Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Arsacid"
AntoSec3-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 586, Sestertius of AD 139 (Aurum Coronarium: Parthia)81 views Sestertius (24.27g, 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: PARTHIA (round edge) COS II (in ex.) S C (in field), Parthia, towered headdress, standing left, holding crown and bow and quiver with arrows resting on ground.
RIC 586 (R); Cohen 572; BMCRE IV 1191; Strack 792 (4 collections); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 253 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4198
ex Aegean Numismatics

Part of a series celebrating Antoninus' remission of half of the special tax (aurum coronarium) normally levied on the provinces at the time of the accession of an emperor. Remark from Sear: "The remarkable inclusion of a rival state in this series commemorating provincial tax relief would seem to suggest that the Parthians were subject to some form of financial obligation to the Roman government consequent of Trajan's capture of Ctesiphon in AD 115 and the loss of the celebrated golden throne of the Arsacids"
Charles S
khusro.jpg
AR Drachm of Khusro II, 618 AD28 viewsOBVERSE: Right facing crowned bust of Khusro II whose name appears in Pahlavi script to his right and honorifics to the left. Astral symbols (star and crescent at 3,6 and 9 o'clock. Two rings surrounding.
REVERSE: Fire Altar with two attendants with hands resting on swords. To the right is mintmark SW (Khuzistan) and to the left is the regnal year 28 which dates the coin to 618 AD. Three rings surrounding

Weight 3.0 grams. The coin has been severely clipped since these usually weigh about 4 grams.
The Sassanid were succesors to the Parthian (Arsacid) dynasty which they conquered in the third century AD. The Sassanids were Zoroastrians who followed the teachings of their prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra) and their God was Ahura-Mazda - the God of light (or fire) and hence the reverse theme on Sassanid coins. Their rule was centered in what is Iraq and Iran and extended eastward. It lasted until the coming of Islam in the later 7th century. The ancient cultural heritage of Persia is quite distinct from that of their Semitic neighbors to the west and has repercussions in the religous and political conflicts of today.

daverino
Elymais,_--__AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_--_Q-001_6h,13,5-16,5mm,_3,85g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #172 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #1
avers: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows, to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Field of regular, parallel dashes, no border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5-16,5mm, weight: 3,85g, axes: 6h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 12.3.1-1A, De Morgan 50, BMC plate XLI, 4-9, Sear GICV 5910, Alram ??,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Arsacid_dynasty__Kamnaskires-Orodes__--AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_--_Q-001_h,14,5-15,5mm,_3,89g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #179 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1, Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Parallel dashes, #1
avers: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows, to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Field of regular, parallel dashes, no border.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,5-15,5mm, weight: 3,89g, axes: h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1, De Morgan 50, BMC plate XLI, 4-9, Sear GICV 5910, Alram ??,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Orodes_II_,_AE-Drachme,_Arsacid_dynasty,___BMC_plate_XL,10,_Q-001_h,_14-15mm,_3,4gx-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II. (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward, 122 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II. (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward,
avers: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.
revers: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-15,0mm, weight: 3,4g, axes: h,
mint:Elymais, (Under Parthian Authority), date: early-mid 2nd century A.D. (undated), ref: van't Haaff 13.2.1-1B, De Morgan 44-45, BMC plate XL, 10, Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Elymais,Arsacid_dynasty__Phraates,__AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_14_2_1-2A_Q-001_0h,13,5-15mm,_3,69g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 14.2.1-2A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Eagle standing left, wings spread, #172 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 14.2.1-2A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Eagle standing left, wings spread, #1
avers: Bust facing forward, wearing a tiara, to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Eagle standing left, wings spread, talons facing downward, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5-15,0mm, weight: 3,69g, axes: 0h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 14.2.1-2A, De Morgan 37, 39, BMC plate XLI, 24, Sear GICV 5900, Alram ??,
Q-001
quadrans
Elymais,Arsacid_dynasty__Phraates,__AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_14_4_1-1A_Q-001_0h,14-15mm,_3,07g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 14.4.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Plain diadem of two bands, #180 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 14.4.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Plain diadem of two bands, #1
avers: Bust facing forward, wearing a tiara with two pellets in crescents and dotted rim, two diadem bands below tiara, to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one or two crossbars at the top, the border of dots.
reverse: Plain diadem of two bands, pellet-in-crescents facing upward, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,0-15,0mm, weight: 3,07g, axes: 0h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 14.4.1-1A, De Morgan 40, BMC plate XLI, 26-27, Sear GICV 5901, Alram ??,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Elymais,_Arsacid_dynasty__Prince_A___AD_,_AE-Drachme,_Van__t_Haaff_19_1_1-1A,_Q-001_0h,11-12mm,_1,72g-s.jpg
Elymais, van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Artemis standing right, #177 viewsElymais, van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (early-mid 2nd Century A.D.), AE-Drachm, Artemis standing right, #1
avers: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as a double row of dots, hair tuft at the back of the head, the border of dots.
reverse: Artemis standing right, holding the bow in one hand, plucking an arrow from her quiver with the other hand, the border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 11,0-12,0mm, weight: 1,72g, axes: 0h,
mint: , date: early-mid 2nd Century A.D., ref: van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, de Morgan 58-59, BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18, Sear GICV 5918-5919, Alram ??,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
elymais_26_fac.jpg
Elymais, Vant Haaff 10.2-1-1, Uncertain King, crude style bust 14 viewsKingdom of Elymais
Uncertain early Arsacid king
tetradrachm
Obv.: Bust facing right, pointed beard, curly hair dressed in a curved pattern
Rev.: crude style bust left, degraded legend
, 15.18g, 30 mm
Ref.: Vant Haaff Type 10.2, Subtype 1-1
shanxi
Elymais_07.jpg
Elymais, Vant Haaff 10.4-2-4Ad, Uncertain King, irregular dashes23 viewsKingdom of Elymais
Uncertain early Arsacid king
Drachm
Obv.: Bust of Kings left, pellet inside crescent above anchor with one crossbar right
Rev.: irregular dashes
AE, 3.89g, 15.2mm
Ref.: Van't Haaff Type 10.4 Subtype 2-4Ad
shanxi
GRK_Elymais_GICV_5904_Orodes_II_2_bars.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)23 viewsvan't Haaff 13.2.1-1B; De Morgan 44-45; BMC plate XL, 10; Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478

