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DenCritFannio.jpg
37 viewsDenarius - 86 B.C. - M. FANNIVS L. CRITONIVS Gens Critonia
Obv.: Head of Ceres right, AED PL behind.
Rev.: The two aedile seated right on subsellium, ear of corn before, PA on left, M FAN L CRT in ex.
g. 3,8 mm. 20,3x18,1
Craw. 351/1, Sear RCV 267
1 commentsMaxentius
060808vrbs01.jpg
130 viewsScotvs Capitis
coin164.jpg
19 viewsSiscia RIC 424 Jovian AE3. DN IOVIAN-VS PF AVG,
pearl diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right / VOT V
in wreath, BSISC in ex. Coin #164
cars100
star-SLG-URBS-rev_detail.jpg
54 viewsMatthew W2
aajudaeabrit.jpg
31 viewsCaesarea, Paneas. AE23.
Obv : head of Claudius
Rev : His 3 children : Antonia, Britannicus and Octavia

Ref : RPC 4842
Hen-567
This coin type seems questionable to place under the coinage of Agrippa II since the legends do not mention Agrippa and the time of minting does not conform to the other Agrippa II coins. We will notice the absence of Agrippa's name in other issues as well. At the very least, though, it was struck at Caesarea-Paneas, so it is definitely part of the city coinage. It is catalogued in The Numismatic Legacy of the Jews in the city coinage section as #208.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
star-SLG-URBS-revcracks.jpg
31 viewsMatthew W2
star-SLG-URBS.jpg
60 views2 commentsMatthew W2
Urbs_right_3.jpg
22 viewsSee additional image for close up of the lettering on the left side of the obverseMatthew W2
Urbs_right_3_letters.jpg
21 viewsclose up of lettering - see other image for full obverseMatthew W2
Urbs_right_2.jpg
20 viewsThe reverse is still a bit encrusted. Also, the lettering on the obverse does not seem consistent with "Urbs Roma" - any ideas?Matthew W2
Urbs_right_1.jpg
21 viewsStill my favorite of these!Matthew W2
Urbs_gloria.jpg
28 viewsThe seller identified this as from Trier, but now that I see the mintmark a bit clearer, I am thinking maybe it's an official issue from Heraclea?Matthew W2
roma__comemmoreative_she_woof.jpg
85 viewsROMA Commermorative 33.3-334 ap.J-C
Obv. VRBS ROMA, buste casqué et cuirassé ŕ gauche.
Rev: louve allaitant Romulus and Remus, au-dessus de deux étoiles.
Marque d'atelier:
18mm.,1,85g .,patine foncee
Heraclea
RIC VII 143 Urbs Roma Commemorative AE Reduced Follis. VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust left / She-wolf standing left, suckling twins, two stars above. Mintmark SMH officina letter and star. _1318

Antonivs Protti
bsiszzz.jpg
31 viewsSiscia
RIC VIII 99, B Constans, AE4. CONSTAN-S PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them, chi-rho on banner. Mintmark: BSIS dot in crescent. RIC VIII Siscia 99.
Patrick O3
HABSBURG_WIEN_6_Kreuzer_1800_Franz_Kopf_Krone_Doppeladler.jpg
35 viewsRDR -- Haus Habsburg

Franz II. (1792-1806-1835)

1800

6 Kreuzer (Kupfer)

Münzstätte: Wien (A)

Vs: Kopf nach rechts, darunter in Verzierung Münzzeichen (A). Umschrift: "FRANZ•II•RÖM•KAI•KÖN•Z•HU•U•BÖ•ERZH• Z•OEST•"

Rs: unter Krone Doppeladler, auf der Brust Wertzahl. Umschrift: "SECHS•KREUTZER•ERBLAENDISCH•1800•"

Gewicht: 12,4g

Durchmesser: 31 mm

Erhaltung: schön _799
Antonivs Protti
Habsburg_RDR_Taler_1780_Maria_Theresia_Polierte_Platte.jpg
31 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich

Haus Habsburg

Maria Theresia, 1740-1780

Taler 1780 (Silber)

Vs.: Büste nach rechts

Rs.: Gekrönter Doppeladler

Gewicht: 28,2g

Durchmesser: 41,5mm

Erhaltung: fein getönt, Polierte Platte-

Posthume Prägung aus den 1970er Jahren, vorallem hergestellt für den Export in die USA _2691
Antonivs Protti
Mecklenburg_Stadt_Rostock_3_Pfennig_1859_Steinhorst_Greif_Kupfer.jpg
10 viewsStadt Rostock

3 Pfennig 1859 BS ( Benjamin Steinhorst)

Greif nach links.

Rs: Wert, Jahr und Mmz.

Erhaltung: Randfehler, sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 21 mm

Gewicht: 2,8 g (Cu) _1999
Antonivs Protti
_T2eC16d,!yUE9s6NFmdkBRbsZfu)!Q~~60_1.jpg
15 viewsPirmasens (Bayern) 5 Pfennig. ohne Jahr
Vs: Wappen
Rs: Wert
Zitat: Menzel 11016
Gewicht: 1.52 g. Durchmesser: 19-20 mm
Metall: Zink. Erhaltung: Sehr schön _196
Antonivs Protti
xBS_01.jpg
169 viewsAn example of a cabinet built for a collector, and friend of mine.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
100_1889_crop.JPG
188 viewsHere is an example of a cabinet showing three different available styles of trays for storage. At the top is a standard round recess type tray....very traditional.

In the middle is an open format tray for displaying items "free form", or for items of unusual sizes/shapes such as large medals, military decorations or pocket watches.

On the bottom is a new offering; a drawer for slabs. Each drawer can hold 30 slabs from any of the three major slabbing firms; PCGS, NCG, or ANACS. Other commercial, or "DIY" slabs should also fit, provided they are no larger than any from the "big three" firms.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Album-1827_3.jpg
18 viewsISLAMIC, Anatolia & al-Jazira (Post-Seljuk). Artuqids (Mardin). Najm al-Din Alpi. AH 547-572 / AD 1152-1176. Ć Dirham (33mm, 17.13 g, 9h). Unlisted (Mardin[?]) mint. Undated issue. Diademed and draped male busts, vis-ŕ-vis; laqabs of Najm al-Din Alpi above and below; tamgha to lower left / Byzantine emperor standing facing being crowned by the Theotokos standing facing; genealogy of Najm al-Din Alpi around. Whelan Type II, 40-41; S&S Type 28; Album 1827.3; ICV 1201.
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Pseudo_Rhodian_Drachm.jpg
35 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Perseus. 179-168 B.C. AR drachm (15 mm, 2.60 g, 12 h). ca. 171/0 B.C. Aristokrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose with bud to left; in left field, club; above, magistrate's name: [ΑΡΙ]ΣΤΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. R. J. H. Ashton, ""Clubs, Thunderbolts, Torches, Stars and Caducei: more Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms from Mainland Greece and the Islands,"" NC 162 (2002), 17 (A6/P5; this coin). Toned. Very fine.
Ex Naville V (18 June 1923), 2669. British Museum Duplicate, Ex: British Museum


The Pseudo-Rhodian drachms were struck, probably by the Macedonians under Perseus but possibly by the Romans, to pay for Mercenaries from Crete and Rhodes who would have been familiar with Rhodian coinage. The coins in the name of the magistrate Aristokrates with the club symbol in the field is the largest known individual issue of pseudo-Rhodian drachms from the Third Macedonian War, and used at least twenty-nine obverse dies.
paul1888
_DSCCC3710.jpg
17 viewsivus Augustus (died AD 14). Orichalcum dupondius (30mm, 15.45 gm, 6h). Rome, under Claudius, AD 42-50. DIVVS AVGVSTVS, radiate head of the deified Augustus left between S – C /A, Livia seated to left holding grain ears in right hand and long torch wrapped in left arm. RIC (Claudius) 101 (R2). BMCRE (Claudius) 224. Cohen 93. Rare! Boldly struck on a large, heavy flan, from dies of exceptional style. Fantastic portrait and natural chocolate brown patina. Choice Extremely Fine. From The Lexington Collection. Ex UBS 78 (Basel, 9 September 2008), lot 1377. One of the first acts of Claudius, after his accession as emperor, was to propose that the late Livia, wife of Augustus, be deified. The Senate granted this honor in AD AD 42, 13 years after her death, and the appropriate celebrations were made. This attractive coin could be viewed as commemorating the event, depicting the long-deified Augustus along new, with his newly elevated wife. The work of cutting the dies was obviously considered important enough to be given to a master engraver, as both the portrait of Augustus and the graceful image of Livia are of outstanding quality.1 commentsRonald
combined~0.jpg
43 viewsHere are two views of a 10 tray cabinet I built for a collector in Singapore. I absolutely love the grain pattern!!

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
urbs_roma_1.jpg
9 viewsCommemorative Series 330-354 Follis URBS ROMA She-wolf Romulus RemusBritanikus
merged.jpg
51 viewsThis was my most ambitious project so far. There are two separate cabinets, both for the same collector. The one on the left contains 5 drawers each capable of holding 60 slabs. The other is a 45 tray cabinet with a variety of tray configurations, and a total capacity of over 2,200 raw coins. They were shipped in four boxes weighing approximately 215 pounds, total. (The pictures were taken at different times and in slightly different lighting conditions, which tends to make them look different in color, but they actually matched quite well.)

www.CabinetsByCraig.net.
2 commentscmcdon0923
rjb_wolf1_01_05.jpg
76 Trier72 viewsLRBC I 76
RIC VII 553
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_wolf2_01_05.jpg
85 Trier60 viewsLRBC I 85
RIC VII 561
2 commentsmauseus
con336s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII Rome 33628 viewsConstantine II, AE follis, 18mm, 2.3 g. Rome.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERCITVS, two soldiers standing, heads facing each other with two standards between them and each holds a spear and hand resting on a shield.
Mintmark RBS, Rome. 337-340 CE issue
NORMAN K
RI_161ae_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Siscia 22269 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Siscia (//Gamma SIS).
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 222
2 commentsmaridvnvm
rjb_wolf4_01_05.jpg
190 Lyon48 viewsLRBC I 190
RIC VII 247
mauseus
rjb_wolf5_01_05.jpg
190 Lyon47 viewsLRBC I 190
RIC VII 247
mauseus
rjb_wolf8_01_05.jpg
205 Lyon45 viewsLRBC I 205
RIC VII 267
mauseus
Aurelian_unident_.jpg
3 Aurelian34 viewsAURELIAN
AE Antoninianus, Siscia Mint
SECOND SPECIMEN KNOWN?
IMP CAES L DOM AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right (with huge nose) / ANNONA AVG, Annona stg. l., holding corn-ears in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. hand; at feet to l., prow of ship., P in r. field.
RIC temp #1927

Attributed with help from FORVM member Mauseus, who pointed to the following website, which indicates that this may be the second specimen known of this coin: http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/1927

UPDATE: According to S. Estiot & J. Mairat of ric.mom.fr: "It is indeed the second specimen known of RIC temp 1927, and your coin is from the same pair of dies as the coin in Zagreb (Komin hoards)."
1 commentsSosius
rjb_wolf7_01_05.jpg
371 Arles40 viewsLRBC I 371
RIC VII 368
mauseus
Constantine_RIC_VII_Siscia_120.jpg
65 Constantine I32 viewsCONSTANTINE I
AE Follis, Siscia Mint
Struck 320 AD

O: CONST-ANTINVS AVG, Helmeted cuirassed bust r.

R: VIRTVS-EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captives seated to r. and l. below, S in l. field, F/HL in r. field, BSIS* in ex.

RIC VII Siscia 120 (R3), VF, earthen highlights
Sosius
Theodosius_AE4_RIC_IX_Siscia_39b.jpg
82 Theodosius I41 viewsAE4, Siscia Mint
Bust right / Victory advancing left; mintmark BSIS
VF with earthen highlights
RIC IX Siscia 39b. Sear (2014) 20570.
1 commentsSosius
rjb_wolf9_01_05.jpg
838 Thessalonica46 viewsLRBC I 838 or 852
RIC VII 187 or 229
mauseus
Arcadius-Siscia-RIC 39c.JPG
Arcadius-Siscia-RIC 39c25 viewsArcadius, AE4, 383-408 AD, Siscia mint.
Obv: DN ARCADI-VS PF AVG, Diademmed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGGG, Victory advancing left with Wreath and palm.
BSIS in exergue, RIC 39c
13mm, 1.3 gm.
Jerome Holderman
COCK_BOTH.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 146/5 BC19 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
34 mm Thompson issue 18
Thompson catalogue:Obs Gaziantep 146?:Rev NEW?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
below control mark ME
2 magistrates : XAPΙ ΗPA
RF symbol : Cock with Palm
All within a surrounding olive wreath
cicerokid
vrbs1s.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 187 Thessalonica, AE 324 viewsObverse:VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak. Plume on front of helmet.
Reverse:She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, O on wolf's shoulder, 2 stars above.
Mintmark SMTS epsilon, 16.1 mm., 2.5 g.
Ref: RIC VII Thessalonica 187

Notes: This variation with O on wolf's shoulder
NORMAN K
cc249.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 249 Siscia18 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA: helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak, plume on front of helmet.
Reverse: no legend. She wolf standing left suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars above.
Mintmark SIS Siscia, 18.55 mm., 2.0 g.
Ref: RIC VII 249
NORMAN K
cgnt.jpg
Constantine I, RIC 180b Siscia, 307-337 CE 21 viewsObverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right.
Reverse: DN CONSTANTINI MAX, wreath with VOT / . / XX
BSIS sunburst in ex., 18.2 mm., 3.8 g.
NORMAN K
cg53.jpg
Constantius Gallus, Sirimun RIC 5312 viewsConstantius Gallus AE3
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is bare-headed, bearded, reaching backwards.
Mintmark dot BSIRM dot, 18.4 mm, 2.2 g.
NORMAN K
Dyrrhachion_Dracma.jpg
ILIRIA - DIRRAQUIO/EPIDAMNOS23 viewsAR dracma 18X16 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "MENIΣ [KOΣ ]" (Nombre de la Autoridad Monetaria que la acuńa), sobre una Vaca a der. mirando a su ternero que se amanta a izq.
Rev: "AYP / ΔIO / [NY] / [ΣIOY]" – Doble Forma estrellada, dividida por dos líneas y rodeada por una doble línea formando un contorno cuadrado.
Los diseńos del reverso de Korkyra así como de sus colonias, Apollonia (Apolonia) y Dyrrhachion (Dirraquio), han sido objeto de mucha especulación numismática. Eckhel (Doctrina numorum veterum [Vienna, 1792/3], II:155) aceptó la opinión de Laurentius Beger (Observationes Et Conjecturae In Numismata Quaedam Antiqua [Brandenburg, 1691]), que argumentó que el diseńo del reverso representa el jardín de Alkinoos, el mítico rey de Phaiakia, descrito en detalle por el poeta Homero (Od. 7.112-133). Basado en el supuesto de que mítica Phaiakia era la isla de la antigua Korkyra (mod. Corfú), y sabiendo que Korkyrans colonizaron tanto Apollonia y Dyrrhachion, Beger (ya través de él, Eckhel) concluyeron que los elementos centrales eran flores y que el diseńo general debe representar tanto el diseńo del jardín, o las puertas que conducen a ella. Más tarde, la mayoría de los numismáticos, como Böckh, Müller, Friedlander, y von Sallet, argumentaron que los elementos centrales del diseńo eran más como la estrella, mientras que Gardner favoreciendo una interpretación floral, aunque sea como una referencia a Apolo Aristaios o Nomios, no el jardín de ALKINOOS. Más recientemente, Nicolet-Pierre volvió a examinar la cuestión del diseńo del reverso en su artículo sobre la moneda arcaica de Korkyra ("Ŕ props du monnayage archaďque de Corcyre," SNR 88 [2009], pp. 2-3) y ofreció una nueva interpretación. Tomando nota de un pasaje de Tucídides (3.70.4) en la que ese autor citó la existencia en la isla de un recinto sagrado (temenos) dedicado a Zeus y ALKINOOS, sugirió que el diseńo del reverso podría haber sido inspirada por esto, y no en el jardín de ALKINOOS que detalla Homero.

Acuńación: 200 - 30 A.C.
Ceca: Dyrrhachion - Illyria (Hoy Durré en Albania)

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.I #1900 var Pag.187 – BMC Vol.7 #62-64 Pag.69 – SNG Copenhagen #467 - Maier #201 - Ceka #320
mdelvalle
DSC01795.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-42gm 15 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
DSC01834.JPG
INDIA-Panchala-Kingdom-HALF-Karshapana-INDIRAMITRA-RARE-COIN-4-6gm 13 viewsObverse Lord Indra standing on a pedestal
Reverse Three Panchala symbols in a row, with name below in Brahmi script: Indramitrasa
Date c. 1st century BCE - 1st century CE (highly uncertain)
Weight 4.78 gm.
Diameter 16 mm.
Die axis 5 o'clock
Reference MAC 4539, Shrimali Type A
Comments The Panchala series is one of the most interesting of the ancient India coin series, because it is quite long and the kings are named on them. Unfortunately, we know very little about the chronology. The order of kings is not known and even the dates of the series are still debated. It appears the series belongs in the post-Mauryan period, but further details are still unavailable.

You can see a catalog of Panchala coins on the CoinIndia website.
Antonivs Protti
jv119b.jpg
Jovian , RIC VIII 119 Sirmium, 363-364 CE17 viewsJovian AE3
Obverse: DN IOVIA NVS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT V, MVLT X within wreath on 4 lines.
BSIRM in ex. Sirmium mint, 20.7 mm, 2.8 g.
NORMAN K
jv119.jpg
Jovian , RIC VIII 119 Sirmium, 363-364 CE10 viewsJovian AE3
Obverse: DN IOVIA NVS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT V, MVLT X within wreath on 4 lines.
BSIRM in ex. Sirmium mint, 19.2 mm, 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
coin344.JPG
Philipp I, Viminacium, Moesia superior19 viewsPhilipp I Arabs AD 244-249
obv. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. PMS C - OL VIM
Moesia, draped, standing l., holding hands above bull l. and lion r.
in ex. AN VIII
AMNG I, 140; SNG München 180-5

ecoli
BOTH_ANT_7.jpg
SOLD Antiochus V11 Sidetes Tetradrachm 138-129 BC SOLD8 viewsSOLD Obs - Diademed head of Antiochus V11 in fillet border
16.32g 29mm SC 2061.4e
Antioch on the Orontes mint
Rev- Athena holding Nike presenting wreath left , right, hand on shield proping up spear
Ins- ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΙΓΕΡΟΥ surrounded by wreath
Control marks Monogram composing ΔΙ below A before Athena left Right above shield, A above M
An early Cappadocian copy emission 4 obs A14 (Krenkal & Lorber 2009) SOLD
cicerokid
valenssisciaaa.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 14b, Siscia. 367-375 CE.25 viewsObverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor advancing right, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him.
F (sym 4) in left field, A over A (sym 4) in right field.
Mintmark .BSISCB.
18.5 mm., 2.0 g. RIC IX Siscia 14b, type xxxv (unlisted fieldmarks)
NORMAN K
valiiwo.jpg
Valentinian II, RIC IX 26b Siscia, 378-383 CE34 views
Valentinian II, AE2 of Siscia
Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS IVN PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO-REIPVB, emperor standing left, holding Victory on globe, raising woman kneeling right before him.
Mintmark star BSISC dot.
RIC IX Siscia 26b; Sear 20276. 23.1 mm., 4.5 g.
NORMAN K
phallus1.JPG
45 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.92 g, 12 h)
Horse standing right; C above
Erect phallus; A V flanking
Rostovtsev -

Rostovtsev1 gathers into one group all tesserae depicting the phallus, various iterations of the word Amor, and the extremely rare pieces depicting sexual acts. He assumes that these pieces were entrance tickets to the Lupanaria, ancient brothels. This association has caused many scholars to refuse to accept tesserae as currency, as they feel that such crude themes would never have been depicted on currency. Thornton2, however, convincingly argues that, as Mercury is sometimes depicted as a herm, a statuary type consisting of a bust set on a square pedestal adorned with only genitalia, the phallus is in fact an emblem of the god in his guise as a fertility deity.


1. Rostovtzev, Mikhail. 1905. Römische Bleitesserae. Ed. C.F. Lehmann and E Kornemann. Beiträge z. Liepzig: Theodor Weicher.

