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philip_I_wolf.jpg
37 viewsPHILIP I THE ARAB (244–249). Antoninianus. Rome.
Obv: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SAECVLARES AVGG / II. She-wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus.
RIC 15.
Ex Numismatik Lanz auction 40 (1987) Lot 783.
Weight: 5.5 g.
Diameter: 23 mm.
paul1888
Ägypten_Egypt_20_Piaster_1980_AH_1400_Falke_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
11 views
Ägypten

5 Piaster

AD 1972 / AH 1392

Vs.: Oben arabische Schrift im Bogen, im Feld Nominal, rechts und links Jahreszahlen, unten Verzierungen

Rs.: Islamischer Falke

Zitat: KM# A428

Erhaltung: Kleiner Fleck, ansonsten Stempelglanz

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

25 mm, 4,49 g _199
Antonivs Protti
DOA_Deutsch_Ostafrika_1_Pesa_1892_Berlin_Krone_Adler_Kranz.jpg
18 viewsDeutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft

1 Pesa

1892

Münzstätte: Berlin

Vs: Im Lorbeerkranz auf arabisch "Gesellschaft Deutschlands" und die islamische Jahreszahl (in arabischen Zahlzeichen) 1309 für 1892

Rs: Reichsadler

Literatur: Jäger 710

Erhaltung: Schön

Metall: Kupfer

25 mm, 6,26 g _694
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_10_Milliemes_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
9 views
Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

10 Milliemes

AD 1965 / AH 1385

Vs.: Arabische Schrift über Wappen, unten Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz, darunter Nominal auf Englisch im Bogen

Rand: Geriffelt

Erhaltung: Stempelglanz

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

20 mm, 3,22 g _598
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_5_Milliemes_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Nickel_Messing.jpg
9 views
Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

5 Milliemes

AD 1965 / AH 1385

Vs.: Arabische Schrift über Wappen, unten Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz, darunter Nominal auf Englisch im Bogen

Erhaltung: Etwas fleckig, ansonsten Stempelglanz

Metall: Nickel-Messing

19-20 mm, 2,52 g _898
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_1_Millieme_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Nickel_Messing.jpg
12 views
Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

1 Millieme

AD 1965 / AH 1385

Vs.: Arabische Schrift über Wappen, unten Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz, darunter Nominal auf Englisch im Bogen

Rand: Glatt

Erhaltung: Etwas fleckig, ansonsten fast Stempelglanz / Stempelglanz

Metall: Nickel-Messing

16 mm, 1,77 g _593
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_50_Milliemes_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
10 views
Ägypten

20 Piaster

AD 1980 / AH 1400

Vs.: Oben arabische Schrift im Bogen, im Feld Nominal, unten Verzierung, links und rechts Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Falke

Literatur: KM# 507

Erhaltung: Vorzüglich

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

30 mm, 9,98 g _1198
Antonivs Protti
Ägypten_Egypt_5_Piaster_1967_AH_1387_Adler_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
13 views
Ägypten

5 Piaster

AD 1967 / AH 1387

Vs.: Oben arabische Schrift im Bogen, im Feld Nominal, unten Verzierung, links und rechts Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Adler

Zitat: KM# 412

Erhaltung: Vorzüglich - fast Stempelglanz

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

25 mm, 4,42 g _296
Antonivs Protti
_T2eC16dHJIkE9qU3lQ,hBR(r-rhsKw~~60_1.jpg
19 viewsÄgypten 5 Milliemes AD 1973 / AH 1393
Vs.: Oben arabische Schrift im Bogen, im Feld Nominal, links und rechts Jahreszahlen
Rs.: Adler
Zitat: KM# 432
Erhaltung: Stempelglanz
Metall: Messing
18 mm, 1,96 g _196
Antonivs Protti
TAMAR_IRREGULAR_COINAGE.jpg
64 viewsGEORGIAN KINGDOM, QUEEN TAMAR (1184-1213 AD) Irregular copper coin. Obv.: Geometric designs, with legends in Georgian; including name T'amar. Rev.: Legends in Arabic letters. dpaul7
TAMAR___DAVIT_Regular_Coinage.jpg
80 viewsGEORGIAN KINGDOM, QUEEN TAMAR, (1184-1213 AD) K'ORONIKON, 420 = 1200 AD; Obv.: Bagratid royal emblem in the form of a standard, to left and right: Initials for T'amar and David; in the corners, Georgian date formula, K'K Ví K (420 of the Paschal cycle = AD 1200). Two Counterstamps. Rev.: Christian inscriptions in arabic script, which reads: 1st line: Malekat al-Malekaat(s) / 2nd line Jellal Al-Dunya Wal Din / 3rd line : Tamar Ibnat Kurki / 4th line : Zahir Al-Massih. Translation: Queen of Queens Glory of the World and Faith T'amar daughter of Giorgi Champion of the Messiah. Reference: LANG # 11.

Reverse inscriptions read :
ملكة الملكات
جلال الدنيا و الدين
تمار ابنة كوركى
ظهير المسيح
dpaul7
Philip_I_UI_antelope_right.jpg
39 viewsPhilip I The Arab , 224-249 A.D.
AR Antoninianus, RIC 22, RSC 188, Choice gVF, 4.89 gm, 24mm, IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right .; SAECVLARES AVGG, VI in ex, Antelope advancing right.
paul1888
coin-05.jpg
14 viewsGhaznavid. Mahmud (AH 389-421 / AD 998-1030) Multiple Dirham AH 389 (AD 998/9) XF, Andaraba mint, 11.24g, A-1608. Quant.Geek
MUGHALS-FARUKHSIYAR-AKBARABAD_MINT-ONE_RUPEE-RAREST_SILVER_COIN-84s-l1600.jpg
14 viewsAntonivs Protti
MUGHALS-SHAH_ALAM_BAHADUR-AKBARABAD_MINT-ONE_RUPEE-s-l1600.jpg
11 viewsAntonivs Protti
MUGHALS-AURANGZEB-6-AKBARABAD_MINT-ONE_RUPEE.jpg
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
Album-3517_2.jpg
12 viewsARAB-BYZANTINE: Standing Emperor, ca. 680s, AE fals, Dimashq, A-3517.2, bird on T left, mint name in Greek to right / anchor above and downward crescent below M, Arabic duriba / dimashq / ja'iz around
Dim: 4.35g, 6 h
Quant.Geek
Trajan_BMC_62.jpg
14 Trajan AR Drachm of Caesarea20 viewsTRAJAN
AR Drachm of Bostra, Arabia
AVTOK P KAIC NEP TRAIAN CEB ΓEPM ΔAK, Laureate bust right, drapery over left shoulder (die crack on chin) / ΔHMAPX EΞΥΠATOC, Arabia standing facing, looking left, holding branch and bundle of cinnamon sticks, to left a camel
SNG ANS 1155
Thanks you FORVM member Benito for helping attribute this coin.
RI0114
Sosius
otse.jpg
Marcia Otacilla Severa, Empress of Rome 244-249 CE35 viewsMarcia Otacilla Severa, wife of Philip the Arab
Otacilia Severa AE30 of Antioch, Syria.
Obverse: MAP WTAKIL CEOVHPAN CEB, diademed & draped bust right on crescent.
Reverse: ANTIOCEWN MHTRO KOLWN D-e S-C, turreted & draped bust of Tyche right, ram leaping right above. BMC 543. 28 mm, 12.77 g
1 commentsNORMAN K
coin344.JPG
Philipp I, Viminacium, Moesia superior19 viewsPhilipp I Arabs AD 244-249
obv. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. PMS C - OL VIM
Moesia, draped, standing l., holding hands above bull l. and lion r.
in ex. AN VIII
AMNG I, 140; SNG München 180-5

ecoli
007n.jpg
Δ in circular punch240 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Septimius Severus. Æ 22. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (…)-CEOYHPON(…). Laureate head right; countermark on shoulder. Rev: (…)-MHTPOΠ(…). Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 28v; BMC -. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.24 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Note: May bave been countermarked during reign of Elagabalus, although this is uncertain since the coins of Elagabalus were too small to be countermarked Δ, and no coins were issued after his reign. Collection Automan.Automan
FSr5.jpg
ΘΕΑ ΦΑΥΣΤΕΙΝΑ70 viewsAE 17mm 138-161AD
Obv - ΘΕΑ ΦΑΥΣΤΕΙΝΑ- Veiled and draped bust right
Rev - ΤΥΧΗ ΝΕΑΣ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗ ΒΟΣΤΡΑ - turreted Tyche standing, facing, head, facing (or l. or r.), holding spear, resting l. hand on hip, (resting foot on swimming river-god)
Reference - Spijkerman 11(2),12 and 13, BMC 7-9
Mint - Bostra, Arabia
aragon6
189.jpg
Δ on GETA, AE20 ARABIA PETRAEA.197 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Æ 20. A.D. 198-209 (as Caesar). Obv: (...)ΠCE(...)-(ГETACKAICAP) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark before. Rev: AΔ(PI-ΠEP)TA-MHT. Within distyle temple, Tyche seated left, holding small stele in extended right hand, holding trophy in left hand. Ref: Spijkerman 51. Axis: 330°. Weight: 7.75 g. CM: •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
bostra_decap_faust_resb.jpg
(0138) FAUSTINA I--BOSTRA35 views138 - 141 AD
AE 14 mm max., 1.35 g
O: ΘEA Φ[AVCT], draped and veiled bust right;
R: NT - O/B, three heads of barley fastened together, all within wreath
Provincia Arabia, Bostra mint; Kindler 11; Rosenberger 11-2; Spijkerman 15; rare
laney
OTACILIA_B_.jpg
(0244) OTACILIA SEVERA20 views(wife of Philip I The Arab)
244 - 249 AD
AE 21 mm 5.11 g
O: OTACIL{...}
BUST R
R: DEMETER(?)
DUELTUM
THRACE
laney
phil_ota_eagle~0.jpg
(0244) OTACILIA SEVERA 17 views(wife of Philip I The Arab)
244 - 249 AD
AE 26 mm; 10.45 g
O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Philip and draped bust of Otacilia Severa left, wearing stephane, facing one another (confronted)
R: Eagle standing left, head right, with wings displayed, holding wreath in beak.
cf AMNG I 3585; Moushmov 2308; Varbanov 5760
Moesia Inferior, Thrace, Tomis
laney
OTACILIA_SEVERA.jpg
(0244) OTACILILA SEVERA27 views(wife of Philip I The Arab)
244 - 249 AD
AE SESTERTIIUS 30.5 Mm 20.25 g
O: MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG
DRAPED BUST R
R: CONCORDIA AVGG, SC IN EXE
CONCORDIA SEATED L HOLDING PATERA AND DOUBLE CORNUCOPIAE
laney
philip_I.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I (THE ARAB)18 views244 - 249 AD
AR Antoninianus 21 mm 3.13 g
O: IMP IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
RADIATE BUST R
R: ROMAE AETERNA
ROMA SEATED L HOLDING VICTORY & SPEAR, SHIELD TO RIGHT
laney
PHILIP_RES2.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I (THE ARAB)35 views244-249 AD
AR Antoninianus 21 mm 3.32 g
O: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate draped bust
R: AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopiae
Rome RIC 27b
1 commentslaney
phil_1_vimin_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I (THE ARAB)20 views244-249 AD
Struck 246 AD
AE 29.5 mm
O: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG radiate bust right
R: PMS COL VIM, ANVII in exe (year 7) Moesia standing left between bull and lion
Moesia Superior, Viminacium Mint
laney
philip_1_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I (THE ARAB)15 views244-249 AD
AE 21.5 mm, 6.78 g
IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right.
COL F L PAC DEVLT, Nemesis standing left holding scales
and staff, wheel at foot.
Thrace, Dueltum
Moushmov 3779.
laney
phil_i_fortuna_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I (THE ARAB)18 views244 - 249 AD
Orichalcum sestertius 25 mmm 10.27 g
O: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: FORTVNA REDVX S C, Fortuna seated left on wheel, rudder in right, cornucopia in left
RIC IV 174a
laney
philip_thessalonika_table.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I (The Arab)9 views244 - 249 AD
AE 23.5 mm, 8.18 g
Obv: AV K M IOV FILIPPOC, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: QECCALONEIKEWN N PUQIA, Agonistic table surmounted by vase, prize urn containing palm, and five apples.
Thessalonica, Macedonia.
laney
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
sept_sev_trphy.jpg
004 - Septimus Severus (193-211 AD), denarius - RIC 6358 viewsObv: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP V, laureated bust right.
Rev: PART ARAB PART ADIAB, two bound captives each sitting on shield, between them a trophy. COS II P P in eregue.
Minted in Rome 195 AD.

This coin refer to Severus´victory over the Arabians and Adiabenians, maybe in the civil war against Pescennius Niger.
1 commentspierre_p77
UmSNAT567or570.jpg
0080-0130 AH - Anonymous - SNAT No. 567 or 570 - Umayyad Fals48 viewsAnonymous
Date: ca. 80-130 AH (ca. 700-750 AD)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Fals

Obverse: Palm tree; Arabic inscription.

Reverse: Palm tree; Arabic inscription.

Al-Ramla mint, Jund Filastin (Palestine)
SNAT No. 567 or 570
(Sylloge Numorum Arabicorum Tübingen Palastina IV A Bilad as-Sam I, Tübingen 1993)
2.43g; 14.4mm; 330°
Pep
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP_COS-V-PP-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_RIC-142_Q-001_axis-h_0,00mm_3_27g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0142, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Arabia, 81 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0142, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Arabia,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP, Laureate head right.
revers:- COS-V-PP-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Arabia standing left, holding branch and cinnamon sticks; ostrich to left.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight:3,27g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 106 A.D., ref: RIC-II-142-p253, C-89,
Q-001
quadrans
Nabatea Aretas IV.jpg
04-05 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)21 viewsAE 13 x 12 mm 1.9 gr.

Anv: Cabeza laureada de Aretas con pelo largo, vistiendo ornamentos en su cabeza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre los cuernos monograma en arameo "HR" (Het Ros = Aretas).

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5701 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 (Arabia) #27 Pag 9 - Meshorer #67
mdelvalle
RI 064fi img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -82 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_064tk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -24 viewsDenarius
Obv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB DIABENIC (sic), Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference(s) – C -. BMCRE -. RIC -

2.63 gms. 19.41 mm. 0 degrees.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064fi_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm (R of ARAB corrected over B)
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064ft img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)48 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_132ft_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)9 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Ref:– Cohen -, BMCRE -, RIC -.

The reverse refers to victory over Niger. To hide the fact that this was a civil war, it is phrased as victory over Arabs and Adiabenians, who aided Niger's cause.