AE drachm, 3.78 g., 14.10 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with double crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_GICV_5904_Orodes_II_1_Bar.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)18 viewsvan't Haaff 13.2.1-2B; De Morgan 44-45, BMC plate XL, 10; Sear GICV 5904; Alram 478

AE drachm, 3.66 g., 16.40 mm. max., 180

Obv: Bust facing forward, with no large hair tufts at sides, wearing tiara with central vertical line and dots at rim, diadem band below tiara; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Small radiate bust of Belos facing forward with no facial features, with hair tufts on sides and two horns; Aramaic legend URUD MALKA BARI URUD (= King Orodes, Son of Orodes) reading counter clockwise; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5905_Orodes_II_SGICV.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 13.3.2-2A; De Morgan 46; BMC plate XL, 13; Sear GICV 5905; Alram --

AE drachm, 4.10 g., 14.49 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara without crest with central vertical line and dots at rim, two diadem bands below tiara with row of pearls; to right star within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes with regular pattern; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_13_1_1-1_Orodes_II.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)17 viewsvan't Haaff 13.1.1-1; De Morgan 49; BMC plate XLI, 2; Sear GICV 5908-5909; Alram 485

AE drachm, 4.14 g., 16.80 mm. max., 0

Obv: Diademed bust facing forward, with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in three vertical rows of dots; to right, pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars; pellet border.

Rev: Radiate bust of Belos facing forward, with large hair tufts to each side, two horns and tied hair on top of the head; Aramaic legend around (WRWD MLK' BRY WRWD = King Orodes, Son of Orodes), starting after six o'clock, reading counter-clockwise; pellet border.

According to van't Haaff, the side tufts on the coins with two crossbars above the anchor are comprised of two vertical rows of dots, yet this coins has three irregular rows of dots.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_13_3_2-2B_Orodes_II.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes II (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)18 viewsvan't Haaff 13.3.2-2B; De Morgan 46; BMC plate XL, 13; Sear GICV 5905; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.96 g., 15.20 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with crest of rays with central vertical line and dots at rim, two diadem bands below tiara with row of pearls; to right dot within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes with regular pattern; no border.
Stkp
GRK_Sear_GICV_5896_Elymais_Orodes_II.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)10 viewsvan't Haaff 16.4.2-1A; De Morgan 28; BMC plate XL, 6-7; Sear GICV 5896 (Orodes I); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.56 g., 14.90 mm. max., 0

Obv: Slender bust of better style facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Field of regular, parallel dashes.
Stkp
GRK_Sear_GICV_5892_Elymais_Orodes_II.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)17 viewsvan't Haaff 16.1.1-3A; De Morgan 23-24; BMC plate XXXIX, 12-16; Sear GICV 5892 (Orodes I); Alram 469-470 (Orodes I)

AE drachm, 3.30 g., 14.23 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust (refined style) facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis right, wearing calathus; around her neck corrupted Greek legend, BACIΛEYK on the left, reading outside-in, YPωΔHC (= Orodes) on the right, reading inside-out; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5895_Orodes_III.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)17 viewsvan't Haaff 16.3.2-1A; De Morgan 27; BMC plate XL, 1-5; Sear GICV 5895 (Orodes I); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.92 g., 13.51 mm. max., 0

Obv: Slender bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Anchor in field of regular parallel dashes; no border.
1 commentsStkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_--_Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 16.2.1-2A; De Morgan 25-26; BMC plate XXXIX, 17-20, page 257 46-47; Sear GICV 5893-5894 (Orodes I); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.64 g., 13.61 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Belos, left, with bead necklace and earings; cornucopia behind; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_16_1_1-1_Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)16 viewsvan't Haaff 16.1.1-1; De Morgan 23-24; BMC plate XXXIX, 12-16; Sear GICV 5892; Alram 469-470

AE drachm, 3.68 g., 14.64 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust (refined style) facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis right, wearing calathus; around her corrupted Greek legend, YPωΔHC (= Orodes) on the left, reading inside-out, BACIΛEYK on the right, reading outside-in; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_16_3_2-1__Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 16.3.2-1_; De Morgan 27; BMC plate XL, 1-5; Sear GICV 5895; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.66 g., 15.81 mm. max., 0

Obv: Slender bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Anchor in field of irregular, perpendicular V-shaped and inverted T-shaped marks; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_16_2_1-1_Orodes_III.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes III (2nd century A.D.)20 viewsvan't Haaff 16.2.1-1; De Morgan 25-26; BMC plate XXXIX, 17-20, page 257 46-47; Sear GICV 5893-5894; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.53 g., 13.68 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing tiara with anchor and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara, ribbon falling behind bust from dot; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Belos, right, with bead necklace and earrings; cornucopia behind; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_17_2_1-1_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)22 viewsvan't Haaff 17.2.1-1; de Morgan 54; BMC plate XLII, 2; Sear GICV 5914; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.11 g., 14.12 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing diadem band, with large hair tuft on top and sides of head; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; to right, anchor with one crossbar on top; pellet border.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_17_3_1-1_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)16 viewsvan't Haaff 17.3.1-1; de Morgan 55; BMC plate XLII, 1; Sear GICV 5915; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.82 g., 13.38 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing diadem band, with large hair tufts on the sides of head, top hair as pellets; pellet border.