2. Thornton, M. K. 1980. “The Roman Lead Tesserae : Observations on Two Historical Problems Author.” Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte 29 3: 341-3
1 commentsArdatirion
00005x00~2.jpg
72 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS, Hard Times. Political issues
CU Token (28mm, 8.74 g, 1h)
Dies by John Gibbs. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Struck 1838.
* AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE
Ship under sail right
A FRIEND */ TO THE CONSTITUTION
Bull standing right
Rulau HT 24; Low 66
Ardatirion
00001x00~9.jpg
44 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Belleville, New Jersey. John Gibbs, manufacturer
CU Token. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Struck circa 1838.
* AGRICULTURE AND COMMERCE, ship under sail right
J GIBBS MANUFACTURER/ [OF]/ MEDALS/ AND/ TOKENS/ &C/ NJ/ * BELLEVILLE
Rulau HT 202; Low 150

Ex Robert Williams Collection (Steve Hayden, 11 December 2016), lot 363; Steve Hayden (2 December 2012), lot 585
Ardatirion
00005x00~3.jpg
85 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Belleville, New Jersey. Tobias D. Seaman, butcher
CU Token. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by Gibbs. Struck 1837.
T. D. SEAMAN BUTCHER./ * BELLEVILLE *. Bouquet.
* A FRIEND */ TO THE CONSTITUTION, Bull standing right; c/m: minute D above.
Rulau HT 204B; Low 155

Ex Don Miller Collection; William Dunham Collection (B. Max Mehl, 3 August 1941), lot 2713


Tobias Seaman was apparently not primarily engaged as a butcher, finding more success as a hotelier. He was the proprietor of Mansion House in Belleville and, later, of the Mechanic's Hotel in Newark circa 1845-1851, and the South Ward Hotel thereafter. For a brief time he was also the owner of a stage line to New York and, "a horseman of great noteriety."(W. Shaw, History of Essex and Hudson Counties, New Jersey. New York, 1884. p. 890-a)
Ardatirion
00006x00~1.jpg
77 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. New York, New York. John H. Dayton, Union Steam Washing.
CU Token (28.5mm, 9.85 g, 12 h) Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Dated 1837
Laureate head of Liberty right; above, E. PLURIBUS UNUM on ribbon; thirteen stars around; 1837; c/m: small D above, '61' in white ink to left
* JAY. H. DAYTONS. UNION STEAM WASHING EST./ * 17th St. NEAR 5th AVENUE * NY/, WASHING/ DONE FOR/ SHIPS. ST BOATS/ HOTELS &/ PRIVATE FAMILIES
Rulau HT 249, Low 114

Ex Don Miller Collection; William Dunham Collection (B. Max Mehl, 3 August 1941), lot 2680
Ardatirion
islamic_2.jpg
65 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. 'Ali bin al-Hasan. Late 5th century AH / 11th century AD
Ć Fals (21mm, 2.68 g, 3 h). Kilwa Kisiwani mint.
Inscription in two lines; star at center
Inscription in three lines
Album 1180; Walker, Kilwa 12; SICA 10, 589-91; Zeno 87054 (this coin)

Acquired in the 1960's, likely through circulation in Dar-es-Salaam.

Chittick ("On the Chronology of the sultans of Kilwa" in NC 13, 1973), the excavator of Kilwa Kisiwani, notes that these issues were found in the earliest stratigraphic layers and accordingly reassigns them to the first sultan of Kilwa. Walker and Freeman-Grenville gave them to an otherwise unattested 13th century ruler of the same name. However, the picture is muddled by finds from the excavations at Songo Mnara, occupied only between the 14th and 16th centuries, where this type was among the most numerous to be found. The type is unlikely to have remained in circulation for such a long period and may been reissued by subsequent rulers.
Ardatirion
00002x00~1.jpg
72 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Bas (Lower) Canada. Banque du Peuple du Montreal.
CU Sou Token (28mm, 8.73 g, 11h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Struck 1838.
AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE/ * BAS CANADA *
Bouquet BANQUE DU PEUPLE./ MONTREAL.
UN SOU within wreath of oak leaves
Charlton LC-5A3; Corteau 17; Breton 715
Ardatirion
00002x00~5.jpg
26 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Bas (Lower) Canada. Montreal.
CU Sou Token (27mm, 6.59 g, 12h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Struck 1838/9 or later.
AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE/ * BAS CANADA *, bouquet
UN/ SOU within wreath; TOKEN above, MONTREAL below
Charlton LC-27A1; Breton 710; Corteau 43B
Ardatirion
00001x00~7.jpg
27 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Bas (Lower) Canada. Montreal.
CU Sou Token (27mm, 6.79 g, 12h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Struck 1838/9 or later.
AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE/ * BAS CANADA *, bouquet
UN/ SOU within wreath; TOKEN above, MONTREAL below
Charlton LC-28; Breton 702; Corteau 29B
Ardatirion
00024x00.jpg
47 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Bas (Lower) Canada. Montreal.
CU Sou Token (28mm, 8.73 g, 11h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Struck 1838/9 or later.
AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE/ * BAS CANADA *, bouquet
UN/ SOU within wreath; TOKEN above, MONTREAL below
Charlton LC-32B; Breton 692; Corteau 32B

Ex G.F. Landon Collection (Moore Numismatic Auctions, 10 February 2015), lot 60 (part of)
Ardatirion
00091x00.jpg
94 viewsCANADA, Tokens. Nova Scotia. William IV. King of Great Britain, 1830-1837.
CU Penny Token (34.5 mm, 14.27 g, 6 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835.
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
ONE PENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-4A2; Breton 870

Canadian catalogs traditionally give this issue to an illicit mint in Montreal. Wayne Jacobs1 argues that these were struck in Belleville. While his methodology is somewhat questionable - most of his theory is based off a unreliable editorial in an 1893 edition of the Newark Sunday Call - his reasoning regarding this series is sound. He is able to clearly demonstrate that the halfpenny and penny tokens in question are a product of a single, cohesive establishment which could not have been located in Lower Canada. Finally, Jacobs' claim can be supported by documentary evidence from the Belleville mint's primary competitor, the Scoville Company of Waterbury, Connecticut. A letter from J.M.L. to W.H. Scoville, dated April 4 1839, states that, "a competitor was stamping Canada Nova Scotia and Southern coins at 35 cents a pound."

1. Jacobs, Wayne. 1996. “The Shadowy Issues of the Belleville Mint.” Canadian Numismatic Journal 41 1: 13–26.
1 commentsArdatirion
00002x00~2.jpg
82 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent (28.5mm, 10.38 g, 1h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by Gibbs. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA. Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 2/B; Colver & Harley 2; KM Tn 1
Ardatirion
00057x00.jpg
32 viewsPHILIPPINES, Insular Government. 1901-1935.
Proof CU Half Centavo (18mm, 2.63 g, 6h)
Philadelphia mint. Dated 1903.
· UNITED STATES OF AMERICA · 1903
Eagle standing facing atop shield, head left, with wings spread, clutching a palm branch and bundle of arrows
HALF CENTAVO FILIPINAS
Male figure seated against anvil, resting hammer; in distance, Mt. Mayon
Allen 1.01; cf. Basso 110 (for business strike)

Ex Cookie Jar Collectibles MBS X (31 July 2007), lot 270
1 commentsArdatirion
byzantine_tessera.jpg
32 viewsBYZANTINE. Simaias and Xenon. Circa 6th century AD
PB Tessera (20mm, 7.24 g, 12 h)
Block monogram: CIMAIAC
Block monogram: XENΩNOC
BLS -; DOCBS -

Found in Israel
Ardatirion
valentinien1-votvmvltx-sirmium.JPG
RIC.8.2 Valentinian I (AE3, Vot V Mvlt X)14 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
AE3 : Vot V Mvlt X (364, Sirmium)

bronze, 19 mm diameter, 3.56 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VOT / V / MVLT / X / BSIRM in exergue; in wreath
Droger
valentinien1-silique-urbs-roma-treves.JPG
RIC.27d1 Valentinian I (siliqua, Vrbs Roma)10 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
Siliqua : Vrbs Roma (367-375, Trčves)

silver, 17 mm diameter, 1.79 g, die axis: 7 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VRBS - ROMA / TRPS• in exergue, Roma seating on cuirass, head left, holding globe and spear
Droger
valentinien1-gloria-romanorvm-siscia.JPG
RIC.14a.xxv Valentinian I (AE4, Gloria Romanorvm)10 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
AE4: Gloria Romanorvm (367-375, Siscia, 2ond officine)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.00 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA RO-MANORVM / BSISCS in exergue / Q|*RO in the field; emperor advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
Droger
valens-secvritas-reipvblicae.JPG
RIC.7(abs) Valens (AE3, Secvritas Rei Pvblicae)25 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Nummus AE3 : Secvritas Rei Pvblicae (364-367, Siscia)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.52 g, die axis: 6h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE / ΓSISC in exergue ; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Droger
valens-gloria-siscia.JPG
RIC.5b.vii Valens (AE3, Gloria Romanorvm)13 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Nummus AE3 : Gloria Romanorvm (364-367, Siscia, 2ond officine)

bronze, 19 mm diameter, 1.84 g, die axis: 7h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ GLORIA RO-MANORVM / DBSISC in exergue / *A in the field on the right; emperor advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum
Droger
valens-silique-urbs-roma.JPG
RIC.27e1 Valens (siliqua, Vrbs Roma)17 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Siliqua : Vrbs Roma (367-375, Trčves)

silver (900 ‰), 17 mm diameter, 1.96 g, die axis: 7h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VRBS - ROMA / TRPS• in exergue; Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear
Droger
louis1-denier-melle-lin.JPG
D.609 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)49 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.48 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ META / . / LLVM

Louis' deniers correspond to his father's (Charles the Great) ``novus denarius'', whose weight is supposed to be near 1.7 g with a certain variability.

This denier is typical of Class 2 of Louis' coinage (819-822).
A circular inscription of the name of the ruler surrounds a cross pattée on the observe. The quite surprising Hlvdovvicvs initially comes from the germanic name Chlodowig ("Clovis"). This one was first transcribed to latin as Chlodowicvs. The initial C then disappeared, which explains the H at the beginning. The w(=vv) finally became a standard v, which gave Lvdovicvs (Louis). The imperial title imp is also given.

The reverse consists of the mint name, in field. The mint name may be split in 2 or 3 lines.
Droger
louis1-obole-melle-lin.JPG
D.613var Louis the Pious (obol, Melle, class 2)34 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 0.74 g, 17 mm diameter, die axis 9 h

O/ LVDO / VVIC
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

As the value of a denier was quite important (a sheep typically cost 10 deniers during Charles the Great's reign), a smaller coin was needed. Clearly speaking, an obol is a half-denier. The carolingian coinage is typically one of silver deniers and obols. Obols and deniers were usually produced by pairs of the same kind.

Contrary to the related denier, the name of the ruler is here in the field and the mint name surrounds a cross pattée.
The absence of the imperial title made think that the coin had been struck when Louis was king of Aquitaine (before the death of Charles the Great). However there are similar obols with out of Aquitain mints. The absence of the imperial title (as well as an abbreviated name Lvdovvic instead of Hlvdovvicvs) may be due to a lack of space.
Droger
louis1-denier-melle-circ.JPG
D.611 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)33 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.77 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 6 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

The obsverse is similar to the previous denier. The difference is that the mint name is around a cross pattée on the reverse. This type is scarer than the one with the mint name in the field. The presence of both types in a hoard shows that both date from the beginning of Louis' reign and belong to the same Class 2.
Grierson and Blackburn suggest that this difference is due to a misunderstanding of the mint instructions.
Droger
louis1-obole-2xlegchret.JPG
D.abs Louis the Pious (obol, class 3)19 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (unknown mint in the south-east of France?, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 0.77 g, 15 mm diameter, die axis 5 h

O/ +PISTIΛNΛ PI; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +OPISTIΛNΛ PE; cross pattée

This obol may be due to a double reverse error because of the absence of the sovereign's name and the legend repetition on both sides. However several dies were used to strike this type (I could find 3 obverse and 3 reverse dies), one side always bears 4 pellets as the other does not. One of the reverse dies is associated to the more typical obverse legend +HLVDOVVICVS I. Consequently an error does not seem to be likely. Because of hoard localizations, these obols seem to come from a single mint, in the south-east of France (Lyon, Arles?).
1 commentsDroger
gratien-silique-vrbs-roma-treves.JPG
RIC.46 Gratian (siliqua, Vrbs Roma)25 viewsGratian, western roman emperor (367-383)
Siliqua: Virtvs Romanorvm (367-378 or 378-383, Treves mint)

silver, 16 mm diameter, 1.64 g, die axis: 7 h

A/ D N GRATIA-NVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VRBS-ROMA/TRPS in exergue; Roma seating on cuirass, head left, holding globe and spear
1 commentsDroger
louis7-denier-bourges.JPG
Dy.134 Louis VII (the Young): denier (Bourges)27 viewsLouis VII, king of the Franks (1137-1180)
Denier (Bourges)

Billon, 0.70 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h30
O/ +LVDOVICVS REX; facing bearded and crowned head of the king
R/ +VRBS BI - TVRICA; latine flowered cross that interrups the legend

This type of coin with the king's face is quite unusual for the Capetian coinage. However, it was hard to recognize the king's face !
Droger
louis9-denier-tournois.JPG
Dy.193A Louis IX (Saint Louis): denier tournois34 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Denier tournois (1250-1270)

Billon (229 ‰), 0.95 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h30
O: +LVDOVICVS.REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois

The difference between the deniers tournois of the first and second part of Saint Louis' reign is the absence or presence of an S at the end of CIVI(S) on the reverse.
Droger
valentinien2-reparatio-siscia.JPG
RIC.26b4 Valentinian II (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)20 viewsValentinian II, western roman emperor (375-392)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Siscia mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 5,76 g, die axis: 8 h,

A/ D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / BSISC. in exergue; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand
Droger
postume-salvs-provinciarvm-1ere-emission.JPG
RIC.abs Postumus: antoninianus (Salvs Provinciarvm)10 viewsPostumus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (260-269)
Antoninianus: Salvs Provinciarvm (1st emission, 1st phase, 260, Trčves)

Billon (200 ‰), 2.19 g, diameter 23 mm, die axis 6h

A/ IMP C M CASS LAT POSTIMVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SALVS PROVINCIARVM; the Rhine god recumbent left, right hand on vessel and left hand holding a scepter or a reed

EG.1
Droger
rome-arles-SCONST_.JPG
RIC.351 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Arles)12 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (330-331, Arles mint, 2ond officine)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 2.30 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, [S]CONST* in exergue

Ferrando II 958 (C3)
Droger
rome-arles-rameau-pconst.JPG
RIC.368 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Arles, branch)16 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (331-332, Arles mint, 1st officine)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.53 g, die axis: 7 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above and a branch between, PCONST in exergue

Ferrando II 960 (C3)
Droger
rome-arles-couronne-pconst.JPG
RIC.373 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Arles, wreath)21 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (332-333, Arles mint, 1st officine)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 1.97 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above and a wreath between, PCONST in exergue

Ferrando II 962 (C3)
1 commentsDroger
rome-arles-X-PCON.JPG
RIC.abs Rome commemorative (AE4, Vrbs Roma, Arles, X)19 viewsRome commemorative
AE4 (339-340, Arles mint)

bronze, 14 mm diameter, 1.44 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, X between them, PCON in exergue

The exergue may be PCON or PCONST. The lack of space and the dots on the visor of the helmet suggest it is rather PCON.

Ferrando II 979 (R1)
Droger
rome-_plc.JPG
RIC.267 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma, Lyon)19 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (333-334, Lyon mint)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 1.90 g, die axis: 12 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, *PLC in exergue
Droger
rome-tr_p.JPG
RIC.542 Rome commemorative (AE3, Vrbs Roma)14 viewsRome commemorative
AE3 (332-333, Trčves mint)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.60 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ VRBS ROMA; helmeted and mantled bust of ROMA, left
R/ She-wolf with twins, two stars above, TR•P in exergue
Droger
raoul-orleans.JPG
D.abs Rudolph (denier, Orléans)49 viewsRudolph (or Raoul, Radulf), king of the Franks (923-936)
Denier (Orléans)

Silver, 1.14 g, 18 mm diameter, die axis 11h

O/ +CRΛTI[Λ D-I R]EX; monogram (legend beginning at 9h)
R/ +ΛVRELIΛNIS CIVITΛ cross pattée

Same monogram as the previous coin minted in Château-Landon.
Same conclusions: according to Dumas, this coinage may have been struck after Rudolph's dead, by Hugh the Great.

As often in Orléans' coinage, the I after an L in Avrelianis is in the angle of the L.
Droger
marseille-obole-droite.JPG
LT abs, Gaul, Massalia16 viewsMassalia (Marseille, south of France)
Circa 385-310 BC ?

Silver obol, 0.67 g, 10 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ youthful head of Apollo, right, with a visible ear and sideburns
R/ wheel with four spokes, M and A in two quarters

Marseille was founded by the Phocean Greeks circa 600 BC. This obol has obviously more greek than celtic origins.
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa35 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
107-1a-NAC61.jpg
"C" Denarius, Crawford 107/1a - My favorite Coin26 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Above, “C”; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruia(?)
Weight: 4.44 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1a
Provenance: NAC 61; 25-OCT-2011, Privately purchased by RBW from CNG in 1989


Comments: This is one of my favorite coins. It is not high grade, neither the obverse nor the reverse is well centered. The dioscuri are really just blobs, and this coin would be overlooked in any sale but the NAC 61 sale of RBW’s finest and rarest coins, perhaps the greatest Roman Republican auction of our generation. Nevertheless, the coin has a lovely tone and a style that is very characteristic of this issue which is quite rare.

Unique to this variety and the related staff issue, are the braided locks extending from the helmet to the hair binding. The stars are simple dots above the dioscuri, and ROMA is cut into the die with very large letters with a very fine line tool. There has been much speculation on the significance of the “C” insignia, but few with any real merit.
1 commentsSteve B5
anton_pius_apollo_lizard_slayer.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS37 viewsAugust 138 - 7 March 161 A.D., Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
AE 21 mm 5.57 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Apollo Sauroktonos (the lizard-slayer) standing right, left knee bent, resting hand on tree on which lizard climbs
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior
Varbanov 2111 Rare
(naming governor Zeno)

laney
cl_goth_cos_res.jpg
(0268) CLAUDIUS II GOTHICUS13 views268 - 270 AD
AE 18X21 mm, 2.45 g
O: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG radiate curissed bust right
R: [P M T]RP II COS P P Claudius, togate, holding olive-branch and scepter
(Scarce dated reverse legend for the period; civilian Emperor symbolism was also rather obsolete at the time, expecially with Claudius II)
cf. RIC 5 10ff

laney
csts_ii_ft_bsirm_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II26 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm max., 2.02 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; BSIRM in exe.
Sirmium mint
laney
csts_ii_ft_bsis_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II15 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm, 3.04g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; BSIS in exe
Siscia mint
laney
csts_ii_ge_bsis_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II22 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5 mm 1.55 g
O: CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS two soldiers facing single chi-rho standard; BSIS in exe
Siscia mint
laney
constans_ft_galley_tbsg_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS20 views333 - 337 (as Caesar)
337 - 350 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18 mm, 2.00 g
O: D N CONSTANs P F AVG Bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO Emperor standin g left on prow of galley, holding phoenix on globe and chi-rho banner, Victory to right steering; TESG in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
constans_vic_bsis_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS27 views333 - 337 (as Caesar)
337 - 350 AD (as Augustus)
AE 16.5 mm; 1.72 g
O: CONSTAN-S PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, two Victories facing each other holding wreaths and palm branches; upright palm branch between; BSIS in exe
Siscia mint; cf. RIC VIII Siscia 195
laney
DELMATIUS.jpg
(0335) DELMATIUS26 viewsCAESAR 18 SEP. 335 - MID 337 AD
AE 16.2 mm 1.312 g
O: FL DELMATIVS NOB C
LAUREATE DRAPED AND CUIRASSED BUST R
R:
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
TWO SOLDIERS HOLDING SPEARS AND SHIELDS ON GROUND FLAKING SINGLE STANDARD
BSIS IN EXE
SISCIA RIC 256
(ex Forum)
laney
delmatius_gloria_res.jpg
(0335) DELMATIUS17 views335 - 337 AD (Caesar)
AE 16.5 mm 1.45 g
O: FL DELMATIVS NOB C laureate cuirassed bust right
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS two soldiers, single standard between; BSIS in exe.
Siscia mint
laney
JULIAN.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II35 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
struck 360 - 363 AD as Augustus
AE 20 mm 3.69 g
O: [DN FL CL] IVLIANVS PF AVG
HELMETED DIAD DUIR BUST L HOLDING SHIELD AND SPEAR
R: VOT/X/MVLT/XX WITHIN WREATH
BSIRM IN EXE
SIRMIUM
laney
valentinian_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I -- GLORIA64 views364 - 375 AD
AD 18.3 mm2.63 g
O: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him.
Left field: F; Right field: A over symbol 3.
BSISC zigzag in exe.
Siscia mint
RIC IX Siscia 14a, type xxxiii.
laney
GRATIAN_REPAR_BSIS_RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (SISCIA)35 views367 - 383 AD
AE 23 mm 4.37 g
O: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB, EMPEROR STANDING LHOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE FIGURE
*BSISC IN EXE
SISCIA MINT
laney
theod_concor_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I24 views379 - 395 AD.
AE 17 mm, 1.77 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right,
R: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis seated facing, turret on head, looking half right, holding sceptre, left hand on knee;
BSISC in exe.
Siscia mint
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
_T2eC16J,!)!FIcVeTMb)BSJhtPOzsw~~60_12.JPG
(613-632) Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine [Sear 886]18 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine, AE Decanummium, Catania mint. No legend, Heraclius, bearded on left and Heraclius Constantine, unbearded on right, crowned, draped and cuirassed busts facing, cross between their heads / Large I, ANNO to left, regnal year to right, mintmark CAT. SB 886, MIB 241.Ségusiaves
Constantinopolis_Commemorative_AE3_1.jpg
*SOLD*20 viewsConstantinopolis Commemorative AE3

Attribution: RIC 241, Siscia
Date: AD 334-335
Obverse: CONSTAN- TINOPOLIs, helmeted & laureate and mantled bust of
Constantinopolis l. holding scepter
Reverse: Victory stg. l. on prow of galley, holding transverse scepter & resting hand on shield, dot BSIS dot in exergue
Size: 19 mm
Noah
Antonius_Pius.jpg
*SOLD*17 viewsAntoninus Pius AE/As

Attribution: RIC III, 1024
Date: AD 158-159
Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII, laureate head r.
Reverse: FORTVNA OBSEQENS, Fortuna standing l. holding patera and rudder set on a prow in r. hand cornucopia in l., S-C across fields, COS IIII in exergue
Size: 23 mm
Weight: 10.21 grams
Noah
Crispus_12.jpg
*SOLD*28 viewsCrispus AE3

Attribution: RIC 201, S.3924v, Siscia
Date: AD 317-326
Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate surmounted by two turrets,
* above, BSIS in exergue
Size: 18.7 mm
Noah
urbs_roma.jpg
*SOLD*41 viewsConstantine the Great
City Commemorative (VRBS ROMA)

Attribution: RIC VI 561, Trier
Date: AD 333-335
Obverse: VRBS ROMA; helmeted and cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: She-wolf stg. l. suckling Romulus and Remus; above palm between two stars, TRP in exergue
Size: 18.6 mm
Weight: 2,03 grams
Noah
Roma-Heraclea-1.jpg
..SMHε.87 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.42 g, 17 mm, 11 h

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic

She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: ..SMHε.