RIC IV 466 has the same reverse legend, listed as IMP VII but as Curtis points out this legend is probably a mis-reading of IMP VIII probably cause by the last I being after the bust as on this example. RIC 466 however is Victory with wreath and trophy whereas this type is Victory with wreath and palm. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 52 (5 Francs) for this coin.
maridvnvm
RI_064ou_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - (466 corr?)6 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIABENIC, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference(s) – C 52 var. BMCRE p 110 var. RIC 466 corr.(RIC 466 (R) is IMP VII but should really be IMP VIII but the reverse type for 466 is incorrectly described as wreath and trophy whereas this type is wreath and palm)
maridvnvm
RI_064ac_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 06424 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VII, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIAB COS II P P, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and trophy
Minted in Rome, A.D. 195-196
References:– RIC 64, RSC 50
maridvnvm
RI_064ip_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 34617 viewsObv:– [IMP C]AE L SEP [SEV PERT AVG], Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB A-DIA-B COS II P P, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, trophy on left shoulder
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 195
References:– RIC IV 346; BMCRE 326; RSC 47a

2.68g, 18.19mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI_064jr_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 34615 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– ARAB ADIAB COS II P P, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, trophy on left shoulder
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 195
References:– RIC IV 346; BMCRE 326; RSC 47a

2.11g. 17.97mm. 0o

Heavily toned silver which has then developed a desert patina.
maridvnvm
SulIKab10Adr03.jpg
0926-0974 AH - Suleyman I - Kabaklarly 10 - Adr - 03 - Ottoman Mangir64 viewsSultan: Suleyman I (1520-1566 AD)
Date: 1520-1566 AD (926-974 AH)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Two round-ended rectangles crossed, superimposed on a square with incurved sides.

Reverse: Arabic inscription.
926 AH

Edirne mint
Kabaklarly 10 - Adr - 03
2.66g; 15.9mm; 45°
Pep
IMG_3662~0.jpg
099. Philipp I Arabs (244-249 A.D.)25 viewsAv.: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG
Rv.: P M TR P V COS III P P
Left: A (first coins of rome with officine letter)

AE Antoninian Ø20-22 / 3.9g (248 A.D.)
RIC IV 7 Rome
2 commentsJuancho
TrajSe45.jpg
106 AD: Annexation of Arabia by Trajan244 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (25,41g, 33mm, 6:30h). Rome mint. Struck AD 106-111.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan facing right, draped over left shoulder
SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around edge] ARAB ADQVIS [in ex.] S C [in field] Arabia standing facing, with her head turned left and holding a branch and a bundle of cinnamon sticks. At her feet, a camel.
RIC 466 [scarce]; Cohen 32; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 102:46b
VF with beautiful smooth natural yellow brown river patina with minor adhesions
2 commentsCharles S
trjd3.jpg
130 Trajan 58 viewsTrajan Denarius. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Arabia standing left, holding a branch and a bundle of canes, camel at feet. RIC 142, RSC 89.4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1545_Leonard_FUCHS_Drawing_37.jpg
1545 Leonhard Fuchs Botanical Woodcut Prints167 viewsDate: AD 1545, Basel, Isingrin, rare
Size: 6.3 x 3.5 inches

These are two woodcut prints with hand colored sketches and hand-written notes. This is original from the AD 1545 Octavo edition. Issued in Läbliche abbildung und contrafaytung aller kreüter so ... inn dem ersten theyl seins neüwen kreüterbuchs hat begriffen, in ein kleinere form auff das allerartlichste gezogen ... Basel, Isingrin 1545.

Fuch’s work and its beautiful illustrations effected a revolution in the natural sciences, comparable to that of Copernicus in astronomy and Vesalius in anatomy, both of which were published the following year, AD 1543. To effect this reform accurate illustration and identification was the first requirement and it was to this task that Fuchs addressed himself. Fuchs employed the best artists then available in Basle: Albrecht Meyer did the drawings, Heinrich Füllmaurer transferred them to the woodblocks, and they were cut by Veit Rudolph Speckle. All three are depicted in the book, the first time that book illustrators are themselves portrayed and named. These illustrations set a new standard for botanical depiction and were some of the most influential in botanical history, being copied for innumerable works well into the 18th century. Some 40 species are illustrated for the first time, including several American plants, such as maize and the pumpkin.
‘The coloring of many copies of Fuchs ... is authentic, in that they were issued by the publisher in a colored state based upon the artist’s original colored drawings made from living specimens’ (Blunt).
1 commentsNoah
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932050 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Saladin_A787.jpg
1701b, Saladin, 1169-1193158 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.93), al-Qahira, AH586, A-787.2, clear mint & date, double struck, some horn-silvering;VF-EF.

His name in Arabic is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"). He was born in 1137/8 A.D. in Tikrit, Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq). In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved a significant success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. Unlike the notorious conquest by the Christians, who slaughtered the inhabitants of the “Holy City,” Saladin’s reconquest of Jerusalem was marked by civilized and courteous behaviour. Saladin was generous to his vanquished foes—by any measure. When he died in 1193, this man who is arguably Islam’s greatest hero was virtually penniless. After a lifetime of giving alms to the poor, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.
Cleisthenes
RI_172e_img.jpg
172 - Decentius - AE3/4 - Barbarious imitative29 viewsBarbarious Imitative.
Obv:- [D N DECE]NTIVS NOB CAES, Bareheaded cuirassed bust right,
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is seated on the ground reaching upwards, he is wearing a Phrygian cap
Minted in Barabrous (//PT).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
rjb_comm_10_07.jpg
17723 viewsCommodus 177-92 AD
AE 12 mm
Bostra in Arabia
Rev Turreted, draped bust of Tyche right
Spijkerman 29
mauseus
1797_Middlesex_buck_Halfpenny.JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, London, Middlesex.31 viewsObverse: FREEDOM WITH INNOCENCE. Proud stag with large antlers, walking to left.
Reverse: * * RULE BRITANIA (sic) * *. Britannia seated facing left on globe, shield at her side, holding spear in her left hand and branch in her right; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE IN LONDON” the remainder engrailed.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:1042 (Middlesex)
SCARCE

Dies engraved by Thomas Willets and manufactured by William Lutwyche or Peter Kempson in Birmingham.
This token, one of the 18th century Political and Social Series of tokens, was likely struck for the use of the “Buck Society” in London.

The Buck Society was made up of eleven united lodges in London and three affiliates in Moorgate, Hatton Garden and Doctor’s Commons. It was one of the many debating societies that emerged in London during the eighteenth century, and were a prominent fixture of society until the end of that century. The origins of the debating societies are not certain, but, while there were comparable societies in other British cities, London was home to the largest number of them throughout the eighteenth century. The debating societies welcomed participants from both genders and all social backgrounds, making them one of the best examples of the enlarged public sphere of the Age of Enlightenment. However, the increasingly radical political environment, created in large part by the French Revolution in 1789, lead to the tightening of government restrictions and most of the debating societies went inactive when, following the local sedition trials of 1792 and 1793, William Pitt the Younger initiated the 1794 Treason Trials, and the 1795 Seditious Meetings Act.
*Alex
s-l500_(2).jpg
18th Century Mysore Area India Arabic "H" Gold Fannam Uncirculated 0.30 gram14 views18th Century Mysore Area India Gold Fannam that grades uncirculated. The coin weighs 0.30 grams with a diameter of 7 mm. The obverse has an Arabic "H" and the reverse has an inscription.
_42
Antonivs Protti
TrajanSestCeres~0.jpg
1bc Trajan48 views98-117

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
Blindado
TrajanDenArabia.jpg
1cb Conquests of Trajan: Arabia9 viewsTrajan
98-117

Denarius

Portrait, right, IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P
Arabia and camel, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI

Trajan annexed the Nabatean kingdom of Petra in 106.

RIC 245

Blindado
PhilippusAntLiberalitas.jpg
1cn Philippus29 views244-249

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
Blindado
049n.jpg
2 Countermarks on obverse of Geta ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA AE24282 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Geta. Æ 24. A.D. 198-209. Obv: (ΠCEΠT-ΓETA•KA) or similar. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks, (1) on bust, (2) behind bust. Rev: (AΔPIΠETP-AMHTPOΠ) or similar. Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 48. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.28 g. CM(1): •Δ• in circular punch, 5.5 mm.Howgego 801 (19 pcs). CM(2): Second application of same CM. Collection Automan.Automan
alaaldinmuhammad.jpg
2 Gani12 viewsAla al-din Muhammad Shah
Delhi Sultanate

1296 - 1316 CE (AH 695 - 716)

Obverse: Arabic Muhammad Shah(Center).
Nagari inscription(Margin)

Reverse: Al-sultan / Al-'azam 'Ala al - D - / - unya wa al-din
Pericles J2
1_Archer.jpg
2.Darius I to Xerxes I - 505-480 BC35 viewsAR 1/3 Siglos
Obv. Bearded king or hero, kneeling right with drawn bow and a quiver on his back.
Rev. Incuse Oblong punch.
Size:10mm;1.76gms
Ref.-Carridice II; BMC Arabia vol.28,pg.173,No.184
Sear 3429,SNG Turkey I 1027
brian l
Demetrio III, Philopator - Nike.jpg
20-02 - Demetrio III, Philopator Soter (Eukairos) (95 al 88 A.C.)23 viewsHijo de Antíoco VIII y nieto de Demetrio II, con la ayuda de Tolomeo X, Rey de Egipto, recupera parte de los dominios sirios de su padre en 95 A.C., asentando su corte en Damasco, desde donde trata de acrecentar sus dominios, venciendo en batalla incluso al Rey Macabeo Alejandro Jannaeus, pero la hostilidad del pueblo judío lo obligó a retirarse. Intentando destronar a su hermano Filipo I Philadelphus, fue derrotado por Arabes y Partos, fue hecho prisionero por el Rey Mitrídates II, Rey de los Partos, hasta su muerte en el año 87 A.C.

AE 19 mm 6.1 gr.

Anv: Busto radiado de Demetrio viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY OEOΨ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ “ - Nike (Victoria) avanzando a derecha. Fecha de acuñación en exergo "ΘIΣ" = SE 219 (94/3 A.C.)

Acuñación: 94 - 93 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: LSM. #117 – SNG Spaer #2856-8 - SC #2454. 1-12
mdelvalle
Demetrio III, Philopator - Hermes sobre base.jpg
20-04 - Demetrio III, Philopator Soter (Eukairos) (95 al 88 A.C.)18 viewsHijo de Antíoco VIII y nieto de Demetrio II, con la ayuda de Tolomeo X, Rey de Egipto, recupera parte de los dominios sirios de su padre en 95 A.C., asentando su corte en Damasco, desde donde trata de acrecentar sus dominios, venciendo en batalla incluso al Rey Macabeo Alejandro Jannaeus, pero la hostilidad del pueblo judío lo obligó a retirarse. Intentando destronar a su hermano Filipo I Philadelphus, fue derrotado por Arabes y Partos, fue hecho prisionero por el Rey Mitrídates II, Rey de los Partos, hasta su muerte en el año 87 A.C.
AE 17 mm 3.9 gr.

Anv: Busto radiado de Demetrio viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ “ - Hermes desnudo de pié sobre una base, de frente viendo a izquierda, sosteniendo Hoja de Palma en mano derecha extendida y caduceo en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 96 - 95 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: BMC 4#5 Pag.101 – SNG Spaer #2871/79 - SC #2456.1-6 - HGC 9 #1312
mdelvalle
Demetrio III, Philopator - Hermes.jpg
20-06 - Demetrio III, Philopator Soter (Eukairos) (95 al 88 A.C.)17 viewsHijo de Antíoco VIII y nieto de Demetrio II, con la ayuda de Tolomeo X, Rey de Egipto, recupera parte de los dominios sirios de su padre en 95 A.C., asentando su corte en Damasco, desde donde trata de acrecentar sus dominios, venciendo en batalla incluso al Rey Macabeo Alejandro Jannaeus, pero la hostilidad del pueblo judío lo obligó a retirarse. Intentando destronar a su hermano Filipo I Philadelphus, fue derrotado por Arabes y Partos, fue hecho prisionero por el Rey Mitrídates II, Rey de los Partos, hasta su muerte en el año 87 A.C.
AE 17 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: Busto radiado de Demetrio viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY OEOΨ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ “ - Hermes desnudo de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo Hoja de Palma en mano derecha extendida y caduceo en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 95 - 88 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer, #2840 – 2844 - SC #2455 - SNG Uk # 0408_5821 - BMC 4 #6 var. Pag.101
mdelvalle
w9~1.JPG
205. Severus Alexander; Bostra, Arabia17 viewsSeverus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Bostra, Arabia

Bronze AE 19, SNG ANS 1218-1220, aF, 4.27g, 19.3mm, 180o, Bostra mint, IMP CAES M AVB SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse COLONIA BOSTRA, draped and turreted bust of Tyche left holding cornucopia; Bostra was the northern capital of the Nabataeans, until Trajan annexed the kingdom. It was then capital of Provincia Arabia, where the Third Legio Cyrenaica was garrisoned. The emperor Philip was born in Bostra and designated the city a metropolis.

Ex- CNG sale 143, Lot: 340
ecoli
caracalla_RIC96.jpg
207 AD - CARACALLA denarius23 viewsobv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF TRP X COS II (Caracalla in military dress standing front, head right, holding spear and parazonium; to left river good, to right 2 reclining figure)
ref: RIC IVi 96 (S), RSC 441 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
3.07gms, 19mm
Scarce

The river good leans on an urn and usually holds a palm, one of the right figures often holds a palm. The three lean figure are probably Arabie, Parthie et Adiabéne (Trajan has a similar bronze).
According to other opinion the three figure are the rivers Eden and Tyne and Britannia.
berserker
rjb_geta_01_09.jpg
20920 viewsGeta 209-12 AD
AE 26mm
Petra in Arabia
Roma seated left in distyle temple. Small countermark, male bust right, on obverse
BMC 28; countermark Howgego 126
mauseus
021.JPG
215 Philip I94 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8932, RIC IV 32b, RSC IV 55, VF, 3.820g, 23.3mm, 45o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse FIDES MILIT, Fides standing half left, standard in each hand; well centered
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_elag6_10_07.jpg
218a24 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 19 mm
Bostra in Arabia Petraea
Distyle temple with Serapis (?) standing left, small animal to left
BMC 20, SNG ANS 1212
mauseus
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Apolo.jpg
23-02 - Anti­oco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)36 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 18 mm 5.0 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Apolo desnudo de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo hoja de palma en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre un trípode.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: LSM.141 (ANS) - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #1 Pag.102 Plate 27 #1 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7200 Pag.675 - Lindgren III #1124 (referencia cruzada con Houghton #870)
mdelvalle
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Zeus.jpg
23-04 - Antioco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)38 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 20 mm 8.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Zeus Nicéforo (Nike-phoros portador de victoria, victorioso) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, desnudo de la cintura para arriba, sosteniendo Nike en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre cetro.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer #2884 - 2888 - Newell LSM. #137 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #6 Pag.102 Plate 27 #4 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7198var. Pag.675 - Houghton #866 - SC #2478
mdelvalle
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Nike.jpg
23-06 - Antíoco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)27 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 16 mm 4.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Nike (Victoria) avanzando a derecha, sosteniendo corona en mano derecha extendida y rama de palma en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer (Israel) 2890 var – 2894 - Babelon E. Vol.1, pl.XXVIII, 14 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7201 Pag.675
mdelvalle
1_Siglos_Carridice_III.jpg
3.Xerxes I - Darius II - 485-420 BC31 viewsAR Siglos
Obv. Bearded king or hero, kneeling right holding spear in right and bow in left.
Rev. Incuse Oblong punch.
Two bankers marks on side,one pictured.
Size:11x14mm;5.54g
Ref.-Carradice type III C; BMC Arabia vol.28,pg.157,No.64-76
Sear 4682
brian l
coin237.JPG
304. Philip I28 viewsPhilip I

Philip the Arabian remains an enigmatic figure because different authors evaluated his reign with wildly divergent interpretations. Christian authors of late antiquity praised the man they regarded as the first Christian emperor. Pagan historians saw Philip as indecisive, treacherous and weak. Our lack of detailed knowledge about the reign makes any analysis highly speculative. Nonetheless, Philip's provincial and administrative background represents continuity with features of Severan government. His career has its closest parallel with that of Macrinus, an equestrian from the provinces who, a quarter of a century earlier, capped an administrative career by moving from the office of praetorian prefect to that of emperor. Unfotunately, they also shared the same fate - Philip only lasted half a decade.