Rev: Anchor with pellet-in-crescent to either side; all within wreath; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_17_1_1-2_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)34 viewsvan't Haaff 17.1.1-2; de Morgan 52-53; BMC plate XLII, 5-6; Sear GICV 5912-5913; Alram 488-489

AE drachm, 2.44 g., 13.95 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing broad diadem band, with large hair tufts on top of and on side of head, flowing backward; to left anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of female (Queen Ulfan) left, hair tied above, with long braid falling behind; to left incomplete Aramaic legend (wip'n = Ulfan); pellet border.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_17_1_1-1_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 17.1.1-1; de Morgan 52-53; BMC plate XLII, 5-6; Sear GICV 5912-5913; Alram 488-489

AE drachm, 3.19 g., 15.74 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing broad diadem band, with large hair tufts on top of and on side of head, flowing backward; to left Aramaic legend (wrwd MLK = King Orodes); pellet border.

Rev: Bust of female (Queen Ulfan) left, hair tied above, with long braid falling behind; to left incomplete Aramaic legend (wip'n = Ulfan); pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5917_Orodes_V.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes V (late 2nd -- early 3rd centuries A.D.)18 viewsvan't Haaff 18.1.1-2A; de Morgan 56-57 (Orodes IV); BMC plate XLII, 7-8, page 282, 1, 6; Sear GICV 5916-5917; Alram 490

AE drachm, 2.23 g., 15.18 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, diademed, with hair tuft on top of head; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_18_1_1-2A_Orodes_V_2.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes V (late 2nd -- early 3rd centuries A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 18.1.1-2A; de Morgan 56-57 ((Orodes IV); BMC plate XLII, 7-8, page 282, 1, 6; Sear GICV 5916-5917; Alram 490

AE drachm, 3.01 g., 13.86 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, diademed, with hair tuft on top of head; anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_18_1_1-1A_Orodes_V.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes V (late 2nd -- early 3rd centuries)16 viewsvan't Haaff 18.1.1-1A; de Morgan 56-57 (Orodes IV); BMC plate XLII, 7-8, page 282, 1, 6; Sear GICV 5916-5917; Alram 490

AE drachm, 2.52 g., 12.72 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, diademed, with hair tuft on top of head; to left, incomplete Aramaic legend wrwd MLK (= King Orodes); pellet border.

Rev: Bust of Artemis facing left, wearing low tiara with crest of dots; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_GICV_5898_Phraates.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-1B; De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.85 g., 16.40 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend ΦPAATHC (= Phraates) on the left, BACIΛEVC on the right (both reading outside-in).
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_GICV_5901_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 14.4.1-1A; De Morgan 40; BMC plate XLI, 26-27; Sear GICV 5901; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.44 g., 14.46 mm. max., 90

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets in crescents and dotted rim, two diadem bands below tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one or two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Plain diadem of two bands, pellet-in-crescents facing upward; pellet border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5902_var_Phraates.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)9 viewsvan't Haaff 14.7.2-1; De Morgan 36.2-3; BMC plate XLI, 17-21; Sear GICV 5902; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.48 g., 14.66 mm. max.

Obv: Small, narrow bust facing left, wearing tiara with pellet-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes in regular, parallel or perpendiculat pattern, no border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5899_Phraates.JPG
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 14.6.1-3; De Morgan 34-35; BMC plate XLI, 10; Sear GICV 5899; Alram 473

AE drachm, 3.86 g., 16.83 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing tiara with pellet-in-crescent and dotted rim, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis (not radiate) standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left (reading outside-in), ΠPAATHC (= Phraates) on the right (reading inside-outside), both retrograde.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_14_2_1A_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)11 viewsvan't Haaff 14.2.1-2A; De Morgan 37, 39; BMC plate XLI, 24; Sear GICV 5900; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.56 g., 14.01 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Eagle standing left, wings spread, talons facing downward; pellet border.

According to van't Haaff, the differentiating feature for Phraates' coins is the decoration of the tiara with one or two pellet-in-crescents. He notes that this feature is not always visible, and assigns to Phraates all coins with the eagle reverse type. He describes the bust in Type 14.2 as wearing tiara and dotted rim, one or two diadem bands below tiara with two pellet-in-crescents. None of these features are not visible on this coin, on which the bust appears to only be wearing a diadem.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_14_5_1-1_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)10 viewsvan't Haaff 14.5.1-1; De Morgan --; BMC plate XLI, 19; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.64 g., 14.80 mm. max., 270 (assuming crescents orient upward)

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellet-in-crescents, dotted rim and diadem band below; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Crescents in regular pattern; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_van__t_Haaff_14_1_1-1C_var__(tiara)_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)34 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-1C var. (tiara); De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.64 g., 16.83 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two large pellets-in-crescent but without the border of the tiara, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left, ΠPAATHC (= Phraates) on the right (both reading inside-out).
1 commentsStkp
Elymais_14_1_1-2C_phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (late 1st century to early 2nd century A.D.)21 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-2C; De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.59 g., 15.42 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left, ΠPAATHC (= Phraates) on the right (both retrograde, reading outside-in).
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_14_1_1-2A_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (late 1st century to early 2nd century A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 14.1.1-2A; De Morgan 33; BMC plate XLI, 22; Sear GICV 5898; Alram 474-476

AE drachm, 3.29 g., 14.64 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing forward, wearing tiara with two pellets-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to left, Greek legend ΦPA; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from quiver with other hand, Greek legend BACIΛEVC on the left, ΦPΔΔTHC (= Phraates) on the right (both reading inside-out).
Stkp
ELYMAIS_14_7_2-2A_Phraates.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Phraates (late 1st century to early 2nd century A.D.)16 viewsvan't Haaff 14.7.2-2A; De Morgan 36.2-3; BMC plate XLI, 17-21; Sear GICV 5902; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.49 g., 15.96 mm. max.

