriarch. Replacing Nicholas Mystikos with Euthymios, Leo got his marriage recognized by the church, but opened up a conflict within it and allowed new grounds for papal intervention into Byzantine affairs when he sought and obtained papal consent.

Succession
The future Constantine VII was the illegitimate son born before Leo's uncanonical fourth marriage to Zoe Karbonopsina. To strengthen his son's position as heir, Leo had him crowned as co-emperor on May 15, 908, when he was only two years old. Leo VI died on May 2, 912. He was succeeded by his younger brother Alexander, who had reigned as emperor alongside his father and brother since 879.

Legends
According to Bishop Liutprand of Cremona, and probably inspired by stories about the caliph Harun al-Rashid, Leo would sometimes disguise himself and look for injustice or corruption. On one account, he was even captured by the city guards during one of his investigations. He wanted to know if the city patrol was doing its job appropriately. He was walking alone, disguised, late in the evening without any documentation. He bribed two patrols for 12 nomismata, and moved on. However, the third city patrol arrested him. When a terrified guardian recognized the jailed ruler in the morning, the arresting officer was rewarded for doing his duty, while the other patrols were dismissed and punished severely.

As John Julius Norwich notes in his book A Short History of Byzantium, "He [Leo VI] had proved himself, if not a great Emperor, at any rate an outstandingly good one . . . In his lifetime Leo was genuinely loved by his people, and after his death they had good cause to be grateful" (Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1997. 165).

References
The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leo_VI_the_Wise

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AnonAEFolSear1867.jpg
[1655a] Anonymous follis of Christ, class G, Romanus IV, 1 January 1068 - 19 August 1071 A.D.40 viewsAnonymous Bronze Follis, Sear-1867, Class-G, Attributed to Romanos IV Diogenes, struck 1068-1071 at Constantinople, 7.87 grams, 24.7 mm. VF. Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction and holding the book of Gospels in left hand, border of large pellets. Reverse: Facing bust of the Virgin orans, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium, border of large pellets. Well centered and struck on a broad flan with nice details and choice eye appeal. Deep brown patina with reddish earthen highlights adds to the eye appeal.

Romanos IV Diogenes

Romanus also spelled Romanos Byzantine emperor (January 1, 1068–1071), a member of the Cappadocian military aristocracy.

In 1068 Romanus married Eudocia Macrembolitissa, widow of the emperor Constantine X Ducas. He led military expeditions against the Seljuq Turks but was defeated and captured by them at the Battle of Manzikert (1071). On his release Romanus found that Constantine X's son had been crowned sole ruler as Michael VII Ducas. Romanus was blinded and exiled to the island of Prote in the Sea of Marmara, where he died ("Romanus IV Diogenes." Encyclopćdia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopćdia Britannica Online. 16 Apr. 2008 ).

Romanus IV, Diogenes was the second husband of Eudocia, who it would seem, married him to supply the Byzantine Empire with an emperor. Eudocia was serving as regent, but conditions required an emperor, thus the marriage to the general, Romanus IV. He was taken prisoner during a military campaign against the Turks and Eudocia was restored to the throne, along with her son, Michael. A position, in reality, she had probably never left (Joseph Sermarini).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Manuel1ComAR_Sear2601.jpg
[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)313 viewsEmpire of Trebizond: Manuel I, Komnenos, Silver Asper, Sear-2601, struck 1238-1263, 2.9 grams, 21.9 mm. Nice VF; Obverse: St. Eugenius standing facing, holding a long cross; Reverse: Manuel standing facing, holding labarum and akakia, Manus Dei in upper right field. Nicely centered with technically 'mint state' surfaces, but a touch of strike unevenness and irregular toning. Ex Glenn Woods.

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1218 – March 1263), Emperor of Trebizond from 1238 to 1263, surnamed the "Great Captain", was the second son of Alexios I, the first emperor of Trebizond, and Theodora Axouchina. He succeeded his brother, John I Axouchos. In spite of his alleged military abilities, Trebizond became or remained a vassal to the Seljuk Turks and, after the Battle of Köse Dag in 1243, to the Mongols of Persia. Trapezuntine forces served in the battle as Seljuk tributaries. The Seljuk forces were shattered in the defeat and the Sultanate of Iconium began to decline.

In 1253, Manuel negotiated for a dynastic alliance with King Louis IX of France, by which he hoped to secure the help of the Crusaders against the Seljuks and Laskarids of Nicaea, but Louis advised him to seek a wife from the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Jean de Joinville testifies to Manuel's wealth, saying he sent Louis: "various precious things as a gift; amongst others, bows made of the wood of the service tree, whose arrow-notches screwed into the bow, and when they were released, one saw that they were very sharp and well made."

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 revived the trade route running north from Armenia and the upper Euphrates valley to Erzerum and then through the Zigana Pass to Trebizond. This trade route caused the beginnings of Trebizond's commercial prosperity, because goods from the Silk Road were now transported to Trebizond and the Black Sea, instead of to the Mediterranean. Although some bronze coins have been attributed to Alexios I, and silver aspers were certainly coined by John I, Manuel struck both bronze coins and a large silver currency. Trapezuntine coins circulated widely outside the empire, especially in Georgia.