AR Antoninianus. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left with scales & cornucopia. RIC 27b, RSC 9
ecoli
coin241.JPG
305b. Herennius Etruscus24 viewsQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (c. 227 - July 1, 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Trajan Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in Pannonia, during one of his father's military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful on defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. On July 1, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 138, RSC 4
1 commentsecoli
PhilippusIIGrey.jpg
33 Philip II RIC 231c20 viewsPhilip II 247-249 AD. Ar Antoninianus. Rome Mint. (4.01g; 22.54mm) Obv: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Rev: PAX AETERNA, Pax standing left holding a branch & short scepter.
RSC 23, RIC 231c

Ex: Romadrome

From Wikipedia:
Marcus Julius Philippus Severus, also known as Philippus II, Philip II and Philip the Younger (238–249) was the son and heir of the Roman Emperor Philip the Arab by his wife Roman Empress Marcia Otacilia Severa. According to numismatic evidence, he had a sister called Julia Severa or Severina, whom the extant literary sources do not mention and a brother, Quintus Philippus Severus.

When his father became emperor in 244 he was appointed Caesar. In 247 he became consul, and later elevated by his father to the rank of Augustus and co-ruler. His father was killed in battle by his successor Decius in 249. When news of this death reached Rome, he was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. He died in his mother's arms, aged eleven years.
Paddy
5f_1.JPG
4.1 Trajan Drachm (Bostra), Capture of Arabia110 viewsArabia with camel

comemorates Trajan's conquest of Arabia
Zam
1_Siglos_Carridice_IV.jpg
4.Darius II - Artaxerxes II - 420-375 BC29 viewsAR Siglos
Obv. Beardless king or hero, kneeling right holding dagger in right and bow in left.
Rev. Incuse Oblong punch.
Size:15mm;5.49gms
Ref. Carradice type IV B (Middle); BMC Arabia vol.28,pg.167,No.144-152
Sear 4683
2 commentsbrian l
627_P_Hadrian_RPC4082.jpg
4082 Arabia, Bostra Hadrian Arabia bust18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4082; Spijkerman 1, Kindler 16, BMC Arabia 1

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΑΡΑΒΙΑ
Bust of Arabia, r., wearing turreted crown and mantle blown out by the wind; in each arm, she holds a small figure of seated child

6.78 gr
23 mm
6h
okidoki
657_P_Hadrian_RPC4083.jpg
4083 Arabia, Bostra Hadrian Arabia bust44 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4083; Spijkerman 2, Kindler 16, BMC Arabia 3.

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder.

Rev. ΑΡΑΒΙΑ
Bust of Arabia, r., wearing turreted crown and mantle blown out by the wind; in each arm, she holds a small figure of seated children

8.38 gr
22 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
851_P_Hadrian_RPC4099.jpg
4099 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4099; Spijkerman 2; Sofaer pl. 155,3; BMC 1

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and cuirassed bust (with gorgoneion) of Hadrian, r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

12.56 gr
28 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
233_P_Hadrian__Spijkerman_3.JPG
4100 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4100; Spijkerman 3; SNG ANS 1360-3 var. (bust type)

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from rear), r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

13.35 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
The Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Jordan, Israel and Syria. The ten cities were not an official league or political unit, but they were grouped together because of their language, culture, location, and political status, with each possessing a certain degree of autonomy and self-rule. The Decapolis cities were centers of Greek and Roman culture in a region that was otherwise Semitic (Nabatean, Aramean, and Jewish). With the exception of Damascus, Hippos and Scythopolis, the "Region of the Decapolis" was located in modern-day Jordan.

Petra (GreekΠέτρα, Petra, meaning "stone";
okidoki
933_P_Hadrian_RPC4100.jpg
4100 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche36 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4100; Spijkerman 3; SNG ANS 1360-3 var. (bust type)

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from rear), r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

14.26 gr
27 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
299_P_Hadrian_BMC_.jpg
4101 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4101; Spijkerman 7; Rosenberger 7; Sofaer 7; SNG ANS 1366

Obv. AYTOKPATωP KAICAP TPAIANOC AΔPIANOC CEBACTOC,
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΠETPA MHTPOΠOΛIC
Turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Tyche right

7.71 gr
21 mm
6h
okidoki
681_P_Hadrian_RPC4103.jpg
4103 Arabia, Petra. Hadrian Laurel-wreath23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4103; Spijkerman 12; BMC 10

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙ СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
In three lines within a laurel-wreath

3.38 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
1194_P_Hadrian_RPC4110.jpg
4110 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian 135-36 AD Tyche26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4110; Spijkerman 6; Sofaer 6; Paris 114; Rosenberger I, 6

Issue Year 30

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian, r.; in r. field, Λ

Rev. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΗ ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.; in l. field, Λ

12.45 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
From the Maple Leaf Collection.
2 commentsokidoki
J31-Palestine.jpg
50 mils Palestine, 193947 views72% silver and 28% copper, 23.5 mm, 5.83 grams (90 grains), reeded (milled) edge, dated 1939, 3,000,000 minted.

Obverse: “50 Mils” in English, Hebrew and Arabic.
Reverse: “Palestine” in English, Hebrew and Arabic and “Israel” in Hebrew around, palm branch with date – 1939 – in English and Arabic numerals.

Reference: Israel KM 6

Added to collection: July 15, 2005
Daniel Friedman
coins446.JPG
501. Constantine I Ostia Sol16 viewsOstia
Although Ostia was probably founded for the sole purpose of military defence — since through the Tiber's mouths armies could eventually reach Rome by water — in time the port became a commercial harbour, and a very important one too. Many of the goods that Rome received from its colonies and provinces passed through Ostia. In this role, Ostia soon replaced Pozzuoli (Puteoli, near Naples).

In 87 BC, the town was razed by Marius, and again in 67 BC it was sacked by pirates. After this second attack, the town was re-built and provided with protective walls by Cicero. The town was then further developed during the 1st century AD, mainly under the influence of Tiberius, who ordered the building of the first Forum. The town was also soon enriched by the construction of a new harbour on the northern mouths of the Tiber (which reaches the sea with a larger mouth in Ostia, Fiumara Grande, and a narrower one near to the current Fiumicino international airport). The new harbour, not surprisingly called Portus, was excavated from the ground at the orders of the emperor Claudius; it has an hexagonal form, in order to reduce the waves strength. The town was provided with all the services a town of the time could require; in particular, a famous lighthouse. Archaeologists also discovered the public latrinas, organised for collective use as a series of seats that lets us imagine today that the function was also a social moment. In addition, Ostia had a large theatre, public baths and a fire fighting service. You can still see the mosaic floors of the baths near today's entrance to the town.

Trajan too, required a widening of the naval areas, and ordered the building of another harbour, again pointing towards the north. It must be remembered that at a relatively short distance, there was also the harbour of Civitavecchia (Centum Cellae), and Rome was starting to have a significant number of harbours, the most important remaining Portus.

Ostia grew to 50,000 inhabitants in the 2nd century AD and in time focused its naval activities on Portus. With the end of the Roman Empire, Ostia fell slowly into decay, and was finally abandoned in the 9th century due to the fall of the Roman empire in combination with repeated invasions and sackings by Arab pirates; the inhabitants moved to Gregoriopolis. In the Middle Ages, bricks from buildings in Ostia were used for several other occasions. The Leaning Tower of Pisa was entirely built of material originally belonging to Ostia. A "local sacking" was carried out by baroque architects, who used the remains as a sort of marble store for the palazzi they were building in Rome. Soon after, foreign explorers came in search of ancient statues and objects. The Papacy started organising its own investigations with Pope Pius VII and the research still continues today. It has been estimated that two thirds of the ancient town have currently been found.

001. Constantine I Ostia

RIC VI Ostia 85 S

ecoli
coin394.JPG
514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
ecoli
Antoniniano Filipo I RIC 5.jpg
70-02 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)44 viewsAntoniniano 24 x 20 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PM TR P IIII COS II P P" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié a izquierda, portando Caduceo en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión 247D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #5 Pag.69 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8948 - Cohen Vol.V #137 Pag.108 - RSC Vol. IV #137 Pag.14 - DVM #30 Pag.227
mdelvalle
RIC_5_Antoniniano_Filipo_I.jpg
70-02 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)15 viewsAntoniniano 24 x 20 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "IMP PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PM TR P IIII COS II P P" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié a izquierda, portando Caduceo en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión 247 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #5 Pag.69 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8948 Pag.152 - Cohen Vol.V #137 Pag.108 - RSC Vol. IV #137 Pag.14 - DVM #30 Pag.227 - Hunter #28
mdelvalle
RIC_24c_Antoniniano_Filipo_I.jpg
70-03 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)17 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 mm 4.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SAECVLARES AVGG - S C" - Corto pilar cilindrico (columna baja = Cippus) donde se inscribe "COS III" (en dos líneas).
Esta emisión, en todos los metales, se realiza en el 248 D.C., para conmemorar el milésimo aniversario de la fundación de Roma.

Acuñada 11ava. Emisión 249 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #24c Pag.71 Pl.6 #6 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8961 Pag.164 - Cohen Vol.V #193 Pag.114 - DVM #36 Pag.227 - Hunter #50
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Filipo I RIC 27.jpg
70-04 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)33 viewsAntoniniano 22 x 20 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AEQVITAS AVGG" - Aequitas (La Equidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando Balanza en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 246D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.2da.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #27b Pag.71 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8918 - Cohen Vol.V #9 Pag.95 - RSC Vol. IV #9 Pag.11 - DVM #3 Pag.226
mdelvalle
RIC_27b_Antoniniano_Filipo_I.jpg
70-04 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)11 viewsAntoniniano 22 x 20 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AEQVITAS AVGG" - Aequitas (La Equidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando Balanza en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 246D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.2da.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #27b Pag.71 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8918 Pag.149 - Cohen Vol.V #9 Pag.95 - RSC Vol. IV #9 Pag.11 - DVM #3 Pag.226 - Hunter #25
mdelvalle
RIC_28c_Antoniniano_Filipo_I_1.jpg
70-05 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)13 viewsAntoniniano 22 mm 4.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ANNONA AVGG" - Annona (La Abundacia) de pié a izquierda, portando un racimo de espigas de maiz en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Cornucopia en izquierda. A sus piés un Modius.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 246D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #28c Pag.71 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8922 Pag.150 - Cohen Vol.V #25 Pag.97 - RSC Vol. IV #25 Pag.12 - DVM #5 Pag.226 - Hunter #22
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Filipo I RIC 28.jpg
70-06 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)32 viewsAntoniniano 22 x 20 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ANNONA AVGG" - Annona (La Abundacia) de pié a izquierda, portando un racimo de espigas de maiz en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Cornucopia en izquierda. A sus piés un Modius.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 246D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #28c Pag.71 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8922 - Cohen Vol.V #25 Pag.97 - RSC Vol. IV #25 Pag.12 - DVM #5 Pag.226
mdelvalle
RIC_28c_Antoniniano_Filipo_I_2.jpg
70-06 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)16 viewsAntoniniano 22 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ANNONA AVGG" - Annona (La Abundacia) de pié a izquierda, portando un racimo de espigas de maiz en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Cornucopia en izquierda. A sus piés un Modius.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 246D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #28c Pag.71 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8922 Pag.150 - Cohen Vol.V #25 Pag.97 - RSC Vol. IV #25 Pag.12 - DVM #5 Pag.226 - Hunter #22
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Filipo I RIC 44.jpg
70-08 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)49 viewsAntoniniano 22 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ROMAE AETERNAE" - Roma sentada a izquierda, portando Victoriola (Palladium) en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cetro largo/lanza invertida vertical en izquierda. A su lado su escudo.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 246D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.6ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #44b Pag.73 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8954 - Cohen Vol.V #165 Pag.111 - RSC Vol. IV #165 Pag.14 - DVM #34 Pag.2271
mdelvalle
RIC_44b_Antoniniano_Filipo_I.jpg
70-08 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)11 viewsAntoniniano 22 mm 3.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ROMAE AETERNAE" - Roma sentada a izquierda, portando Victoriola (Palladium) en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cetro largo/lanza invertida vertical en izquierda. A su lado su escudo.

Acuñada 5ta. Emisión 246D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.6ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #44b Pag.73 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8952 Pag.153 - Cohen Vol.V #165 Pag.111 - RSC Vol. IV #165 Pag.14 - DVM #34 Pag.2271 - Hunter pl. lxxxviiii
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Filipo I RIC 51.jpg
70-10 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)42 viewsAntoniniano 22 x 25 mm 4.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIA AVGG" - Victoria de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Hoja de Palma en izquierda.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 244 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.6ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #51 Pag.74 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8972 - Cohen Vol.V #235 Pag.117 - RSC Vol. IV #235 Pag.16 - DVM #48 Pag.228
mdelvalle
RIC_51_Antoniniano_Filipo_I.jpg
70-10 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)13 viewsAntoniniano 22 x 25 mm 4.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIA AVGG" - Victoria de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando corona de laureles en mano de brazo derecho extendido y Hoja de Palma en izquierda.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 244 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.6ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #51 Pag.74 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8972 Pag.155 - Cohen Vol.V #235 Pag.117 - RSC Vol. IV #235 Pag.16 - DVM #48 Pag.228 - Hunter #24
mdelvalle
RIC_2b_Antoniniano_Filipo_I.jpg
70-12 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)13 viewsAntoniniano 23x21 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "P M TR P I[I] COS P P" - Emperador togado, sedente a izq. en silla curul, portando globo en mano der. y cetro corto en izq.

Acuñada 245 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #2b Pag.68 Pl.5 #16 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8943 Pag.152 - Cohen Vol.V #120 Pag.107 - RSC Vol. IV #120 Pag.13 - DVM #27/2 Pag.227 - Hunter #3
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Forrado Gordiano III RIC 209.jpg
70-15 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)57 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANTIGUA
Antoniniano Forrado 22 mm 4.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IV[L P]HIL[IPPVS A]VG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES MILIT" - Fides de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, un estandarte legionario en cada mano de sus brazos extendidos.

