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Search results - "Aureolus"
Aureolus_RIC_Milan_388.jpg
Gallic 1.5 Aureolus13 viewsAUREOLUS
Rebel general, in name of Postumus
AE Antoninianus, Milan Mint
IMP POSTVMVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust r. / VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus walking right, carrying spear and shield, T in exergue
RIC V-II Milan 388,;de Witte 363; Sear (1988) 3135
Sosius
Aureolus_RIC_Milan_377.jpg
Gallic 1.5 Aureolus16 viewsAUREOLUS
Rebel general, in name of Postumus
AE Antoninianus, Milan Mint
IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG, Radiate bust r. / FIDES EQVIT, Fides seated left, holding patera and standard
RIC V-II Milan 377
Sosius
ga283bo.jpg
Gallienus VI 283 Rome 253-268 CE33 viewsGallienus, AE Antoninianus. Rome mint, sole reign.
Obverse - GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse – SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus springing right, heavenward.
Mintmark A. 20.47 mm., 3.7 g. Cohen 979, Sear 10362
Cohen 979 comment: one of Gallienus last issue. Gallienus was assassinated near Mila while attempting to deal with the userper Aureolus. This coin was a talisman called fo the protection of Gallienus and Rome.
*Some believe the horse to be one of Sol's chariot horesus and the reverse inscription indicates this is probably the case.
1 commentsNORMAN K
82d.jpg
082d Gallienus. AE antoninianus16 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG rad. bust r.
rev: LEBRO P CONS AVG panther walking l., invokes the protection
of liber against the revot of Aureolus
ex: B
hill132
Aureolus_AE-Ant_IMP-POSTVMV-AVG_CONCORDIA-EQVIT_S_RIC-_p-_AD-Q-001_11h_18,5-19,5mm_2,20ga-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #1179 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: (IMP C )POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,20g, axes:11h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), RSC-20a (Postumus),
Q-001
quadrans
Aureolus_AE-Ant_IMP-POSTVMV-AVG_CONCORDIA-EQVIT_S_RIC-_p-_AD-Q-002_0h_18,5-21,5mm_2,42g-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #2120 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #2
avers: IMP C POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-21,5mm, weight: 2,42g, axes:0h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), RSC-20a (Postumus),
Q-002
4 commentsquadrans
098a_Aureolus_(267-8AD),_AE-Ant,_IMP_POSTVMVS_AVG,_VIRTVS_EQVIT,_T,_RIC_V_388(Postumus)_Mediolanum,_p-_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_2,57g-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 388 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//T, VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus advancing right, #178 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 388 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//T, VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus advancing right, #1
avers: IMP POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus advancing right, holding spear and shield.
exergue: -/-//T, diameter: 18,0-19,0 mm, weight: 2,57g, axes:11h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 388(Postumus), RSC 441 (Postumus),
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_115n_img.jpg
115 - Aureolus, rebel under Postumus - RIC Postumus 37218 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CONCORD EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder, S in exergue
Minted in Mediolanum (Milan). A.D. 268
Reference– RIC Postumus 372. Cohen.20 -. Cunetio-. E.616. AGK.6 a
maridvnvm
IMG_4807.JPG
126. Aureolus (Rebel under Postumus)16 viewsAv.: IMP POSTVMVS AVG
Rv.: FIDES EQUIT
Ex.: P

Billon Antoninian Ř20 / 2,9g
Elmer 612, Schulzki 18c, Cunetio 2479
Juancho
GallienusAntVirtus.jpg
1cy Gallienus17 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
Blindado
MacrianusAntAequitas.jpg
1dc Macrianus19 views260-261

Billon antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust, right, IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG
Aequitas standing left holding scales & cornucopiae, star to left, AEQVTAS AVGG

RIC 5

Macrianus did not rule in Rome. He and his brother Quietus took command of the army after the Persians captured Valerian but were defeated by one of Gallienus' generals when they marched west. According to the Historia Augusta: After the capture of Valerian, long a most
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor, but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either because in his old age he pined away among the Persians or because he left behind him unworthy descendants), Ballista, Valerian's prefect, and Macrianus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew together to a certain place, to consider what should be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed, the best man, lest there should arise some pretender. . . . Ballista, perceiving that Macrianus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own two sons, answered him as follows : "To your wisdom, then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian, for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason that they are good men, they cannot remain unharmed."

And so, with the consent of all the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus, leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could. But while he was on the march, having with him a force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there he was defeated and together with his son was slain. Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus' power.
Blindado
ClaudiusIIAntLiberalit.jpg
1di Claudius Gothicus26 views268-270

AE antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Liberlitas stg, LIBERALITAS AVG

RIC 57

Zosimus recorded: When the troops were calmed by their commanders, Claudius was chosen emperor, having previously been designed for that dignity by general consent. Aureolus, who had for a long time kept himself out of the hands of Gallienus, presently sent agents to Claudius, to effect a peace. Surrendering himself, he was killed by the guards of the emperor, who still remembered the hatred they bore against him for his treachery.