Obv: Small, narrow bust facing left, wearing tiara with pellet-in-crescent, diadem band below tiara; to right, pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes in parallel lines of V-shaped pattern, no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_var_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)44 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1 var.; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)
AE drachm, 1.54 g., 11.01 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; to left anchor with at least one crossbar; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. This is an unrecorded variety in which the anchor is to the left.
2 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1B_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)23 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1B; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 1.30 g., 11.55 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers of one row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; single dot to her right; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. These symbols are not present on this coin. Tracing the probable arc of the pellet border, there does not appear to be space in the off-flan fields to accommodate these symbols, or, for that matter, to accommodate a chin/beard.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1A_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1A; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.29 g., 12.87 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; single dot to her right; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. These symbols are not present on this coin.

Unusually crude. Possibly imitative?
Stkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-2_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)11 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-2; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.09 g., 13.34 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers of one row of dots, no hair tuft at back of head; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1A_Prince_A~0.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)35 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1A; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.64 g., 15.19 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; to right anchor with one crossbar; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; two dots to her right; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan. The crescent and anchor are present on this coin.
2 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_19_1_1-1A_e-g_Prince_A.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.)23 viewsvan't Haaff 19.1.1-1A var. e-g; de Morgan 58-59; BMC plate XLII, 13-18, page 286, 18; Sear GICV 5918-5919; Alram --

AE drachm, 1.78 g., 12.50 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, row of dots above, side whiskers as double row of dots, hair tuft at back of head; to right anchor with one crossbar; pellet border.

Rev: Artemis standing right, holding bow in one hand, plucking arrow from her quiver with the other hand; two dots to her right; crescent to the left; pellet border.

According to van't Haaf, the varieties with a hair tuft are "always" accompanied by a dot or star in crescent above and an anchor to the right, although these symbols are often struck off the flan.
1 commentsStkp
GRK_Elymais_SGICV_5921_Prince_B.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince B (3rd century A.D.)11 viewsvan't Haaff 20.1.1-1A; de Morgan 60; BMC plate XLII, 19-20, page 287, 4-6; Sear GICV 5920; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.89 g., 14.25 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, hair tuft on top of head tied with ribbons, its ends flowing behind, another hair tuft at back of head; to right, pellet-in-crescent above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Athena standing right, holding spear in right hand, and shield in left; pellet border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_20_1_1-1B_Prince_B.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince B (3rd century A.D.)25 viewsvan't Haaff 20.1.1-1B; de Morgan 60; BMC plate XLII, 19-20, page 287, 4-6; Sear GICV 5920; Alram --

AE drachm, 2.69 g., 14.30 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, hair tuft on top of head tied with ribbons, its ends flowing behind, another hair tuft at back of head; to right, pellet-in-crescent above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Athena standing facing forward, head left, holding spear in right hand, and shield in left; pellet border.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_20_1_1-1A_Prince_B.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Prince B (3rd century A.D.)23 viewsvan't Haaff 20.1.1-1A; de Morgan 60; BMC plate XLII, 19-20, page 287, 4-6; Sear GICV 5920; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.01 g., 15.05 mm. max., 90

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing diadem of two bands, hair tuft on top of head tied with ribbons, its ends flowing behind, another hair tuft at back of head; to right, pellet-in-crescent above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Athena standing right, holding spear in right hand, and shield in left; pellet border.

According to van't Haaff, the pellet-in-crescent and anchor are often off the flan, as in this coin.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Probably a contemporary regional counterfeit struck during the reign of Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), or later.48 viewsvan't Haaff --; De Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 2.51 g., 12.59 mm. max., 0

Obv.: Bust facing left, side whiskers as double row of dots.

Rev.: Plain diadem of two bands with fine lines, pellet border.

The obverse bust most closely resembles Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, whereas the reverse mirrors Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), van't Haaff 14.4.1-2). Due to the decades between these rulers, the coin is probably not a mule. The coins of Phraates may have remained in circulation during the reign of Prince A, and beyond. The coin is probably a contemporary regional counterfeit inspired by the Phraates reverse. However, the diadem on the reverse is a reference to sky god Bel, and the possibility that the coin is an unrecorded official coin, issued by Prince A with the revived iconography of Phraates, cannot be excluded.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Pieter Anne van't Haaff (thanks to Robert L3), and Robert L3.
2 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-4a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)26 viewsvan't Haaff 10.4.2-4A; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.86 g., 16.19 mm. max.

Obv: Bust of decent style facing left, with long, curly, pointed beard, and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern frome forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; no pellet above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, degenerated to dashes of irregular style.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-4a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_crude~0.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)24 viewsvan't Haaff 10.3.2-1 var. (pellet); de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.56 g., 16.02 mm. max.

Obv: Bust of crude style facing left, with beard and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern from forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; cross-like form in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; pellet [?] to right of anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, degraded legend around, degenerated to dashes of irregular style.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.msg697503;topicseen#msg697503 message 2/22/18)
Stkp
ELYMAIS_10_4_2-3_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings (late 1st century B.C. to early 2nd century A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 10.4.2-3; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.87 g., 16.68 mm. max., ?

Obv: Bust of decent style facing left, with long, curly, pointed beard, and curly hair dressed in a curved pattern from forehead to nape of the neck, topped by a tuft of hair bound with a diadem, its ties falling behind; pellet in crescent above anchor with one crossbar; no pellet above anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed, bearded head left, highly degenerated style.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_2_1-1_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)15 viewsvan't Haaff 21.2.1-1 var. (pellets); de Morgan --; BMC plate XLII, 22-25; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.73 g., 10.68 mm. max., 0

Obv: Abstract bust facing right, details unclear.

Rev: Upturned crescent with dot above and below, all within wreath.

According to van't Haaff, too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination. Apparently, on the few coins that are known, too little detail on the obverse remains to obtain a complete description; the photo in van't Haaff is unclear. Those that are known to van't Haaff have three dots below the crescent and none above, although these coins appear as well with a single dot above and another below.