Acuñada Aprox. 244 - 245 D.C.
Ceca: Desconocida

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #32b Pag.72 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8932 - Cohen Vol.V #55 Pag.100 - RSC Vol. IV #55 Pag.12 - DVM #12 Pag.227
mdelvalle
RIC_32b_Antoniniano_Forrado_Filipo_I.jpg
70-15 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)10 viewsAntoniniano Forrado 22 mm 4.0 gr.
"Antigua falsificación"

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES MILIT" - Fides (La Fidelidad), estante de frente, viendo a izq., portando dos insignias militares.

Acuñada 244 - 249 D.C.
Ceca: Incierta

Referencias: Similar a :RIC Vol.IV Parte III #32b Pag.72 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8932 Pag.150 - Cohen Vol.V #55 Pag.100 - RSC Vol. IV #55 Pag.12 - DVM #12 Pag.227 - Hunter #7
mdelvalle
AS Filipo I RIC 162.jpg
70-20 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)39 viewsAE AS 23 mm 8.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHI[LIPPVS AVG]" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SAECVLARES AVGG - S C" - Corto pilar cilindrico (columna baja = Cippus) donde se inscribe "COS III" (en dos líneas).

Acuñada 11ava. Emisión 249 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #162b Pag.89 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #9061 - Cohen Vol.V #196 Pag.114 - DVM #82 Pag.228
mdelvalle
RIC_162b_AS_Filipo_I.jpg
70-20 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 23 mm 8.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHI[LIPPVS AVG]" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SAECVLARES AVGG - S C" - Corto pilar cilindrico (columna baja = Cippus) donde se inscribe "COS III" (en dos líneas).
Esta emisión, en todos los metales, se realiza en el 248 D.C., para conmemorar el milésimo aniversario de la fundación de Roma.

Acuñada 11ava. Emisión 248 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.5ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #162b Pag.89 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #9061 Pag.165 - Cohen Vol.V #196 Pag.114 - DVM #82 Pag.228 - Hunter #115
mdelvalle
RIC_166a_Sestercio_Filipo_I.jpg
70-25 - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.)12 viewsAE SEstercio 30 mm 14.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto laureado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AEQVITAS AVGG - S C" - Aequitas estante a izq., portando balanza en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada 245 - 247 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #166a Pag.89 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8987 Pag.156 - Cohen Vol.V #10 Pag.95/6 - DVM #58 Pag.228 - Hunter #89
mdelvalle
Moushmov_36_VIMINACIO_Filipo_I.jpg
70-25 - Viminacium - FILIPO I "El Arabe" (244 - 249 D.C.) 17 viewsVIMINACIUM - Moesia Superior
(Hoy Kostolac ciudad serbia del Danubio)

AE Sestercio? 30 mm 19.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG" - Busto laureado y vistiendo paludamentum, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PMS COL VIM" - Moesia estante entre un toro a su der. y un león a su izq., "ANVI" en exergo.
El Toro y el León eran los emblemas de las Legiones VII y IV, que se encontraban acuarteladas en la Provincia.

Acuñada año 6, 244 - 245 D.C.
Ceca: Viminacium - Moesia Superior

Referencias: Moushmov #36, AMNG I/2 #102 Pag.40, Mionnet S.2 #25 Pag.46, Ramus I #7a Pag.396, BMC 3 #21 Pag.17, SNG Cop #152, Varbanov I #135 Pag.48 (R2), Sear GICTV #3874 var. (Año V) Pag.372
mdelvalle
Vabalathus-RIC-381.jpg
82. Vabalathus.11 viewsAntoninianus, 270 - 272 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R / Laureate and diademed bust of Vabalathus.
Reverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Aurelian.
4.03 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC (Aurelian) #381; Sear #11718.

Vabalathus was the son of Odenathus and Zenobia, king and queen of Palmyra. His Arabic name was Wahb Allat, meaning "gift of the goddess," and "Vabalathus" is the Latinized form of that name. The goddess is Al-Lat, a pre-Islamic goddess who was one of the three main goddesses of Mecca. She was called "the Great Goddess" and thereby became identified with the Greek goddess Athena. Vabalathus used "Athenodorus" as the Greek form of his name.
Callimachus
398Hadrian_RIC943var_.jpg
943 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Arabia34 viewsReference.
Strack 770; RIC 943 var. (bust left); C. 1233 var.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate, draped bust left, seen from back.

Rev. RESTITVTORI ARABIAE S C
Hadrian, togate, standing right, on left, holding roll in left hand and extending right hand to raise up Arabia, kneeling, facing him, on right, holding bundle of canes (?) in left hand; camel left, in center.

25.60 gr
32 mm
1 commentsokidoki
Athens_Owls_Authentic_Plated_And_Imitations.jpg
A Parliament of Athens Owls20 viewsOld-style; Old-style with numerous bankers marks;
Pi-style, folded flan; Mesopotamia, Levant, Arabia, or Egypt Imitative;
Contemporary forgery with bankers mark and copper core showing.
1 commentsNemonater
Malek-124_1-8.jpg
Abbasid Governors of Tabaristan: Muqātil (PYE 136-141 / AH 171-176 / AD 788-792) Æ Unit, Tabaristan, PYE 139 (Album 68; Malek 124.1-8)3 viewsObv: Crowned Sasanian style bust facing right; GDH 'pzwt in Pahlavi left and مقاتل (Muqātil) in Arabic right of bust; 'pd and nwk' in Pahlavi in Q2/Q3 obverse margins; breast ornament with 4 pellets
Rev: PYE 139 nw'sywst' in Pahlavi; Fire altar flanked by attendants; star left and crescent right of flames
Dim: 17mm; 0.80 gm
Quant.Geek
Abdagases_I.jpg
Abdagases I - AR tetradrachm32 viewsTaxila
50-65 AD
King on horseback right, letter before
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥ??AV?ΝΔΙΦEΡΟΑΔΕΛΦΙΔΕШC
Zeus with scepter right
Gadapharabhradaputrasa maharajasa tradatasa Avadagasasa
Senior 227.18
9,08g 23 mm
Johny SYSEL
1307_Persia_Dareios_I.JPG
Achaemenid Empire - AR siglos7 viewsSardis
c. 510/505-486 BC
Great King right bearded and crowned kneeling-running, drawing bow, quiver at shoulder
incuse square
Carradice type II: Carradice plate XI, 11 - 13; BMC Arabia p. 173, 185 ff.; SGCV II 3428; Klein 754; Noe Sigloi pl. XIII, 215 ff.; Carradice NC 1998 pl. 3, 58 ff; Asyut Hoard 714; Winzer 1.6; Sunrise 21. Common. 73935
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
Screenshot_2018-10-01_13_36_49.png
Achaemenid Kingdom, West Asia Minor, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, AR Siglos.13 viewsLydia 375-336 B.C. 5.47g - 14.8mm.

Obv: Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, three annulets on breast of kandys, holding dagger and bow, quiver with arrows over shoulder. Back to back crescent ountermark on the left.

Rev: Irregular incuse punch mark.

Carradice type IV (late) C: Carradice plate XV, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia p. 171, 172 ff., pl. XXVII, 18 - 19; BMC 42 Countermark.

Christian Scarlioli
Milne_3663v_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Aegyptus_Alexandria_Philippus_Arabs_Milne 3663 var.7 viewsPhilippus Arabs
BI-Tetradrachm, Aegyptus, Alexandria
Struck: 246/47 (Year 4) / 24 mm / 12,21 g

Av: A K M IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EYCE
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: Nike advancing right, holding wreath in both hands

In field: L Δ (Year 4)

Reference: Milne 3663 var.
Andicz
Milne_3710_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Aegyptus_Alexandria_Philippus_Arabs_Milne 371011 viewsPhilippus Arabs
BI-Tetradrachm, Aegyptus, Alexandria
Struck: 247/48 (Year 5) / 22-23 mm / 13,45 g

Av: A K M IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EY
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: Nike advancing right, holding wreath in both hands

In field: L E (Year 5)

Reference: Milne 3710
Andicz
Milne_3714_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Aegyptus_Alexandria_Philippus_Arabs_Milne 371414 viewsPhilippus Arabs
BI-Tetradrachm, Aegyptus, Alexandria
Struck: 247/48 (Year 5) / 22,5-23 mm / 15,22 g

Av: A K M IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EYC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: Tyche reclining left on couch, holding rudder

In field: L E (Year 5)

Reference: Milne 3714
Andicz
Milne_3734_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Aegyptus_Alexandria_Philippus_Arabs_Milne 37347 viewsPhilippus Arabs
BI-Tetradrachm, Aegyptus, Alexandria
Struck: 247/48 (Year 5) / 22 mm / 12,29 g

Av: A K M IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EY
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak

In field: L E (Year 5)

Reference: Milne 3734
Andicz
myrina~0.jpg
Aeolis, Myrina. Pseudo-autonomous AE17. AD 253-268. Amazon Myrina47 viewsObv: MVPE-INA, draped, turreted bust of Amazon Myrina left.
Rev: ΜVΡEΙΝΑΩΝ, Tyche in long chiton with cornucopia in l. and rudder in r., standing left.

Myrina, mythological queen of the Amazons. According to Diodorus Siculus she led a military expedition in Libya and won a victory over the people known as the Atlantians, destroying their city Cerne; but was less successful fighting the Gorgons (who are described by Diodorus as a warlike nation residing in close proximity to the Atlantians), failing to burn down their forests. During a later campaign, she struck a treaty of peace with Horus, ruler of Egypt, conquered several peoples, including the Syrians, the Arabians, and the Cilicians (but granted freedom to those of the latter who gave in to her of their own will). She also took possession of Greater Phrygia, from the Taurus Mountains to the Caicus River, and several Aegean islands, including Lesbos; she was also said to be the first to land on the previously uninhabited island which she named Samothrace, building the temple there. The cities of Myrina (in Lemnos), possibly another Myrina in Mysia, Mytilene, Cyme, Pitane, and Priene were believed to have been founded by her, and named after herself, her sister Mytilene, and the commanders in her army, Cyme, Pitane and Priene, respectively. Myrina's army was eventually defeated by Mopsus the Thracian and Sipylus the Scythian; she, as well as many of her fellow Amazons, fell in the final battle. -Wikipedia
1 commentsancientone
Philippus_I_AEQVITAS_AVGG_bc_b.jpg
AEQVITAS AVGG16 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Philippus_I_AETERNITAS_AVGG_bb_.jpg
AETERNITAS AVGG51 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
1 commentsTibsi
DSC01986.JPG
AFGHANISTAN - HORSE MAN & BULL - SAMANT DEWA -HINDU SHAHI - SILVER COIN - 3.21gm15 viewsSilver drachm (jital), ca.870-950 AD, late Kabul Shahi (Tye #21)
Horseman right, holding banner; Nagari Bhi in the upper left, Adl (?) in Arabic in the upper right / śri samanta deva in Nagari, recumbent zebu bull to left with symbol on rump; to left, star above pellet above crescent. Uncertain mint in (Kabul or Ohind?). 20mm, 3.21 grams. Tye #21. SKU 42565

Samanta Deva just meant "The Feudatory Chield" - it was the title assumed by the Kabul Shahi and their Islamic successors, and was probably not a personal name. Hundreds of types of jitals inscribed "Samanta Deva" (in imitation of this type) were struck by numerous dynasties in the later period. The Kabul Shahi dynasties also called Shahiya ruled the Kabul Valley (in eastern Afghanistan) and the old province of Gandhara (northern Pakistan) during the Classical Period of India, from the decline of the Kushan Empire in the 3rd century to the early 9th century. They are split into two eras the Buddhist-Shahis and the later Hindu-Shahis with the change-over occurring around 870. These coins are of full size and weight, but were probably not minted by Samanta Deva but can be considered anonymous issues of his successors
Antonivs Protti
axum_anon.jpg
Aksumite, Anonymous53 viewsObverse: Draped bust right, wearing headcloth ('King')
Reverse: Greek cross within circle, with greek legend ('May this please the country')
Date : Circa AD 340-425
Reference : Munro-Hay Type 52; BMC Aksum 140
Grade : VF
Weight : 1.12 g
Metal : AE
Comments : 13mm, The most common of all axumite coins, they are generally attributed to King Ezana, the first Christian King of the Axumites. Part of now Ethiopia, Axum (Askum) was in the path of the ancient commercial trade routes between Africa, Arabia, and India, as a result it became a very wealth and cosmopolitan centre in the ancient world. In the second century AD, Aksum expanded its empire acquired tribute states on the Arabian Peninsula across the Red Sea, conquered northern Ethiopia, and then finally conquered Kush.

In the fourth century, King Ezana, converted to Christianity under the influence of a Syrian bishop named Frumentius and declared Axum to be a Christian state. Axum remained a strong empire and trading power until the rise of Islam in the seventh century AD, when it became cut off from its major trading partners. However, because the Axumites had sheltered Muhammed's first followers, the Muslims never attempted to overthrow Axum as they spread across the face of Africa.

Of general interest they are the only coins minted in sub saharian africa during the ancient times and one of the first nations to offically convert to Christianity and to show Christian icons on their coins.
Bolayi
mamlukOR.jpg
al-Ashraf Sha'ban II, Balog 45846 viewsIslamic, Mamluks, al-Ashraf Sha'ban II, 1363-1377, AE fals, Dimashq, no date, 18mm 2.24g, Balog 458
O: Eye-shaped cartouche with Arabic al-sultan al-malik al-Ashraf Sha'ban clockwise around perimeter; at center, bin Hasan
R: Floreated octolabe with zarb Dimashq at center
casata137ec
AL-Muqtadir.jpg
AL-Muqtadir Dirham / SAMANID / Rare.70 viewsSAMANID
*Ahmad bin ( son of ) Sahl ( name is on left photo ), rebel, 915-920, AR Dirham , Andaraba mint , 303 H , Album B1453, this rebel in Khorasan maintained formal recognition of the Samanid ruler Nasr II bin ( son of ) Ahmad (name is on right photo ) on all his coins, aVF
3.1 gr .Rare.

Here is an English translation from Arabic ;



Left side
From outter in order ;
1- Rum verses: 4-5

2- In the name of Allah this Dirham was struck in Andaraba  year 303

3- There is no
God but Allah alone with
no partner
Ahmed bin Sahel



Right side ;

From outter in order

1- Repentance: Verse 33
2-Allah
3-Mohammed 
4-Messenger of Allah
5-AL-Muqtadir  bi Allah
6-Nasr bin ( son of ) Ahmad 
7- Sinn ( the letter S in Arabic )
Sam
Philalex.jpg
Alexandria. Philip I AE33 Drachm R542 viewsEGYPT.ALEXANDRIA.
Phillip, The Arab
AD 244-249.
AE Drachm
Obv: A K M IOV ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC EVC, laurate, bearded, bust right of Philip.
Rev: Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head right with wreath in beak, palm branch left, in right field L S = regnal year 6 (=AD 248-249).
BMC Alexandria, pg.259,2002. Emmett 3522, R5.
ancientone
Allectus- Pax Avg.jpg
Allectus- Pax Avg77 viewsAllectus, summer 293 - 296 or 297 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right

IMP: Imperator, leader of the army
C: Caes
ALLECTVS: Allectus
P F: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
PAX AVG, the divine peace

PAX: Peace
AVG: Divine


Pax standing left holding scepter and branch

Domination: Bronze antoninianus, Size 16 mm.