Manuel rebuilt the Hagia Sophia monastery in Trebizond between 1250 and 1260. Eastmond describes Manuel's church as 'the finest surviving Byzantine imperial monument of its period.' When Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261 he unsuccessfully demanded that Manuel abandon his claim to the Byzantine succession.

Manuel married three times and left several children, four of whom reigned after him. By his first wife, Anna Xylaloe, a Trapezuntine noblewoman he had:
• Andronikos II, who succeeded as emperor.

By his second wife, the Iberian princess Rusudan, he had:
• Theodora

By his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, another Trapezuntine noblewoman, he had four children:
• George
• Anonymous daughter, who married King Demetre II of Georgia
• Anonymous daughter
• John II.

The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τής Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Queen Tamar of Georgia provided troops to her nephew Alexios I, who conquered the Pontic Greek city of Trebizond, Sinope and Paphlagonia. It is often known as "the last Greek Empire."

Foundation
When Constantinople fell in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to the Western European and Venetian Crusaders, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. Alexios, a grandson of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, son of Rusudan daughter of George III of Georgia, made Trebizond his capital and asserted a claim to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I had been deposed and killed in 1185. His son Manuel was blinded and may have died of his injuries. The sources agree that Rusudan, the wife of Manuel and the mother of Alexios and David, fled Constantinople with her children, to escape persecution by Isaac II Angelos, Andronikos' successor. It is unclear whether Rusudan fled to Georgia or to the southern coast of the Black Sea where the Komnenos family had its origins. There is some evidence that the Comnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state centred on Trebizond before 1204.

The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Grand Komnenos (Megas Komnenos) and at first claimed the traditional Byzantine title of "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." After reaching an agreement with the Byzantine Empire in 1282, the official title of the ruler of Trebizond was changed to "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Transmarine Provinces" and remained such until the empire's end in 1461. The state is sometimes called The Komnenian Empire because the ruling dynasty descended from Alexios I Komnenos.

Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rise and Artvin. In the thirteenth century, the empire controlled Perateia which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. David Komnenos expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then Paphlagonia and Heraclea Pontica until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea founded by Theodore I Laskaris. The territories west of Sinope were lost to the Empire of Nicaea by 1206. Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks in 1214.

Prosperity
While Epirus effectively disintegrated in the 14th century, and the Nicaean Empire succeeded in retaking Constantinople and extinguishing the feeble Latin Empire, only to be conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Trebizond managed to outlive its competitors in Epirus and Nicaea.

Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkmen rulers of interior Anatolia.

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 made Trebizond the western terminus of the Silk Road. The city grew to tremendous wealth on the Silk Road trade under the protection of the Mongols. Marco Polo returned to Europe by way of Trebizond in 1295. Under the rule of Alexios III (1349–1390) the city was one of the world's leading trade centres and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment.

Climax and Civil War
The small Empire of Trebizond had been most successful in asserting itself at its very start, under the leadership of Alexios I (1204–1222) and especially his younger brother David Komnenos, who died in battle in 1214. Alexios' second son Manuel I (1238–1263) had preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander, but the empire was already losing outlying provinces to the Turkmen, and found itself forced to pay tribute to the Seljuks of Rum and then to the Mongols of Persia, a sign of things to come. The troubled reign of John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Trebizond reached its greatest wealth and influence during the long reign of Alexios II (1297–1330). Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations from the end of Alexios' reign until the first years of Alexios III, ending in 1355. The empire never fully recovered its internal cohesion, commercial supremacy or territory.

Decline and Fall
Manuel III (1390–1417), who succeeded his father Alexios III as emperor, allied himself with Timur, and benefited from Timur's defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) married two of his daughters to Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and to Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu; while his eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. Pero Tafur, who visited the city in 1437, reported that Trebizond had less than 4,000 troops.

John IV (1429–1459) could not help but see his Empire would soon share the same fate as Constantinople. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute.

John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. He gave his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia.

After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and misused these alliances. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues, and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother.

Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. He led a sizeable army from Brusa, first to Sinope whose emir quickly surrendered, then south across Armenia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The city held out for a month before the emperor David surrendered on August 15, 1461.

With the fall of Trebizond, the territory of "the Last Greek Empire" was extinguished.