Attribution confirmation coutesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.new;topicseen#new)
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_1_1-1_unidentified_king.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)15 viewsvan't Haaff 21.1.1-1; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.08 g., 10.18 mm. max., 270

Obv: Bust facing left, details unclear.

Rev: Anchor with one crossbar at top, all within wreath.

According to van't Haaf, too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_1_1-2_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)20 viewsvan't Haaff 21.1.1-2; de Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.45 g., 11.23 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, side whiskers of one row of dots, hair tuft at back of head.

Rev: Anchor with two crossbars at top, all within wreath.

According to van't Haaf: (a) too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination; (b) the details of the bust are "unclear," yet this bust is similar to van't Haaff Type 19.1 (Prince A); and (c) the reverse border is a wreath whereas this border looks like the pellets that are typical on the borders of so many Elymaean types.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_21_1_1-2_var_Unidentified_King_left.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Unidentified King (uncertain dates)33 viewsvan't Haaff 21.2.1-1 var. (facing left and dots on reverse); de Morgan --; BMC plate XLII, 22-25 var.; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 1.90 g., 10.89 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, side whiskers, hair tuft at back of head

Rev: Upturned crescent with dot above and below, all within wreath

According to van't Haaf, too few of these coins are known to determine their denomination. Further, on the few coins that were then known, too little detail on the obverse remained to obtain a complete description, other than that the bust faces right. There are now sufficient examples from which to do so. This coin is unusual in that the bust faces left. Those that were then known have three dots below the crescent and none above. Yet the type appears to be more common with one dot above and another below.
2 commentsStkp
elam.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais, Orodes II Arsacid Dynasty, AE 15 Drachm, Circa 100 AD.15 viewsAncient Greek, Kingdom of Elymais, Orodes II Arsacid Dynasty, AE 15 Drachm, Circa (100 AD)

Obverse: Facing diademmed head of Orodes II, long beard, anchor to right, star within crescent above.

Reverse: Field with dashes and dots.

Reference: Van't Haaff 13.3 subtype 2-2A

Ex: Sphinx Numismatics
Gil-galad
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-2A2_kamnaskires-orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early mid 2nd Century A.D.)12 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2A2; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.44 g., 14.23 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in upward-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-1A_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early mid 2nd Century A.D.)20 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-1A; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910; Alram --

AE drachm, 3.41 g., 15.96 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_2_1-1A_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early mid 2nd Century A.D.)17 viewsvan't Haaff 12.2.1-1A; De Morgan 48; BMC plate XLI, 1; Sear GICV 5907; Alram 482-484

AE drachm, 3.82 g., 15.95 mm. max., 0

Obv: Diademed bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with three crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Radiate bust of Belos facing forward, with large hair tufts, on each side two horns and tied hair tuft; Aramaic legend (knmkyr wrwd MLK = King Kamnaskires-Orodes) starting at three o'clock, reading counter clockwise.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SRICV_5910_Kamnaskires-Orodes.JPG
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)22 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 4.04 g., 15.38 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in upward-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
GRK_Elymais_SRICV_5910_Kamnaskires-Orodes_1-bar.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-1B; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.54 g., 15.38 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward without small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontally-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with one crossbar at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-2A1c-e_Kamnaskares-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.) 19 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2A1 var. c-e; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.78 g., 15.74 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in upward-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet between bust and anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_12_3_1-2B1g_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.) 15 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2B1 var. g; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.61 g., 15.73 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontal-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; small symbol between bust and anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
EJYMAIS_12_3_1-2B1_Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kingdom of Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Kamnaskires-Orodes (early-mid 2nd century A.D.)14 viewsvan't Haaff 12.3.1-2B1; De Morgan 50; BMC plate XLI, 4-9; Sear GICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III); Alram --

AE drachm, 3.29 g., 15.24 mm. max.

Obv: Bust facing forward with small hair tuft on top, and large curly hair tufts on each side in horizontal-oriented rows; to right pellet within crescent above anchor with two crossbars at top; pellet border.

Rev: Dashes; no border.
Stkp
Orodes_II_FORVM.jpg
Parthia - Orodes II (57-38 BCE) 15 viewsMetal/Size: AR 20; Weight: 3.89 grams; Denomination: Drachm; Mint: Ecbatana; Date: 57-38 BCE. Bust left with short beard wearing diadem and hippocamp or griffin-ended torque; star before, crescent above star behind; wart visible on forehead; hair just below jaw-line in five waves. Reverse: Beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; behind archer, anchor (A48i); below bow, monogram [~]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ ("King of Kings Arsacid, Beneficent, Just, Illustriously born, Lover of Greece"). References: Sellwood #48.6; Shore #258.museumguy
Orodes_II_FORVM_copy_3.jpg
Parthia - Orodes II (57-38 BCE)21 viewsMetal/Size: AR19; Weight: 4.03 grams; Mint: Mithradatkart; Denomination: Drachm; Date: 57-38 BCE; Obverse: Diademed bust of Orodes left, wearing torque ending in pellet. He exhibits short beard on weak chin. Hair is medium length in five waves; circular border of pellets. Reverse: Beardless archer (Arsaces) wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; Mithradatkart monogram below; seven-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ ("King of Kings Arsacid, Beneficent, Just, Illustriously born, Lover of Greece"). References: Sellwood #45.14; Shore #225.1 commentsmuseumguy
Orodes_II_(3).jpg
Parthia - Orodes II (57-38 BCE)8 viewsMetal/Size: AE 14; Weight: 1.5 grams; Denomination: Chalkous; Date: 57-38 BCE; Mint: Mithradatkart; Obverse: Bust left with pointed beard and wavy hair, wearing diadem, circular border of pellets. Reverse: Arsacid symbol and monogram at right; no border. Reference: Sellwood #47.46.museumguy
GRK_Parthia_Orodes_II_Sear_7442.JPG
Parthia. Orodes II (57-38 B.C.)23 viewsAR Drachm, Nisa mint, 18 mm.