Mint: Cologne or Camolodunum mint

Comment: The coin is 'Barbarous'. It's so well established, unfortunately, that we're stuck with it. It refers to coins struck unofficially during times of shortage, which would be comparable with the tokens which circulated in Britain in the late 18th-eatly 19th centuries at a time when there was a shortage of copper coinage. The term 'barbarous' comes from an old, now discredited, idea that they were struck by 'barbarians' outside the empire.
John Schou
ALMOHAD_SILVER.jpg
ALMOHAD CALIPHATE (MUWAHHIDS)29 viewsALMOHAD CALIPHATE (MUWAHHIDS) AR Dirham, anonymous issue, 1130-1231. No date or mint. ARabic legends both sides. dpaul7
Album-496.jpg
Almohads: Anonymous (ca. 1160-1269) AR Dirham (Hohertz-20; Album-496)17 viewsObv: Arabic legend in Nashki script لا اله الا الله الامر كله لله لا قوة الا بالله (There is no Lord except Allah; The command is all up to Allah; There is no power except through Allah)
Rev: Arabic legend in Nashki script الله ربنا محمد رسولنا المهدي امامنا (Allah is our Lord; Muhammad is our Messenger; al-Mahdi is our Imam)
SpongeBob
AnatolBel.jpg
AnatolBel41 viewsSaruhan (?) Beylik (1300-1410)
Unknown arabic text.
AE 11mm, Mangir
Belisarius
Irradiated_Phillip_the_Arab_Syria,_Antioch_AR_Tetradrachm.JPG
Antioch AR4Drachm Prieur 375 Philip I Billon Tetradrachm of Syria, Antioch. Dated 3rd consulship = 248 AD.80 viewsAntioch AR4Drachm
Prieur 375 Philip I Billon Tetradrachm of Syria, Antioch. Dated 3rd consulship = 248 AD. AVTOK K M IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / DEMARC EXOVCIAC VPATO G, eagle standing right with wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA SC below. BMC 512, SNGCop 265.

http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/philip_I/_antioch_AR4Drachm_Prieur_375.jpg

Antonivs Protti
ppsectetORweb.jpg
Antioch, Revised Posthumous Philip, RPC 413656 viewsAntioch Mint, revised posthumous Philip, year = 19 (31/30 B.C.) AR, 26mm 14.39g, RPC 4136, Newell, no. 23
O: Diademed head of Philip Philadelphus, r.
R: BAEILEWE FILIPPOY EPIFANOYE FILADELFOY, Zeus, seated l., holding Nike and scepter
EX: THI
* "In the early fifties, the Romans revived the coinage of King Philip Philadelphus to be their coinage of Syria, copying his types (portrait of Philip/Zeus seated l.), though in a debased style. The coinage lasted from then until the reign of Augustus, and was discussed most recently by H.R. Baldus (in CRWLR, pp. 127-30, with earlier references for H. Scying, E. T. Newell, A. R. Bellinger and C. M. Kraay). The first issues were made with the monogram of Gabinius (57-55 BC), Crassus (54/53 BC) and Cassius (52/51 BC). There after the establishment of a Caesarian era at Antioch in 44/48 BC, their monogram was replaced by one standing for Antioch )or ‘autonomous’: see Wr. 21) and the coins were dated in the exergue by the years of this era. Year 3-12 and, then with a new style (see E. T. Newell, NC, 1919, pp. 69ff.; Baldus, p. 150, n. 14) 19-33 are known.
It may seem odd that the Romans chose the Tetradrachm of Philip (92-83 BC) to revive, rather than those of the last king, Antiochus XII; it is true that the last substantial issue of Seleucid tetradrachms was made by Philip, so that his would have comprised a most important proportion of the currency (so Newell, pp 80-4; M. J. Price ap. Baldus, op. cit., p. 127), but it is hard to see that this provides a sufficient reason, and it is possible that some other consideration might be relevant. While Antiochus (c. 69-65 BC) was away campaigning against the Arabs, the people of Antioch revolted and put forward, as king, Philip, the son of Philip Philadelphus. As the claims of Antiochus were rejected by Pompey when he formed the province, the Roman view may have been that Philip was the last legitimate Seleucid king, and, if so, his coins would naturally have been chosen as the prototype of the Roman coinage in Syria.
The Philips were interrupted from year 12 until year 19, and it seems that in this gap the tetradrachms of Cleopatra and Antony were produced. The evidence for their production at Antioch, however, does not seem sufficient, and they have been catalogued elsewhere, under ‘Uncertain of Syria’ (4094-6). It is certain, however, that a unique drachm portraying Antony was produced at Antioch during this period, as it bears the ethnic ANTIOXEWN MHTPOPOLEWS. See also addenda 4131A.
After the defeat of Antony, the coinage of posthumous Philip was revived in 31/30 BC, though it is not clear whether this represents a conscious decision to avoid putting Octavian’s portrait on the coinage, as happened in Asia and Egypt (similarly, the portrait does not appear on city bronzes of Syria before the last decade BC) or whether it is just the simple reinstatement of the previous type, after the new type of Antony and Cleopatra became unacceptable. At any rate the coinage continued until at least year 33 (= 17/16 BC). Current evidence does not permit us to be sure that it continued any later, to the year 36 (= 14/13 BC), as Newell thought, though this is not impossible."

RPC I, pp. 606-607
casata137ec
Antiochus_XII.jpg
Antiochos XII 87-84 BC22 viewsAntiochus XII 87–86/5 BC, Damascus mint Ae 22mm, Weight 7.1g. Obv: Beardless diademed bust of Antiochus XII right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ – Tyche standing left with palm branch in right hand and cornucopia in left, dotted border. Reference: SC 2, 2476; SNG Israel I, Nos. 2900–2902. SPAER 2897

Antiochus XII Dionysus (Epiphanes/Philopator/Callinicus), a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom who reigned 87–84 BC, was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and Tryphaena to take up the diadem. He succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucid realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings.

Antiochus initially gained support from Ptolemaic forces and was the last Seleucid ruler of any military reputation, even if it was on a local scale. He made several raids into the territories of the Jewish Hasmonean kings, and tried to check the rise of the Nabataean Arabs. A battle against the latter turned out to be initially successful, until the young king was caught in a melee and killed by an Arab soldier. Upon his death the Syrian army fled and mostly perished in the desert. Soon after, the Nabateans conquered Damascus.

Antiochus' titles - apart from Dionysos - mean respectively (God) Manifest, Father-loving and Beautiful Victor. The last Seleucid kings often used several epithets on their coins.
ddwau
1__Scarab.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Egypt, Scarab of Sesostris III, 1836 - 1818 B.C.70 views- Scarabée, Egypte Sesostris III, 1800 av.-JC. (Stéatite) 312
Amulette-sceau de 20 mm en forme de coléoptère, hiéroglyphes gravés sur l’abdomen : scarabée ….

Sesostris III was a Pharaoh of the 12th dynasty (which lasted from c.1938–c. 1756 B.C.) and during his reign he completely reshaped Egypt’s government and extended his dominion in Nubia, the land immediately south of Egypt.
Roger D2
050804.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Bronze Ring, c.1st - 3rd Century A.D.124 viewsAncient roman bronze ring, c. 1st-3rd centuries A.D.
U.S. size 8 1/2, fully wearable.
ancientcoins
st1101b.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Bronze Ring, c.1st - 3rd Century A.D.165 viewsAncient Roman Ring, c.1-3 centuries A.D.
U.S. size 7, fully wearable.
Pattern of X's and lines, each on its own little square. 2 crescent paths run through the ring where the designs are not there.
1 commentsancientcoins
Scarab.jpg
Antiquity New Kingdom Scarab of Tuthmosis III53 viewsNew Kingdom. 18th Dynasty. Tuthmosis III (circa 1504-1450 BC). Steatite scarab (14x10mm). Base engraved with the cartouche of Tuthmosis III; on the left, a Maat father and the crown of Lower Egypt. Intact, once glazed, pierced for mounting. Ex David Hendin collection. CNG Auction 93.

Scarabs were used as lucky and magical charms in ancient Egypt. Scarabs, such as this one, with the names of pharos, were particularly powerful, and were produced as protective amulets for the public. Hendin’s collection of scarabs were collected by him in Israel in the 1970s and 1980s.
2 commentsLucas H
ANTON.jpg
Antoninianus Philippus I Arabs35 viewsPhilippus I Arabs
IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, buste of Philippus
FELICITAS TEMP
Rome, RIC IV 31, 245 AD
Sebastiaan v
41788_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8918,_RIC_IV_27b.jpg
Antoninianus; AEQVITAS AVGG, RIC IV 27b20 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, first half of 244 - end of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8918, RIC IV 27b, RSC IV 9, VF, Rome mint, 2.976g, 23.1mm, 0o, 245 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41684_Philip_I_antoninianus,_SRCV_III_8922,_RIC_IV_28c_ANNONA_AVGG.jpg
Antoninianus; ANNONA AVGG, RIC 28c Rome13 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8922, RIC IV 28c, RSC IV 25, VF, Rome mint, 3.823g, 22.5mm, 0o, 244 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left holding stalks of grain over modius and cornucopia; struck with a worn reverse die. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
38176_Philip_I_antoninianus,_RIC_IV_28c_ANNONA_AVGG.jpg
Antoninianus; ANNONA AVGG, RIC 28c Rome12 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 28c, RSC IV 25, F, Rome mint, 2.748g, 24.1mm, 180o, 244 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left, stalks of grain in right over modius overflowing with grain at feet, cornucopia in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41796_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8933,_RIC_IV_63b.jpg
Antoninianus; FORTVNA REDVX, RIC IV 63b10 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8933, RIC IV 63b, RSC IV 65, Choice aVF, Rome mint, 4.015g, 23.5mm, 225o, 249 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, rudder in right, cornucopia in left; full circles centering. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41806_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8937,_RIC_IV_38b.jpg
Antoninianus; LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas l. holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 38b56 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8937, RIC IV 38b, RSC IV 87, aVF, Rome mint, 3.790g, 23.6mm, 0o, 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas standing left, counting board in right, cornucopia in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41696_Philip_I_ant_ric_2b.jpg
Antoninianus; P M TR P II COS P P; Philip seated left on curule chair, RIC IV 2(b)12 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8943, RIC IV 2(b), Cohen 120, VF, grainy, Rome mint, 3.943g, 22.1mm, 30o, 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P II COS P P, Philip, togate, seated left on curule chair, globe in right, short scepter in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41747_Philip_I_ant_RIC_65_ROMAE_AETERNAE.jpg
Antoninianus; ROMAE AETERNAE, RIC IV 657 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8955, RIC IV 65, RSC IV 171, VF/F, Rome mint, 3.226g, 22.1mm, 180o, 247 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, Victory in right, long vertical scepter in left, altar before. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
philip_I_48b.jpg
Antoninianus; SECVRIT ORBIS, RIC IV 48b11 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, first half of 244 - end of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8966, RIC IV 48b, RSC IV 215, gVF, Rome mint, 2.957g, 23.6mm, 0o, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SECVRIT ORBIS, Securitas seated left, scepter in right, propping head on left hand; sharp portrait, tone. Ex FORVMPodiceps
41825_Philip_I_antoninianus,_RSC_IV_243,_RIC_IV_71_aVF.jpg
Antoninianus; VIRTVS EXERCITVS, RIC IV 714 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 243, RIC IV 71, SRCV III 8977, aVF, Antioch mint, 4.104g, 25.8mm, 0o, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS P F AVG P M, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Virtus standing right, spear in right, left resting on shield, left foot on helmet; scarce. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41833_Philip_I_antoninianus,_RSC_IV_243,_RIC_IV_71,_SRCV_III_8977,_VF_F,.jpg
Antoninianus; VIRTVS EXERCITVS, RIC IV 712 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 243, RIC IV 71, SRCV III 8977, VF/F, Antioch mint, 4.186g, 22.4mm, 45o, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS P F AVG P M, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Virtus standing right, spear in right, left resting on grounded shield, left foot on helmet; scarce. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
3c61a50d.jpeg
AR Antoninianus, Philip the Arab 244-249 A.D., obverse22 viewsAR Silver Antoninianus, Philip the Arab 244-249 A.D.
Obverse : IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

RIC 29
RSC 32
SR 8923
2 commentsLarry M2
2d26e9ec.jpeg
AR Antoninianus, Philip the Arab 244-249 A.D., reverse21 viewsPhilip I AR Silver Antoninianus. Rome, 244-249 AD.
Reverse: ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left, holding corn-ear over galley at feet, & cornucopia.

RIC 29
RSC 32
SR 8923

The coin seems to be AU-UNC but has this weakly struck reverse, perhaps struck with a worn reverse die?
1 commentsLarry M2
antdrahm.jpg
AR Tetradrachm of Philip I, Antioch 244-248 AD26 viewsObverse: AVTOK K M IOVL FILIPPOC CEB, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: DHMAPX EZOVCIAC (Holder of the tribunician power i.e. TR POT) S C in exergue. Eagle standing left on a palm branch facing left with wings spread and holding wreath in beak.

This coin has a little wear but must have been struck with new dies. Philip "the Arab" is portrayed as just that with very Semitic features notably the high cheekbones and full lips. It is very finely modeled and quite different from most portraits struck at Rome. Perhaps it reflects only the aesthetics of Syria or it may in fact be close to what Philip actually looked like

SNG CoP 263 (ref. Wildwinds), wt 11.5 gms ~27 mm

Purchased at the Bay State Coin Show, Nov 2012
daverino
Arab_governors_of_Tabaristan_(ca__775_CE)_half_dirham_(AR).jpg
Arab governors of Tabaristan (ca. 775 CE) half dirham (AR)20 viewsObv.: Arabic-Kufic legend (Crowned bust of Khosrau II right) Rev.: Fire altar flanked by attendants, date and mint Weight: 1.97 g. Diameter: 24.12 mm.Nick.vdw
33986_Arab_Pseudo-Byzantine,_Bilad_al-Sham_(Greater_Syria),_c__658_-_680_A_D_.jpg
Arab Pseudo-Byzantine (imitating Constans II, SBCV 1000 and similar)22 viewsArab Pseudo-Byzantine, Bilad al-Sham (Greater Syria), c. 658 - 680 A.D. Bronze follis, Goodwin type E (imitating Constans II, SBCV 1000 and similar), VF, 2.934g, 26.9mm, 315o, obverse emperor standing facing, wearing crown and chlamys, long cross in r., globus cruciger in l.; reverse, large cursive m, blundered letters and symbols around. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
ArabConstansII.jpg
Arab-Byzantine27 views Imitation Follis of Constans II

650-680 AD

Obverse: Constans, crowned and wearing chlamys, beardless, standing facing, holding long cross and cross on globe.