The Scythians were by this time so elated by their former success, that they appointed a place of meeting with the Heruli, Peucae, and Gothi, near the river Tyra, which empties itself into the Pontus; where having built six thousand vessels, and put on board them three hundred and twenty thousand men, they sailed across the Pontus, and made an attempt on Tomes, a fortified town, but were repulsed from it. From thence they proceed to Marcianopolis, a city of Mysia, but failing there likewise in their attack on it, they took the opportunity of a favourable wind and sailed forward. . . . they passed through the Hellespont, and arrived at Mount Athos. Having there refitted and careened their vessels, they laid siege to Cassandria and Thessalonica, which they were near taking by means of machines which they raised against the walls. But hearing that the emperor was advancing with an army, they went into the interior, plundering all the neighbourhood of Doberus and Pelagonia. There they sustained a loss of three thousand men, who were met with by the Dalmatian cavalry, and with the rest of their force engaged the army of the emperor. Great numbers were slain in this battle on both sides, but the Romans, by a pretended flight, drew the Barbarians into an ambuscade and killed more than fifty thousand of them.

Egypt being thus reduecd by the Palmyrenians, the Barbarians, who survived the battle of Naissus between Claudius and the Scythians, defending themselves with their carriages which went before them, marched towards Macedon, but were so distressed by the want of necessaries, that many of them and of their beasts perished with hunger. They were met likewise by the Roman cavalry, who having killed many of them, drove the rest towards Mount Haemus; where being surrounded by the Roman army, they lost a vast number of men. But a quarrel ensuing between the Roman horse and foot soldiers, the emperor wishing the foot to engage the Barbarians, the Romans, after a smart engagement, were defeated with considerable loss, but the cavalry, coming up immediately, redeemed in some degree the miscarriage of the infantry. After this battle, the Barbarians proceeded on their march, and were pursued by the Romans. The pirates who cruized about Crete and Rhodes retired without doing any thing worthy of mention; and being attacked by the plague on their way home, some of them died in Thrace and some in Macedon. All that survived were either admitted into the Roman legions, or had lands assigned for them to cultivate and so become husbandmen. Nor was the plague confined to the Barbarians alone, but began to infest the Romans, many of whom died, and amongst the rest Claudius, a person adorned with every virtue. His death was a severe loss to his subjeets, and was consequently much regretted by them.
Blindado
aureolus_2.JPG
1er Emission - VIRTVS AEQVIT8 viewsIMP POSTVMVS AVG
VIRTVS AEQVIT
Cunetio 2473
RIC ...
Elmer 605
AGK 106
de Witte ...
Cohen ...
PYL
Aureolus_-_VIRTVS_EQVIT_-_sans_marque.jpg
2e Emission - VIRTVS EQVIT1 viewsIMP POSTVMVS AVG
VIRTVS EQVIT
Cunetio 2475
RIC 388
Elmer 608
AGK 109
de Witte ...
Cohen ...
PYL
coin247.JPG
309. Gallienus33 viewsOne of the key characteristics of the Crisis of the Third Century was the inability of the Emperors to maintain their hold on the Imperium for any marked length of time. An exception to this rule was the reign of the Emperor Gallienus. The fact that Gallienus served as junior Emperor with his father, Valerian, from 253 to 260 may have had something to do with his successes. Father and son each wielded his authority over a smaller area, thus allowing for more flexible control and imperial presence. Another, more probable reason, lay in Gallienus's success in convincing Rome that he was the best man for the job. However, Gallienus had to handle many rebellions of the so-called "Gallienus usurpers".

In 260, Valerian was taken prisoner by Sapor, King of Persia while trying to negotiate a peace settlement. Although aware that his father had been taken alive (the only Emperor to have suffered this fate), Gallienus did not make public Valerian's death until a year later. His decision hinged on the fact that Romans believed that their fate rose and fell with the fate of the Emperor, which in turn depended upon his demonstrating the proper amount of piety (Latin pietas) to the gods and maintaining their favor. A defeated Emperor would surely have meant that the gods had forsaken Valerian and, by extension, Gallienus.

Gallienus's chief method of reinforcing his position is seen in the coinage produced during his reign (see Roman currency). The coinage provides clear evidence of a successful propaganda campaign. Gallienus took pains to make sure that he was regularly represented as victorious, merciful, and pious. The people who used these coins on a daily basis saw these messages and, with little evidence to the contrary, remained supportive of their Emperor.

There were, however, those who knew better. During Gallienus' reign, there was constant fighting on the western fringes of the Empire. As early as 258, Gallienus had lost control over a large part of Gaul, where another general, Postumus, had declared his own realm (typically known today as the Gallic Empire). As Gallienus' influence waned, another general came to the fore. In time-honored tradition, Claudius II Gothicus gained the loyalty of the army and succeeded Gallienus to the Imperium.

In the months leading up to his mysterious death in September of 268, Gallienus was ironically orchestrating the greatest achievements of his reign. An invasion of Goths into the province of Pannonia was leading to disaster and even threatening Rome, while at the same time, the Alamanni were raising havoc in the northern part of Italy. Gallienus halted the Allamanic progress by defeating them in battle in April of 268, then turned north and won several victories over the Goths. That fall, he turned on the Goths once again, and in September, either he or Claudius, his leading general, led the Roman army to victory (although the cavalry commander Aurelian was the real victor) at the Battle of Naissus.