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 134
drjbca
UR .SMHE.jpg
.SMHε59 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.48 g, 17 mm, 6 h, 330-333 AD

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic
She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: .SMHε

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 119
drjbca
V539.jpg
00 Domitian as Caesar RIC 53993 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; cloak flying out behind, r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 539 (R). BMC 122. RSC 665. BNC -.
Acquired from NumisCorner, June 2018.

This is the first denarius struck at Rome for Domitian as Caesar. Fittingly, it commemorates Domitian's appearance at Vespasian and Titus' joint Jewish War Triumph - 'while taking part in the Judaean triumph, he rode on a white horse' (Suetonius, Domitian, ii), which was the normal conduct for a young prince on such occasions. The type was struck in three variants: firstly, with a clockwise obverse legend and DOMITIAN fully spelled out, as we see here. Secondly, it was shortened to DOMIT, with the legend still running clockwise. Lastly, the legend direction was changed to counter clockwise with DOMIT. The first two variants are quite rare, the last relatively common. On this coin we see a cloak flying out from behind Domitian. This interesting detail only appears on a few coins from the first variant and does not show up on subsequent issues of the type. Most likely this variant with the cloak was the earliest version of the type which was then quickly simplified by dropping the cloak all together.

Well centred in good early style.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
coin29.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Aquileia15 viewsRIC VII Aquileia 122 R2
ecoli
coin850.JPG
001. Vrbs Roma Arles 23 viewsRIC VIII Arles 38 R2
1 commentsecoli
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001. VRBS ROMA Arles7 viewsRIC VII Arles 373 R4
ecoli
coins156.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Cyzicus12 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 91 R3

ecoli
coins154.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Cyzicus10 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 91 R3

ecoli
coins153.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Cyzicus13 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 105 R4
ecoli
coins149.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Cyzicus8 views001. VRBS ROMA Cyzicus

RIC VII Cyzicus 90 R2
ecoli
coin684.JPG
001. Vrbs Roma Cyzicus5 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 91 R3ecoli
coins144.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Heraclea 13 viewsRIC VII Heraclea 134 R1

ecoli
coins146.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Heraclea14 viewsdot dot SMHEpsilon dot (Heraclea mint). RIC VII 134, R1

Ex-Varangian
ecoli
coins157.JPG
001. VRBS Roma Nicomedia13 viewsRIC VII Nicomedia 195 R1
ecoli
coins150.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Nicomedia R412 viewsRIC VII Nicomedia 205 R4

VRBS ROMA Mule
ecoli
coin647.JPG
001. VRBS ROMA Thessalonica7 viewsRIC VII Thessalonica 187 C3ecoli
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001. VRBS ROMA Trier16 viewsRIC VII Trier 553 C3
1 commentsecoli
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002. Augustus (31 BC- 14 AD)48 viewsAugustus

He suffered but two severe and ignominious defeats, those of Lollius [15 B.C.] and Varus [9 A.D.], both of which were in Germany. Of these the former was more humiliating than serious, but the latter was almost fatal, since three legions were cut to pieces with their general, his lieutenants, and all the auxiliaries. In fact, they say that he was so greatly affected that for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying: "Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!" And he observed the day of the disaster each year as one of sorrow and mourning.

Lyons mint, 2 BC - ca 13 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). BMC 533, RSC 43

This is one of my first 12 caesar coins. I got this from an all text list from M&R coins.
ecoli
coin188.JPG
005. CLAUDIUS 41 AD - 54 AD53 viewsCLAUDIUS. 41-54 AD.

I, Claudius was a very sympathetic treatment of Claudius; nevertheless, along with Claudius the God, those books hold a special place in my library. Without those books, I would not have taken an interest in the classics in high school, and subsequently, ancient coins. Certainly Claudius was not a saint; nor good as we define a person now; but given the circumstances and the unlimited power he weld, few of us could have done it better.

Ć As (9.50 gm). Bare head left / Libertas standing right, holding pileus. RIC I 113; BMCRE 202; Cohen 47. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm201 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
coin191.JPG
006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

Check
1 commentsecoli
coin212.JPG
012. Domitian 81-96 AD60 viewsDomitian

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micro managers, especially concerning the economy. Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory.

as Caesar, AR Denarius. 76 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / COS IIII, Pegasus walking right. RSC 47
ecoli
OTA484-6.png
03. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC676 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.64gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
03-Constans-Sis-099.jpg
03. Constans / 2 soldiers and standard.34 viewsAE 4, 337 - 341, Siscia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constans.
Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS / Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield, one standard between them. Christogram on standard.
Mint mark: BSIS (crescent and dot)
1.57 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #99; LRBC #774; Sear #18546.
Callimachus
RI_035l_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II 385a79 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC - SC, Domitian , togate,standing left, sacrificing from patera over garlanded altar, on the other side of which are two flute players facing the emperor, one of which is partly obscured by the altar, hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in background.

This variety, not distinguished in the catalogues, where the second musician's lower body is obscured by the large altar. see BMC pl. 79.3, with obv. portrait left, is from the same rev. die. On other dies, apparently the normal variety, the altar is narrower and you see the second musician's legs descending to the ground.

Celebrates the Secular Games
4 commentsmaridvnvm
V922aaa.jpg
03b Domitian as Caesar RIC 922101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.31g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 922 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Marc Walter, May 2018. Ex Künker eLive Auction 37, 20 October 2015, lot 152.

A rare obverse legend variant of the Pegasus type struck for Domitian Caesar under Vespasian. Here we have 'CAES' instead of the much more common 'CAESAR'. No reverse die links between the two different obverses have been found, perhaps suggesting the 'CAES' issue came slightly later. Out of 240 Domitian Pegasus denarii on acsearch, only 6 have the 'CAES' obverse. The reverse copies a denarius struck for Augustus (RIC 297). Mattingly speculates it refers to Domitian's poetic aspirations.

Curtis Clay's comments concerning this variant - 'I had forgotten about this variety, but find that I had written into my BMC 193: Var. CAES for CAESAR, CNG Website 6247, May 2001 (2.78g). RIC new ed. 922 calls it R2 and cites examples in Glasgow (ill. pl. 10) and Oxford.'

Struck in the very finest of styles.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
D717sm.jpg
04 Diva Julia Titi RIC 71724 viewsĆ Sestertius, 24.33g
Rome mint, 90-91 AD (Domitian)
Obv: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F; S P Q R in exergue; Carpentum drawn r. by two mules
Rev: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P; S C, large, in centre
RIC 717 (C). BMC 458. BNC 490.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2020. Ex Agora Auctions Sale 84, 4 September 2019, lot 187. Ex CNG E314, 6 November 2013, lot 364.

Titus' daughter Julia Titi was granted the title Augusta sometime in 80 or 81 during his reign. After Titus' death she lived with her uncle Domitian at the imperial residence. In 90 or 91 AD she died and was deified by Domitian, this was commemorated on the coinage. The ancient sources are quick to malign her reputation in the name of smearing Domitian. It is said she had an ongoing affair with Domitian and became pregnant. She then was forced by Domitian to abort the baby and died during the attempted abortion sometime in 90 or 91. The Flavian historian Brian Jones has called the supposed affair between Domitian and his niece Julia (some ten or eleven years his junior) and the subsequent forced abortion which killed her as "implausible" and "nonsense". Further he wrote "Scholars seem not to have stressed one of the most significant factors in assessing the rumour's accuracy - Martial's epigram 6.3, written not long after Julia's death and deification. In it, he expresses the hope that Domitian will produce a son, implies that the baby's name will be Julius (6.3.1) and states that (the now deified) Julia will be able to watch over him (6.3.5). Martial was neither a hero or a fool. Had there been the slightest hint of an affair between emperor and niece, he would hardly have written those lines; had Julia's recent death been caused by an abortion forced on her by Domitian, would Martial have so far neglected the bounds of 'safe criticism' and common sense as to humiliate Domitia publicly, urging her to become pregnant, to give the child a name reminiscent of her husband's mistress and finally to remember that same mistress, now dead and deified (thanks to her husband), would be able to protect the child?" No doubt, the Diva coins testify that Domitian felt great affection towards his niece, however, there is no evidence that they had an illicit love affair. The incestuous rumour was spread after Domitian's death.

This sestertius struck for Diva Julia Titi in 90 or 91 copies an early carpentum and mules type struck under Tiberius for Diva Livia and another under Titus struck for her grandmother Domitilla. Under the early empire the carpentum was granted to ladies of the imperial house by the Senate as an imperial honour. It was frequently used to convey an image of the deceased Divae and to symbolise the event on the coinage. The style of the Diva Julia Titi sestertii are so similar to those of the earlier Memoriae Domitilla sestertii that the RIC authors speculate a few of the older Domitilla dies were recut for Julia's issue (p. 317, note). It's astonishing to think that the mint still had access to dies that were nearly a decade old and were able to re-use them for a new issue!

Dark brassy tone with some minor pitting.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Ć As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
Ulaszlo_II_,_AR-Den,_H-807,_C2-272B,_U-641c,_P-242-3,_WLADISLAI_R_VNGARI_,_PATRO_N__VNGAR,_n-A,_1505_AD,_Q-001,_4h,15,5mm,_0,61g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-641c, P-242-3, #0177 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-641c, P-242-3, #01
avers: •WLADISLAI•R*VNGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, and Bohemian lion). The Polish eagle in the inner shield. Interesting legend variation, than to start the legend the "M"(oneta) is absent!
reverse: PATRO N•VNGAR, Crowned Madonna with the child in her right arm.
diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,61g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania), mint mark:n-A (Pohl), struck by Ambrosius Literatus (by Pohl),
date: 1505 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszar-807, CNH-2-272B, Unger-641c, Pohl-242-3,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Ferd-I_AR-Den__1531_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1531_Q-001_7h_15,7mm_0,49g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1531, Madonna and child, #01208 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1531, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1531•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,7 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1531 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1534_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-rozette-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1534_Q-001_9h_16,3mm_0,54g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1534, Madonna and child, #01222 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1534, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1534•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 16,3 mm, weight: 0,54 g, axis: 9h,
mint mark: K-B,, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1534 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1551_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1551_Q-001_9h_14,6mm_0,53g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child #01212 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child #01
avers:- •1551•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 14,6 mm, weight: 0,53 g, axis: 9h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1551 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1551_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-rozette-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1551_Q-002_7h_15,2mm_0,56g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child, #02233 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child, #02
avers:- •1551•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,2 mm, weight: 0,56 g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1551 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
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Ferd-I_AR-Den__1528_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1528_Q-001_4h_15,5mm_0,55g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1528, Madonna and child, #01246 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1528, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1528•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,5 mm, weight: 0,55 g, axis: 4h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1528 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-00
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Miksa_AR-Den_K-B_U-766a_C3-94_H-992_1566_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
045 Miksa., (Maximilian of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1564-1576 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-766a, 1566, Madonna and child, #01115 views045 Miksa., (Maximilian of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1564-1576 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-766a, 1566, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •MAX•II•D•G•E•RO•I•S•AV•G•HV•B•R•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield. The year 1566 on the top of the shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1566 A.D.,
ref: Unger-766a, CNH-3-94, Huszár-992,
Q-001
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Rudolf_(1576-1608_AD),_AR-Gross,_1601,_N-B,_H-1049,_CNH_III__150,_U-805,_Q-001,_11h,_23,5-24mm,_1,56g-s.jpg
046 Rudolf, (Rudolph II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1576-1608 A.D.), AR-Groschen, H-1049, CNH III.-150, U-805, N-B, 1601, Rare!128 views046 Rudolf, (Rudolph II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1576-1608 A.D.), AR-Groschen, H-1049, CNH III.-150, U-805, N-B, 1601, Rare!
avers: ֍ RVDOL•II•D:G•RO•IM•S•AV•GE•HVN•B•R•, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. N-B crossed the field.
reverse: •MONETA•NOVA•ANNODOMINI•1601, Ornamented, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield is Austrian shield. All in
diameter: 23,5-24,0mm, weight: 1,56g, axis: 11h,
exergue, mint mark: N/B//--, mint: Nagybánya, (today Romania: Baia Mare), date: 1601 A.D.,
ref: Huszár-1049, CNH III.-150, Unger-805,
Q-001
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Mathias-II__(1608-1619AD)_AR-Den_MAT_II_D_G_HV_BO_REX_1613_PATRONA-Shield-HVNGARI_K-B_U-869_C3-240_H-1140_1613_Q-001_1h_14,5-15mm_0,37g-s.jpg
047 Mathias II., (Mathias of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1608-1619 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-869, 1613 A.D.,79 views047 Mathias II., (Mathias of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1608-1619 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-869, 1613 A.D.,
avers:- MAT•II•D•G•HV•BO•REX•1613, Crowned Hungarian shield in circle of dots, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- PATRONA HVNGARI•, Madonna seated facing, on crescent, in sunburst, in circle of dots, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, Austrian shield with band below, border of dots.
diameter: 14,5-15mm, weight: 0,37g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark:
date: A.D., ref: Unger-, CNH-, Huszar-,
Q-001
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RI 048e img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius dupondius - RIC 99092 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXI, Radiate head facing right
Rev:– FORTVNA OBSEQVENS COS IIII / S C, Fortuna standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Mint – Rome
Date Minted – A.D. 157 - 158
Reference RIC 990 (Scarce)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Ferd-II__(1619-1637AD)_AR-Den_FER_II_D_G_R_I_S_A_G_H_B_R__PATRONA-HVNGARI__1629_K-B_U-917a_C3-303_H-1204_Q-001_7h_14,1mm_0,51g-s.jpg
048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #0185 views048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #01
avers: FER•II•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•R•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross). The year 1629 on the top of the shield, K-B crossed the field.
reverse: PATRONA-HVNGARI•, Madonna sits with child on her left arm.
diameter: 14,1mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1629 A.D.,
ref: Unger-917a, CNH-3-303, Huszár-1204,
Q-001
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048_Ferdinand_II_,_(1619-1637_A_D_),_AR-Groschen_(9-denar),_U-909,_CNH-3-290,_H-1191,1623_AD,_Q-001_4h_20,3mm_1,86g-s.jpg
048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Groschen, U-909, 1623, Rare!120 views048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Groschen, U-909, 1623, Rare!
avers: FER•II•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned, draped bust right.
reverse: VIIII/KB/GROS•REGN/HVNG:NOV•/DENARIO/1623, Between Crowned Hungarian shield and crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 20,3mm, weight: 1,86g, axis: 4h,
exergue, mint mark: KB//--, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1623 A.D.,
ref: Unger-909, CNH-3-290, Huszár-1191,
Q-001
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ciibh1.jpg
05 Constantius II67 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
Better Photo
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
OTA484-3.png
05. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC480 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.12gms, 22mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
I_Lipot_3kr_1694_U-1089_H-1469_N-B_P-O_Q-001_0h_20-21,5mm_1_37g-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-3-Groschen, U-1089, Madonna and the child in the Mandorla, N/B//P-O, 1694, #01228 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-3-Groschen, U-1089, Madonna and the child in the Mandorla, N/B//P-O, 1694, #01
avers:- LEOPOLD•D•G•R•[3,as value sign] I•S•A•G•H•B•R•, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, below in value sign 3.
revers:- •S•IMMAC•VIR• [coat of arms] M•MAT•D•P•H• 16-94, Madonna in the Mandorla, the child in her right hand, below crowned coat of arms, mint marks and mint marks on the side.
diameter: 20,0-21,5mm, weight: 1,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: N/B//P-O, Nagybánya, (today Romania : Baia Mare),
date: 1694 A.D., ref: Unger-1089, Huszar-1469,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Leopoldus-I-Denar_a-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #0170 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Hungarian shield in circle, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- PATRONA•HVNGA•1683, Madonna seated facing on crescent in sunburst in circle, holding infant Jesus in her left, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1683 A.D., ref: Unger-1107a, CNH-, Huszar-1503/1683,
Q-001
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Leopoldus-I-Duarius-3_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1698, #0168 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1698, #01
avers:- LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS/1698 (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/1698, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1698 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a, CNH-, Huszar-1499,
Q-001
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Leopoldus-I-Duarius-2_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1700, #0176 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1700, #01
avers:- + LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS/1700 (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/1700, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1700 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a/1700, CNH-, Huszar-1499/1700,
Q-001
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Leopoldus-I-Duarius-1_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1703, #0165 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1703, #01
avers:- + LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS /•1703• (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/•1703•, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1703 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a/1703, CNH-, Huszar-1499/1703,
Q-001
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053_Károly_III_,_(Carolus_VI__of_Habsburg),_King_of_Hungary,_(1711-1740_A_D_),_AR-den,_1733_AD,_K-B,_Huszar-1641,_Q-001,_h,_26,5mm,_g-s.jpg
053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Denar, Huszár-1641, 1733, K-B, #01164 views053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Denar, Huszár-1641, 1733, K-B, #01
avers: +CAR•VI•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•H•B•R•, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side.
reverse: PATRONA•HUNGA•1733, Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her left arm.
diameter: 26,0-26,5mm, weight: g, axis: 0h,
mint mark: K/B//--, mint: Hungary, Körmöczbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1733 A.D., ref: Huszár 1641/1733, Unger-2 1208/1733,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karolus-III(VI)_POLTURA_1715_U2-1202_H-1631_J_N__P-H_Q-001_0h_18-19,5mm_0,90ga-s.jpg
053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01100 views053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01
avers: CAROLUS•VI•D:G:R:I:S:A:G:H:H:B:R•, Emperor bust right in circle, border of dots.
revers: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*, Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, POLTURA / date below, border of line and border of dots.
diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 0,90g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*,,
date: 1715 A.D., ref: Unger-2 1202/1715, Huszar 1631,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_1kr,_1758,_U-1298a_H-1821_K-B_Q-001_0h_15,0mm_0,75g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01112 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I• S•A•GE•IER•REX•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN TE DOMINE• -1- SPERAVI •1758•, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "1" below, border of dots.
diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//1, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1758 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1298a/1758, Huszar 1821/1758,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_3kr,_1765,_U-1296a_H-1815_K-B_Q-001_0h_20,0mm_1,67g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01111 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -3- SPERAVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "3" below; border of dots.
diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 1,67g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//3, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1296a/1765, Huszar 1815/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_XVIIkr,_1765,_U-1291b_H-1803_K-B_Q-001_0h_28,0mm_5,92g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01107 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -XVII- SPER AVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value XVII below; border of dots.
diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 5,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//XVII, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1291b/1765, Huszar 1803/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
056_Jozsef_II_,_(1780-1790_A_D_),_AR-halb-Thaler,_U-III-1324a,_H-1875,_A-Wien,1789_AD,_Q-001_0h_33,8mm_14,02g-s.jpg
056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A, 115 views056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A,
avers: IOS II•D•_G•R•IMP•S•A•_G•H•B•REX•A_•A•D•B•& L•, Two winged Angel holding Hungarian Crown over the Hungarian Shield.
revers: S•MARIA_MATER DEI_ A _PATRONA HUNG•1789•X, Crowned Madonna (Virgin Marie) seated, child (Jesus) on the left arm.
diameter: 33,8mm, weight: 14,02g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//A, mint: Wien, date: 1826 A.D.,
ref: Unger III 1324a, Huszár-1875,
Q-001
quadrans
058_Ferenc_I_,_(1792-1835_A_D_),_AR-Thaler,_U-III-1363b,_H-1943,_G-Nagybanya,1813_AD,_Q-001_0h_39,4mm_28,0gx-s.jpg
058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1363b, 1813, 113 views058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1363b, 1813,
avers: FRANCISCVS I:D:G:AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR •, Laureate bust right.
revers: HVN:BOH:GAL:REX•A:A: - LO:WI:ET IN FR:DVX •1813 •, Crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 39,4mm, weight: 28,0g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//G, mint: Nagybánya, date: 1813 A.D.,
ref: Unger III-1363b, Huszár-1943,
Q-001
quadrans
058_Ferenc_I_,_(1792-1835_A_D_),_AR-Thaler,_U-III-1365a,_H-1947,_B-Kormocbanya,1826_AD,_Q-001_0h_39,0-39,7mm_28,2g-s.jpg
058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1365a, 1826 B, 115 views058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1365a, 1826 B,
avers: FRANCISCVS I•D•G•AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR •, Laureate bust right.
revers: HVN•BOH•LOMB•ET VEN• - GAL•LOD•IL•REX•A•A•1826•, Crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 39,0-39,7mm, weight: 28,2g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//B, mint: Körmöcbánya, date: 1826 A.D.,
ref: Unger III-1363b, Huszár-1947,
Q-001
quadrans
faustina-sr_den_veiled-bust-peacock_2_82gr_feb2012a.JPG
06 - Faustina I - 02 - AR Denarius - Peacock 'CONSECRATIO' - NGC Choice VF56 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Senior (138 - 141), Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138 - 161).
Silver Denarius, Struck at the Rome Mint by the Emperor Antoninus Pius to consecrate and commemorate his wife after her death.