Sear 7442, Sellwood Type 46_, Shore 233 var. (per dealer's attribution)

Obv: Short-bearded bust left wearing diadem and pellet-ended torque, crescent behind; wart not visible on forehead; circular border of pellets cannot be confirmed.

Rev: Beardless archer (Arsakes I) wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; _______ behind archer; NI below bow [mintmark]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ [above] ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ [to right] ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ [below] ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ [to left]) (= Of the King of Kings, Arsakes [founder of the Arsacid Dynasty] ...).

Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 B.C., with the assistance of his brother Mithridates III. In the power struggle that ensued, Mithridates allied himself with Rome, but was captured and slain in 54 B.C. In 53 B.C., Marcus Licinius Crassus invaded Parthia in belated support of Mithridates, but was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae and killed. His severed head was presented to Orodes II during a performance of Euripides' tragedy, The Bacchae, where it was used as a prop, carried by one of the actors in the play.
Stkp
Ars1combo1.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Arsakes I, 247 - 211 BC61 viewsAR dr., 4,09gr. 18mm; Sellwood 3.2, Shore 2var., Sunrise -- ;
mint: Mithradatkart/Nisa ?; axis: 12h;
obv.: beardless bust, left, w/bashlyk; lock of hair on forehead, bunch of hair in neck; earring;
rev.: archer, left, on backless throne, w/bow in right hand; one-line legend right field: APΣAKOY, letters KRNY left field;

ex: Triton XIII, ex: Todd Ballen coll., ex: Peus 376, ex: W. Derfler Collection;
A portrait of the founder of the Parthian Empire and the Arsacid dynasty.
2 commentsSchatz
0501-99-1.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Autonomous Coinage, Elymais, Orodes I, AE Drachm106 viewsObv: Bust of Orodes I left, with long beard, wearing diad. tiara ornamented with anchor; behind pellet within crescent over anchor
Rev: Bust of Artemis right, wearing kalathos. Retrograde Greek legend
Struck first half of 2nd Century A.D. at Elymais
GICV 5892
Note: Elymais was a small kingdom occupying the hilly region between Babylonia and Persis, maintaining a quasi-independence of its powerful neighbor, the Arsacid Kingdom of Parthia. With the fall of the Arsacids, however, Elymais was conquered by Ardashir and became a province of that prince's new Sassanian Empire. Very little is known of the history and chronology of this kingdom other than the information yielded by the coins themselves. (taken from Sear's GREEK IMPERIAL COINS AND THEIR VALUES)
1 commentsJericho
GRK_Parthia_Phraates_IV.jpg
Phraates IV (38-2 B.C.)10 viewsSear 7472, Sellwood 52.10, Shore 276-278

AR Drachm, Ekbatana mint, 3.54 g., 17.69 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bare headed bust with medium-long hair in five waves wearing broad three-layered diadem and three ribbons, moustache, long beard bent back at the tip and wart on forehead facing left, eagle offering diadem in upper right field.

Rev: Beardless archer (Arsakes I) wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; monogram 26 below bow [mintmark ?]; seven-line Greek inscription: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ (above) ΑΡΣΑΚ[ΟΥ] (to right) ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ / ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ (below) ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝ[ΟΣ] (to left) (= Of the King of Kings, Arsakes [founder of the Arsacid Dynasty]).

Son of Orodes II, Phraates was appointed successor to the throne in 37 B.C., after the death of his brother Pacorus I. He soon murdered his father and all his thirty brothers.
Stkp
ELYMAIS_15_3_1-1_Osroes.jpg
Possibly Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Osroes (1st quarter of 2nd century A.D.). Probably Parthia. Osroes I (109-129 A.D.).36 viewsvan't Haaff 15.3.1-1; de Morgan --; BMC -- Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE (Elymaean) obol or (Parthian) chalkous, 1.91 g., 12.22 mm. max., 0

Obv: Bust facing left, with long beard and hair dressed in Parthian fashion, with a large tuft behind the face extending to the back of the head, topped by a large tuft bound with a diadem, its tips streaming behind; pellet border.

Rev: Diademed female bust (Tyche, if a Parthian emission) right; possible traces of inscription (date) to right; no border.

Van't Haaff recognized that "the attribution of Type 15 coins has been controversial" and notes that de Morgan, Le Rider and Alram have posited that they are issues of Osroes I of Parthia. Hoover agrees with these scholars, "[d]espite their appearance in the French excavations of Susa." He notes a stylistic affinity between them and Sellwood Type 80. This coin apparently appeared in association with Elymaean bronze coins in a commercial hoard, and not in the French excavations referred to by Hoover. Bell retains these emissions in the Elymaean series, but questions whether there was a separate Elymaean king Osroes. Rezakhani tentatively concludes that the Elymaean and Parthian Osroes are in fact the same person.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Robert L3 (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=112957.0;topicseen).
2 commentsStkp
KamnVItetra2.jpg
Uncertain Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm46 viewsUncertain Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv: Bearded and diademed bust left, to the right star and crescent, above an anchor with 2 bars and a dot at of the anchor.
Rev: Crude bearded bust left, with in degraded Greek legend.

van't Haaff 10.3.1-1C
de Morgan 17
Sear GIC 5888
Alram NB1
BMC 28 250 16 (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III, and successors)
Mitchiner ACW 705
Howard Cole
KamnVItetra4.jpg
Uncertain Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm39 viewsUncertain Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv: Bearded and diademed bust left, star within a crescent, above an anchor with two bars, to the right.
Rev: Very degraded bust to left, within a series of dashes representing Greek legend.