At some time following this battle, Gallienus was murdered during the siege of usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum; many theories abound that Claudius and Aurelian conspired to have the emperor killed. Be that as it may, Claudius spared the lives of Gallienus' family — Gallienus' wife, Iulia Cornelia Salonina, had given him three sons: Valerianus (who died in 258), Saloninus (died in 260 after becoming co-emperor), and Egnatius Marinianus — and had the emperor deified.

Gallienus Antoninianus - Minerva
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing right with spear and shield.
23mm - 3.7 grams
ecoli
coin250.JPG
311. Postumus28 viewsPostumus was recognized as emperor in Gaul, Spain, Germany, and Britain. He set up the capital of his renegade empire at Cologne, complete with its own senate, consuls and praetorian guard. He represented himself as the restorer of Gaul on some of his coins, a title he earned after successfully defending Gaul against the Germans. The coins issued by Postumus were of better workmanship and higher precious metal content than coins issued by Gallienus.

In 263, Gallienus launched a campaign to defeat Postumus. After initial success against Postumus, Gallienus was seriously wounded and needed to return home. After his failed attempt at defeating Postumus, Gallienus was occupied with crises in the rest of his empire and never challenged Postumus again.

Aureolus, a general of Gallienus who was in command of Milan, openly changed sides and allied himself with Postumus. The city of Milan would have been critical to Postumus if he planned to march on Rome. For whatever reason, Postumus failed to support Aureolus, who was besieged by Gallienus.

Postumus, one of Gallienus usurpers, was himself challenged by a usurper in 268. Laelianus, one of Postumus' top military leaders, was declared emperor in Mainz by the local garrison and surrounding troops (Legio XXII Primigenia). Although Postumus was able to quickly capture Mainz and kill Laelianus, he was unable to control his own troops and they turned on him and killed him, since they were dissatisfied with him for not allowing them to sack the city of Mainz (Aur. Vict. 33.8; Eutrop. 9.9.1).

Following the death of Postumus, his empire lost control of Britain and Spain, and the shrunken remains of the Gallic Empire were inherited by Marius.

Postumus AR Antoninianus. IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left with scales & cornucopiae. RIC 75. RSC 199.
ecoli
IMG_9258.JPG
311a. Aureolus9 viewsAureolus. Romano-Gallic Usurper, AD 267-268. Antoninianus (19mm, 2.17 g, 7h). Struck in the name of Postumus. Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 2nd officina. 3rd emission, mid AD 268. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Postumus right / Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder; prow of galley to left; S. RIC V (Postumus) 373; Mairat 215-21; AGK (Postumus) 6b; RSC (Postumus) 19. Near VF, dark brown patina.

Aureolus was an extraordinarily capable general who served under Valerian and Gallienus. Around AD 258, Gallienus stationed a new cavalry unit at Mediolanum that was to serve as a quick reaction force against any new invasions along the frontier of the central empire. Aureolus was given command of this unit. In AD 260-261 his forces defeated the armies of the usurpers Ingenuus and Macrianus, and recovered the province of Raetia. Following these victories, Gallienus and Aureolus led a Roman army against the breakaway Gallic provinces under Postumus. Gallienus was forced to leave the field after being injured in battle, and left the campaign in the hands of Aureolus. Aureolus ended the campaign shortly thereafter, and while the reason is uncertain, the historical record suggests it was due to either his incompetence or else treachery (he had come to a secret agreement with Postumus). While the former seems unlikely, given Aureolus’ record, the latter is possible, as there are indications that he had been preparing for a revolt as early as AD 262. Regardless, at some point in AD 267, Aureolus revolted and established his base at Mediolanum, where Gallienus besieged him in AD 268. The details of the revolt are unclear, but it appears that Aureolus first appealed to Postumus for aid, and, failing to gain the Gallic Emperor’s support, declared himself emperor. About the same time, Gallienus was murdered, and was succeeded by Claudius II Gothicus, who continued to beseige Mediolanum. Soon, though, it appeared that an agreement was reached, and Aureolus emerged from the city to meet Claudius. Any such concord, however, was simply a ruse, as Aureolus was taken into custody and executed.
ecoli
aureolus.JPG
4e Emission - VIRTVS EQVIT8 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
VIRTVS EQVIT
T
Cunetio ...
RIC 387
Elmer 617
AGK 111a
de Witte ...
Cohen 442
PYL
PostumusMilanEquit.jpg
Aureolus for Postumus118 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
Cuirassed, draped and radiated bust right
R/[VIRTV]S EQVIT / / T
Mars walking right, holding spear end shield

Antoninianus struck in Mediolanum , third officina
C.442 - RIC.387 - Elmer 617 - AGK.111a

magnificient portrait
3 commentsgb29400
Aureolus FIDES EQVIT RIC 378.jpg
Aureolus for Postumus FIDES EQVIT RIC V/2 378142 viewsAnt, 19mm, 2.76g.

Obverse: IMP POSTVMVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: FIDES EQVIT, Fides seated L with patera & Standard.

Exe: P

RIC V/2 378, 268, Common.

Milan. Struck by Aureolus in Postumus' name.
Robert_Brenchley
Aureolus VIRTVS EQVIT RIC 387 var.jpg
Aureolus for Postumus VIRTVS EQVIT RIC V/2 387 var55 viewsAnt, 17x20mm, 1.51g.

Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS AVG, Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: VIRTVS EQVIT, Mars walking R with spear and shield.