(All Titles in Latin)
obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Veiled and Draped bust facing right.
rev: CONSECRATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

*Note how the two head feathers on the top of the Peacock's head seperate the 'R' and the 'A' in " CONSECR ATIO ' on the reverse.
***Less common type with Veiled bust obverse rather than her usual bust with hair wrapped on the top of her head, like on my other example of this type with the same reverse design and titles, and the same obverse titles.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Certified "Choice Very Fine" by NGC Ancients.
Strike: 4/5
Surface: 4/5
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
>^..^< CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE IMAGE >^..^
5 commentsrexesq
faustina-sr_den_veiled-bust-peacock_2_82gr_feb2012b.jpg
06 - Faustina I - 02 - AR Denarius - Peacock 'CONSECRATIO' - NGC Choice VF.15 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Senior (138 - 141), Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138 - 161).
Silver Denarius, Struck at the Rome Mint by the Emperor Antoninus Pius to consecrate and commemorate his wife after her death.

(All Titles in Latin)
obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Veiled and Draped bust facing right.
rev: CONSECRATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
~~
*Note how the head feathers on the peacock's head seperate the 'R' and the 'A' in CONSECR ATIO

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Certified "Choice Very Fine" by NGC Ancients.
Strike: 4/5
Surface: 4/5
----------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------
** Any scratches, smudges or marks are on the slab, not the coin itself. **
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_peacock_2_62gr_00.jpg
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' 30 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.

rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0122 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_04_rev_04.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0212 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_14_rev_04.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0312 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_obv_13_rev_04.JPG
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - 0415 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_rev_06_off-color.jpg
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - off color10 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.
2.62 grams.
*photo is off color due to my camera problems.
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_rev_09.jpg
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - VII11 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.

Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.

2.62 grams.
rexesq
06-Alex-Amphipolis-P124.jpg
06. "Amphipolis": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.37 viewsTetradrachm, ca 320 - 317 BC, "Amphipolis" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Branch of laurel at left, Π under throne.
17.33 gm., 25 mm.
P. #124; M. #560.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Most coins issued in Macedon during this time continued to be in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
OTA484-5.png
06. Celtic AE tetradrachm - KAPOSTALER type - c.100-75/50 BC450 viewsobv: Degraded head of Zeus right
rev: Horseman left, with large crest above head; crescent to left
ref: Pink 484-495; Göbl OTA 484-495; LaTour 9807; Kostial 766-797; Dembski 1413-1427;
mint: Szalacska oppidum
8.35gms, 21mm

Description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
berserker
7.jpg
062a CONSTANTINUS II RIC SISCIA 126 R321 views EMPEROR: Constantinus II
DENOMINATION: AE reduced follis
OBVERSE: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped bust left, holding Victory ON GLOBE and mappa.
REVERSE: VIRTVS EXERCIT; standard inscribed VOT X with bound captive seated to left and right of its base.
EXERGUE: BSIS*
WEIGHT:
RIC: VII SISCIA 126 (R3)
Barnaba6
RI 064fi img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -82 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_064fi_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064ft img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)48 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_132ft_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)9 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI 064bs img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (7b) 33 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE. - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONET.A.E AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– BMC Page 90 (j), RIC Page 139 (7b) (Scarce), RSC 347c

Shares the same obverse die as a coin in the Doug Smith Denarius with a different reverse die

[SOLD]
maridvnvm
RI_065bs_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 61018 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– PIE-TAS, Pietas seated left, on high backed throne, holding palladium
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 194
Ref:– BMCRE 330. RIC IV 612. RSC 146c
maridvnvm
RI_066bs_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Denarius - RIC 351b17 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev:– SECVRIT ORBIS, Securitas seated left, holding sceptre in right hand, head resting on left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 199-200
Reference– BMCRE 703. RIC 351b. RSC 573a
1 commentsmaridvnvm
070.jpg
069 Julian II7 viewsEMPEROR: Julian II
DENOMINATION: AE3
OBVERSE: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
REVERSE: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within a wreath with a fancy bow
EXERGUE: BSIRM
DATE: 361-363 AD
MINT: Sirmium
WEIGHT:
RIC VIII Sirmium 108
Barnaba6
06e-Constantine-Rom-164.jpg
06e. Constantine as Caesar: Rome follis.46 viewsFollis, Summer 307, Rome mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE / Roma seated in tetrastyle temple, holding globe and sceptre; knobs as acroteria, plain pediment.
Mint mark: RQ
5.64 gm., 25 mm.
RIC #164; PBCC #407; Sear #15512.
1 commentsCallimachus
07-Alex-Pella-P250.jpg
07. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.33 viewsTetradrachm, ca 315 - 310 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Boeotian shield at left, Σ. between the rungs of the throne.
17.24 gm., 26 mm.
P. #250; PROa #135.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Thereafter his son Kassander ruled until 297 BC, eventually taking the title of King in 305 BC. He was notorious for his cruelty, and in 311 BC he killed Alexander's widow and her young son. The silver coinage of Kassander's reign was all issued in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
IMG_3662~0.jpg
099. Philipp I Arabs (244-249 A.D.)25 viewsAv.: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG
Rv.: P M TR P V COS III P P
Left: A (first coins of rome with officine letter)

AE Antoninian Ř20-22 / 3.9g (248 A.D.)
RIC IV 7 Rome
2 commentsJuancho
Soloi_Stater_Amazon.jpg
0a Amazon Stater20 viewsSilver Stater 20mm Struck circa 440-410 B.C.
Soloi in Cilicia

Amazon kneeling left, holding bow, quiver on left hip
ΣOΛEΩN, Grape cluster on vine; A-Θ to either side of stalk, monogram to lower right

Sear 5602 var.; Casabonne Type 3; SNG France 135; SNG Levante

This coin depicts an amazon in historically accurate garb. Unfortunately, the bow is corroded away on this piece, but it is pointed toward her. She wears the Scythian hat, which also has a bit along the top corroded away. The quiver on her hip is an accurate portrayal of the gorytos (quiver), which was nearly two feet long, fashioned of leather, and often decorated. Fortunately, there is redundancy in this image, and a second bow is shown as in its place in the gorytos, which had separate chambers for arrows and the bow, where the archer stored it while not in use. The amazon has just finished stringing her bow and is adjusting the top hook to make sure the strings and limbs are properly aligned. She has strung the bow using her leg to hold one limb in place so she can use both hands to string the weapon. Her recurve bow was made of horn (ibex, elk, ox) wrapped with horse hair, birch bark, or sinew (deer, elk, ox) and glue (animal or fish) wrapped around a wood core. The bow was about 30 inches long. Arrow heads from grave sites come in bone, wood, iron, and bronze with two or three flanges; the shafts were made of reed or wood (willow, birch, poplar) and fletched with feathers. Poisoned arrows were sometimes painted to resemble vipers. A Scythian archer could probably fire 15-20 arrows per minute with accuracy to 200 feet and range to 500-600 feet. Distance archery with modern reconstructions suggests a maximum unaimed flight distance of 1,600 feet. (Mayor 209ff)

Soloi was founded about 700 B.C.and came under Persian rule. According to Diodorus, when the amazons were engaging in conquest in Asia Minor, the Cilicians accepted them willingly and retained their independence. Soloi may be named after Solois, a companion of Theseus, who married the amazon Antiope. The amazon on the coin may well be Antiope. (Mayor, 264-265)
Blindado
MariusFundania1Denarius.jpg
0aa Caius Marius40 viewsC. Fundanius, moneyer
101-91 BC

Denarius

Helmeted head of Roma right, control-mark C behind

"Triumphator" (Marius) in quadriga right, holding laurel-branch and staff; a rider sits on near horse, holding laurel-branch, Q above, C FVNDAN in exergue

The reverse shows Marius as triumphator in the quadriga. He holds sceptre and laurel branch. On one of the horses rides his son. The children of the triumphator were - according to tradition - allowed to share the triumph of their father. The Q above refers to the office as quaestor the mintmaster held while minting these coins. FORVM Ancient Coins says of a similar piece, "The reverse refers to Marius triumph after victories over the Cimbri and Teutones. The rider on the near horse is Marius's son, at that time eight years old." Andrew McCabe comments, "The Triumphator on the Fundania denarius is usually taken to be Marius, with his young son on horseback. This would make it the first Roman coin to explicitly portray a living Roman politician. "

Seaby Fundania 1

Marius rose from common origins to become the First Man in Rome. Plutarch in his Life writes: There is a likeness of Marius in stone at Ravenna, in Gaul, which I myself saw quite corresponding with that roughness of character that is ascribed to him. Being naturally valiant and warlike, and more acquainted also with the discipline of the camp than of the city, he could not moderate his passion when in authority. . . . He was born of parents altogether obscure and indigent, who supported themselves by their daily labour; his father of the same name with himself, his mother called Fulcinia. He had spent a considerable part of his life before he saw and tasted the pleasures of the city; having passed previously in Cirrhaeaton, a village of the territory of Arpinum, a life, compared with city delicacies, rude and unrefined, yet temperate, and conformable to the ancient Roman severity. He first served as a soldier in the war against the Celtiberians, when Scipio Africanus besieged Numantia; where he signalized himself to his general by courage far above his comrades, and particularly by his cheerfully complying with Scipio's reformation of his army, being almost ruined by pleasures and luxury. It is stated, too, that he encountered and vanquished an enemy in single combat, in his general's sight. In consequence of all this he had several honours conferred upon him; and once when at an entertainment a question arose about commanders, and one of the company (whether really desirous to know, or only in complaisance) asked Scipio where the Romans, after him, should obtain such another general, Scipio, gently clapping Marius on the shoulder as he sat next him, replied, "Here, perhaps. . . ."

The consul Caecilius Metellus, being declared general in the war against Jugurtha in Africa took with him Marius for lieutenant; where, eager himself to do great deeds and services that would get him distinction, he did not, like others, consult Metellus's glory and the serving his interest, and attributing his honour of lieutenancy not to Metellus, but to fortune, which had presented him with a proper opportunity and theatre of great actions, he exerted his utmost courage. . . . Marius thus employed, and thus winning the affections of the soldiers, before long filled both Africa and Rome with his fame, and some, too, wrote home from the army that the war with Africa would never be brought to a conclusion unless they chose Caius Marius consul. . . .He was elected triumphantly, and at once proceeded to levy soldiers contrary both to law and custom, enlisting slaves and poor people; whereas former commanders never accepted of such, but bestowed arms, like other favours, as a matter of distinction, on persons who had the proper qualification, a man's property being thus a sort of security for his good behavior. . . .

[In Marius' fourth consulship,] The enemy dividing themselves into two parts, the Cimbri arranged to go against Catulus higher up through the country of the Norici, and to force that passage; the Teutones and Ambrones to march against Marius by the seaside through Liguria. . . . The Romans, pursuing them, slew and took prisoners above one hundred thousand, and possessing themselves of their spoil, tents, and carriages, voted all that was not purloined to Marius's share, which, though so magnificent a present, yet was generally thought less than his conduct deserved in so great a danger. . . . After the battle, Marius chose out from amongst the barbarians' spoils and arms those that were whole and handsome, and that would make the greatest show in his triumph; the rest he heaped upon a large pile, and offered a very splendid sacrifice. Whilst the army stood round about with their arms and garlands, himself attired (as the fashion is on such occasions) in the purple-bordered robe, and taking a lighted torch, and with both hands lifting it up towards heaven, he was then going to put it to the pile, when some friends were espied with all haste coming towards him on horseback. Upon which every one remained in silence and expectation. They, upon their coming up, leapt off and saluted Marius, bringing him the news of his fifth consulship, and delivered him letters to that effect. This gave the addition of no small joy to the solemnity; and while the soldiers clashed their arms and shouted, the officers again crowned Marius with a laurel wreath, and he thus set fire to the pile, and finished his sacrifice.
Blindado
Sulla_L_Manlius_den.jpg
0ab Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
Blindado
Aemilia10.jpg
0ac Conquest of Macedonia13 viewsPaullus Aemilius Lepidus, moneyer
109-100 BC

Denarius

Veiled head of Concord, right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA
TER above trophy, L. Aemelius Lepidus on right, Perseus and his two sons as prisoners on left, PAVLLVS in ex.

Seaby, Aemelia 10

L. Aemelius Paullus defeated the Macedonians in 168 BC and brought Perseus and his sons to Rome to adorn his triumph.

Three days after the battle Perseus arrived at Amphipolis, and from that city he sent heralds with a caduceus to Paulus. In the meanwhile Hippias, Midon, and Pantauchus, the principal men among the king's friends who had fled from the field of battle to Beroea, went and made their surrender to the Roman consul. In the case of others also, their fears prompted them, one after another, to do the same. The consul sent his son Q. Fabius, together with L. Lentulus and Q. Metellus, with despatches to Rome announcing his victory. He gave the spoils taken from the enemy's army lying on the field of battle to the foot soldiers and the plunder from the surrounding country to the cavalry on condition that they were not absent from the camp more than two nights. The camp at Pydna was shifted to a site nearer the sea. First of all Beroea, then Thessalonica and Pella, and almost the whole of Macedonia, city by city, surrendered within two days.

Livy, History of Rome, 44.45
Blindado
miletos_1_12_stater.jpg
1/12 stater; Head of lion left/ Star in incuse squar29 viewsIonia, Miletos. Circa 6th– c. 5th c. B.C. 1/12 Stater Silver. 1,1g. 8mm. Obs: Head of roaring lion right. Rev: Star in incuse square. SNG Kayhan 462v. Podiceps
850_P_Hadrian_RPC1005.jpg
1005 BITHYNIA Koinon of Bithynia Hadrian, Octastyle temple19 viewsReference
RPC III, 1005/2; vA 285

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Radiate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΚΟΙ-ΝΟΝ ΒΕΙΘΥΝΙΑС
Reverse design octastyle temple on podium of two steps; in pediment, clipeus

11.89 gr
26 mm
6h

Note
Pegasi Numismatics 2017, Auction 36 lot 316 2017 From Hoffman collection
CNG 2011, Auction lot 232 From the Deyo Collection.
CNG 2004, MBS 66, lot 1064
GM 1997, Auction 81, lot 477
Lanz 1995, Auction 74, lot 513
okidoki
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina50 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
T-3203_107_Severina_AE-Ant-Silvered_SEVERINA-PF-AVG_CONCORDIA-AVG_V_XXI_RIC-19v__T-3203_Antioch_iss-7_off-5_275-AD_Q-001_0h_23mm_4,61g-s.jpg
107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!204 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!
avers:- SEVERINA-PF-AVG, Empress right, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG, Emperor togate (no laurel crown) standing right, clasping the hand of Empress standing left. (Emperor and Empress 1)
"A very interesting coin from the historical point of view as it belongs to the issues dating from Severina's interregnum after the assassination of Aurelian (september-november 275).
"As far as the organisation of coin production was concerned, we see that from the end of 274, certain officinae in some of the mints struck coins exclusively for Severina: this is the case with issues 2-4 at Lyon, issues 10-11 at Rome and issue 4 at Ticinum. After the death of Aurelian, the officinae are no longer shared between Aurelian and Severina: at Lyon, there is a 5th issue attested by coins in the name of Severina only, and the same applies to the 12th issue at Rome where the empress monopolizes the six active équipes, and the 5th issue at Ticinum, where all six officinae struck coins just for Severina. It is clear that the Empress as regent was exercising alone power and right to coin.
In fact the evidence shows that all eight mints that were active in the autumn of 275 across the Empire were producing issues in the name of Severina alone. The mint at Serdica struck coins for Severina with the legend Severina Augusta.The mint at Antioch exceptionally gave the Empress the titles P(ia) F(elix), normally reserved for emperors; on the reverse, the legend is changed from the plural form Concordia Augg (Augustorum) to the singular Concordia Aug, which may be expanded as Concordia Augustae. The type no longer shows the standard reverse, Aurelian shaking the hand of Concordia, but an anonymous male figure, now without laurel-wreath and sceptre, shaking the hand of Severina, who is easily recognizable by her characteristic hairdress and is shown in a larger size. At Alexandria, coins in the name of Severina continued to be struck as the mint received the news of Aurelian’s assassination, and stopped issuing his coins: the hoards from Karanis have 5 tetradrachms of the 7th year of Aurelian (that is after 29 August 275), but 25 of Severina."
(From the website Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage 268-276 AD : http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/hist5#severine)"
by S. Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
exerg: V//XXI, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-7, off-5, date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-19var., T-3203 (Estiot), C-,
Q-001
quadrans
1000-16-149.jpg
107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
Medio_Asarion_BRITANICO_Smyrna_en_Ionia.jpg
11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)19 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleańos. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuńada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
mdelvalle
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Roma,_RIC_V-II_213,_AE-Ant,_IMP_PROB_VS_P_F_AVG_(B),_VICTO_RIA_AVG,_RthundbSzigma,_em-6,off-6,_281AD,_R,_Q-001,_0h,_20-22mm,_2,31g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 213, Rome, VICTORIA AVG, Bust F-B, -/-//R thunderbolt ς, Victory walking left, #1135 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 213, Rome, VICTORIA AVG, Bust F-B, -/-//R thunderbolt ς, Victory walking left, #1
avers: IMP PROB VS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F-B)
reverse: VICTO RIA AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath and trophy.
exergue: -/-//R thunderbolt ς, diameter: 20,0-22,0mm, weight: 2,31g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, 6th. emission of Rome, 6th.off., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 213, p-40, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Roma,_RIC_V-II_215,_AE-Ant,_PROBV_S_P_F_AVG_(E1),_VICTO_RIA_AVG,_RthundbSzigma,_em-6,off-6,_281AD,_R,_Q-001,_6h,_20-23,5mm,_2,61g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 215, Rome, VICTORIA AVG, Bust G-E1, -/-//R thunderbolt ς, Victory walking left, R! #1,143 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 215, Rome, VICTORIA AVG, Bust G-E1, -/-//R thunderbolt ς, Victory walking left, R! #1,
avers: PROBV S P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. (G-E1)
reverse: VICTO RIA AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath and trophy.
exergue: -/-//R thunderbolt ς, diameter: 20,0-23,5mm, weight: 2,61g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission of Rome, 6th. off., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 215, p-40, C-741, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-DEO-ET-DOMINO-PROBO-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_RIC-not_C--_Serdica-4th-emission-extr-rare_Q-001_h_24mm_3,56g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-A, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, IMP DEO ET DOMINO PROBO AVG, Extr. rare.!131 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-A, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, IMP DEO ET DOMINO PROBO AVG, Extr. rare.!
Probus (276-282) AE Antoninianus VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Serdica,
"This is a rare coin. I know only 2 other similar coins, both in private hands, none in public collections. One belongs to Philippe Gysen's collection, the other is CNG MBS 69, 8/6/2005, 1699 (the one which appears on Grzegorz's Probus site http://bkgk.powweb.com/probvs/rev-reverses.html ). The three coins appear to share the same pair of dies." by S. Estiot. Many thanks S. Estiot
avers:- IMP-DEO-ET-DOMINO-PROBO-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, diameter: 24mm, weight: 3,56g, axes:6h,
mint: Serdica 4ht emission, date: 279 A.D., ref: Not in RIC !!! extr. rare,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland11 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
000_012.JPG
12 Constantius II92 viewsConstantius II AE3. 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, Delta behind / FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Soldier standing right, right leg raised, spearing a fallen horseman who is bare-headed, reaching backwards, A beneath horse, BSIRM in ex.
Sirmium
RIC VIII 40
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_3687.jpg
12 Constantius II46 viewsConstantius II
DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
FEL TEMP-REPARATIO
soldier spearing horseman, bare-headed, reaching
BSIRM
Sirmium 48
ex DS
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
121f.jpg
121f Constantine I. AE follis 3.4gm17 viewsobv: CONSTA_NTINVS AVG laur. helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICT.LAETAE PRINC PERP/ two victories std. facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR, I in alter
ex: .BSIS.
hill132
121l.jpg
121l Constantine I. AE follis 3.4gm20 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG helm. and cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP two Victories holding shield inscribe VOT/PR alter below
ex: BSIS*
hill132
122c.jpg
122c Urbs roma. AE follis 2.4gm20 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA helm an mantled bust of Roma l.
rev: she wolf std. l. head r. suckling twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above
ex: *PLG
"City commerative struck in honor of Rome, alluding to the founding with the emagery of the she-wolf and twins"
hill132
122d.jpg
122d Urbs Roma. AE follis 3.0gm25 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA helm. mantled bust of Roma l.
rev: she-wolf std. l. head straight, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above
ex: TR.S
"City commemorative"
hill132
122e.jpg
122e Urbs Roma. AE follis 2.9gm22 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA helm and mantled bust of Roma l.
rev: she-wolf std. l. head r. suckling the twins Romulus and Remus
ex: PLG
"city commemorative"
hill132
122f.jpg
122f Urbs Roma. AE follis 1.8gm22 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA helm. and mantled bust of Roma l.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers two standards
ex: CONSZ
hill132
rjb_wolf6_01_05.jpg
1247 Cyzicus40 viewsLRBC I 1247
RIC VII 106
mauseus
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England16 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
127b.jpg
127b Delmatius. AE 3/4 1.4gm17 viewsobv: FL DELMATIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLOR_IA EXERC_ITVS two soldiers, one standard
ex: BSIS
hill132
Maxentius-AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXENTIVS-PF-AVG_CONSERV-VRBS_VAE_AQ-Gamma_RIC-VI-113_p-325_Aquilea_307-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_27mm_5,88g-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQΓ, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,270 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQΓ, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple, handing globe to Maxentius with right and holding scepter in left, captive seated between, Victories as acroteria, She-wolf and twins in pediment.
exergo: -/-//AQΓ, diameter: 27mm, weight: 5,88g, axis: 0h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 307 A.D., ref: RIC VI 113, p-325,
Q-001
quadrans
Maxentius-AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXENTIVS-PF-AVG_CONSERV-VRBS_VAE_AQ-P_RIC-VI-113_p-325_Aquilea_307-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_27mm_5,67g-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,278 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Aquilea, RIC VI 113, AE-1, -/-//AQP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated left on shield in hexastyle temple, handing globe to Maxentius with right and holding scepter in left, captive seated between, Victories as acroteria, She-wolf and twins in pediment.
exergo: -/-//AQP, diameter: 24-25,5mm, weight: 6,14g, axis: 1h,
mint: Aquilea, date: 307 A.D., ref: RIC VI 113, p-325,
Q-001
quadrans
Maxentius-AE-Follis_IMP-C-MAXENTIVS-PF-AVG_CONSERV-VRBS_VAE_RB-P_RIC-VI-210_p-378_Roma_308-10-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_24mm_5,32g-s.jpg
129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VI 210, AE-1, -/-//RBP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated in a temple,281 views129 Maxentius (306-307 A.D. Caesar, 308-313 A.D. Augustus), Roma, RIC VI 210, AE-1, -/-//RBP, CONSERV VRBS VAE, Roma seated in a temple,
avers:- IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- CONSERV VRBS VAE, Temple with six columns, Roma seated within.
exergo: -/-//RBP, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,32g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 307 A.D., ref: RIC VI 210, p-378,
Q-001
quadrans
58977_501822606521322_1536211435_n.jpg
13 Constans93 viewsConstans AE Centenionalis. D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, A behind bust / FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, sitting on ground, arms up, A to left, dot BSIS dot in ex. RIC VIII Siscia 254, rated C2 (lol). 1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2576.JPG
13 Constantius II19 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, PDC, FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, bare-headed, reaching, M left
BSIS zigzag in ex
Siscia 369 var (headwear)