Reverse: Large m (lower case), cross above.
Pericles J2
Arab Byz 3.jpg
Arab-Byzantine fals - Emesa (Homs, Syria)70 viewsKAΛON / b-Homs (in Arabic) , bust of a Byzantine emperor holding globe with cross.
EMI CHC around large m ; tayyib (= "good", like καλον in Greek) in exergue.
Ginolerhino
Arab Byz 2.jpg
Arab-Byzantine fals of Damascus (Syria)62 views[D]MSh[Q] (?) , Byzantine emperor standing facing holding long cross and globe with cross
ANO / X-II , large M, cross-shaped monogram above, ΔAM in exergue
Ginolerhino
immitive.JPG
Arab-Byzantine Imitationn 7 viewsImitating Constans II? 8th Century A.D.Dk0311USMC
ARAB-BYZANTINE.jpg
ARAB-BYZANTINE, Umayyad Caliphate. Mu'awiya I ibn Abi Sufyan. AH 41-60 / AD 661-680. or 661-697 A.D. 55 viewsObverse :
KAΛON “bi-hims”
Facing bust of Byzantine emperor, holding globus cruciger; to left, KAΛON; to right, “bi-hims” in Arabic and bird’s-eye.

Reverse:
Є/M/I С/H/С - Large M
Large m; star flanked by bird’s eyes above; ground line below; Є/M/I С/H/С to left and right; “tayyib” in Arabic above “dumbell” flanked by pellets in exergue.

Attribution: Sica I 538 / Walker 65v / Arab Byzantine 65; Album 110
Weight3.98 Grams
Diameter:21 mm
Die Axis:4 H

Mu'awiya I ibn Abi Sufyan was the first Umayyad caliph , from AH 41-60 (died) / AD 661-680


From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
ARAB-BYZANTINE,_Umayyad_Caliphate__Mu__awiya_I_ibn_Abi_Sufyan_(2).png
ARAB-BYZANTINE, Umayyad Caliphate. Mu'awiya I ibn Abi Sufyan. AH 41-60 / AD 661-680. or 661-697 A.D.34 viewsObverse :
KAΛON “bi-hims” بحمص
Facing bust of Byzantine emperor, holding globus cruciger; to left, KAΛON; to right, “bi-hims” in Arabic and bird’s-eye.

Reverse:
Є/M/I С/H/С - Large M
Large m; star flanked by bird’s eyes above; ground line below; Є/M/I С/H/С to left and right; “tayyib” طيب in Arabic above “dumbell” flanked by pellets in exergue.

Attribution: Sica I 538 / Walker 65v / Arab Byzantine 65; Album 110

Mu'awiya I ibn Abi Sufyan was the first Umayyad caliph , from AH 41-60 (died) / AD 661-680


From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
Tabaristan-Afzut-type,_PYE137~0.jpg
Arab-Sasanian, Abbassid Governors of Tabaristan, AR Hemidrachm, 136 PYE (Post Yazdgard Era = AH 170 = 786/787 AD)30 viewsIslamic, Arab-Sasanian, Abbassid Governors of Tabaristan, AR Hemidrachm, 136 PYE (Post Yazdgard Era = AH 170 = 786/787 AD)

Obverse: APZ-WT, APD, BAHB, Right facing bust imitating Khusru II, wearing winged crown surmounted by star and crescent, inside single-dotted border, crescents with stars at 3, 6 and 9 o'clock.

Reverse: TPWLSTAN, Sasanian style fire altar with two attendants standing facing, crescents on their heads, both hands on sword hilt, inside triple dotted-border, crescents with stars at 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock, three pellets at the diagonals. Pahlavi date and mintmark in lower left and right margins.

Reference: Album 73, Malek 175

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo

---------------------------------------------------

Obverse Legend: Segoe UI Historic, etc.

𐭠𐭯𐭦𐭥𐭲 ← APZ-WT

𐭠𐭯𐭣 ← APD

𐭡𐭠𐭧𐭡 ← BAHB

Reverse Legend:

𐭲𐭯𐭥𐭫𐭱𐭲𐭠𐭭 ← TPWLSTAN

Gil-galad
Trajan drachm2~0.jpg
Arabia250 viewsTrajan (98-117) AR Drachm of Arabia Patraea, Bostra. Struck 112-117.
Obverse: AYTOKP KAIC NEP TPAIANO CEB ΓEΣ M Δ Ak , laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
Reverse:Arabia standing left holding branch & cinnamon sticks, camel behind.
Sydenham 189; SNG Cop. 205
1 commentsROMA
Huth-401.jpg
Arabia Felix, Himyar: Dhamar'alī Yuhabirr (135-175) AR Fraction (Munro-Hay 3.14iii, 3.21iii; Huth 401-403)9 viewsObv: Male head with curly hair to right
Rev: Bearded male head to right; 𐩺𐩠𐩨𐩧 (yhbr) in exergue
Dim: 9 mm, 0.37 g, 11 h
Quant.Geek
himyar_k.jpg
Arabia Felix, Himyarite Kings, Tha’ Ran Ya’ NB6 viewsAr Unit (Quinarius), 14mm, 1.5g, 5h; Raidan mint, 2nd Century AD.
Obv.: Head right, within circular torque, monogram behind.
Rev.: Head right, scepter before, kings name and mint in South Arabian Script around.
Reference: Munro-Hay 3.25, 16-260-65
John Anthony
himyarite_k.jpg
ARABIA FELIX, Himyarites & Sabaeans. ‘Mdn Byn. 20 viewsAR Unit (Quinarius), 15mm, 1.2g, 1h; Raidan mint, mid-late 1st century AD.
Obv.: Head right within circular torque ending in serpent’s head at top
Rev.: ‘MDN | BYN in ancient Yemeni script; Head right; ‘scepter’ to right // RYDN
Reference: Munro-Hay 3.2ai, fig. 284; SNG ANS 1583.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Huth-40(1).jpg
Arabia Felix, Lihyan: Anonymous (ca. 2nd-1st century BCE) Æ Hemidrachm (BMC Arabia pl. LV 2-9; Huth 40)12 viewsObv: Devolved head ot Athena to right
Rev: Owl standing right, head facing; to left, olive sprig
Dim: 15 mm, 2.31 g, 6 h
Quant.Geek
Huth-40.jpg
Arabia Felix, Lihyan: Anonymous (ca. 2nd-1st century BCE) Æ Tetradrachm (BMC Arabia pl. LV 2-9; Huth 40)26 viewsObv: Devolved head ot Athena to right
Rev: AΘE Owl standing right, head facing; to left, olive sprig
Dim: 23 mm, 12.83 g, 9 h
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Arabia_1a_img.jpg
Arabia Felix: Himyarites and Sabaeans (ca. 3rd Century BC) AR Drachm 16 viewsObv:- Helmeted head of Athena right; Sabaean "N" (mark of value) on cheek.
Rev:- Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before
BMC 24 ff.

4.36 gms
Max diameter 15.51 mm
maridvnvm
Munro-Hay_1_4i2.jpg
Arabia Felix: Himyarites and Sabaeans (ca. 3rd Century BC) AR Drachm (Munro-Hay 1.4i2)50 viewsObv: Helmeted head of Athena right; Sabaean "N" (mark of value) on cheek.
Rev: Owl standing right, head facing; olive sprig and crescent behind, AΘE before, monogram below.
2 commentsSpongeBob
bostra.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Bostra. AE19 Julia Mamaea 35 viewsJulia Mamaea AE19 of Syria, Decapolis, Bostra. IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / COLONIA BOSTRA, bust of Zeus-Ammon right.ancientone
BostraFaustina.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Bostra. Faustina Sr. AE16 36 viewsObv: ThEA FAV [CTEINA]. Draped and veiled bust r.
Rev: City-goddess stg. facing, hd. l., holding scepter and resting hand on hip.
ancientone
v6~0.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Petra. Aretas IV Ae157 viewsKings of the Nabataeans
Obv: Aretas IV stands between palm branch and monogram.
Rev: His wife Shaqilat standing left, raising hand; wreath to left.
9 B.C.-A.D. 40
Meshorer 97, SNG Cop. -
ancientone
petra.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Petra. Septimius Severus AE2234 viewsObv: Laureate bust right.
Rev: Tyche seated l., on rock outcropping, extending hand and holding trophy.
ancientone
philadelphiaSyria.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Philadelphia. Hadrian AE2231 viewsObv: Laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: Bust of Herakles right, lion's skin tied around neck.
Spij 11
1 commentsancientone
rabbathmoba.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Rabbathmoba. Septimius Severus AE28.46 viewsObv: AVT KAI L CE[P CEOVP CE]B, laureate head right.
Rev: RABBAQ M W NA.., cult statue of Ares(Greek god of war), standing facing, holding spear, shield, and sword, set upon basis set on plinth.
28mm, 9.9gms.
ancientone
SNG_Ans_1247_247-249_Philippus_II.jpg
Arabia Petraea_Bostra_Philippus_II_SNG Ans 12476 viewsPhilippus II.
AE, Arabia Petraea, Bostra
Struck: 244-247 / 27-29 mm / 18,14 g

Av: MAP C IVL PHILIPPOS CESAR
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: COL METROPOLIS BOSTRA
AETI / AΔOV / CAPIA in wreath

Reference: SNG Ans 1247
Andicz
bostra_camel.jpg
ARABIA, Decapolis, Bostra. Æ 12. Tyche/ Camel5 viewsARABIA, Decapolis, Bostra. Autonomous. Circa 2nd Century A.D. Æ 12mm, 0.96g. Turreted bust of Tyche right; date in field / Camel right. Kindler 19; SNG ANS 1199.Podiceps
esbus_elagabal_Spijkerman3.jpg
Arabia, Esbus, Elagabal, Spijkerman 325 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 22, 9.49g, 22.34mm, 210°
mint of Esbus
obv. AVT M AVR ANTONINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. tetrastyle temple with central arch and side-wings with flat roofs; in the center Tyche as City-Goddes with short chiton and turreted, stg. half left, r. foot set on unknown object (head of bull?), holding in raised l. hand long sceptre and in extended r. hand unknown object (bust of emperor?)
l. and r. on the flat roofs A - V (Aurelia)
in ex. ECBOVC
ref. Spijkerman 3; Rosenberger IV, 3; Sofaer Collection 4; BMC Arabia p.29, 3
very rare, F+, dark green patina with sand incrustations which strengthen the contour
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Note: The obv. legend is a mix of Greek and Latin expressions: After AVT (Greek for Imperator) follows the name of the emperor in Latin.

Aurelia Esbus was situated near today's Amman/Jordan and is mentioned several times in the Bible under the name Heshbon. Originally it was a city of the Moabites which was conquered by the Israelites. During the Roman Empire it was known for its excellent springs.

Esbus has minted only under Elagabal. There are known only 6 types with no more than 3 obv. dies (Catalog of the BM).
1 commentsJochen
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Aretas_IV_and_Shugailat,_Meshorer_114,_AE_16,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_12,2x15,5mm,_3,18g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #165 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of King Aretas IV. conjoined with his Queen Shugailat right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Aretas and Shugailat in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2-15,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. date: 9 B.C.-40 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 114,
Q-001
quadrans
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Rabbell_II_and_Gamilat,_Meshorer_163,_AE_18,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_13x16mm,_2,84g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #165 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of king Rabbell II. conjoined with his queen Gamilath right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Rabbell and Gamilath in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. date: 70-106 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 163,
Q-001
quadrans
philippopolis_arabiae_philippI_Spijkerman3.jpg
Arabia, Philippopolis, Philip I., Spijkerman 3250 viewsPhilip I, AD 244-249
AE 30, 17.30g
obv. AVTOK KM IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, r.
rev. FILIPPOPOLITWN - KOLWNIAC
Roma(?), helmeted and wearing long garment, std. l., holding spear in l. hand
and eagle with two small figures in outstretched r. hand; the shield at her side
in l. and r. field S-C
ref. Spijkerman 3
Rare, good VF

The city seems to be Philip's birthplace and was renamed by him. The only coinage of this Philippopolis was for Philip I, often for his deceased father. After Philip's death the coinage was ceased. The figure of the rev. usually is called Roma, but could be Athena too.

For more informations please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
1 commentsJochen
arabia_0_6g.jpg
Arabia; Saba. Athens owl imitation: 0.6g8 viewsArabia; Saba. Athens owl imitations: small fraction. 0.6g. Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right, three olive leaves, Rev: ΑΘΕ, owl right, head facingPodiceps
arabia_2_6g.jpg
Arabia; Saba. Athens owl imitation: hemidrachm, 2.6g11 viewsArabia; Saba. Athens owl imitations: hemidrachm. 2.6g. Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right, three olive leaves, Saba letter G, Rev: ΑΘΕ, owl right, head facingPodiceps
Mitchiner-LW_334.jpg
Arakan: Min Khamaung (1612-1622) AR Tanka (Mitchiner-LW.334; G&G-RA4; KM#7)35 viewsObv: Inscription in Arakanese; ၉၇၄ ဆင်ဖြူ သခင် ၀ရဓမ္မ ရာဇာ ဥသှေင် သှာ (hsin byu shin waradhamma raza ushaung shah; Lord of the White Elephant Waradhamma Raja Husain Shah)
Rev: Bilingual inscription in Arabic and Bengali; صاحب الفيل الابيض الملك العادل حسين شاه سلطان (sahib al-fil al-abyad al-malik al-adil husain shah sultan; Lord of the White Elephant the just king Husain Shah sultan); ধাভালা গাজেস্ভারা শ্রী শ্রী ধামা রাজা হুচনা সহ (dhavala gajesvara sri sri dhama raja huchana saha; Lord of the White Elephant the most exhalted Dhama Raja (King of Righteousness) Husain Shah)
SpongeBob
Arakan_Mitchiner-352.jpg
Arakan: Narapadigyi (1638-1645) AR Tanka (Mitchiner-352; Phayre: plate I, 7)28 viewsSame inscription on both sides of the coin. Phayre's verbatim transliteration / translation follows:

1000 Cheng phyu Sakheng Narabadigyi (BE1000 Lord of the white elephant, Narabadigyi)

Unicode Burmese inscription (will only display correctly if you have working Unicode 5.1 fonts for Burmese like Padauk):

၁၀၀၀ သင်ဖြူ သခင် နာရာဗ တီကြီ
SpongeBob
Nabataean_Kingdom,_Aretas_IV,_9_B_C__-_40_A_D_.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. Bronze AE 13, Meshorer 678 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. Bronze AE 13, Meshorer 67; BMC Arabia p. 9, 27, F, Petra mint, 1.955g, 13.7mm, 0o, obverse laureate head of Aretas right; reverse , two crossed cornucopias, HR (Het Ros = Aretas) between the horns. Aretas IV took the name Philopatris, lover of his people. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
aretas_IV_foure.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Fouree silver plated drachm4 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Ancient Counterfeit. Fouree silver plated drachm, cf. Meshorer Nabataean 99 - 111, BMC Arabia 11 - 12, and SGICV 5695 - 6 (official, Petra mint, 20 - 40 A.D.), F, illegal mint, 3.364g, 13.8mm, 45o, after 20 A.D.; obverse Aramaic, 'Aretas, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people', laureate and draped bust of Aretas right; reverse Aramaic, 'Shuqailat, queen of the Nabataeans, year ?' (date off flan), jugate busts of Aretas and Shuqailat right. Aretas IV was the greatest of the Nabataean kings, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. Little is known of him because Nabataeans did not keep records. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32). Ex FORVMPodiceps
Siglos_king_dagger_bow.jpg
Artaxerxes II - Darius III191 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silver siglos, 5.490 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.