Exe: T

Milan. Struck by Aurolus in Postumus' name.

RIC V/2 387 var, 268, Common.
Robert_Brenchley
Aureolus_Virtus_RIC_Vb_387.jpg
Aureolus Virtus RIC Vb 38714 viewsAureolus, 267-268 AD, Milan, RIC Vb 387
OBV: IMP POSTV[MVS AVG], radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REV: VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus walking right, holding spear and shield.
T in exergue
SRukke
Claudius_II_AE_Antoninianus.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.26 viewsSilvered antoninianus, MER-RIC 60, RIC V 157, Normanby 1031, Venera 9303 - 9364, Cunetio 2263, Hunter IV 58, SRCV III 3215, Cohen VI 202, Choice gVF, some silvering, 4.608g, 22.0mm, 315o, 3rd officina, Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, issue 2, mid 269 - spring 270; obverse IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG, Pax walking left, extending olive-branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left, T in exergue.

Ex FORVM Ancient Coins

In 268, Gallienus was murdered by his senior officers while besieging the would-be usurper Aureolus in Mediolanum (Milan). The Senate charged Marcus Aurelius Claudius with Gallienus' murder but it was never proven. The accused became the new emperor, Claudius II.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_Rome_179.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)42 viewsSRCV 10201, RIC V S-179, Göbl.744b, Cohen 160, Van Meter 49/3

AE Antoninianus, 22 mm., 180°

Rome mint (per Göbl), 10th officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, Stag walking left, X in exergue.

Issued to commemorate Gallienus’s vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_Sear_10201_stag_l.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)15 viewsSRCV 10201, RIC V-S 179, Göbl 744b, Van Meter 49/3

BI Antoninianus, 2.60 g., 20.29 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, tenth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag standing left, X in exergue.

Issued to commemorate Gallienus’s vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_Rome_283.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10362, RIC V S-283, Göbl 712b, CT 1337, Van Meter 270

BI Antoninianus, 3.20 g., 21.58 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, first officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: SOLI CONS AVG, winged horse springing right., A in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Sol invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. A team of four winged horses drew Sol's golden chariot across the sky each day.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_Rome_230_tiger.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)16 viewsSRCV 10281, RIC V S-230, Göbl 713b, CT 1341, Van Meter 153

BI Antoninianus, 3.01 g., 20.14 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, second officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: LIBERO • P [•] CONS AVG, tigress walking left. B in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The tiger was sacred to Liber Pater (or the Greek Dionysus or Bacchus).

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_Rome_207.png
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)16 viewsSRCV 10236, RIC V S-207, Göbl 731b, Van Meter 100

BI Antoninianus, 3.53 g., 21.87 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing right. ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Jupiter invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_Rome_177_doe.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)21 viewsSRCV 10199, RIC V S-177, Göbl 728b, CT 1361, Van Meter 49/1

BI Antoninianus, 2.51 g., 20.75 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, fifth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, doe walking right, looking left. E in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus. As goddess of the hunt, Diana is often portrayed as a huntress accompanied by a deer.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-1_(S)_Rome_164.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)21 viewsSRCV 10178, RIC V S-164, Göbl 738b, CT 1386, Van Meter 19/2

BI Antoninianus, 3.30 g., 21.39 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, eighth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking left cradling a trophy/rudder in his left arm and holding a globe in his outstretched right hand. H in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_245_hippocamp.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)18 viewsSRCV 10292, RIC V S-245, Göbl 743b, CT 1392, Van Meter 178/1

BI Antoninianus, 2.95 g., 18.25 mm. max. (undersize flan), 180°

Rome mint, ninth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: [GA]LLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: NEPT[VNO CONS AVG], hippocamp swimming right. N in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Neptune invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The hippocamp is a mythical beast consisting of the foreparts of a horse and the sea-serpent tail. They were the chariot-beasts of Neptune.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_165_griffin.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)18 viewsSRCV 10180 var. (obv. legend), RIC V S-165, Göbl 718z, Van Meter 19/5 var. (obv. legend)

BI Antoninianus, 3.09 g., 20.35 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, fourth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, griffon standing left. Δ in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The griffon is a mythical beast consisting of the ith the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle. The griffon pulled the chariot of Apollo.

RIC rarity C.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_181_Rome_antelope.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181, Göbl 750b, Van Meter 49/7.

BI Antoninianus, 2.42 g., 20.50 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, twelfth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope/gazelle standing left. XII in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S_207_goat_right.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10236, RIC V S-207, Göbl 731b, Van Meter 100

BI Antoninianus, 3.22 g., 19.26 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emision, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing right, ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_207_goat_l.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)21 viewsSRCV 10235, RIC V-S 207, Göbl 730l, Van Meter 99.

BI Antoninianus, 2.74 g., 21.29 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing left, ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Jupiter the Protector, invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection, believing that, as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored those in positions of authority similar to his own. The infant Jupiter was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10200_dianae_cons_antelope_right.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)41 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181, Göbl 747b, Van Meter 49/6.