Better pic
Randygeki(h2)
IMG_3700.jpg
13 Constantius II38 viewsConstantius ii

DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO
Soldier spearing a horseman, Phrygian helmet, forward on ground, on hands and knees
BSIS / * in right field
Siscia 210
Rare
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-045_C1-061_H-053_Q-001_6h_10,0mm_0,23g-s.jpg
13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./c2.04./35., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #0172 views13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./c2.04./35., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01
avers: + BELA RX, Three stabs ending in a cross, border of dots.
reverse: Wedges in place of the legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:10,5 mm, weight: 0,23 g, axis:6h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-053, CNH I.-061, Unger-045,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.07./c2.04./35.,
Q-001
quadrans
II_Bela_(1131-1141_AD)_U-045_C1-061_H-053_Q-002_10h_10,2mm_0,19g-s.jpg
13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./d1.02./?., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01109 views13.07. Béla II., (Béla II. the Blind), King of Hungary, (1131-1141 A.D.), AR-Denarius, CÁC I. 13.07./d1.02./?., H-053, CNH I.-061, U-045, #01
avers: + BELA RX, Three stabs ending in a cross, the border of dots.
reverse: Wedges in place of the legend, cross in a circle with wedges in the angles, line border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter:10,2 mm, weight: 0,19 g, axis:10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-053, CNH I.-061, Unger-045,
Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 13.07./d1.02./?., New subtype/sigla variation!,
Q-001
quadrans
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.68 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)62 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)71 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
131b.jpg
131b Constantius II. AE Centenionalis 19 viewsobv: DN CONSTAN_TIVS PF AVG pearl dia.drp. cuir. bust r., A behind
rev: CONCORDIA MILITVM emp. in military dress star above, holding standard in each hand with CHI RHO in banner
ex: III//BSIS(crescent)
hill132
RI 132bs img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 129 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (B in left field)24 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field) Emission 9, Officina 2. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 386. RIC 129 Bust type F
Weight 4.60 gms
Size 23.04mm
maridvnvm
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LI-CINIVS-AVG_VIRTVS-EXERCIT_S-F-over-HL_VOT-XX_B-SIS-star-on_crescent_RIC-VII-129-p-440-r1-2-D2_320-AD-Siscia_Q-001_axis-1h_19mm_3,26g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 129, S/F/HL//BSIS star on crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R1!81 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 129, S/F/HL//BSIS star on crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R1!
avers:- IMP LI CINIVS AVG, 2, D2, Helmeted and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captive sit in ground on either side, S and F over HL left and right side in fields.
exergo: S/F/HL//BSIS star on crescent, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,26g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-129, p-440, R1!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG_LICNI-AVGVSTI,_VOT_I_S_XX__BSIS___RIC-VII-141-p-442_Siscia_320-AD_r3_Q-001_2h_20,5-21,0mm_3,33gx-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 141, •//•BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines, R3 !141 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 141, •//•BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines, R3 !
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines.
exergo: •//•BSIS•, diameter:20,5-21mm, weight: 3,33g, axis: 2h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 141, p-442, R3 !
Q-001
quadrans
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England12 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
135.jpg
135 Vetranio. AE Centenionalis16 viewsobv: DN VETRA_NIO PF AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: CONCORDIA MILITVM emp. in military dress, star above. standard with CHI RHO in each hand
ex: A/.BSIS.
hill132
rjb_wolf3_01_05.jpg
1359 Antioch67 viewsLRBC I 1359
RIC VII 113
mauseus
Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silv_IMP-CONSTANTINVS-P-F-AVG(1b,D6)_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_BSIS_RIC-VII-53-p-431-alt-typ-u_Siscia_318-9AD_R1_Q-001_7h_18-19mm_3,22g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 053, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, R1, #188 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 053, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, R1, #1
avers:- IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, 1b, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, D6, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus.
exergo: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis:7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 53, p431, altar typ: u, R1,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTANT-INVS-AVG_VICT_LAETAE-PRINC-CAES_VOT-PR-I_B-SIS-star_RIC-VII-95-p-436-1-H12_Siscia_2th_-off__319-20-AD_R3_Q-001_axis-h_19mm_x,xxg-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 095, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS*, VICT•LAETAE PRINC PERP, R3!!!133 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 095, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS*, VICT•LAETAE PRINC PERP, R3!!!
avers:- IMP CONS TANTINVS AVG, 1,H12-l, High crested, helmeted,cuirassed head left, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm.
rever:- VICT•LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, I on altar.
exergo: -/-//BSIS*, diameter: xxmm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 319-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 95, p436, altar I,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG_DN-CONSTANTINI-MAX-AVG_VOT_dot_XX_in-Wreath_BSIS-star_RIC-VII-159-p-444-1-B1_Siscia_2nd-off_320-1-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 159, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS*, D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath, VOT/•/XX within,68 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 159, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS*, D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath, VOT/•/XX within,
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, Laureate head right.
rever:- D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, B1, Wreath, VOT/•/XX within.
exergo: -/-//BSIS*, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320-21 A.D., ref: RIC VII 159, p-444 ,2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_DN-CONSTANTINI-MAX-AVG-B1_VOT_dot_XX_in-Wreath_B-SIS-wreath_RIC-177_p445_Siscia_2nd_-off__321-24_AD_R4_Q-001_19mm_3_24ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 177, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS wreath, D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath, VOT/•/XX within, R4!!!61 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 177, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS wreath, D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, Wreath, VOT/•/XX within, R4!!!
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, Laureate head right.
rever:- D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, B1, Wreath, VOT/•/XX within.
exergo: -/-//BSIS wreath, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, date: 321-24 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-177, p-445 ,2nd.-off., R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-2-off__RIC-200_C-x_Siscia_326-327-AD__Q-001_19mm_2_24g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1112 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #264 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #2
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-6-layers_dot-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-200_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-003_1h_18-20mm_2,81g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #365 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 200, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•BSIS•, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #3
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 6 layers, Campgate with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-327 A.D., ref: RIC VII 200, p-449, 2nd.-off.,
Q-003
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_B-SIS-crescincresc_RIC-_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #169 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #1
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG-1_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVG-G-B1-9layers_BSISCrecincresc_RIC-214_p-452_Siscia_326-327-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #267 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 214, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with two turrets, #2
avers: CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1, B1, Laureate head right.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, 9 layers, Campgate, no door, with two turrets star above.
exergue: -/-//BSISᴗ in ᴗ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-329 A.D., ref: RIC VII 214, p-452, 2nd.-off.,
Q-002
quadrans
aelius caesar.jpg
136-138 AD - AELIUS Caesar AR denarius - struck 137 AD47 viewsobv: L AELIVS CAESAR (bare head right)
rev: TR POT COS II (Concordia seated left, holding patera and leaning on cornucopiae), CONCORD in exergue.
ref: RIC II 436 (Hadrian), RSC 1 (12frcs), BMCRE 981(Hadrian)
Scarce
2.91gms, 18mm

Lucius Ceionius Commodus, a sleek Senator from a distinguished Roman family, was plucked from obscurity by Hadrian in 136 and named as his chosen successor, with the adoptive name Lucius Aelius Caesar. The adoption was marked by the appropriate games and ceremonies, but it soon became evident the young heir was consumptive, leading Hadrian to remark that he'd blown several million sesterces to no purpose. As governor of Pannonia did Aelius no good, the wet, frigid climate worsening his condition. In January 138, Aelius died.
berserker
Urbs-Roma_AE-9,5_monogram_RIC-xx-X_Q-002_axis-0h_9,5mm_0,99g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, ( A.D.), RIC VII , AE-3, -/-//--, She-wolf left, 116 views137 Commemorative, ( A.D.), RIC VII , AE-3, -/-//--, She-wolf left,
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: , date: A.D., ref: RIC VII , p,
Q-001
quadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-18_VRBS-ROMA_dot-SMN-Epsilon_RIC-VII-195-p634_Q-005_axis-11h_17-18mm_2,57g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 119, AE-3, -/-//•SMHЄ, She-wolf left, R3!!!,145 views137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 119, AE-3, -/-//•SMHЄ, She-wolf left, R3!!!,
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above
exergue: -/-//•SMHЄ, diameter: 17,0-18,0 mm, weight: 2,57 g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 330-333 A.D., ref: RIC VII 119, p-558,
Q-001
quadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-18_VRBS-ROMA_Gamma-SIS_RIC-VII-222-p453_Q-006_axis-6h_18mm_2,89g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 222, AE-3, -/-//ΓSIS, She-wolf left, C3!, #1124 views137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 222, AE-3, -/-//ΓSIS, She-wolf left, C3!, #1
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above
exergue: -/-//ΓSIS, diameter: 18 mm, weight: 2,89 g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Siscia, date: 330-333 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-222, p-453, C3!,
Q-001
quadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-18_VRBS-ROMA_Gamma-SIS_RIC-VII-222-p453_Q-002_axis-7h_18,5mm_2,40g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 222, AE-3, -/-//ΓSIS, She-wolf left, C3!, #2179 views137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 222, AE-3, -/-//ΓSIS, She-wolf left, C3!, #2
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above
exergue: -/-//ΓSIS, diameter: 18,5 mm, weight: 2,40 g, axis: 7 h,
mint: Siscia , date: 330-333 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-222, p-453, C3!
Q-002
quadrans
Commemorative_AE-follis_URBS-ROMA_dot_SISdot_RIC-VII-240-p-456-c3_Siscia_334-5-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_16mm_2,02g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 240, AE-3, -/-//•ΓSIS•, She-wolf left, C3!, #1659 views137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 240, AE-3, -/-//•ΓSIS•, She-wolf left, C3!, #1
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above
exergue: -/-//•ΓSIS•, diameter: 16mm, weight: 2,02g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 334-335 A.D., RIC VII 240, p:456, C3!,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-18_VRBS-ROMA_dot-Gamma-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-240-p456_c3_Q-002_axis-6h_18mm_2,19g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 240, AE-3, -/-//•ΓSIS•, She-wolf left, C3!, #2180 views137 Commemorative, (330-333 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 240, AE-3, -/-//•ΓSIS•, She-wolf left, C3!, #2
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above
exergue: -/-//•ΓSIS•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,19g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 334-335 A.D., RIC-VII-240, p:456, C3!,
Q-002
4 commentsquadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-18_VRBS-ROMA_SMN-Gamma_three-dotsRIC-VII-195-p634_Q-005_axis-11h_17-18mm_2,57g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-335 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 195, AE-3, -/-//SMNΓ, She-wolf left, R1, #1,119 views137 Commemorative, (330-335 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 195, AE-3, -/-//SMNΓ, She-wolf left, R1, #1,
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above with three dots vertically placed between them.
exergue: -/-//SMNΓ, diameter: 17,0-18,0 mm, weight: 2,57 g, axis: 11 h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 330-335 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-195, p634, R1!,
Q-001
quadrans
City_Commemorative,_Nicomedia,_RIC_VII_195,_AE-3,_VRBS_ROMA,_SMNS,_Sear_16521,_330-335_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_16-16,5mm,_2,39g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-335 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 195, AE-3, -/-//SMNS, She-wolf left, #1,147 views137 Commemorative, (330-335 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 195, AE-3, -/-//SMNS, She-wolf left, #1,
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above with three dots vertically placed between them.
exergue: -/-//SMNS, diameter: 16,0-16,5 mm, weight: 2,39 g, axis: 11 h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 330-335 A.D., ref: RIC VII 195, Sear 16521,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-18_VRBS-ROMA_TRS_palm_Trier_RIC-VII-561-p218_Q-004_axis-6h_15mm_1,69g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (333-334 A.D.), Tier, RIC VII 561, AE-3, -/-//TRS, She-wolf left, C3!81 views137 Commemorative, (333-334 A.D.), Tier, RIC VII 561, AE-3, -/-//TRS, She-wolf left, C3!
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above, palm branch between them.
exergue: -/-//TRS, diameter: 15,0 mm, weight: 1,69 g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Trier, date: 333-334 A.D., ref: RIC VII 561, p-218, C3!,
Q-001
quadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-9,5_monogram_RIC-958cf-X_Q-001_axis-0h_9,5mm_0,99g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (336-337 A.D.), AE-4, Heraclea, RIC VII 156, URBS ROMA, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, with one standard, R3!!!,143 views137 Commemorative, (336-337 A.D.), AE-4, Heraclea, RIC VII 156, URBS ROMA, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, with one standard, R3!!!,
avers: - URBS-ROMA, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak,
revers:- GLOR-IA-EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them.
exerg: SMHB, diameter: 9,5mm, weight: 0,99g, axes: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 336-337 A.D., ref: RIC VII 156, p-561, R3!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Urbs-Roma_AE-9,5_monogram_RIC-xx-X_Q-003_axis-0h_9,5mm_0,99g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (347-348 A.D.), AE-4, Heraclea, RIC VII 49, URBS ROMA, VOT/XX/MVLT/XXX, in wreath, Scarce!123 views137 Commemorative, (347-348 A.D.), AE-4, Heraclea, RIC VII 49, URBS ROMA, VOT/XX/MVLT/XXX, in wreath, Scarce!
avers:- VRBS- ROMA, Bust of Roma left wearing visored and crested helmet and ornamental mantle.
revers: - VOT/XX/MVLT/XXX, in wreath,.
exe: SMHA (?), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 347-348 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-49, p-433, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
137a.jpg
137a Jovian. AE3 3.4gm10 viewsobv: DN IOVIA_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev:VOT/V/MVLT/X in laur. wreath
ex: BSIRM
hill132
Constantinopolis_AE-3-4_CONSTAN-TINOPOLIS_No_text_BSIS_RIC-VII-224-B_Sear-3890_330-333-AD_Q-001_6h_17,5-18mm_2,84g-s.jpg
138 Constantinopolis, (336-337 A.D.), AE-4, Commemorative, RIC VII 144, Siscia, -/-//BSIS, Victory standing on prow,70 views138 Constantinopolis, (336-337 A.D.), AE-4, Commemorative, RIC VII 144, Siscia, -/-//BSIS, Victory standing on prow,
avers:- CONSTAN-TINOPOLIS, Helmeted and mantled bust of Constantinopolis left, holding sceptre.
revers:- Without legends, Victory standing on prow, holding sceptre and resting hand on shield.
exerg: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 2,84g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 330-333 A.D., ref: RIC VII 224B, p-453, C3, Sear-3890,
Q-001
quadrans
antoninuspius RIC201.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 150-151 AD44 viewsobv: IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT XIIII COS IIII / PIETAS (Pietas standing right, holding hind by the neck & plate of fruits over altar to right)
ref: RIC 201 (S), RSC 616 (5frcs)
3.25gms, 18mm,
Rare

Unusual and rare reverse. Piety meant the right and proper observance of religious ritual, a duty which fell to every citizen, and to the emperor as much or more than to anyone else. In this coin Pietas is holding a bowl of fruits above an altar with one hand, while the other trails a hind for the sacrifice. The bowl of fruits as an offering is also seen in coins showing Fides.
berserker
138b.jpg
138b Valentinianus I. AE3 3.0gm18 viewsobv: DN VALENTINI_ANVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLORI RO_MANORVM emp. adv. r. holding labaraum with CHI RHO on banner,dragging captive
ex: M-*/-F//BSISC
hill132
139a.jpg
139a Valens. AE3 2.0gm12 viewsobv: DN VALEN_S PF AVG pear dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLORIA RO_MANORVM emp. adv. r. dragging captive, holding labaraum in l. hand
ex: >>>>BSISC
hill132
tiberius as.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AE as - struck 22-23 AD39 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII around large S.C.
ref: RIC I 44, C.24 (5 frcs), BMC91
9.44gms, 27mm

In 6 AD Tiberius was in Carnuntum military camp. He led at least eight legions (VIII Augusta from Pannonia, XV Apollinaris and XX Valeria Victrix from Illyricum, XXI Rapax from Raetia, XIII Gemina, XIV Gemina and XVI Gallica from Germania Superior and an unknown unit) against king Maroboduus of the Marcomanni in Bohemia (Czechia). At the same time, I Germanica, V Alaudae, XVII, XVIII and XIX, - led by Caius Sentius Saturninus (governor of Germania) -, moved against Maroboduus along the Elbe. Saturninus led his forces across the country of the Chatti, and, cutting his way through the Hercynian forest, joining Tiberius on the north bank of the Danube, and both wanted to make a combined attack within a few leagues from the Marcomannic capital Boviasmum. It was the most grandiose operation that ever conducted by a Roman army, but a rebellion in Illyria obstructed its final execution.
berserker
schnurrbart-coin.jpg
14. Celtic AR tetradrachm - GALLIERKOPF / SCHNURRBART type - 2nd-1st century (?)490 viewsobv: Apollo head (?) with a mustache right
rev: Rider left, under the horse is rosette with a central point
ref: Göbl OTA 349 (Gallierkopf/Schnurrbart), Pink 349 (Gallischer Einflus); Dessewffy 1224; Dembski 1273-1278 (Kopf mit Schnurrbart); Kostial -; LaTour 9866;
mint: unknown
9.87gms, 24mm

The obverse is one of the most beautiful and the most characteristic product of the (east) celtic coinage. The tipical gallic (or Apollo ?) head without beard and the thick pleated hair belongs to celtic coins of Noricum, and this motive probably got to the Munkács area with transmit of Boii. Maybe that's why Pink is classified in category of Western influence coins (unter Westlichem Einfluss).
Reverse rider holds a zickzack line (lightning?) in right hand, while with his left hand is based on the horse (see: LaTour 9866)
Other description of this type see my East celtic coins topic at the Classical Numismatics
2 commentsberserker
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 55.JPG
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 5561 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, 319-320 AD
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left wearing high crested helmet and holding spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar.
BSIS in exergue. Siscia mint
19mm, 3.1 gm.
RIC 55
2 commentsjdholds
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great97 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141bs_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Antoninianus - RIC V Pt 2, 28 Bust Type H16 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle headed sceptre
Rev:– IOVI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding victory in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand, at foot eagle
Minted in Lugdunum (// A). Emission 7. Officina 1. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
Reference:– Cohen 153 (2f) Bastien 323 (39 examples). RIC V Pt. 2, 28 Bust Type H
22mm. 2.77g