Following Darius II came Artaxerxes II (called Mnemon), during whose reign Egypt revolted and relations with Greece deteriorated. His reign (dated as from 404 to 359 B.C.E.) was followed by that of his son Artaxerxes III (also called Ochus), who is credited with some 21 years of rule (358-338 B.C.E.) and is said to have been the most bloodthirsty of all the Persian rulers. His major feat was the reconquest of Egypt.
This was followed by a two-year rule for Arses and a five-year rule for Darius III (Codomannus), during whose reign Philip of Macedonia was murdered (336 B.C.E.) and was succeeded by his son Alexander. In 334 B.C.E. Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire.

Siglos was the Greek transliteration of the Semitic denomination ""shekel"" which became a standard weight unit for silver in the Achaemenid Persian Empire after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus the Great in 539 B.C. Ironically, silver sigloi seem to have been struck primarily in the western part of the empire and the standard went on to influence several Greek civic and royal coinages in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. There is endless debate about whether the figure on the obverse represents the Persian Great King or an anonymous royal hero, but since the Greeks regularly referred to the parallel gold denomination as the ""daric"" it seems clear that at least some contemporaries considered it a depiction of the king. Of course, whether this is what the Persian authorities intended or an example of interpretatio Graeca must remain an open question.
4 commentsNemonater
Album-1827_2.jpg
Artuqids of Mardin: Najm al-Din Alpi. (547-572 AH) Æ Dirham (Whelan Type I, 37-8; S&S Type 27; Album 1827.2; ICV 1200)46 viewsObv: Diademed male head right, ﻧﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ (Najm al-Dîn; Arabic Laqab meaning 'Star of Religion') in Naskh script engraved into the die horizontally across the neck of the figure; counter-marked legend ﻧﺠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻠﻚ ﺩﻳﺎﺭ ﺑﮑﺮ (Najm al-Dîn, King of Diyarbakr); dotted border
Rev: Multi-line legend in a modified Ayyubid Kufic script continuing to right, top and left all within irregular circle with arabesque in exergue; dotted border

1st Line: ﻣﻠﻚ ﺍﻻﻣﺮﺍ (Malik al-umarâ; King of the Princes)
2nd Line: ﺍﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻤﻈﻔﺮ (Abu al-Muzaffar; Man of Conquering)
3rd Line: ﺍﻟﭙﻰ ﺑﻦ (Alpî bin; Alpi, Son of)
Right Field: ﺗﻤﺮﺗﺎﺵ ﺑﻦ (Timurtâsh bin; Timurtash, Son of)
Upper Field: ﺍﻳﻞﻏﺎﺫﯼ (Îl-Ghâzî; Il-Ghazi)
Left Field: ﺑﻦ ﺍﺭﺗﻖ (bin Artuq; Son of Artuq)
2 commentsQuant.Geek
atu2.jpg
Artuquids of Mardin, Hosam Al-Din Yuluk Arslan46 viewsOb. Seated figure withthree others standing (Four figures mourning the death of Saladin?)
Rev. Arabic script

Ae Dirhem
Size 31mm
1184-1201
Ref Mitchiner 1041

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
Album-811_3.jpg
Ayyubids: al-Kamil Muhammad I (615-635 AH) AV Dinar, al-Qahira, 626 AH (Album 811.3)19 viewsObv: Arabic inscription in field, enclosed by two linear circles, enclosed by Arabic inscription anti-clockwise in margin from 2h, all enclosed by linear circle
Obv Field: ايوب / الملك الكامل / ابو المعالي محمد / ابن ابي بكر بن (Ayyūb, the King al-Kāmil, Abū al-Ma‘ālī Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr)
Obv Margin: لا اله الا الله محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ()
Rev: Arabic inscription in field, enclosed by two linear circles, enclosed by Arabic inscription anti-clockwise in margin from 2h, all enclosed by linear circle
Rev Field: الإمام / المنصور ابو / جعفر المستنصر / بالله امير المؤمنين (the Imam al-Manṣūr Abū Ja‘far al-Mustanṣir billāh, commander of the believers)
Rev Margin: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ضرب هذا الدينر بالقاهرة سنة ستة و عشرين و ستمائة (in the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate, this dinar struck in al-Qāhira (in) the year 626)
Quant.Geek
BCC_BW10.jpg
BCC BW1032 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze 2/6 Dinar
Obv: Arabic inscription: ‘IMRAN
عمرا ن an Arabic name.
Rev: Blank
Discoid shape.
8.0 x 7.75 x 3.2mm.
1.38 gm.
v-drome
Islamic_Weight_BW11_.jpg
BCC BW1128 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze 2 Dirhem
Obv: Arabic inscription: ‘IMRAN
عمرا ن
Rev: Blank
Brick shaped, ends and sides bulged.
13.0 x 9.0 x 6.0mm.
5.83gm.
v-drome
Islamic_Weight_BW14_.jpg
BCC BW1445 viewsIslamic Weight BCC BW14
Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 CE
Bronze - 1 Dinar
Obv:Arabic inscription: لله
"LILLAH” late Abbasid calligraphy.
Rev: One punch mark within
incuse concentric circle.
Disk shape: Diameter: 11.0mm.
Height:6.25mm. Weight: 4.03gm.
v-drome
bw6.jpg
BCC BW631 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze
1/2 Dirhem
Obv: Incomplete Arabic word in incuse punch.
Rev: Unidentified Arabic stamp
7.0 x 6.75 x 3.25mm.
1.45gm. Axis:90

v-drome
Islamic_Weight_BW7_.jpg
BCC BW737 viewsIslamic Weight
Umayyad Period 661-750CE
Bronze 1/2 Dirhem
Obv: Arabic inscription stamped in relief, negative (mirror image):
معير واف which translates as "a complete standard".
Rev: Three dots , punch marks indicating
3/6ths of a dirhem.
8.0 x 7.5 x 3.0 mm
1.44gm.
v-drome
Islamic_weight_BW8.jpg
BCC BW826 viewsIslamic Weight
Bronze
1/6 Dirhem
Obv: Arabic inscription stamped
in relief (partial?) I M R?
Rev: Blank
6.2 x 5.2 x 1.5mm.
0.46gm.
v-drome
small_Islamic_IC4.jpg
BCC IC421 viewsIslamic -Fatimid Dynasty
al-Mustansir billah
18th Imam of Cairo, Egypt.
AH427-487 (1036-1094 CE)
Debased Alloy Fractional Dirham
Obv: Kufic Arabic inscription
Rev: al-Imam Ma’add الإمام معد
10x8mm. 0.41gm. Axis:210 (7h)
Date and mint off-flan.
v-drome
petra_rgp40.jpg
BCC rgp4034 viewsRoman Provincial
Arabia Petraea - Bostra
Commodus 177-192 CE
Obv: [ΑΥ ΚΟ]ΜΟΔ[Ο ΑΝΤΟΝ...]
Laureate head right.
Rev:ΝΤΡΑ ΒΟCΤΡΑ
Camel advancing right.
13.5mm. 1.18gm. Axis:180
Possible ref: Ros.23
1 commentsv-drome
trajan_camel.jpg
BCC RGP42x70 viewsRoman Greek Imperial
Arabia Petraea, Bostra,
Trajan 98-117 CE AR Drachm
Obv: ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙC ΝΕΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝω ΑΡΙCΤω CΕΒ ΓΕΡΜ ΔΑΚ
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤΟ S
Bactrian camel walking left.
18mm. 3.27gm. axis: 180
2 commentsv-drome
Sev_Bostra_BCC_rgp46.jpg
BCC rgp4618 viewsRoman Provincial
Arabia-Petraea Bostra
Severus Alexander 222-235CE
OBV:[IMP CAE]S M AVR SEV [ALEXANDER AVG]
Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COLONIA B-OSTRA
Bust of Tyche with turretted crown to left, cornucopia behind.
AE 20mm . 6.03gm. Axis:150
GBC III 833, Ros 42
v-drome
BCC_RGP51_Petra_Elagabalus.jpg
BCC RGP5121 viewsRoman Provincial
Petra Arabia
Elagabalus
Obv: [IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS]
Laureate, draped bust right.
Rev:PETRA, above, COLONI, below.
Founder plowing with two oxen.
AE20 5.3gm. Axis:30
Possible ref: SNG ANS 1373, Rosenberger 35
v-drome
Bostha_Arabia_Mint_Severus_Alexander_Bronze_Coin.jpg
Bostha Arabia Mint Severus Alexander Bronze Coin32 viewsSeverus Alexander 222 - 235 AD., Bostha Arabia Mint, Bronze 20 mm 7.0 gram coin
Obverse: Bust Right
Reverse: Turreted bust of Tyche Left _1250


Antonivs Protti
PalestineMandate5Mils1941.jpg
British Mandate of Palestine. 1941 5 Mils.32 viewsBritish Mandate of Palestine (ca. 1922-1948). 1941 Copper-nickel 5 Mils (20mm, 2.91g.). 400,000 minted.
Obverse: A hole encircled by a stylized olive wreath and in turn by trilingual inscriptions naming the country. English/Arabic dates appear below the hole, at six o’clock.
Reverse: Large trilingual legends expressing the coin’s value around the hole.
References: KM# 3.
Ex Lukasz Dudek, 12-18-2011.
Mark Fox
PalestineMandate2Mils1942.jpg
British Mandate of Palestine. 1942 2 Mils.35 viewsBritish Mandate of Palestine (ca. 1922-1948). 1942 Bronze 2 Mils (28mm, 7.77g.).
2,400,000 minted.
Obverse: Trilingual spellings of “PALESTINE” in three lines with an English and Arabic date below, the first above the other.
Reverse: A sprig of olive with seven leaves and six olives, engraved as if pressed in a book. Trilingual legends around the sprig, plus an Arabic and English numeral on its right and left, announce the denomination.
References: KM# 2.
Ex Lukasz Dudek, 1-1-2012.
Mark Fox
PalestineMandate5Mils1934.jpg
British Mandate of Palestine. 1934 5 Mils.26 viewsBritish Mandate of Palestine (ca. 1922-1948). 1934 Copper-nickel 5 Mils (20mm, 2.91g.). 500,000 minted.
Obverse: A hole encircled by a stylized olive wreath and in turn by trilingual inscriptions naming the country. English/Arabic dates appear below the hole, at six o’clock.
Reverse: Large trilingual legends expressing the coin’s value around the hole.
References: KM# 3.
Ex Lukasz Dudek, 1-1-2012.
Mark Fox
1902_Edward_VII_British_Trade_Dollar.JPG
BRITISH OVERSEAS TRADE. 1902 EDWARD VII AR DOLLAR4 viewsObverse: • ONE DOLLAR •. Britannia standing on shore, facing left, left hand gripping top of shield, right hand holding trident; ship in full sail sailing left behind her; 1902 in exergue.
Reverse: Arabesque design with a Chinese labyrinth, one of the many variations of the Chinese character "shou" for longevity, in the centre, and the denomination in two languages, Chinese and Jawi Malay, the two main languages of the intended areas of circulation.
Diameter: 39mm | Weight: 26.9gms.

The dies were originally designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), who was later responsible for Edward VII's portrait on the British coinage as well as the reverse of that king's iconic florin which has a passing resemblance to the portrayal of Britannia on this coin.

British Trade Dollars were a direct result of the Opium Wars which began when China tried to stop Britain from selling opium to its citizens. The loser, China, had to open up a number of ports to British trade and residence, as well as ceding Hong Kong to Britain. In the decades that followed, merchants and adventurers flocked to these areas, and international trade flourished. Foreign banks were established and silver coins from all over the world began arriving to pay for tea, silk and Chinese porcelain to be shipped abroad. With the extension of British trading interests throughout the East, it became necessary to produce a special Dollar so as to remove the reliance of a British Colony upon the various foreign coins then in circulation. These .900 fine silver British Trade Dollars began being minted in 1895 and were readily accepted as a medium of exchange throughout the area. They continued being minted up until 1935 when production ceased, but coins struck in 1934 and 1935 are very rare because they were not released into circulation and were mostly melted down. The coin was officially demonetised on August 1st, 1937.
To keep up with demand these coins were minted in Bombay (now Mumbai) and Calcutta (now Kolkata) in India as well as at the Royal Mint in London. The London minted coins have no mint-mark but those struck at Bombay have the mint-mark “B” in the centre prong of Britannia's trident and those minted at Calcutta are marked with a small “C” in the ground between Britannia's left foot and the base of her shield. This coin is a product of the Bombay mint.
*Alex
Kroton.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton (Circa 425-350 BC)25 viewsAR Stater

7.73 g

Obverse: Eagle standing left, head right, on stag’s head

Reverse: Tripod; ivy leaf to left, QPO to right.

HN Italy 2146; SNG ANS 351-2

Obeying a directive of the oracle of Delphi, A group of Achaean settlers founded Kroton around 710 BC. Like its neighbor to the north, Sybaris, it soon became a city of power and wealth. Kroton was especially celebrated for its successes in the Olympic Games from 588 BC onward (Milo of Kroton being the most famous of its athletes).

The philosopher Pythagoras established himself there about 530 BC and formed a society of 300 disciples who were sympathetic toward aristocratic government. In 510 BC Kroton was strong enough to defeat the Sybarites and raze their city to the ground. However, shortly after the sack of Sybaris the disciples of Pythagoras were driven out, and a democracy established.

The obverse was comparable with similar types on probably contemporary coins from Elis (which put on the Olympic games at the nearby sanctuary of Olympia) The coins of both cities were thus likely issued for athletic festivals in honor of Zeus. In Kroton’s case the coins probably commemorated its citizens’ Olympic victories with the eagle representing Zeus who presided over Olympia and the games themselves. The tripod (reverse) represented the divine sanction for the town's founding from the Oracle of Delphi (who sat on a three legged stool when producing her oracles).
2 commentsNathan P
arabobyzantiner--numismatikforum.jpg
BYZANTINE, Arabobyzantine, Fals14 viewsEmesaNumis-Student
Basil II the Bulgarslayer.jpg
BYZANTINE, Basil II the Bulgarslayer, AV Histamenon, Constantinopolis172 views548. Basile II le Bulgarochtone (976-1025), AV histamenon, 1001-1005 (?), Constantinople.
Obv : B. du Christ nimbé de face, bénissant et tenant les Evangiles. Trois groupes de sept globules dans les bras de la croix.
Rev : B. de Basile et de Constantin de face, tenant entre eux une croix patriarcale. Manus Dei au-dessus de la tête de Basile.
Ref.: S., 1798; R., 1941; B.N. 13; D.O. 4a.
4,23gm, Rare.