BI Antoninianus, 3.25 g., 21.41 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, eleventh officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope/gazelle walking right. XI in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
3 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10177_centaur_bow.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10177, RIC V S-163, Göbl 735b, Van Meter 19/1

BI Antoninianus, 3.25 g., 22.40 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, seventh officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow. Z in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
062-gallienus.jpg
Gallienus AE Antoninianus13 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:GALLIENVS AVG
Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG; Centeur walking l. , drawing bow;

This type were issued ca. 267-268 AD to commemorate vows to Appolo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.
Tanit
095-gallienus.jpg
Gallienus AE Antoninianus11 viewsAntoninianus
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG;
Rev: IOVI CONS AVG; goat walking l
Issued ca. 267-68 AD, to commemorate vows to Jupiter invoking his protection against the revol of Aureolus.
Tanit
gallienus_RIC179.jpg
GALLIENUS AE antoninianus - 267-268 AD (sole reign)30 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG (radiate head right)
rev: DIANAE CONS AVG (Stag walking right, [X in ex])
ref: RIC Vi 179, Cohen 160
mint: Rome (or Mediolanum?)
2.66gms, 16mm

Gallienus produced an entire series of Antoniniani invoking the protection of various gods and goddesses against the revolt of Aureolus in 268. When Gallienus was murdered in 4 March 268, Claudius II paid off the soldiers, and probably coins was struck at Mediolanum. This hypothese is prove by this coin where the bust looks nothing like Gallienus, but much like Claudius II, whose coins were very commonly imitated by unofficial or "barbaric" mints.
berserker
coins1 205~0.jpg
gallienus DIANAE CONS AVG464 viewsgallienus, 267-268 A.D., mint of rome..
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag walking left. X in exergue.

this coin is historically important because it is believed that this coin was minted to commemorate vows to goddess diana and invoke her protection of gallienus against the revolt of aureolus... theres a whole series of these asking all kinds of different gods/goddesses for help. when i get more of these " zoo" coins ill post them here!

submitted by ancientcoins
2 commentsancientcoins
Gallienus_RIC_163.JPG
Gallienus, 253 - 268 AD21 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head of Gallienus facing right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right drawing a bow; Z in exergue.

Note: Refers to the vows Gallienus made to Apollo seeking his favor in quelling the revolt of Aureolus.

Billon Antoninianus, Rome, 7th Officina, 267 - 268 AD

3.1 grams, 21 x 19 mm, 180°

RIC Vi 163, RSC 72, S10177, VM 19/1
SPQR Coins
Gallienus_RIC_V,_I_285.jpg
Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, RIC V, I 28593 viewsGallienus
As sole Augustus, 260-268 A.D.

Coin: AE Antoninianus, invoking the protection of Sol against the revolt of Aureolus.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust facing right.
Reverse: SOLI CONS AVG, a Bull, standing to the right. XI in exergue.

Weight: 2.34 g, Diameter: 21 x 20 x 1 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, struck between 267 - 268 A.D. Reference: RIC V, I 285, Note: 1 of 25 AE Antoninianii, ranging from Gallienus to Tetricus II, I bought from a seller in 2012. He had 125 for sale in total, and had in turn bought them from the original finder, who is said to have found this Hoard in 2003 near Harlow in the County of Essex.
Masis
Gallienvs centaur.jpg
GALLIENVS 33 viewsGALLIENVS AVG

Rev.
APPOLINI CONS AVG

Centaur walking left holding globe and trophey

Rome
267-268 AD

RIC 163
Sear 10177

Billon Antoniannus

Issued to commemorate vows made to Appolo ivoking his protection against the revot of Aureolus
Titus Pullo
1b.jpg
Postumus (Aureolus), Milan mint, R/ FIDES EQVIT (Braithwell hoard)40 viewsPostumo, antoniniano battuto in suo nome da Aureolus (Aureolo).Impero romano-gallico (267?-268 d.C.). Zecca di Milano, I officina
AE, 3.43 gr., 17,0 x 19,0 mm; qBB (aVF)
D/: IMP POSTVMVS AVG, busto radiato e drappeggiato di Postumo,
R/: FIDES EQVIT, Fides seduta a sin, che tiene la patera e stendardo, officina in ex.
RIC 376; Braithwell Report #151 (questa moneta)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (21 aprile 2008, numero catalogo 27), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2007), ex CNG auctions (asta 176/2007, nel lotto 338), ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
postumus_373.jpg
Postumus RIC V, 37384 viewsAureolus in the name of Postumus
AE - Antoninian, 3.05g, 19mm
Mediolanum, 2nd officin, Aug./Sept. 268
obv. IMP POSTVMVS AVG
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev. CONCORD EQVIT
Concordia standing left, foot on prow, holding pater and rudder.
S in ex.
RIC V/2, 373; Schulzki 6b
about VF, super coin for type!
2 commentsJochen
abm_postumus_milan_corcord_equit.jpg
Postumus, Milan12 viewsIMP POSTVMVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
CONCORD EQVIT, Concordia standing left.
Another Milan issue, struck during the period when Aureolus held the city in Postumus' name, c.268-9.
Adrianus
Aureolusblack1.png
Postumus. Struck under Aureolus.20 viewsPostumus, Usurper in Gaul AD 260-269. Struck under Aureolus, circa AD 267-268.

Mediolanum Antoninianus Ć silvered

18mm., 2,53g.

IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Postumus to right

SALVS AVG, P in exergue, Aesculapius standing front, head to left, leaning right on serpent-entwined staff.