Weight: 14.5 grams

van't Haaff 10.4.1-2
de Morgan 17
Sear GIC 5888
Alram NB1
BMC 28 250 18 (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III, and successors)
Mitchiner ACW 706
Howard Cole
KamVItetra5.jpg
Uncertain Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm42 viewsUncertain Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv. Bust of king left with beard and hair below diadem, to right anchor with star and crescent above.
Rev. Bearded bust left, in square formed by degraded Greek legend.

van't Haaff 10.4.1-1
de Morgan 17
Sear GIC 5888
Alram NB1
BMC 28 250 15 (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III, and successors)
Mitchiner ACW 706
1 commentsHoward Cole
t_Haaff_10_3_1-2A_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_tetradrachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings49 viewsAE tetradrachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3.1-2A
1 commentsRobert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_1_2-1_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_tetradrachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings51 viewsAE tetradrachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.1.2-1
Robert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_3_1-1C_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_tetradrachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings25 viewsAE tetradrachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3.1-1C
Robert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_4_1-1a_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_tetradrachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings45 viewsAE tetradrachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.4.1-1a
1 commentsRobert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_3_2-1a_variant_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_drachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings34 viewsAE drachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3.2-1a variant (no pellet)
1 commentsRobert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_3_1-1A_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_tetradrachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings54 viewsBI tetradrachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3.1-1A
2 commentsRobert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_3_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_tetradrachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings22 viewsAE tetradrachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3
Robert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_3_2-1_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_drachm_2.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings19 viewsAE drachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3.2-1
Robert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_3_2-1_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_drachm_3.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings17 viewsAE drachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3.2-1
Robert L3
Van__t_Haaff_10_3_2-1_Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_drachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings23 viewsAE drachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van't Haaff 10.3.2-1
Robert L3
6__Uncertain_Early_Arsacid_Kings_tetradrachm.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings36 viewsAE tetradrachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Vant Haaff 10.1.1-1
1 commentsRobert L3
24__UncertainEarlyArsacidKings_VH_10_4_2-1B_smaller_b.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings34 viewsAR drachm, late 1st century BC to early 2nd century AD
Van''t Haaff 10.4.2-1B
2 commentsRobert L3
kamnVIdrach2.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm34 viewsUncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv: Bearded bust left, Crescent with 4-point star and anchor with one cross bar behind.
Rev: Blank

Weight: 3.6 grams

van't Haaff 10.4.2-4A
de Morgan 18
Sear GIC 5890
Alram NB2 var.
BMC 28 251 19ff (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III, and successors)
Mitchiner ACW 707 var.
Howard Cole
KamnVIdrach1.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm51 viewsUncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv. Bust left, to right anchor with star and crescent above.
Rev. Degraded bust in square formed by degraded Greek legend.

Weight: 3.75 grams

van't Haaff 10.3.2.1c
de Morgan 18
Sear GIC 5890
Alram NB2
BMC 28 251 19ff (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III, and successors)
Mitchiner ACW 706
1 commentsHoward Cole
KamnIVdrachm3.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm30 viewsUncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv. Bust left, to right anchor with star and crescent above.
Rev. Degraded bust in square formed by degraded Greek legend.

Weight: 4.0 grams

van't Haaff 10.4.2-4A
de Morgan 18 ff (Listed as Kamnaskires C)
Sear GIC 5890
BMC 28 251 19ff (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III and successors)
Alram NB2
Mitchiner ACW 707
Howard Cole
KamnIVcdrach4.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm67 viewsUncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Drachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv: Bearded and diademed bust left, to right star and crescent above anchor
Rev: Series of dashes that represent degraded legend

van't Haaff 10.4.2-4A
de Morgan 18 (Listed as Kamnaskires C)
Sear GIC 5890
BMC 28 251 19ff (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III and successors)
Alram NB2
Mitchiner ACW 707
Howard Cole
KamnVIctetra3.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm54 viewsUncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv. Bust of king left with beard and hair below diadem, to right anchor with star and crescent above.
Rev. Bearded bust left, in square formed by degraded Greek legend.

van't Haaff 10.3.1-1A
de Morgan 17
Sear GIC 5888
Alram NB1
BMC 28 250 15 (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III, and successors)
Mitchiner ACW 704

Bell believes there was no Kamnaskires V and attributes all these coins with a clear reverse head to Kamnaskires IV c. 69-55 BC.
Howard Cole
KamnIVtetra5.jpg
Uncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm45 viewsUncertain Early Arsacid Kings, AE Tetradrachm, Late 1st Century B.C. to early 2nd Century A.D.

Obv. Bust left, to right anchor with star and crescent above.
Rev. Pattern of dashes

Weight: 14.7 grams
Die axis 12 o'clock

van't Haaff 10.4.1-1
de Morgan 17 (Listed as Kamnaskires C) or 19 (Kamnaskires D)
Sear GIC 5889
BMC 28 250 18 (Listed under Group C, Kamnaskires III and successors)
Alram NB1 var.
Mitchiner ACW 706
Howard Cole
Ardashir1Gobl10sm.jpg
[1901a] Ardashir I, The Great (AD 224-241) 1462 viewsSASANIAN EMPIRE. Ardashir I, 224-241 AD. AR Drachm; Gbl 10; 4.27 gm; Toned VF. Obverse: Crowned draped bust; Reverse: Fire-altar. Ex Pegasi.

Ardashir I, The Great (AD 226-241)

Ardashir I (early Middle Persian Arđaxēr "Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom"), also known as Ardashīr-i Pāpagān "Ardashir, son of Pāpağ" Ardeshiri Babakan, and as Artaxerxes, was ruler of Persia (226241) and the founder of the Sassanid dynasty (226651). Other variants of his name appear as Artaxares, Artashastra, Ardaxshir, Ardasher, Artashir and Artakhshathra.