Ex- H.J. Berk
maridvnvm
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_dot-B-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-205-p-450-13-A6_S_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19-20mm_3,10g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•BSIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!66 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 205, -/-//•BSIS•, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, Scarce!
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//•BSIS•, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-205, p-450, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Siscia_RIC_VII_113,_142_Crispus_AE-Follis_IV-L-CRIS-PVS-NOB-CAES(5)_VIRTVS-EXERCIT(G8l)_VOT-X_S-F_Gamma-SIS-star_p438_2nd-off_320-AD_R4_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 113, AE-3 Follis, S/F/BSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R3!!!125 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 113, AE-3 Follis, S/F/BSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R3!!!
avers:- IV-L-CRIS-PVS-NOB-CAESS (5,G8.l.), Laureate, couirassed bust left with spear pointing forward, shield on arm.
revers:- VIRTVS-EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/X, captive seated on ground on either side.
exerg: S/F/BSIS*, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd.-off, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-113-p-438,
Q-001
quadrans
142-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 47.JPG
142-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 4729 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Siscia mint. 318 AD
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
BSIS* in exergue.
Siscia mint, RIC 47.
20mm, 2.8 gm.
jdholds
142a.jpg
142a Valentinianvs II. AR siliqua 1.8gm16 viewsobv: DN VALENTINIANVS IVN PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VRBS ROMA Roma seated on throne holding Victory on globe and reverse spear
ex: -*//AQPS
hill132
142b.jpg
142b Valentinianus II. AE3 26gm19 viewsobv: DN VALENTINIA_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VRBS ROMA Roma seated l. n throne holdin Victory on globe and reversed spear
ex: -*//ANT(delta)
hill132
142c.jpg
142c Valentinianus II. AE4 1.6gm18 viewsobv: DN VALENTINIANVS IVN PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VOT/V/MVLT/X inclosed in laur. wreath
ex: BSISC
hill132
Delmatius_AE-Follis_FL-DELMATIVS-NOB-C_GLOR-IA-EXERC-ITVS_A-SIS_RIC-VII-256-p458_Siscia_335-36-AD_NF-001_axis-6h_15,5mm_1,48ga-s.jpg
143 Delmatius (335-337 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 256B, AE-4, -/-//BSIS, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, one standard, R1! #1107 views143 Delmatius (335-337 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 256B, AE-4, -/-//BSIS, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, one standard, R1! #1
avers: FL DELMATIVS NOB C, 10,B4, Laureate draped bust right.
reverse: GLOR IA EXERC ITVS, Two soldiers bearing with spears and shields with one standards between them with O on banner.
exergue: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 1,48g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 334-335 AD., ref: RIC VII 256B, p-458, R1!,
Q-001
quadrans
143_Delmatius,_Siscia,_RIC_VII_256B,_AE-4,_FL_DELMATIVS_NOB_C,_GLOR_IA_EXERC_ITVS,_BSIS,_335-6AD,_Q-001,_6h,_16mm,_1,35g-s.jpg
143 Delmatius (335-337 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 256B, AE-4, -/-//BSIS, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, one standard, R1! #2151 views143 Delmatius (335-337 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 256B, AE-4, -/-//BSIS, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, one standard, R1! #2
avers: FL DELMATIVS NOB C, 10,B4, Laureate draped bust right.
reverse: GLOR IA EXERC ITVS, Two soldiers bearing with spears and shields with one standards between them with O on banner.
exergue: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 1,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 334-335 AD., ref: RIC VII 256B, p-458, R1!,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM_VOT-dot-X-_B-SIS-halfcirc_rad__RIC-VII-182,p446_c2-7B1_Siscia_321-4-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_18mm_2,72g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 182, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISsemicircle-with-beams, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X, C3!88 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 182, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSISsemicircle-with-beams, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X, C3!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C, 7, B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath.
exergo: -/-//BSISsemicirclewithbeams, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,72g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 321-324 AD., ref: RIC-VII-182-p446, C3 !
Q-001
quadrans
RI_146dl_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - Follis - RIC VI Rome 194b 18 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, shield at side, holding globe and sceptre in hexastyle temple with knobs as acroteria
Minted in Rome (//R*S). A.D. 305 to A.D. 306
Reference:– RIC VI Rome 194b (S)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 146bs img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 398 Bust Type F19 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe.). Emission 7, Officina 3. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291
References:– RIC V Part 2 398 Bust Type F. Bastien Volume VII - (Not listed in Bastien from this officina)
maridvnvm
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_B-SIS-symbol-4_RIC-VIII-199v_p-364_Siscia_348-50-AD_Scarce_Q-001_1h_18,5-19,5mm_2,69g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 199var ???, -/-//BSIS-symbol-4 ???, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, Scarce !66 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 199var ???, -/-//BSIS-symbol-4 ???, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, Scarce !
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. No letter on the fields !!!
exe: -/-//BSIS-symbol-4 ???, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,69g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-350 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-199v ???, p-364,
Q-001
quadrans
146_Constans,_Siscia,_RIC_VIII_218,_D_N_CONSTA-NS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_REPA-RATIO,_BSISsymb2M,_Q-001,_h,_22,5mm,_g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 218, -/-//BSISsymbol2M, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1110 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 218, -/-//BSISsymbol2M, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Tree, #1
avers:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Cn8, G3L, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe.
revers:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Constans advancing right, dragging barbarian from hut under tree.
exergo: -/-//BSISsymbol2M, diameter: 20,5-22,0mm, weight: 3,51g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-351 AD., ref: RIC-VIII-218-p,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-RPARATIO_-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-h_19-21mm_2,57g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232 var, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, legend error!!!155 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232 var, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, legend error!!!
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//BSIS•, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL•TEMP-REPARATIO_-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-h_18-20mm_2,48g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,104 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//BSIS•, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-001_7h_16,5mm_2,66g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #191 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, (reaching type).
exergo: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 16,5mm, weight:2,66g, axis:7h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-002_6h_17-18,3mm_2,33g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #276 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #2
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, (reaching type).
exergo: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 17,0-18,3mm, weight:2,33g, axis:6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-002
quadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Thessalonica,_RIC_VIII_172,B,_AE-3,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO,__#915;-star,_starTSBstar,_350-5AD,_Q-001,_11h,_23,3-24mm,_5,40gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 172, AE-2 Follis, Γ/*//*TSB*, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor and captive, #1122 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 172, AE-2 Follis, Γ/*//*TSB*, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor and captive, #1
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, (Cs1,D3,) Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Emperor in military dress advancing left, treading on captive (Phrygian helmet), holding Victory on a globe and a chi-rho standard, Γ left, star right.
exergue: Γ/*//*TSB*, diameter: 21,6-23mm, weight: 5,12g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 350-355 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 172, p-418, LRBC #1671,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
148c.jpg
148c Arcadus. AE3 2.7gm15 viewsobv: DN ARCADI_VS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: GLORIA RO_MANORM emp. adv. R. dragging captive and holding labarum
ex: BSISC
hill132
RI 152h img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Rome 16367 viewsObv:– MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma seated, facing,head left, in hexastyle temple, right holding globe, left sceptre, with shield at her side; knobs as acroteria
Minted in Rome (RT in exe), Summer A.D. 307
References:– RIC VI Rome 163 (Rare)
maridvnvm
RI 152a img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Rome 21266 viewsObv:– IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated, facing, head left, in hexastyle temple, right holding globe, left sceptre, with shield at her side; knobs as acroteria, wreath in pediment
Minted in Rome (H in left field, RBP in exe.), between A.D. 308 and A.D.310
References:– RIC VI Rome 212 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 152i img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ticinum 09179 viewsObv:– MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate Bust right
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated, facing,head left, in hexastyle temple, right holding globe, left sceptre, with shield at her side; knobs as acroteria
Minted in Ticinum (ST in exe.), A.D. 307-308
References:– RIC VI Ticinum 91
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Constantius-Gallus_AE-3_DN-CONSTANTIVS-IVN-NOB-C_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_B-SIS_RIC-VIII-351_p-375_Siscia_351-354-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_2,75g-s.jpg
152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 351, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing horseman,277 views152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 351, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing horseman,
avers:- D N CONSTATIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is wearing Phrygian helmet, reading backwards.
exe: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 351-354 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 351, p-375,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_star-B-SIRM-palm_Sirmium-360-63_RIC-000_Q-002_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*BSIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #2218 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*BSIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #2
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergo: -/-//*BSIRMpalm, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 107, C
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-001_6h_20,5mm_3,35g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #180 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-003_0h_20mm_3,10g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #265 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #2
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-003
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-004_7h_20,5-21,5mm_3,20g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #366 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #3
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 20,5-1,5mm, weight: 3,20g, axis: 7h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-003
quadrans
Julian-II-proba-gif2b.gif
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, Nice animation !!!, 69 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, Nice animation !!!,
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
quadrans
Jovianus_AE-3_DN-IOVIA-NVS-PF-AVG_VOT-V-MVLT-X_B-SIRM_Jv1-D4-Sirmium_363-64-AD__RIC-VIII-119-p394_Q-001_axis-1h_19,5mm_3,40g-s.jpg
154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 119, AE-3, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, -/-//BSIRM, Scarce ! #169 views154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 119, AE-3, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, -/-//BSIRM, Scarce ! #1
avers:- D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, Jv1-D4.
revers:- No legend, wreath VOT/V/MVLT/X within ,
exergo: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,40, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium, 2nd.off., date: 363-64 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 119, p-394, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
1188_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
1550B MYSIA. Lampsacus Hadrian, Priapus standing13 viewscf RPC III, -- 1550 Trajan; same SNG France 1272; BMC Mysia -, SNG BnF -, SNG Cop

Obv. AΔIANOC KAICAP
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right

Rev. ΛΑΜΨΑΚΗΝωΝ
ithyphallic Priapus standing left, right hand raised, left hand on hip

1.55 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
Priapus or Priapos was a minor rustic fertility god, protector of livestock, fruit plants, gardens and male genitalia. Priapus is marked by his absurdly oversized permanent erection, which gave rise to the medical term priapism. He became a popular figure in Roman erotic art and Latin literature, and is the subject of the often humorously obscene collection of verse called the Priapeia. Statues of Priapus were sometimes placed on boundaries and hung with signs which threatened sexual assault on trespassers.
FORVM coin
okidoki
Mary_Tudor___as_found.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England5 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.

*Alex
Gratianus-Q-001-s.jpg
158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 031a-2, -/-//BSISC, AE-4 Follis, VOT/XV/MVLT/XX in wreath, Scarce !, #1280 views158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 031a-2, -/-//BSISC, AE-4 Follis, VOT/XV/MVLT/XX in wreath, Scarce !, #1
avers:- D N GRATIA NVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VOT/XV/MVLT/XX, Wreath, legend within.
exerg: -/-//BSISC, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 378-383 A.D., ref: RIC IX 31a2, p-152, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
158_Gratianus_(367-383_A_D_),_Trier,_RIC_IX_027f,_AR_siliqua,_DN_GRATIA_NVS_P_F_AVG,_VRBS_ROMA,_TRPS_,_RSC_86b_,_367-378_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18mm,_2,16g-s.jpg
158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Trier, RIC IX 027f, AR Siliqua, -/-//TRPS•, VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, #165 views158 Gratianus (367-383 A.D.), Trier, RIC IX 027f, AR Siliqua, -/-//TRPS•, VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, #1
avers: D N GRATIA NVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and scepter.
exergue: -/-//TRPS•, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 2,16g, axes: 6h,
mint: Trier, date: 367-383 A.D.,
ref: RIC IX 027f, RSC 86b.,
Q-001
quadrans
Valentinianus-II__AE-Follis_DN-VALENTINIANVS-IVN-PF-AVG_REPARATIO-REIPVB_star-B-SIS-C_RIC-26b_8_C-22_Siscia-378-383_Q-002_axis-7h_21-23mm_4,86g-s.jpg
159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026b-6, -/-//*BSISC, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor,100 views159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026b-6, -/-//*BSISC, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor,
avers:- D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- REPARATIO REIPVB, Valentinian II standing, facing, holding hand of kneeling woman and Victory on globe.
exergo: -/-//*BSISC, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 4,86g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 378-383 A.D., ref: RIC-IX-26b-6, p-150,
Q-001
quadrans
Valentinianus-II_AE-Follis_DN-VALENTINIANVS-IVN-PF-AVG_REPARATIO-REIPVB_star-B-SIS-C-dot_RIC-26b_8_C-22_Siscia-378-383_Q-001_23mm_5,22g-s.jpg
159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026b-8, -/-//*BSISC•, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor,181 views159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026b-8, -/-//*BSISC•, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor,
avers:- D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- REPARATIO REIPVB, Valentinian II standing, facing, holding hand of kneeling woman and Victory on globe.
exergo: -/-//*BSISC•, diameter: 23mm, weight: 5,22g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 378-383 A.D., ref: RIC-IX-26b-8, p-150,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Valentinianus-II__AE-4_DN-VALENTINIANVS-PF-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG-G-G_B-SIS_RIC-IX-39a-2_p-155_C-46_Siscia-384-387_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 039a-2, -/-//BSIS, AE-4 Follis, VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, #172 views159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 039a-2, -/-//BSIS, AE-4 Follis, VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, #1
avers:- D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exergo: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 13,0-13,5mm, weight: 0,96g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 388-392 A.D., ref: RIC-IX-39a-2, p-155,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 160bs img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 06512 viewsObv:– CONS-TANTINVS AVG, High crested helemeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Lugdunum (//two captives). A.D. 321
Reference:– RIC VII 65 (R1). Bastien XI 3 (23 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160a img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 20035 viewsObv:– CONSTA-NTIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom row blocks.
Minted in Siscia. •BSIS• in exe. A.D. 326-327
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 200
maridvnvm
Theodosius-I_AE-2_DN-THEODO-SIVS-PF-AVG_REPARATIO-REIPVB_B-SIS-C_RIC-IX-26c-2_p-150_C-27_Siscia_379-383-AD_Q-001_1h_21,5-23mm_4,78g-s.jpg
160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026c-2, -/-//BSISC•, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #187 views160 Theodosius I. (379-395 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 026c-2, -/-//BSISC•, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #1
avers:- D N THEODO SIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing, facing, holding hand of kneeling woman and Victory on globe.
exergo: -/-//BSISC•, diameter: 21,5-23mm, weight: 4,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 379-383 A.D., ref: RIC-IX-26c-2, p-150,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_161ay_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24226 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe.
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 242 (R2).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 161g img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 247 21 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • PLG in exe. A.D. 332
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 247 (R1).
maridvnvm
RI 161e img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24714 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • SLG in exe. A.D. 332
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 247 (R1). Bastien XIII 237 (23)
maridvnvm
RI_161r_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24743 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • PLG in exe. A.D. 332
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 247 (R1).
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_161q_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24726 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (•SLG). A.D. 332
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 237 (23). RIC VII Lyons 247 (R3).
maridvnvm
RI_161ak_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24722 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (•SLG). A.D. 332
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 237 (23). RIC VII Lyons 247 (R3).
maridvnvm
RI 161m img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 25736 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • in crescent PLG in exe. A.D. 331
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 257 (R2). Bastien XIII 221 (62 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 161c img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 26734 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. *PLG in exe
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 267 (R3). Bastien Vol. XIII 253.
maridvnvm
RI 161f img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 26727 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. *SLG in exe. A.D. 334-335
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 267 (R3). Bastien XIII 259 (17 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_161s_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 26718 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (*PLG). A.D. 333-334
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 253 (36). RIC 267 (R3).
maridvnvm
RI_161ao_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lyons 267 19 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– None, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (*SLG). A.D. 334-335
Reference:– Bastien XIII 259. RIC VII Lyons 267 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI 161a img.JPG
161 - Commemorative - RIC Thessalonica 18745 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Thessalonica. SMTSE in exe
Reference:– RIC Thessalonica 187
maridvnvm
RI_161af_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Constantinople 7822 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Constantinople (//CONSE•).
Reference:– RIC VII Constantinople 78 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI_161ai_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Rome 35427 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Rome (//R Wreath Q).
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 354 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_161av_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Siscia 22238 viewsAE3
Obv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Siscia (//Gamma SIS).
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 222
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_161ag_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Trier 54715 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Trier (//TRP*).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 547
maridvnvm
maurel metal.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS Æ quadrans 58 viewsobv: diademed and draped female head right
rev: METAL AURELIANIS (three-line legend in wreath)
ref: RIC III 1255, Cohen 1515(Hadrian!!)
2.21gms, 16mm, mines coin
Very rare

The mines coins served as a substitute for the small copper Senate coins of which there were not sufficient quantities in circulation in the period between the years 98-180 AD in the province Illyricum and Noricum. The mining coins served also in the trade between miners and the inhabitants of localities where the respective mines were located.
berserker
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
0023-070np_noir.jpg
1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius240 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
Arcadius_AE-4_DN-ARCARIVS-PF-AVG_VICTORI-IA-AVGGG_xxx_RIC-IX-20d_C-xx_Cyzicus_383-408-AD__Q-001_axis-h_14mm_1,11g-s.jpg
165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 039c2, -/-//BSIS, AE-4, VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, Rare!, #1104 views165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Siscia, RIC IX 039c2, -/-//BSIS, AE-4, VICTORIA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, Rare!, #1
avers: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (3a/A).
reverse: VICTOR IA AVG G G, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exergue: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 13,0-14,0 mm, weight: 1,11g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 384-387 A.D., ref: RIC IX 39c2, p-155, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
RI_169bs_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 114 var 26 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, emperor in military dress standing left on galley, holding Phoenix and labarum, Victory sitting at the stern, steering the ship
Minted in Rome; (/A | _ / RS)
Reference:– RIC VIII Rome 114 var (Unlisted officina, listed for RQ, which is R)

5.60 gms. 24.11 mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_169al_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 217 32 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Laureate and rosette-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand
Rev:- FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs
Minted in Siscia; (// BSIS(Symbol 2)M ), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 217 (C). LRBC 1121 var (Hut 2)
maridvnvm
RI_169au_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE3 - RIC VIII Siscia 247 31 viewsObv:- DN CONSTA-NS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right,
Rev:- FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, Nimbate Phoenix standing right on ile of rocks
Minted in Siscia; (_ | Sym2 //BSIS), A.D. 348-350
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 247 (C)

0 degrees. 2.59 gms. 19.28 mm

I suspect that the silvering is not ancient.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170bs_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Alexandria 66 var 51 viewsAe2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
Rev:– FEL . TEMP . REPARATIO, Soldier advancing right, head left, holding spear and leading small figure from hut beneath tree
Minted in Alexandria (* //ALED).
Reference:– RIC VIII Alexandria 66 var (RIC 66 rated S, Not listed for this officina in RIC)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170ep1_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 25621 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Delta behind bust
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him. He wears a Phrygian cap
Minted in Sirmium (Dot S Dot | _ / A // BSIRM).
References:- RIC VIII Sirmium 44

4.04 gms. 21.36 mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170bl_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 22530 viewsAE2
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in hand
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor bare headed & in military dress standing, holding standard with chi-rho on banner in his right hand, resting left hand on shield, two bound captives in Phrygian helmets standing, facing each other before him
Minted in Siscia (* | _ // BSISM). A.D. 348-350.
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 225 (Rated C2)
maridvnvm
RI_170cq_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 352 14 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him. He wears a Phrygian cap
Minted in Siscia (//BSIS Zigzag). 353 AD.
Reference:- RIC VIII Siscia 352 (C3) 18-19mm

18.44mm
maridvnvm
RI_170ea_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2/3 - RIC VIII Siscia 34424 viewsAE2/3
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right; A behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman is bare headed and reaches back towards the emperor
Minted in Siscia (II | _ |// dot BSIS dot).
Reference:- RIC VIII Siscia 344 (C)

3.90 gms. 21.40 mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170ei_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE3 - RIC VIII Siscia 37228 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him. He is helmeted.
Minted in Siscia (M | _ // BSISD).
Reference:- RIC VIII Siscia 372 (C)

2.16 gms. 16.37 mm. 0 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
1728.JPG
1728 - États de Rennes14 viewsLouis XV
6,69g
28 mm
argent
LUD. XV. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XV roi trčs chrétien"
Buste ŕ droite en habit ŕ quatre boutons, avec cravate et grand cordon,
au-dessous signature DU VIVIER. F.
URBS RHEDONUM INCENSA RESURGENS.
"La ville de Rennes brűlée, renaissante"
La ville de Rennes tourelée ŕ gauche,
présentant un plan au roi ;
elle pose la main gauche sur les armes de la ville ;
sous leurs pieds REST. SUO
"Sa Restauration"
ŕ l’exergue COM. ARM./ 1728 .
"Parlement de Bretagne 1728"
Daniel 82
PYL
173- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 87-2.JPG
173- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 8719 viewsAE3, Siscia mint, 319 AD
Obv:IVL CRISPVS NOB C , Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
BSIS in exergue.
RIC87
18mm , 2.6 gm.
jdholds
0030-0210.jpg
1749 - Octavian, Denarius271 viewsItalian mint, possibly Rome, 31-30 BC
Anepigraph, bare head of Octavian left
CAESAR - DIVI F, Victory standing right on globe, holding wreath
3.84 gr
Ref : HCRI # 408, RCV # 1552v, Cohen # 66, RIC # 255
The following comment is taken from CNG, sale 84 # 957 :
"Following his victory at Actium, Octavian ordered a golden statue of Victory, standing on a globe and holding a wreath and palm, to be set up on an altar in the Curia in Rome. This statue had been captured by the Romans from Pyrrhus in 272 BC, and it assumed a somewhat tutelary mystique, protecting the Roman state from dissolution. In AD 382, the emperor Gratian ordered its removal. Two years later, the senator and orator Symmachus urged Valentinian II to replace it, a request that was met with stiff opposition from the bishop of Milan, Ambrose. Though it was briefly returned to its place by the usurper Eugenius, it was again removed following his defeat. Petitions to Theodosius I for its subsequent replacement were refused, on grounds that the once-important symbol of the gods’ blessing on the Roman Empire was now nothing more than a piece of paganism"
11 commentsPotator II
RI_175aa_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE2 - RIC VIII Siscia 329 var 33 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NBO(sic) C, Bare headed draped & cuirassed bust right; A
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor standing left on galley, holding Victory on globe and labarum; Victory behind, steering galley
Minted in Siscia (III | * // BSIS)
Reference:– RIC VIII Siscia 329 var (would be C but obverse legend error)

5.16 gms. 23.42 mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_175u_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE2/3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 45 23 viewsAE2/3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is bare headed, reaching back towards emperor
Minted in Sirmium (.S. | _ / A //BSIRM),
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 45 (C2)
maridvnvm
RI_175l_a_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 4521 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right; Delta behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is bare headed, reaching backwards
Minted in Sirmium (.S. | _ / A // BSIRM),
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 45 (C2).
maridvnvm
RI_175j_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE3 - RIC VIII Siscia -33 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right; A behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is wearing a Phrygian cap, reaching backwards
Minted in Siscia (// BSIS),
Reference:– It would appear to be unlisted unless I am missing something.