Vendors refernces: AGK (corr.) 83a; Cunetio 2496; Elmer 618; RIC 382.

RLACAAHW
RL
Postumus_aureolus.jpg
Postumus_Antoninian_VIRTVS_EQVIT7 viewsNumis-Student
Aureolus_RIC-372_11h_18,5-19,5mm_2,20g-s.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 372, Mediolanum, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left,239 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 372, Mediolanum, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left,
avers:- (IMP-C-)POSTVMVS-AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
revers:- CONCORDIA-EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exerg: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-19,5 mm, weight: 2,20g, axes:11h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-372-p-, RSC-20a,
Q-001
quadrans
coins1 205.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus DIANAE CONS AVG95 viewsGallienus, c. 267-268 A.D., Rome.
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag walking left.
EX: X, Rome.

This coin was minted to get the goddess Diana to help Gallienus with the revolt the of Aureolus.
1 commentsancientcoins
moneta 622.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus41 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right
rev: DIANAE CONS AVG. Antelope walking left.
exergue: X
Struck 267-268 A.D. at unknown mint
Note: Commemorates vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.
Jericho
bpS1O5Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus44 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head right.
Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG
Stag walking right.
Antoninianus, 3.6 gm, 20.6 mm, Rome RIC 179
History (As sole Augustus, 266-268, Part II): In the East, the rampages of Shapur I were largey repelled and kept in check by the Palmyran King, Odaenathus who was rewarded with titles including "Ruler of the Romans" and "Governor of the East". In 266 he extended his influence by advancing into Dacia to check another of the Gothic invasions. An extremely important and powerful ally of Rome who never contended for Imperial power, he was murdered in 267 in a domestic quarrel and succeeded by his wife, Queen Zenobia. Gallienus was in almost continuous defense of Gothic intrusions over the Danube in 266-267. In 268, however, the Goths joined by the Heruli staged a massive invasion through the Balkans and into Greece. Leaving Aureolus at Milan to deflect any incursion by Postumus into the homeland, Gallienus won a great victory at Naissus. At this point, Aureolus staged his second rebellion by defecting to Postumus and shortly after declaring himself Emperor. This forced Gallienus to immediately return to Italy to face the expected invasion. He quickly managed a victory over Aureolus at Pontirolo and then laid siege to him at Milan. Before he could bring this to its expected conclusion, Gallienus was betrayed by his military staff who murdered the emperor in front of his own tent after luring away his guards.
Massanutten
bpS1O4Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus40 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head, right.
Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG
Centaur drawing bow, right.
Antoninianus, 2 gm, 19.4 mm, Rome RIC 163
History (As sole Augustus, 260-265, Part I): The loss of Valerian led many to believe that the Empire was ripe for their grab of a portion of the imperial power. The first to revolt in the East was Ingenuus, the Governor of Pannonia and Moesia. Proclaimed Emperor by his Legions, he was defeated soon after by Aureolus, one of Gallienus' field generals. Next to rise was Regalianus who quickly realized a similar fate. Also in 260 the family Macriani revolted, taking with them Syria, Egypt and Asia Minor. Again, Aureolus came through by defeating Macrianus in 261 while his younger brother, Quitus, was removed by Odaenathus, the ruler of Palmyra and ally of Rome. Gallienus could do little about the flood of barbarous incursions in the West, short of sending his young and inexperienced son, Saloninus, to establish the Imperial Presence. Postumus, the Governor of Lower Germany, filled the power vacuum by allowing his Legions to declare him Emperor in 260. thus establishing the seed for a breakaway empire that would last for the next fourteen years. Meanwhile back in the East, the next to revolt was the trusted field commander, Aureolus in 262, but he reneged on the gambit through the intercessions of Gallienus. In the following year or perhaps 264, Gallienus and Aureolus, now put in Command of the newly established mobile cavalry, initiated a campaign in the West to depose Postumus. Greatly successful, the campaign came to a sudden halt in 265 when Gallienus was seriously wounded and Aureolus failed to prevent Postumus from escaping. No further action would be taken against Postumus for the remainder of the reign of Gallienus.
Massanutten
coins1 208.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, APOLLINI CONS AVG73 viewsGallienus, 267-268 A.D.
OBV: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Gryphon walking left with mouth open. (delta) in exergue.

This coin was struck in 267-68 A.D. to invoke the protection of Apollo for Gallienus for his protection against Aureolus.
ancientcoins
moneta 521.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Rome - RIC V (Part 1) 16342 viewsGallienus Antoninianus
obv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate bust right
rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG. Centaur walking right, drawing bow.
exergue: Z
Struck 267-268 A.D. at Rome
RIC V (Part 1) 163
Note: Issued to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.
Jericho
moneta 564.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Rome - RIC V (Part I) 1736 viewsGallienus Antoninianus
obv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate bust right
rev: DIANAE CONS AVG. Doe walking right, looking back.
exeruge: epsilon
Struck 267-268 A.D. at Rome
RIC V (Part I) 17
Note: Commemorates vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.