Early Years
Ardashir I was born in the late 2nd century in Istakhr, (located today in Iran) a vassal kingdom of the Parthian Empire. His father Pāpağ (sometimes written as Pāpak or Babak) deposed the previous king, Gochihr, and took his throne. His mother may have been named Rodhagh. During his father's reign, Ardashir I ruled the town of Darabjird and received the title of "argbadh". Upon Pāpağ's death, Ardashir I's elder brother āpūr ascended to the throne. However, Ardashir I rebelled against his brother and took the kingship for himself in 208.

Ardashir I rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene. This expansion brought the attention of the Arsacid Great King Artabanus IV (216224), Ardashir I's overlord and ruler of the Parthian Empire, who marched against him in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, and Artabanus IV was killed. Ardashir I went on to invade the western provinces of the now-defunct Parthian Empire. This led to a confrontation between Kurds and Aradshir I which is recorded in a historical text named "Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak". It is written in Pahlavi script. In this book, the author explains the battle between King of the Kurds, "Madig" and Ardashir I.

Crowned in 226 as the sole ruler of Persia, and taking the title āhānāh "King of Kings" (his consort Adhur-Anahid took the title "Queen of Queens"), Ardashir I finally brought the 400 year-old Parthian Empire to an end and began four centuries of Sassanid rule.
Over the next few years, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. Bahrain and Mosul were also added to Sassanid possessions. Furthermore, the Kings of Kushan, Turan, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord. In the West, assaults against Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less success.

Religion and State
According to historian Arthur Christensen, the Sassanid state as established by Ardashir I was characterized by two general trends which differentiated it from its Parthian predecessor: a strong political centralization and organized state sponsorship of Zoroastrianism.

The Parthian Empire had consisted of a loose federation of vassal kingdoms under the suzerainty of the Great King. Ardashir I, perhaps seeing from his own successes the weaknesses of such decentralized authority, established a strong central government by which to rule Persia. The empire was divided into cantons, the dimensions of which were based on military considerations. These cantons were designed to resist the influence of hereditary interests and feudal rivalries. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of shāh. In an attempt to protect royal authority from regional challenges, the personal domains of the Sassanids and branch families family were scattered across the empire. While the old feudal princes (vāspuhrs) remained, they were required to render military service with their local troops (for the most part peasant levies). The lesser nobility was cultivated as a source of military strength, forming the elite cavalry of the army, and the royal household found a useful (and presumably reliable) military force through the hiring of mercenaries.

Zoroastrianism had existed in the Parthian Empire, and its holy text, the Avesta, had likely been compiled during the years of the Arsacid dynasty. The Sassanids could trace their heritage to the Temple of Anahita at Staxr, where Ardashir I's grandfather had been a dignitary. Under Ardashir I, the Zoroastrian (sometimes called Mazdean) religion was promoted and regulated by the state. The Sassanids built fire temples and, under royal direction, a new and official version of the Avesta was compiled by a cleric named Tansār. The government officially backed the Zurvanist doctrine of the religion, which emphasized the concept of time as the "original principle", over the competing doctrine of Vayism, which stressed the importance of space over time. Despite this state backing of a particular sect, it appears that other religious practices were tolerated so long as they did not interfere with the political authority of the Sassanids.

In other domestic affairs, Ardashir I maintained his familial base in Fars, erecting such structures as the Ghal'eh Dokhtar and the Palace of Ardashir. Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Parthian capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. He also rebuilt the city of Seleucia, located just across the river, which had been destroyed by the Romans in 165, renaming it Veh-Ardashir. Trade was promoted and important ports at Mesene and Charax were repaired or constructed.

War with Rome
In the latter years of his reign, Ardashir I engaged in a series of armed conflicts with Persia's great rival to the west the Roman Empire.

Ardashir I's expansionist tendencies had been frustrated by his failed invasions of Armenia, where a relative of the former Arsacid rulers of Parthia sat on the throne. Given Armenia's traditional position as an ally of the Romans, Ardashir I may have seen his primary opponent not in the Armenian and Caucasian troops he had faced, but in Rome and her legions.

In 230 Ardashir I led his army into the Roman province of Mesopotamia, unsuccessfully besieging the fortress town of Nisibis. At the same time, his cavalry ranged far enough past the Roman border to threaten Syria and Cappadocia. It seems that the Romans saw fit to attempt a diplomatic solution to the crisis, reminding the Persians of the superiority of Roman arms, but to no avail. Ardashir I campaigned unsuccessfully against Roman border outposts again the following year (231). As a result, the Roman emperor Alexander Severus (222235) moved to the east, establishing his headquarters at Antioch, but experienced difficulties in bringing his troops together and thus made another attempt at diplomacy, which Ardashir I rebuffed.

Finally, in 232, Severus led his legions in a three-pronged assault on the Persians. However, the separate army groups did not advance in a coordinated fashion, and Ardashir I was able to take advantage of the disorder and concentrate his forces against the enemy advancing through Armenia, where he was able to halt the Roman advance. Hearing of the Roman plans to march on his capital at Ctesiphon, Ardashir I left only a token screening force in the north and met the enemy force that was advancing to the south, apparently defeating it in a decisive manner. However, one can discern that the Persians must have suffered considerable losses as well, as no attempt was made to pursue the fleeing Romans. Both leaders must have had reason to avoid further campaigning, as Severus returned to Europe in the following year (233) and Ardashir I did not renew his attacks for several years, probably focusing his energies in the east.

On 237 Ardashir I, along with his son and successor Shapur I (241272), again invaded Mesopotamia. This effort resulted in successful assaults on Nisibis and Carrhae and the shock this caused in Rome led the emperor to revive the Roman client-state of Osroene. In 241, Ardashir I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra. Ardashir I died later in the year.

Final Assessment
Ardashir I was an energetic king, responsible for the resurgence of Persia, the strengthening of Zoroastrianism, and the establishment of a dynasty that would endure for four centuries. While his campaigns against Rome met with only limited success, he achieved more against them than the Parthians had done in many decades and prepared the way for the substantial successes his son and successor Shapur I would enjoy against the same enemy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
 
95 files on 1 page(s)