List of Trapezuntine Emperors

• Alexios I Megas Komnenos (1204–1222)
• Andronikos I Gidos (1222–1235)
• John I Axouchos Megas Komnenos (1235–1238)
• Manuel I Megas Komnenos (1238–1263)
• Andronikos II Megas Komnenos (1263–1266)
• George Megas Komnenos (1266–1280)
• John II Megas Komnenos (1280–1284)
• Theodora Megale Komnene (1284–1285)
• John II Megas Komnenos (restored, 1285–1297)
• Alexios II Megas Komnenos (1297–1330)
• Andronikos III Megas Komnenos (1330–1332)
• Manuel II Megas Komnenos (1332)
• Basil Megas Komnenos (1332–1340)
• Irene Palaiologina (1340–1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (1341)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (restored, 1341–1342)
• John III Megas Komnenos (1342–1344)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (restored, 1344–1349)
• Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1349–1390)
• Manuel III Megas Komnenos (1390–1416)
• Alexios IV Megas Komnenos (1416–1429)
• John IV Megas Komnenos (1429–1459)
• David Megas Komnenos (1459–1461)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Trebizond
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Trebizond


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC48 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC70 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC68 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Shapur2ARDirhemGobl1a_1.jpg
[1909a] SHAPUR II, AR DIRHEM, 309 - 379 71 viewsSasanian Empire: Shapur II, AR Dirhem, 309 - 379 C.E., Gobl 1a/1, 26mm, 2.73 grams; near EF; Obverse: Crowned bust right; Reverse: Fire altar between two attendants. PRIME example and SHARP. This is the Shevor Malka mentioned in the Talmud in the story of Rabba.


Shapur II, The Great

Shapur II (The Great) was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first Golden Era since the reign of Shapur I (241–272).

Early childhood
When King Hormizd II (302–309) died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Roman Empire). The throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd II, who was Jewish. It is said that Shapur II may have been the only king in history to been crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates. But when Shapur II came of age, he turned out to be one of the greatest monarchs of the dynasty.

Conquests
During the early years of the reign of Shapur, Arabs crossed the Persian Gulf from Bahrain to "Ardashir-Khora" of Fars and raided the interior. In retaliation, Shapur led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd.He resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named him, as "Shabur Dhul-aktāf" or "Zol 'Aktāf" that means "The owner of the shoulders" after this battle. In 337, just before the death of Constantine I (324–337), Shapur II broke the peace concluded in 297 between Narseh (293–302) and Emperor Diocletian (284–305), which had been observed for forty years. A twenty-six year conflict (337–363) began in two series of wars, the first from 337 to 350. After crushing a rebellion in the south, he headed toward Mesopotamia and recaptured Armenia. From there he started his first campaign against Constantius II, a campaign which was mostly unsuccessful for Shapur II. He was unable to take the fortress of Singara in the Siege of Singara (344). Shapur II also attempted with limited success to conquer the great fortresses of Roman Mesopotamia, Nisibis (which he besieged three times in vain) and Amida.

Although often victorious, Shapur II made scarcely any progress. At the same time he was attacked in the east by nomad tribes, among whom the Xionites are named. After a prolonged struggle (353–358) they were forced to conclude a peace, and their king, Grumbates, accompanied Shapur II in the war against the Romans.

In 358 Shapur II was ready for his second series of wars against Rome, which met with much more success. In 359, Shapur II conquered Amida after a siege of seventy-three days, and he took Singara and some other fortresses in the next year (360). In 363 the Emperor Julian (361–363), at the head of a strong army, advanced to Shapur's capital at Ctesiphon and defeated a superior Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, but was killed during his retreat. His successor Jovian (363–364) made an ignominious peace, by which the districts beyond the Tigris which had been acquired in 298 were given to the Persians along with Nisibis and Singara, and the Romans promised to interfere no more in Armenia. The great success is represented in the rock-sculptures near the town Bishapur in Persis (Stolze, Persepolis, p. 141); under the hoofs of the king's horse lies the body of an enemy, probably Julian, and a supplicant Roman, the Emperor Jovian, asks for peace.

Shapur II now invaded Armenia, where he took King Arshak II, the faithful ally of the Romans, prisoner by treachery and forced him to commit suicide. He then attempted to introduce Zoroastrian orthodoxy into Armenia. However, the Armenian nobles resisted him successfully, secretly supported by the Romans, who sent King Pap, the son of Arsaces III, into Armenia. The war with Rome threatened to break out again, but Valens sacrificed Pap, arranging for his assassination in Tarsus, where he had taken refuge (374). Shapur II subdued the Kushans and took control of the entire area now known as Afghanistan. Shapur II had conducted great hosts of captives from the Roman territory into his dominions, most of whom were settled in Susiana. Here he rebuilt Susa, after having killed the city's rebellious inhabitants.

By his death in 379 the Persian Empire was stronger than ever before, considerably larger than when he came to the throne; the eastern enemies were pacified and Persia had gained control over Armenia.

Contributions
Under Shapur II's reign the collection of the Avesta was completed, heresy and apostasy punished. Shapur recovered Armenia, which he placed under military occupation. Armenia had in the meantime accepted Christianity, and Shapur, an orthodox Zoroastrian, at first persecuted the Christians but later recognized their autonomy and respected their religion. He had a large rock sculpture made near Shapur to commemorate his victory over the Romans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapur_II

Author not available, SHAPUR II., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007. Copyright 2007 Columbia University Press.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





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