Jericho
au-03G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - CONCORD EQVIT14 views18mm - 2,50g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
CONCORD EQVIT
AGK 5 (S) ; EG 133
gascogne
au-04G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - CONCORD EQVIT / S10 views18mm - 2,64g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
CONCORD EQVIT / S
AGK 6b (C1) ; EG 139
gascogne
au-09G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - FIDES EQVIT12 views20mm - 2,80g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
FIDES EQVIT
AGK 17 (R4) ; EG 134
gascogne
au-05G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - FIDES EQVIT / P10 views20mm - 3,90g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
FIDES EQVIT / P
AGK 18c (C1) ; EG 137
gascogne
au-08G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - SALVS AVG / P13 views19mm - 2,97g
IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
SALVS AVG / P
AGK 83a (S) ; EG 158
gascogne
au-01G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - VIRTVS AEQVIT14 views21mm - 3,33g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
VIRTVS AEQVIT
AGK 106 (R3) ; EG 130
gascogne
au-02G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - VIRTVS AEQVIT13 views20mm - 4,00g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
VIRTVS AEQVIT
AGK 108 (R4) ; EG 132
gascogne
au-06G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - VIRTVS EQVIT / P13 views20mm - 4,62g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
VIRTVS EQVIT / P
AGK 110 (R4) ; EG 142
gascogne
au-07G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus, struck by Auréolus - VIRTVS EQVIT / T15 views20mm - 2,77g
IMP POSTVMVS AVG
VIRTVS EQVIT / T
AGK 111b (C2) ; EG 143
gascogne
postumeMilanbuste.jpg
Roman, Postumus struck under Aureolus538 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
Cuirassed, draped and radiated bust right
R/[VIRTV]S EQVIT / / T
Mars walking right, holding spear end shield

Antoninianus struck in Mediolanum , third officina
C.442 - RIC.387 - Elmer 617 - AGK.111a

magnificient portrait

the coin is also in my gallery with reverse
2 commentsgb29400
abm_postumus_milan_fides_equit~0.jpg
Roman, Postumus, mint of Milan, FIDES EQVIT, c.268-9169 viewsI thought this one probably the worthiest of my Postumus portraits - an issue from Milan during the period when Aureolus held the city and struck issues in Postumus' name, c.268-9
IMP POSTVMVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
FIDES EQVIT, Fides seated left, -/-//P.
Normanby 1369.
Ex-Cottenham hoard.
2 commentsAdrianus
Postumus_RIC_V-378.jpg
Romano-Gallic Empire: Aureolus, Usurper (268-269 CE) Antoninianus, Mediolanum (RIC V 378; Toffanin 280; Mairat 209-11; AGK 18c; RSC 60)20 viewsObv: IMP POSTVMVS AVG; Radiate and draped bust right
Rev: FIDES EQVIT; Fides seated left, holding patera and signum
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Valerian1RIC232.jpg
[1112a] Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.72 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 232, RSC 10, VF, worn die reverse, Mediolanum mint, 3.909g, 22.2mm, 180o, 257 A.D.; Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AETERNITATI AVGG, Sol standing left, raising right, globe in left; nice portrait, good silver for the reign. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.
Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright Richard D. Weigel, 2007. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sassinian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalllienusRIC163.jpg
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.72 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/gallval.htm. Used by permission.


Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.
See: http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV197unlistedvar.jpg
[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.59 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold strike, excellent centering and eastern style, rare this nice; rare variety. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV214.jpg
[1114b] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.53 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, 2.930g, 20.3mm, 180o, Antioch mint; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate bust right; Reverse: NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident in left hand, • in exergue; excellent centering. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ClaudiusIIGothicusRIC34.jpg
[1114c] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.51 viewsAntoninianus. RIC 34. Weight, Size. F. Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse: FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing left, holding two standards. Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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PostumusRIC93.jpg
[1200] Postumus, Summer 260--Spring 269 A.D.43 viewsBillon Antoninianus, RIC 93 Bust Type A. RSC 419. Weight, Size; VF; Obverse:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars/Virtus, standing right, holding spear and resting on shield. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Postumus (A.D. 260-269)

Michel Polfer
Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg

Postumus is the first emperor of the so-called "Gallic Empire", which lasted from his rebellion against Gallienus in 260 AD to the surrender of Tetricus I to the central emperor Aurelian in 274 AD.

In 260 AD, the general situation of the Empire was favorable to usurpations: Valerian I, father of and co-emperor with Gallienus, had been made prisoner by the Persian king Shapur I. The news shook the Empire and in the following months, the position of his heir Gallienus became very difficult, as he had to face rebellions in several parts of the Empire. While the inner situation was thus more than unstable, the barbarians, sensing the opportunity, poured across the northern frontier. The Franks entered into Gaul, devastating Germania Inferior and Belgica. Some Frankish warrior groups pressed on as far as Spain, where they destroyed Tarragona. The Alamanni broke through the lines in Germania superior and Raetia, overran the Agri Decumates, sacked the city of Aventicum and begun to extend their destructions to the interior of Gaul. Italy itself was exposed to them, as Gallienus had withdrawn most of the troops to fight the usurper Ingenuus on the Danube. After his victory over Ingenuus, Gallienus returned to Italy and was able to defeat the Germanic invaders at Milan in midsummer 260 AD. The resulting peace was short-lived, as a new rebellion on the Danube, led by Regalianus, and the great Sarmatic invasions of 260 exposed the northern frontier. Moreover, Gallienus had to face the revolt of Macrianus and Quietus in Egypt, which removed this important province from his control.