It measures 19.20 mm and weighs 2.44 gms
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_175j_img~0.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE3 - RIC VIII Siscia - 26 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right; A behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is wearing a Phrygian cap, reaching backwards
Minted in Siscia (// BSIS),
Reference:– It would appear to be unlisted unless I am missing something.

It measures 19.20 mm and weighs 2.44 gms

Updated image
maridvnvm
IMG_4188~0.jpg
175. Delmatius (335-337 A.D.)20 viewsAv.: FL DELMATIVS NOB C
Rv.: GLORIA EXERCITVS
Ex.: BSIS

AE Follis Ř17 / 1.3g
RIC VII 256 Siscia
RIC Rarity rating R1!
Juancho
RI_176i_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 108 24 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Rev:– VOT X MVLT XX, within wreath
Minted in Sirmium (//BSIRM), Spring A.D. 360- A.D. 363
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 108 (C2)

20.80 mm. 3.41 gms. 180 degrees.

A nice strike from fresh dies.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_179i_img.jpg
179 - Valens, Siliqua, RIC IX Trier 27b 16 viewsObv:– D N VALENS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VRBS ROMA, Roma,helmeted and draped, seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe in righthand and spear in left
Minted in Trier (//TRPS•). 24th August A.D. 367 - 17th November 375
Reference:– RIC IX Trier 27b (Rated Scarce)
maridvnvm
1791_Rochdale_Halfpenny.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Rochdale, Lancashire.27 viewsObverse: ROCHDALE / 1791. Sheep facing left, being weighed suspended in a sling round it's waist.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. Detailed view from behind of a weaver, sitting half-right, working at a loom.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF IOHN KERSHAW • X •.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 140

This token was engraved and manufactured by J.G.Hancock in Birmingham.
It was issued by John Kershaw who appears to have been a mercer and draper with a business in Rochdale, and who is also thought to have been connected with a woollen mill in the town.

Rochdale's recorded history begins with an entry in the Domesday Book of 1086 under Recedham Manor. The ancient parish of Rochdale was a division of the hundred of Salford and one of the largest ecclesiastical parishes in England comprising several townships. By 1251, Rochdale had become important enough to have been granted a Royal charter. Subsequently, the town flourished into a centre of northern England's woollen trade, and by the early 18th century was described as being "remarkable for many wealthy merchants".
During the 19th century, Rochdale rose to prominence as a major mill town and centre for textile manufacture. It was amongst the first ever industrialised towns during the Industrial Revolution and the Rochdale Canal was a highway of commerce during this time, being used for the haulage of cotton, wool and coal.
*Alex
1792_YARMOUTH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1792 AE Halfpenny Token. Yarmouth, Norfolk.24 viewsObverse: LET YARMOUTH FLOURISH :. Coat of Arms of Yarmouth over crossed sprigs of oak. Small incuse rosette countermark in field to right of shield. The Coat of Arms combines three lion's heads from the Royal Arms with the tails of three silver herrings, believed to come from the original arms of Yarmouth.
Reverse: YARMOUTH HALFPENNY. Three masted ship sailing right; 1792, in panel below.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE GLASS WAREHOUSE OF W. ABSOLON • X •.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 52

This token was issued by William Absolon (1751 – 1815), a British ceramist who, from 1784, sold English and foreign china and glass but also later offered gilding, enameling and painting services at his shop, No 4, at the lower end of Market Row in Yarmouth.
Absolon bought in wares from the Wedgewood, Davenport, Turner and Staffordshire factories, which he then decorated. He painted dessert services with botanical subjects with the Latin name of the plant inscribed on the plate or dish and also his mark; Absolon Yarm and No 25. He also decorated Turner Ware and Cream Ware Jugs adding mottoes, such as; a Trifle from Yarmouth, or Success to the Trade. Absolon died in 1815 and although his business continued, the quality declined. Today, his work attracts high prices at auction.
*Alex
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.89 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left Ł200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1795_GLAMORGAN_HALF-PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.65 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
Charles_IIII_1795_Mexico_Spanish_Colonial_8_Reales.jpg
1795- MoFM Mexico Spanish Colonial 8 Reales of Charles IIII - [KM-109 -- Charles IIII]64 viewsChopmarked, 0.7797 ounce silver 8 Reales (also known as the pillar dollar), 26.65g, 39.62mm, 0 degree, Mexico City, Mexico Mint [Mo -- small 'o' set over a large 'M'], 179[5]

Obv. - • CAROLUS IIII • DEI • GR[ATIA] •, laureate bust of Charles IIII right

Rev. - • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • Mo • 8R • F • M •, coat of arms of Spain

This coin was sold as a 1794 chopmarked 8 Reale. Upon inspection in hand under high magnification and different lighting conditions, as well as inspection of large, quality pictures on the computer allowing for color/contrast/levels manipulation, and I have determined this coin to actually be from 1795. The '5', although extremely worn is visible under the correct conditions and comparisons of the worn number morphology to other 179x coins lends credence to this finding.

The reverse is just as interesting and challenging. Although the mintmark is almost completely worn off, the assayer of FM ensures that the coin is of Mexico City, Mexico mintmark.

The coat of arms of Spain, a crown crown flanked by columns and a middle shield includes the national motto PLVS VLTRA spread across the two columns. PLVS VLTRA (PLUS ULTRA) translates to "further beyond." It is adopted from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain as Charles I) and is a Latin translation from Plus Oultre, his original motto in Old French.

A great website for helping to attribute these coins and a breakdown of the legend components can be found here: http://coinquest.com/cgi-bin/cq/coins?main_coin=2334

Reading on different chopmarks can be found here: http://www.1messydesk.com/chopmarks/chopmarks.html

Although this coin is quite worn in certain areas, it has a lovely tone and great character. The numerous different chopmarks just add to the appeal. This coins was bought as a conversation piece as I have always found them interesting, albeit with knowing next to nothing concerning them. However, after doing some research, I have come to appreciate it much more and may follow suite with further additions. In any case, I plan on further reading into the subject area.
___________

Purchased from Regal Coin Exchange in Savannah, GA
1 commentsrenegade3220
1813_FLINT_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1813 AE Penny Token. Flint, Flintshire.23 viewsObverse: FLINT LEAD WORKS. View of the lead works, smoking away in full production; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: ONE POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS • around ONE PENNY TOKEN in centre.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1313 | Davis: 12
SCARCE

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday. The manufacturer of the token is unknown but it would in all probability have been struck in Birmingham. It was issued by George Roskell at the Flint Lead Works in Flintshire.

The Flint Lead Smelting Works was the only issuer of tokens in North Wales in the 19th century. The company produced lead from ore obtained from mines on the nearby Halkyn mountain. George Roskell (1777-1847) of Garstang, Lancashire, came to Flintshire as a shareholder in the Milwr Mine, and later became the senior partner in the Flint Smelting Works. In 1805, he married Mary Ann, only child of James Potts of Stokyn, near Holywell. His eldest son, George Potts Roskell succeeded to the Stokyn estate. In 1852 the Flint Lead Works became absorbed in the more extensive Alkali Works of Muspratt Bros. and Huntley, which by 1885 was one of the largest chemical works in Britain.

The town of Flint has its origins in the turbulent times of Edward I in the13th century when he invaded Wales for the complete subjugation of the Welsh princes and the people of Wales. Edward I picked the only suitable spot on the marshy shore, where an outcrop of rock jutted out some fifty yards into the river, on which to build the castle and town of Flint. The castle was built on the rock and joined by a drawbridge to the town. The town was built in the form of a Roman encampment, with a double ditch and earthen banks crowned by timber ramparts and four regular gates.
*Alex
1813_SHEFFIELD_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Sheffield, Yorkshire.28 viewsObverse: PAYABLE AT S. HOBSON & SON's, BUTTON MANUFACTURERS, incuse letters on a raised rim. Arms consisting of eight arrows arranged saltirewise, bound together with a ribbon; pheon on either side; above, a facing winged cherubim; below, SHEFFIELD.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN 1813 incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; small “H” (for Halliday) below shield.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm
Davis:138

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday (c.1780-1854). Active in the early 19th century, Halliday originally worked as an engraver at Matthew Boulton's Soho Mint in Handsworth and set up on his own as a medallist and token-producer from 1801. Established in Newhall Street, Birmingham about 1810, he engraved dies for the trade, or engraved and manufactured tokens and medals at his own works for all traders who wished to issue them.

This token was issued by Hobson & Son who were button manufacturers with a business in Sheffield.
*Alex
RI_182e_img.jpg
182 - Valentniian II - AE3 - RIC IX Antioch 5113 viewsAE3
Obv:- D N VALENTINIA NVS IVN P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- VRBS ROMA, Roma, helmeted, seated left on cuirass, Victory on globe in right hand, spear in left.
Minted in Antioch (_ | * //ANTB)
Reference:- RIC IX Antioch 51
maridvnvm
hardtimes2_copy.jpg
1837 Hard Times Token, New York29 views1837 Hard Times Token, New York, Obv: Eagle with wings spread, SUBSTITUTION FOR SHIN PLASTERS in field around border; Rev: MAY TENTH 1837 within wreath, illegible inscription in field around border, About Fine.Molinari
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex19 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
RI_188e_img.jpg
188 - Arcadius Siliqua - RIC IX, 43(c) 67 viewsObv:– DN ARCADIVS AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and curassed bust right
Rev:– VRBS ROMA, Roma seated left on cuirass, Victory on globe in right hand, reversed spear in left
Minted in Lugdunum (LVGPS). August 28, A.D. 388-May 15, A.D. 392, Sixth Period
Reference:– RIC IX, 43(c) (rated Rare)
maridvnvm
838_P_Hadrian_RPC1931var_.JPG
1931A AEOLIS, Cyme Hadrian River-god Ermos15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1931A; BMC 132var. bust

Issue Without name of strategos

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right seen from rear (var.)

Rev. ΑΙΟΛΕΩΝ ΚΥΜΑΙωΝ, ΕΡΜΟС (in ex.)
River-god Ermos wearing himation over lower limbs reclining l., holding reed in r. hand, l. arm on urn from which water flows

7.70 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
Edward_8_Medal_1937.JPG
1937 EDWARD VIII AE CORONATION MEDAL11 viewsObverse: • HIS • MAJESTY • KING • EDWARD • VIII •, Crowned bust of Edward VIII facing right, wearing ceremonial robes, the legend in raised letters on a raised border with each word separated by a rose.
Reverse: CROWNED – A. D. 1937. Britannia standing facing within a distyle arch, holding crown aloft with her right hand and union flag on pole in her left, in background to left, battleship and to right, London riverside scene in which St Paul's Cathedral can be discerned.
Diameter: 45mm

No coins were issued for Edward VIII who became King on the death of his father, George V, on 20th January 1936. Edward's coronation never took place because he abdicated the throne on 11th December that same year after a reign lasting only 326 days.
As Edward VIII was never crowned the coin types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation in 1937 of Edward's younger brother Albert, who reigned as George VI.

This unsigned medal was struck in 1936 in anticipation of the proposed Coronation of Edward VIII on 12th May, 1937. The same reverse dies were subsequently reused on coronation medals for George VI.
*Alex
887_P_Hadrian_RPC1956.jpg
1956 LYDIA, Hyrcanis Hadrian Ae 18 124-25 AD Dionysus standing12 viewsReference.
RPC III 1956; Stumpf —; Weiser p. 283 corr. And p. 290, Abb. 3

Magistrate M. Peducaeus Priscinus (procos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ Α-ΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate, draped bust right, with paludamentum, seen from front

Rev. YΡΚΑΝΩΝ ΑΝΘ ΠΡΙСΚΙNΩ
Dionysus standing l., himation over lower limbs and l. shoulder, holding cantharus in r. hand, l. resting on thyrsus

5.11 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
893_P_Sabina_RPC1973.JPG
1973 IONIA, Smyrna Sabina River-god Kaleon12 viewsReference
RPC III 1973; Klose XLV, Serie A, 1-12; BMC.336, SNG.Aul.- , SNG.Cop.1365

Issue Without magistrate name

Obv. СΑΒΕΙΝΑ СΕΒΑСΤΗ
Draped bust of Sabina with double stephane r.

Rev. KΑΛΕΩΝ ΖΜΥΡ
River-god Kaleon recumbent, l., himation over lower limbs, holding cornucopia in r. hand, resting with l. arm on inverted vase

3.43 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
Manlia4.jpg
1aa Reign of SVLLA23 viewsL Manlivs, moneyer
82-72 BC

Denarius

Head of Roma, right, MANLI before, PRO Q behind
Sulla in walking quadriga, crowned by Victory, L SVLLA IM in ex.

Seaby, Manlia 4

Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC) was a Roman general and conservative statesman. He had the distinction of holding the office of consul twice, as well as reviving the dictatorship. Sulla was awarded a grass crown, the most prestigious and rarest Roman military honor, during the Social War. He was the first man to lead an army to Rome to settle a political dispute, in this case with Marius. In late 81 BC, he stunned the world by resigning his near-absolute powers, restoring constitutional government. After seeing election to and holding a second consulship, he retired to private life and died shortly after.

As to the person, Plutarch wrote: LUCIUS Cornelius Sylla was descended of a patrician or noble family. . . . His general personal appearance may be known by his statues; only his blue, eyes, of themselves extremely keen and glaring, were rendered all the more forbidding and terrible by the complexion of his face, in which white was mixed with rough blotches of fiery red. . . . And when supreme master of all, he was often wont to muster together the most impudent players and stage-followers of the town, and to drink and bandy jests with them without regard to his age or the dignity of his place, and to the prejudice of important affairs that required his attention. When he was once at table, it was not in Sylla's nature to admit of anything that was serious, and whereas at other times he was a man of business and austere of countenance, he underwent all of a sudden, at his first entrance upon wine and good-fellowship, a total revolution, and was gentle and tractable with common singers and dancers, and ready to oblige any one that spoke with him. It seems to have been a sort of diseased result of this laxity that he was so prone to amorous pleasures, and yielded without resistance to any temptation of voluptuousness, from which even in his old age he could not refrain. He had a long attachment for Metrobius, a player. In his first amours, it happened that he made court to a common but rich lady, Nicopolis by name, and what by the air of his youth, and what by long intimacy, won so far on her affections, that she rather than he was the lover, and at her death she bequeathed him her whole property. He likewise inherited the estate of a step-mother who loved him as her own son. By these means he had pretty well advanced his fortunes. . . . In general he would seem to have been of a very irregular character, full of inconsistencies with himself much given to rapine, to prodigality yet more; in promoting or disgracing whom he pleased, alike unaccountable; cringing to those he stood in need of, and domineering over others who stood in need of him, so that it was hard to tell whether his nature had more in it of pride or of servility. As to his unequal distribution of punishments, as, for example, that upon slight grounds he would put to the torture, and again would bear patiently with the greatest wrongs; would readily forgive and he reconciled after the most heinous acts of enmity, and yet would visit small and inconsiderable offences with death and confiscation of goods; one might judge that in himself he was really of a violent and revengeful nature, which, however, he could qualify, upon reflection, for his interest.
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JuliusCaesarDenVenus.jpg
1aa Julius Caesar166 views60 BC (formation of the First Triumvirate)-44 BC (assassination)

Denarius
44 BC

Caesar's head, right, eight-pointed star behind. CAESAR IMP.
Venus standing left, holding victory and scepter. P SEPVLLIVS MACER.

RSC 41

Plutarch said of the first triumvirate: There is a law among the Romans, that whoever desires the honour of a triumph must stay without the city and expect his answer. And another, that those who stand for the consulship shall appear personally upon the place. Caesar was come home at the very time of choosing consuls, and being in a difficulty between these two opposite laws, sent to the senate to desire that, since he was obliged to be absent, he might sue for the consulship by his friends. Cato, being backed by the law, at first opposed his request; afterwards perceiving that Caesar had prevailed with a great part of the senate to comply with it, he made it his business to gain time, and went on wasting the whole day in speaking. Upon which Caesar thought fit to let the triumph fall, and pursued the consulship. Entering the town and coming forward immediately, he had recourse to a piece of state policy by which everybody was deceived but Cato. This was the reconciling of Crassus and Pompey, the two men who then were most powerful in Rome. There had been a quarrel between them, which he now succeeded in making up, and by this means strengthened himself by the united power of both, and so under the cover of an action which carried all the appearance of a piece of kindness and good-nature, caused what was in effect a revolution in the government. For it was not the quarrel between Pompey and Caesar, as most men imagine, which was the origin of the civil wars, but their union, their conspiring together at first to subvert the aristocracy, and so quarrelling afterwards between themselves.

Of Caesar's military leadership, Plutarch wrote: He was so much master of the good-will and hearty service of his soldiers that those who in other expeditions were but ordinary men displayed a courage past defeating or withstanding when they went upon any danger where Caesar's glory was concerned. . . . This love of honour and passion for distinction were inspired into them and cherished in them by Caesar himself, who, by his unsparing distribution of money and honours, showed them that he did not heap up wealth from the wars for his own luxury, or the gratifying his private pleasures, but that all he received was but a public fund laid by the reward and encouragement of valour, and that he looked upon all he gave to deserving soldiers as so much increase to his own riches. Added to this also, there was no danger to which he did not willingly expose himself, no labour from which he pleaded an exemption. His contempt of danger was not so much wondered at by his soldiers because they knew how much he coveted honour. But his enduring so much hardship, which he did to all appearance beyond his natural strength, very much astonished them. For he was a spare man, had a soft and white skin, was distempered in the head and subject to an epilepsy, which, it is said, first seized him at Corduba. But he did not make the weakness of his constitution a pretext for his ease, but rather used war as the best physic against his indispositions; whilst, by indefatigable journeys, coarse diet, frequent lodging in the field, and continual laborious exercise, he struggled with his diseases and fortified his body against all attacks. He slept generally in his chariots or litters, employing even his rest in pursuit of action. In the day he was thus carried to the forts, garrisons, and camps, one servant sitting with him, who used to write down what he dictated as he went, and a soldier attending behind him with his sword drawn.
2 commentsBlindado
APlautiusDenJudea.jpg
1ab Conquest of Judea11 viewsA. Plautius, moneyer
c. 54 BC

Denarius

Turreted head of Cybele, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind
Bacchius kneels right with camel at his side, extending olive branch, BACCHIVS in ex., IVDAEVS in right

Seaby, Plautia 13

The reverse appears to Pompey's conquest of Judaea in 63 BC.

Josephus recorded of Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem: And when he was come to the city, he looked about where he might make his attack; for he saw the walls were so firm, that it would be hard to overcome them; and that the valley before the walls was terrible; and that the temple, which was within that valley, was itself encompassed with a very strong wall, insomuch that if the city were taken, that temple would be a second place of refuge for the enemy to retire to. . . . Aristobulus's party was worsted, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost; but as the others had received the Romans into the city, and had delivered up the palace to him, Pompey sent Piso, one of his great officers, into that palace with an army, who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade any one of those that had fled to the temple to come to terms of accommodation; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favor their attacks, as having Hyrcanus's party very ready to afford them both counsel and assistance. . . . But Pompey himself filled up the ditch that was oil the north side of the temple, and the entire valley also, the army itself being obliged to carry the materials for that purpose. And indeed it was a hard thing to fill up that valley, by reason of its immense depth, especially as the Jews used all the means possible to repel them from their superior situation; nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavors, had not Pompey taken notice of the seventh days, on which the Jews abstain from all sorts of work on a religious account, and raised his bank, but restrained his soldiers from fighting on those days; for the Jews only acted defensively on sabbath days.
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PCrassusDenAmazon.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus173 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. The reverse figure is sometimes described as a warrior or Gaulish horseman, but this example clearly accords with those who identify the figure as a woman! Member of the first triumvirate, 59-53 BC.

Seaby, Licinia 18

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
Lepidus_Antony_Quinarius.jpg
1af Lepidus_214 viewsQuinarius

M LEP IMP, simpulum, aspergillum, axe (surmounted by wolf's head) & ape

M ANT IMP, lituus, capis (jug) and raven

Military mint with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus & Antony in Transalpine Gaul, 44-42 BC

Cr489/3, Syd 1158a

Lepidus was a member of the Second Triumvirate.

According to Plutarch's Life of Pompey: Sulla, however, was annoyed at seeing to what a height of reputation and power Pompey was advancing, but being ashamed to obstruct his career, he kept quiet. Only, when in spite of him and against his wishes Pompey made Lepidus consul, by canvassing for him and making the people zealously support him through their goodwill towards himself, seeing Pompey going off through the forum with a throng, Sulla said: "I see, young man, that you rejoice in your victory; and surely it was a generous and noble thing for Lepidus, the worst of men, to be proclaimed consul by a larger vote than Catulus, the best of men, because you influenced the people to take this course. Now, however, it is time for you to be wide awake and watchful of your interests; you have made your adversary stronger than yourself." But Sulla showed most clearly that he was not well-disposed to Pompey by the will which he wrote. For whereas he bequeathed gifts to other friends, and made some of them guardians of his son, he omitted all mention of Pompey. And yet Pompey bore this with great composure, and loyally, insomuch that when Lepidus and sundry others tried to prevent the body of Sulla from being buried in the Campus Martius, or even from receiving public burial honours, he came to the rescue, and gave to the interment alike honour and security.

Soon after the death of Sulla, his prophecies were fulfilled, and Lepidus tried to assume Sulla's powers. He took no circuitous route and used no pretence, but appeared at once in arms, stirring up anew and gathering about himself the remnants of faction, long enfeebled, which had escaped the hand of Sulla. His colleague, Catulus, to whom the incorrupt and sounder element in the senate and people attached themselves, was the great Roman of the time in the estimate set upon his wisdom and justice, but was thought better adapted for political than military leadership. The situation itself, therefore, demanded Pompey, who was not long in deciding what course to take. He took the side of the nobility, and was appointed commander of an army against Lepidus, who had already stirred up a large part of Italy and was employing Brutus to hold Cisalpine Gaul with an army.

Other opponents against whom Pompey came were easily mastered by him, but at Mutina, in Gaul, he lay a long while besieging Brutus. Meanwhile, Lepidus had made a hasty rush upon Rome, and sitting down before it, was demanding a second consulship, and terrifying the citizens with a vast throng of followers. But their fear was dissipated by a letter brought from Pompey, announcing that he had brought the war to a close without a battle. For Brutus, whether he himself betrayed his army, or whether his army changed sides and betrayed him, put himself in the hands of Pompey, and receiving an escort of horsemen, retired to a little town upon the Po. Here, after a single day had passed, he was slain by Geminius, who was sent by Pompey to do the deed. And Pompey was much blamed for this. For as soon as the army of Brutus changed sides, he wrote to the senate that Brutus had surrendered to him of his own accord; then he sent another letter denouncing the man after he had been put to death. The Brutus who, with Cassius, killed Caesar, was a son of this Brutus, a man who was like his father neither in his wars nor in his death, as is written in his Life. As for Lepidus, moreover, as soon as he was expelled from Italy, he made his way over to Sardinia. There he fell sick and died of despondency, which was due, as we are told, not to the loss of his cause, but to his coming accidentally upon a writing from which he discovered that his wife was an adulteress.
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus37 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula31 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
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Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
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Denarius

Bearded laureate head, right, IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG
Ops std, OPI DIVIN TR P COS II

RIC 8

The Historia Augusta has this to say: Publius Helvius Pertinax was the son of a freedman, Helvius Successus by name, who confessed that he gave this name to his son because of his own long-standing connection with the timber-trade. . . . Pertinax himself was born in the Apennines on an estate which belonged to his mother. . . . Winning promotion because of the energy he showed in the Parthian war, he was transferred to Britain and there retained. Later he led a squadron in Moesia. . . . Next, he commanded the German fleet. . . . From this command he was transferred to Dacia. . . . After Cassius' revolt had been suppressed, Pertinax set out from Syria to protect the bank of the Danube, and presently he was appointed to govern both the Moesias and, soon thereafter, Dacia. And by reason of his success in these provinces, he won the appointment to Syria. . . .

Pertinax was made consul for the second time. And while in this position, Pertinax did not avoid complicity in the murder of Commodus, when a share in this plot was offered him by the other conspirators. After Commodus was slain, aetus, the prefect of the guard, and Eclectus, the chamberlain, came to Pertinax and reassured him, and then led him to the camp. There he harangued the soldiers, promised a donative, and said that the imperial power had been thrust upon him by Laetus and Eclectus. . . .

He reduced the imperial banquets from something absolutely unlimited to a fixed standard, and, indeed, cut down all expenses from what they had been under Commodus. And from the example set by the emperor, who lived rather simply, there resulted a general economy and a consequent reduction in the cost of living. . . . [H]e restored to everyone the property of which Commodus had despoiled him. . . . He always attended the stated meetings of the senate and always made some proposal. . . .

A conspiracy l was organized against Pertinax by Laetus, the prefect of the guard, and sundry others who were displeased by his integrity. . . . [T]hree hundred soldiers, formed into a wedge, marched under arms from the camp to the imperial residence. . . . After they had burst into the inner portion of the Palace, however, Pertinax advanced to meet them and sought to appease them with a long and serious speech. In spite of this, one Tausius, a Tungrian, after haranguing the soldiers into a state of fury and fear, hurled his spear at Pertinax' breast. And he, after a prayer to Jupiter the Avenger, veiled his head with his toga and was stabbed by the rest.
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Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
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Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


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Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, seen from front, right, IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG
Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus in right hand, PM TR P COS II PP SC

RIC 18

Herodian wrote, continuing the story of the rebellions against Maximinus: When the death of the elder Gordian was reported at Rome, . . . the senate therefore thought it best to meet and consider what should be done. Since they had already cast the die, they voted to issue a declaration of war and choose two men from their own ranks to be joint emperors. . . . Other senators received votes, but on the final count [Pupienus] Maximus and Balbinus were elected joint emperors by majority opinion. . . .

[Pupienus] had held many army commands; appointed prefect of Rome, he administered the office with diligence and enjoyed among the people a good reputation for his understanding nature, his intelligence, and his moderate way of life. Balbinus, an aristocrat who had twice served as consul and had governed provinces without complaint, had a more open and frank nature. After their election, the two men were proclaimed Augusti, and the Senate awarded them by decree all the imperial honors.

While these actions were being taken on the Capitoline Hill, the people, whether they were informed by Gordian's friends and fellow countrymen or whether they learned it by rumor, filled the entire street leading up to the Capitol. The huge mob was armed with stones and clubs, for they objected to the Senate's action and particularly disapproved of [Pupienus]. The prefect ruled the city too strictly for the popular taste, and was very harsh in his dealings with the criminal and reckless elements of the mob. In their fear and dislike of [Pupienus], they kept shouting threats to kill both emperors, determined that the emperor be chosen from the family of Gordian and that the title remain in that house and under that name.

Balbinus and [Pupienus] surrounded themselves with an escort of swordsmen from the young equestrians and the discharged soldiers living in Rome, and tried to force their way from the Capitol. The mob, armed with stones and clubs, prevented this until, at someone's suggestion, the people were deceived. There was in Rome at that time a little child, the son of Gordian's daughter, who bore his grandfather's name.

The two emperors ordered some of their men to bring the child to the Capitol. Finding the lad playing at home, they lifted him to their shoulders and brought him to the Capitol through the midst of the crowd. Showing the boy to the people and telling them that he was the son of Gordian, they called him "Gordian," while the mob cheered the boy and scattered leaves in his path. The senate appointed him caesar, since he was not old enough to be emperor. The mob, placated, allowed the imperial party to proceed to the palace.

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Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
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Sestertius

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, MP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG
Dacia standing left holding draco standard, or staff surmounted by a donkey's head, DACIA SC

RIC 101b

The Byzantine historian Zosimus recorded in his New History: [Philip], thinking that he had by these means established himself in the possession of the empire, he made an expedition against the Carpi, who had plundered all the country about the Ister. . . . As there were at that time many disturbances in the empire, the eastern provinces, which were uneasy, partly, owing to the exactions of exorbitant tributes, and partly to their dislike of Priscus, their governor, who was a man of an intolerably evil disposition, wished for innovation, and set up Papianus for emperor, while the inhabitants of Moesia and Pannonia were more inclined to Marinus.

Philip, being disturbed by these events, desired the senate cither to assist him against such imminent dangers, or, if they were displeased with his government, to suffer him to lay it down and dismiss him quietly. No person making a reply to this, Decius, a person of illustrious birth and rank, and moreover gifted, with every virtue, observed, that he was unwise in being so much concerned at those events, for they would vanish of themselves, and could not possibly long subsist. And though the event corresponded with the conjecture of Decius, which long experience in the world had enabled him to make, Papianus and Marinus being taken off, yet Philip was still in fear, knowing how obnoxious the officers in that country were to the army. He therefore desired Decius to assume the command of the legions in Moesia and Pannonia. As he refused this under the plea that it was inconvenient both for Philip and himself, Philip made use of the rhetoric of necessity, as the Thessalians term it, and compelled him to go to Pannonia to punish the accomplices of Marinus. The army in that country, finding that Decius punished all that had offended, thought it most politic to avoid the present danger and to set up a sovereign who would better consult the good of the state, and who, being more expert both in civil and military affairs, might without difficulty conquer Philip.

For this purpose they clothed Decius in purple, and notwithstanding all his apprehensions of future mischances, compelled him to assume the supreme authority. Philip therefore, on hearing that Decius was thus made emperor, collected all his forces to overpower him. The supporters of Decius, though they knew that the enemy had greatly the advantage in numbers, still retained their confidence, trusting to the general skill and prudence of Decius in affairs. And when the two armies engaged, although the one was superior in number, yet the other so excelled it in discipline and conduct, that a great number of Philip's partisans were slain and he himself amongst them, together with his son, on whom he had conferred the title of Caesar. Decius thus acquired the empire.

The Scythians, taking advantage of the disorder which every where prevailed through the negligence of Philip, crossed the Tanais, and pillaged the countries in the vicinity of Thrace. But Decius, marching against them, was not only victorious in every battle, but recovered the spoils they had taken, and endeavoured to cut off their retreat to their own country, intending to destroy them all, to prevent their ever again, making a similar incursion. For this purpose he posted Gallus on the bank of the Tanais with a competent force, and led in person the remainder of his army against the enemy. This expedition exceeded to his utmost wish; but Gallus, who was disposed to innovation, sent agents to the Barbarians, requesting their concurrence in a conspiracy against Decius. To this they gave a willing assent, and Gallus retained his post on the bank of the Tanais, but the Barbarians divided themselves into three battalions, the first of which posted itself behind a marsh. Decius having destroyed a considerable number of the first battalion, the second advanced, which he likewise defeated, and discovered part of the third, which lay near the marsh. Gallus sent intelligence to him, that he might march against them across the fen. Proceeding therefore incautiously in an unknown place, he and his army became entangled in the mire, and under that disadvantage were so assailed by the missiles of the Barbarians, that not one of them escaped with life. Thus ended the life of the excellent emperor Decius.

Eutropius wrote: DECIUS, a native of Lower Pannonia, born at Budalia, assumed the government. . . . When he and his son had reigned two years, they were both killed in the country of the Barbarians, and enrolled among the gods.
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AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
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Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
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Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C POTVMVS PF AVG
Virtus standing right, holding spear & shield, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 93

Postumus rebelled against Gallienus and ruled Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Eutropius wrote: When affairs were in this desperate condition, and the Roman empire almost ruined, POSTUMUS, a man of very obscure birth, assumed the purple in Gaul, and held the government with such ability for ten years, that he recruited the provinces, which had been almost ruined, by his great energy and judgment; but he was killed in a mutiny of the army, because he would not deliver up Moguntiacum, which had rebelled against him, to be plundered by the soldiers, at the time when Lucius Aelianus was endeavouring to effect a change of government.

According to the Historia Augusta: This man, most valiant in war and most steadfast in peace, was so highly respected for his whole manner of life that he was even entrusted by Gallienus with the care of his son Saloninus (whom he had placed in command of Gaul), as the guardian of his life and conduct and his instructor in the duties of a ruler.- Nevertheless, as some writers assert though it does not accord with his character he afterwards broke faith and after slaying Saloninus seized the imperial power. As others, however, have related with greater truth, the Gauls themselves, hating Gallienus most bitterly and being unwilling to endure a boy as their emperor, hailed as their ruler the man who was holding the rule in trust for another, and despatching soldiers they slew the boy. When he was slain, Postumus was gladly accepted by the entire army and by all the Gauls, and for seven years he performed such exploits that he completely restored the provinces of Gaul. . . . Great, indeed, was the love felt for Postumus in the hearts of all the people of Gaul because he had thrust back all the German tribes and had restored the Roman Empire to its former security. But when he began to conduct himself with the greatest sternness, the Gauls, following their custom of always desiring a change of government, at the instigation of Lollianus put him to death.

Zonaras adds: Galienus, when he had learned of [his son's death], proceeded against Postumus, and, when he had engaged him, was initially beaten and then prevailed, with the result that Postumus fled. Then Auriolus was sent to chase him down. Though able to capture him, he was unwilling to pursue him for long, but, coming back, he said that he was unable to capture him. Thus Postumus, having escaped, next organized an army. Galienus again marched upon him and, after he had penned him in a certain city of Gaul, besieged the usurper. In the siege, the sovereign was struck in the back by an arrow and, having become ill as a result, broke off the siege.
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Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Aurelian & Severina or priest standing facing each other, each holding short sceptre, sacrificing at altar between them, S in ex, PIETAS AVG

Zosimus recorded: Aurelianus, having regulated the empire, went from Rome to Aquileia, and from thence into Pannonia, which he was informed the Scythians were preparing to invade. For this reason he sent orders to the inhabitants of that country to carry into the towns all their corn and cattle, and every thing that could be of use to the enemy, in order to distress them with famine, with which they were already afflicted. The Barbarians having crossed the river into Pannonia had an engagement, the result of which was nearly equal. But the same night, the Barbarians recrossed the river, and as soon as day appeared, sent ambassadors to treat for peace. |25

The Emperor, hearing that the Alemanni and the neighbouring nations intended to over-run Italy, was with just reason more concerned for Rome and the adjacent places, than for the more remote. Having therefore ordered a sufficient force to remain for the defence of Pannonia, he marched towards Italy, and on his route, on the borders of that country, near the Ister, slew many thousands of the Barbarians in one battle. Several members of the senate being at this time accused of conspiring against the emperor were put to death ; and Rome, which before had no walls, was now surrounded with them. This work was begun in the reign of Aurelianus, and was finished by Probus. At the same time Epitimius, Urbanus, and Domitianus, were likewise suspected as innovators, and were immediately apprehended and punished. During these occurrences in Italy and Pannonia, the emperor prepared to march against the Palmyrenians, who had subdued all Egypt, and the east, as far as Ancyra in Galatia, and would have acquired Bithynia even as far as Chalcedon, if the inhabitants of that country had not learned that Aurelianus was made emperor, and so shook off the Palmyrenian yoke. As soon as the emperor was on his march thither, Ancyra submitted to the Romans, and afterwards Tuana, and all the cities between that and Antioch. There finding Zenobia with a large army ready to engage, as he himself also was, he met and engaged her as honour obliged him [an defeated the enemy. . . .

[Having crushed Palmyra and razed it] He then entered Rome in triumph, where he was most magnificiently received by the senate and people. At this period also be erected that sumptuous temple of the sun, which he ornamented with all the sacred spoils that he brought from Palmyra; placing in it the statues of the sun and Belus. After this he easily reduced Tatricus with his rebellious accomplices, whom he brought to signal punishment. He likewise called in all the counterfeit money, and issued new, to avoid confusion in trade. Besides which he bestowed on the people a gift of bread, as a mark of his favour; and having arranged all affairs set out on a journey from Rome. . . .

During his stay at Perinthus, now called Heraclea, a conspiracy was thus formed against him. There was in the court a man named Eros, whose office was to carry out the answers of the emperor. This man had been for some fault threatened by the emperor, and put in great fear. Dreading therefore lest the emperor should realize his menaces by actions, he went to some of the guard, whom he knew to be the boldest men in the court; be told them a plausible story, and shewed them a letter of his own writing, in the character of the emperor (which he had long before learned to counterfeit), and persuading them first that they themselves were to be put to death, [h]e endeavoured to prevail on them to murder the emperor. The deception answered. Observing Aurelianus to go out of the city with a small retinue, they ran out upon him and murdered him.

RIC 138
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Mars stg, MARTI PACIF

RIC 145

A rare emperor nominated by the Senate after the death of the widely revered Aurelianus.

Zonaras recorded: Tacitus, an elderly man, succeeded him. For it is written that he was seventy-five years old when he was chosen for monarchy. The army recognized him, though he was absent, for he was then residing in Campania. When he received the decision there, he entered Rome in private dress and, with the consent of the Senate and the People, donned the imperial garb.

The Scythians, having crossed Lake Maeotis and the Phasis River, attacked Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia, and Cilicia. Tacitus, who had joined battle with them, and Florianus, who was prefect, slew many, and the remainder sought safety in flight. Tacitus appointed Maximinus, one of his kinsmen, as governor of Syria. But, when he behaved badly in his office, he was killed by his soldiers. Those who had killed him, frightened that the emperor would not leave them unpunished, set out after him too and killed him, not yet seven months after he had assumed sovereignty, but according to some not quite two years.

Zosimus, however, recorded, "Upon [Aurelianus'] death the empire fell into the hands of Tacitus, in whose time the Scythians crossed the Palus Maeotis, and made incursions through Pontus even into Cilicia, until he opposed them. Partly in person, and partly by Florianus, prefect of the court, whom he left in commission for that purpose, this emperor completely routed and destroyed them. He himself was going into Europe, but was thus circumvented and killed. He had committed the government of Syria to his cousin Maximinus, who treated the nobility of that country with such austerity, that he caused them both to hate and fear him. Their hatred became so excessive, that at length conspiring with the murderers of Aurelianus, they assaulted Maximinus, and having killed him, fell on and slew Tacitus also as he was upon his departure."
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, holding spear and shield, IMP PROBVS P F AVG
Concordia and Probus, CONCORDIA MILIT

RIC 332

Zosimus observed: Probus, having thus gained the empire, marched forward, and performed a very commendable action for the public good, as a prelude to what he should afterwards do. For he resolved to punish those who had murdered Aurelianus, and conspired against Tacitus ; though for fear of an insurrection he did not openly execute his design, but planted a company of men, in whom he had confidence, at a convenient post, near to which he invited the murderers to a feast. [Probus] gave a signal to his men to perform. As soon as they had received it, they fell on the murderers in their defenceless state. . . .

Probus obtained several victories over the Barbarians in two different wars; in one of which he himself commanded, but left the other to the conduct of his lieutenant. Perceiving that it was necessary to assist the cities of Germany which lay upon the Rhine, and were harrassed by the Barbarians, he marched with his army towards that river. . . . The emperor terminated several other wars, with scarcely any trouble ; and fought some fierce battles, first against the Logiones, a German nation, whom he conquered, [and] against the Franks, whom he subdued through the good conduct of his commanders. He made war on the Burgundi and the Vandili.

The Historia Augusta adds: After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum l he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, frightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East. . . . Having made peace, then, with the Persians, he returned to Thrace, and here he settled one hundred thousand Bastarnae on Roman soil, all of whom remained loyal. . . .

He celebrated a triumph over the Germans and the Blemmyae, and. . . gave in the Circus a most magnificent wild-beast hunt. . . . These spectacles finished, he made ready for war with Persia, but while on the march through Iliyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these : first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labor, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of soldiers.

Zonaras described Probus' death differently: There was another rebellion against him. For Carus, who was in command of portions of Europe, recognized that the soldiers under him wished to proclaim him emperor and revealed this to Probus, begging that he be recalled from there. But Probus was not willing to remove him from office. Then the soldiers surrounded Carus, compelled him reluctantly to receive the empire of the Romans, and immediately hastened with him against Italy. Probus, when he had learned of this, sent an army with a commander to oppose him. As soon as those dispatched had drawn near Carus, they arrested their commander and surrendered him and themselves to Carus. Probus was killed by his own guardsmen, who had learned of the desertion of the soldiers to Carus. The duration of Probus’ sole rule had been not quite six years
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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AE Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right, IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG
COMES AVG, Victory standing left holding wreath & palm. ML in ex

RIC 15

Eutropius recorded: During this period, Carausius, who, though of very mean birth, had gained extraordinary reputation by a course of active service in war, having received a commission in his post at Bononia, to clear the sea, which the Franks and Saxons infested, along the coast of Belgica and Armorica, and having captured numbers of the barbarians on several occasions, but having never given back the entire booty to the people of the province or sent it to the emperors, and there being a suspicion, in consequence, that the barbarians were intentionally allowed by him to congregate there, that he might seize them and their booty as they passed, and by that means enrich himself, assumed, on being sentenced by Maximian to be put to death, the imperial purple, and took on him the government of Britain. . . .

With Carausius, however, as hostilities were found vain against a man eminently skilled in war, a peace was at last arranged. At the end of seven years, Allectus, one of his supporters, put him to death, and held Britain himself for three years subsequently, but was cut off by the efforts of Asclepiodotus, praefect of the praetorian guard.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMIANVS AVG
Genius standing left, modius on head, holding cornucopia & patera, SIS in ex., GENIO POPVLI ROMANI

RIC 169b

Eutropius tells us: Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. . . . Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian. . . .

Galerius Maximian, in acting against Narseus, fought, on the first occasion, a battle far from successful, meeting him between Callinicus and Carrae, and engaging in the combat rather with rashness than want of courage; for he contended with a small army against a very numerous enemy. Being in consequence defeated, and going to join Diocletian, he was received by him, when he met him on the road, with such extreme haughtiness, that he is said to have run by his chariot for several miles in his scarlet robes.

But having soon after collected forces in Illyricum and Moesia, he fought a second time with Narseus (the grandfather of Hormisdas and Sapor), in Greater Armenia, with extraordinary success, and with no less caution and spirit, for he undertook, with one or two of the cavalry, the office of a speculator. After putting Narseus to flight, he captured his wives, sisters, and children, with a vast number of the Persian nobility besides, and a great quantity of treasure; the king himself he forced to take refuge in the remotest deserts in his dominions. Returning therefore in triumph to Diocletian, who was then encamped with some troops in Mesopot