Thus, it is not surprising that Gallienus was unable to take swift and effective military actions, when - probably in the summer of 260 AD- an other usurper, M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus, rebelled on the Rhine frontier. The exact position of Postumus on the moment of the revolt is not known, but the context makes it clear that he was commanding troops on the Rhine frontier. The direct reason for his rebellion seems to have been a quarrel about booty taken from a barbarian raiding-party destroyed on its way home by Postumus and his soldiers. While Postumus had distributed the booty to his men, the praetorian prefect Silvanus ordered him to surrender the booty to himself and the Caesar Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, whom his father had left behind as his representative in the town of Cologne, under the guardianship of Silvanus. Postumus troops rebelled and proclaimed their commander imperator. They marched against and laid siege to Cologne. The garrison in the town was compelled to hand over Saloninus and Silvanus, both were put to death.

The area controlled by Postumus after his rebellion in 260 AD consisted of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior as well as of Raetia and the whole of Gaul (except for the southern parts of Lugdunensis and perhaps also Narbonensis). From 261 AD on, it also included Britain and the Spain. Neither he nor his successors made any attempt to extend the Gallic Empire further to the south or the east.

According to the literary sources at our disposal, the first "Gallic" emperor Postumus reigned well. They praise him for his military success against the Germanic invaders, thus crediting him with the restoration of the western provinces which had been on the verge of collapse. That Postumus undertook heavy fighting against Germanic tribes is also confirmed by his coinage and by the fact that he assumed -before the 10th of December 261 AD - the title of Germanicus maximus.

In 265 AD, the central emperor Gallienus tempted to crush the usurper, but twice failed to do so. On the first occasion, the fugitive Postumus owed his life only to the carelessness of Gallienus' cavalry commander Aureolus, on the second occasion, the emperor, besieging the usurper in a Gallic town, was wounded by an arrow and had to break of the assault. It seems that thereafter Gallienus made no other serious attempt to overcome this usurpation, devoting his attention to the political and military problems in the eastern part of the Roman empire.

He could do so, because Postumus took no actions at all to march on Rome. Right from the beginning of his usurpation, Postumus thus had made it clear that he had no intentions to make a bid for Rome, that his thoughts were only for Gaul. Even when in 268 AD Aureolus, the cavalry commander of Gallienus stationed in Milan - who had succeeded to recover Raetia for the central empire- entered into rebellion and declared himself for Postumus. Postumus did not take up the implied invitation to invade Italy, finally abandoning Aureolus to his fate.

But on the other hand there is no evidence at all to support the theory that he had the intention to create a separate "Galliarum Imperium." On the contrary: Postumus - ass well as his successors - avoided in his propaganda every hint to the limited extension of his reign. He put himself clearly in the tradition of the central Roman emperors, clearly underlining the universal claim of his rule, taking all the traditional titles of the Roman emperors, including those of pontifex maximus and pater patriae, proclaiming senators and nominating his own consuls. His coins show the same universal claims, giving preference to types like Roma aeterna or pacator orbis, to salus and fides.

By the end of 265 AD, Postumus' coins joyfully proclaimed his victory, the festivities celebrating his quinquennalia continued into the following year. But while the coinage of Postumus of the years 267-268 underlined the peace and prosperity brought to his reign by the guiding hand of the emperor, the sudden deterioration of his billon coinage in 268 AD shows that Postumus was facing more and more difficulties. It is very likely that his repeated refusal to march on Rome had disturbed many of his soldiers, since only his recognition of sole ruler of the Empire might have legitimized their rebellion of 260 AD and provided them with adequate reward for their support. So the debasement of 268 was probably occasioned by Postumus' need to buy the loyalty of his men, thus forcing him to mint beyond the silver supplies which the area under his control could provide. Nevertheless, he was able to celebrate in late 268 AD the commencement of his tenth year in power as well as his entry into his fifth consulship on 1st of January 269.

These festivities were cut short early in 269 AD by the rebellion of Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus at Moguntiacum (Mainz). There is no direct written or epigraphic evidence for the office Laelianus held at the time of his revolt against Postumus, but it seems most likely that he held an office in Germania Superior, either as legatus legionis XXII Primigenie or as governor of Germania Superior. His rebellion can be explained only on the grounds of a growing dissatisfaction of the troops of the Rhine-army with their commander in chief and emperor Postumus. How deep these tensions had become became apparent after the successful action against the usurper: no sooner had Postumus taken Moguntiacum and thus ended the ephemerous rebellion of Laelianus than he was murdered by his own troops for refusing them to sack the city. In his place, the troops raised to the purple a simple soldier, Marcus Arelius Marius, shortly afterwards killed and replaced by Marcus Piavonius Victorinus.

Copyright (C) 2000, Michel Polfer. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/postumus.htm


Postumus was an incredibly skilled general and administrator. Rebelling against Gallienus, Postumus succeeded in uniting Gaul, Spain and Britain into what was essentially an empire within an empire. Enjoying tremendous military success against the Germans, he kept his Gallic Empire secure and prosperous. In 268 A.D. he quickly destroyed the forces of the usurper Laelianus, but his refusal to allow his forces to sack Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) led to his assassination by disgruntled troops (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

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