Under Basil, the empire expanded in all directions. He conquered Bulgaria, as his name suggests, and recovered Antioch from the Arabs.
goldcoin
Constantine4.jpg
BYZANTINE, Constantine IV, AV Solidus.114 viewsConstantine IV, Pogonatus, 15 July 668 - 10 July 685 A.D.

Cf. Sear 1153.
Constantine IV ruled jointly with his father, Constans II, from A.D.654 to A.D.668, and then with his brothers, Heraclius and Tiberius, from A.D.659 until A.D. 681.
Constantine IV, Pogonatus should be credited with saving Europe from Muslim conquest when, after besieging Constantinople for four years, the Arabs led by caliph Muawija I were forced to retreat. The use by the Byzantines of the famous "Greek Fire" having made the city impregnable. In A.D.681 Constantine IV deposed his two brothers. Constantine IV was succeeded by his 16 year old son Justinian II in A.D.685.

1 commentsgoldcoin
Trajan Caesarea drachm Arabia.jpg
Caesarea in Cappadocia Arabia reverse112 viewsDrachm, 19mm, 3.03g.

Obverse: AVTOKR KAIC NER TRAIAN CEB GERM, laureate head R.

Reverse: DHMARX... EX YPATE, Arabia standing L holding branch and sword, camel at feet.
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Arab-Byzantine_Standing_Caliph_Sarmin.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik29 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Sarmin. Fals, weight 2.91g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”).

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, resting on four steps; mint designation in field downwards on either side, to right, sar, to left min. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”).

Reference: Foss p.80 and D.O. 128
Abu Galyon
BCL_0195.jpg
Caliphate of Mu'awiya 46 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE). Bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 2.8g, diameter 16mm.

Obverse: Bust facing, crown with cross, wearing cuirass and paludamentum, holding globus cruciger; to left vertically (in Greek) ΚΑΛΟΝ; to right vertically (in Arabic) bi-hims.

Reverse: Large cursive m; ~ * ~ above; to left EMI; to right CHC; in exergue (in Arabic) tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.50 and D.O. 65-78.
Abu Galyon
Arab-Byzantine_Homs_Bilingual_[2].jpg
Caliphate of Mu'awiya19 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE). Bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 3.87g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Bust facing, crown with cross, wearing cuirass and paludamentum, holding globus cruciger; to left vertically (in Greek) ΚΑΛΟΝ; to right vertically (in Arabic) bi-hims, ✱ below.

Reverse: Large cursive m; ʘ * ʘ above; to left EMI; to right CHC; in exergue (in Arabic) tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.50 and D.O. 69-71.
Abu Galyon
Arab_First_Bilingual_Emesa.jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya51 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE) First bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 3.8g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure, holding long cross and globus cruciger; in field to right (reading vertically from bottom to top): ΚΑΛΟΝ; in field to left (vertically, in Arabic): bism allah (“in the name of God”).

Reverse: Large M, with rho-cross flanked by stars above and Δ below; to left (vertically) EMH; to right (vertically) CIC; in exergue (in Arabic): tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.43 and D.O. 40.
Abu Galyon
Tiberias_BCL0321.jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya47 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE) Bilingual series, mint of Tabariya (Tiberias). Fals, weight 4,25g, diameter 24mm.

Obverse: No legend. Three standing figures, each wearing crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large M, with rho-anchor staurogram above, A below; TIBEPIAΔO to left and in exergue; tabariya (in Arabic) to right.

Reference: Foss p. 52 and D.O. 81
Abu Galyon
Arab_First_Bilingual_Emesa_[2].jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya39 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE) First bilingual series, mint of Homs (Emesa) in Syria. Fals, weight 3.53g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure, holding long cross and globus cruciger; in field to right, (reading vertically from bottom to top): KAΛON; in field to left (vertically, in Arabic): bism allah (“in the name of God”).

Reverse: Large M, with rho-cross flanked by stars above and Δ below; to left (vertically) EMH; to right (vertically) CIC; in exergue (in Arabic): tayyib [= ‘good’].

Reference: Foss p.43 and D.O. 40.
Abu Galyon
Arab_Bilingual_Damascus.jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya38 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE). Bilingual series, mint of Damascus. Fals, weight 4.29g, diameter 22mm.

Obverse: Emperor standing, crowned, holding long cross and globus cruciger; to left stylised bird (falcon?) on T-shaped perch; to right downwards ΔΑΜΑCKΟC

Reverse: Large M with rho-cross above; below ∩ over line; to right downwards ḍarb; in exergue dimashq; to left downwards jā’iz (“legal issue of Damascus”)

References: Foss p.46 (type C) and Goodwin [2005], p.37 (number 22).
Abu Galyon
Arab_Bilingual_Damascus_[2].jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya21 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE). Bilingual series, mint of Damascus. Fals, weight 5.31g, diameter 19mm.

Obverse: Emperor standing, crowned, holding long cross and globus cruciger; to left stylised bird (falcon?) on T-shaped perch; to right downwards ΔΑΜΑCKΟC

Reverse: Large M with rho-cross above; below ∩ over line; to right downwards ḍarb; in exergue dimashq; to left downwards jā’iz (“legal issue of Damascus”)

References: Foss p.46 (type C) and Goodwin [2005], p.37 (number 22).
Abu Galyon
Arab_Bilingual_DAMACKOC_[3].jpg
Caliphate of Mu’awiya14 viewsMu’awiya (660 – 680 CE). Bilingual series, mint of Damascus. Fals, weight 3.58g, diameter 20mm.

Obverse: Emperor standing, crowned, holding long cross and globus cruciger; to left stylised bird (falcon?) on T-shaped perch; to right downwards ΔΑΜΑCKΟC

Reverse: Large M with rho-cross above; below ∩ over line; to right downwards ḍarb; in exergue dimashq; to left downwards jā’iz (“legal issue of Damascus”)

References: Foss p.46 (type C) and Goodwin [2005], p.37 (number 22).
Abu Galyon
Costantino_I_Costantinopoli.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, AE follis, zecca di Costantinopoli24 viewsConstantine I, AE follis, Constantinople mint
AE, 3.74 gr, 18 mm, S
D/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, on a base, star above; A in left field, mintmark in ex CONS
RIC VII 7 Constantinople type 2
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (1 marzo 2013, numero catalogo 182); ex Hussam M. Zurqieh collection (Dubai, United Arab Emirates, fino al 2013)
paolo
Costantino_I_Alessandria.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, AE3, zecca di Alessandria, II officina (325-326 d.C.)27 viewsConstantine I, AE3. Alexandria mint II officina (325-326 AD)
AE, 3.25 gr, 18 mm, C1
D/ CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
R/ PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets and a star above, SMALB in ex
RIC VII 34 Alexandria
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (3 marzo 2013, numero catalogo 183), ex Hussam M. Zurqieh collection (Dubai, United Arab Emirates, fino al 2013)
paolo
Costanzo_Alessandria.jpg
Campgate: Costanzo II, AE follis, zecca di Alessandria33 viewsConstantius II, AE Follis (c. 325-326 AD), Alexandria
AE, 3.20 gr, 19,01 mm, R2
D/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust l.
R/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, camp gate with two turrets, no doors; star above; SMALB in ex
RIC VII Alexandria 37
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, 6 marzo 2014, numero catalogo 208), ex Hussam M. Zurqieh collection (Dubai, United Arab Emirates, fino al 2014)
paolo
5.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria19 viewsQuarterdeck
Mainmast shrouds
Juancho
4.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria17 viewsMaindeck
Quarterdeck
Poopdeck
Mainmast
Juancho
3.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria14 viewsMaindeck
Quarterdeck
Poopdeck
Mainmast
Juancho
2.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria16 viewsLength: 280mm
Height: 285mm
Beam: 80mm

Scale 1:110
Juancho
1.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria51 viewsModel of the Carabela Santa Maria,
self-made, took me a few years for the completion.
5 commentsJuancho
7.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria19 viewsForecastle deck
Foremast shrouds
Hawse-holes
Anchor
Juancho
6.jpg
Carabela Santa Maria12 viewsBulkhead
Windlass
Waist hatchway
Juancho
287535629_9a8f426b72.jpg
Carradice Type I AR Siglos - Time of Darius I148 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire.
Time of Darius I. Circa 520-505 BC.
AR Siglos (12mm, 5.31g).
Half-length bust of Persian king right, holding bow and arrows / Incuse punch.
Carradice Type I (pl. XI, 10); BMC Arabia pl. XXVII, 25.
Ex Hesperia 1964. Rare. Fine+

Provenance: Harlan J Berk
Caffaro
siglosItipo2a.jpg
Carradice Type I AR Siglos - Time of Darius I103 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire.
Time of Darius I. Circa 520-505 BC.
AR Siglos (15mm, 5.34g).
Half-length bust of Persian king right, holding bow and arrows / Incuse punch.
Carradice Type I (pl. XI, 10); BMC Arabia pl. XXVII, 25.

Provenance: Lanz
Caffaro
327122036_c186780e8f.jpg
Carradice Type II AR Siglos - Time of Darius I to Xerxes I90 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire.
Time of Darius I to Xerxes I. Circa 505-480 BC.
AR Siglos (14mm, 5.28 g).
Persian king or hero in kneeling/running stance right, shooting bow / Incuse punch. Carradice Type II (pl. XI, 12); BMC Arabia pl. XXVII, 23. VF, hoard patina.

Provenance: CNG electronic auction 152, Lot: 116.
Caffaro
327121942_8b3423c2a5.jpg
Carradice Type II AR Siglos - Time of Darius I to Xerxes I95 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire.
Time of Darius I to Xerxes I. Circa 505-480 BC.
AR Siglos (13mm, 5.22 g).
Persian king or hero in kneeling/running stance right, shooting bow / Incuse punch. Carradice Type II (pl. XI, 12); BMC Arabia pl. XXVII, 23. VF, toned.

Provenance: CNG electronic auction 153, Lot: 71.
Caffaro
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557125 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
WangMang2.jpg
China: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D.95 viewsChina: Han Interregnum, Usurper Wang Mang, 7-22 A.D. AE24 mm, Cash. Obv: Huo Chuan. Schjoth-165.

"As soon as his [Wang Mang's] power was sufficiently consolidated, 3 years after his return to court, lists of his political opponents were drawn up, and hundreds were executed. Shortly after this he established a new penal colony in Tibet in the far West, a sort of ancient gulag. Unfortunately we have no direct account as to the nature of the crimes of those exiled to Tibet. In 6 AD the reins of power were still more firmly in his grasp, and Mang ordered his first reform of the coinage. Fundamentally this was a stratagem to nationalize the gold stocks, and put the empire back on a copper standard. Gold was requisitioned and exchanged against very high value bronze tokens. Two years later the tokens were demonetized. The cash assets of the aristocracy and the wealthy merchants must have been largely wiped out overnight. It is in the first couple of years of Mang's independent reign that the astonishing breadth of his reform proposals appear. His reforms include:

1) the abolition of slavery.
2) the nationalization of land.
3) standard plots of arable land for all adult males who wished to work them.
4) farming families grouped in hamlets of 6 or 8, with a common tax assessment.
5) a national bank offering fair rates of interest to all.
6) government market activity to counteract cornering and monopolization.
7) a new currency system in 15 denominations - circulating by government fiat.
8) defeat of the Huns

His new taxes include

taxes to be paid in cash or kind on cultivated land (one tenth)

triple rates to be paid on uncultivated land (parks and gardens etc.)

c) all self-employed or professional people outside farming shall register for income tax, which will be universally levied at 10% per annum. Those avoiding registration, or submitting false accounts to be sentenced to one years hard labour.

d) the state monopolies on iron, salt, silk, cloth and coinage to be retained

e) a new state monopoly on wine to be introduced.

Discussion of the proposals

1) Events in his private life show Mang's abhorrence of slavery. He vilified the political system of the legalists, established in the Chin dynasty (221-206 BC) specifically by alluding to the manner in which they established market places for male and female slaves, "putting human beings in auction pens as if they were cattle."

Reforms 2, 3, 5 & 6) The nationalization of land and its distribution amongst the peasant farmers themselves is of course one solution to the central economic problem in all pre-modern civilizations, (which presumably finds its roots in the bronze age and persisting right down to the machine age). Peasants must have security of tenure and just returns for their labour, otherwise they will not be encouraged to work effectively - and the state and all within it will thereby be impoverished. However if they are made private landowners then clever, unscrupulous, hard-working individuals within and outwith the peasantry will begin to gain land at the expense of their neighbours. The chief mechanisms of this gradual monopolization of the land by a class of people distinguished by their wealth are:

Preying upon private 'misfortune', (illness, death, and marriage expenses) by loansharking.
Preying upon public misfortunes (bad harvests) by loansharking.
Creating shortages by rigging the markets, exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

Unfairly biasing tax assessments, creating and exacerbating private and public misfortunes, and then loansharking.

The end result of this tendency is likely to be that the bulk of farmers lack security of tenure and or just returns, and cease to work effectively, to the impoverishment of all. Reforms 2, 3 & 5 bear on this problem in an obvious way.

Reform 6 - the "Five Equalizations" is a little more complicated, so I shall explain it at greater length. Fundamentally it required the installation of government officials at the five important markets of the empire who would "buy things when they were cheap and sell them when they were dear." In more detail: "The superintendent of the market, in the second month of each of the four seasons, shall determine the true price of the articles under their responsibility, and shall establish high, middle and low prices for each type of item. When there are unsold goods on the market, the superintendent shall buy them up at the cost (low?) price. When goods become expensive (ie exceed the high price?) the superintendent shall intervene to sell goods from the official store (and thereby reduce the price)." The regulation thus allows markets to operate, but provides for state intervention to stop speculation . . . Mang's regulations allow for a review and revision of the trading bands four times a year.

4). In resettling the people securely on the land, Mang choose to group them into "chings" of 6 or 8 families - attempting to restore the traditional "well field" system. This provided for the regular exchange of land between the families, to give all a go at the best ground, and for joint responsibility for a common tax demand. The ching system was believed, by the Confucian party in the 1st century BC at least, to have been destroyed by the growth of mercantilist exploitation under the Chin legalists. There are hints that the state went on to use the ching structure in crime prevention measures, by making all members of the ching culpable for the unreported crime of any single member. The installation of a land nationalization scheme under the banner of a return to the ancient Chou system of 'chings' had a great deal of propaganda value amongst the Confucian elite which surrounded Mang. A sentimental view of rural working class life seems to be a common weakness amongst aristocratic and middle class intellectuals of all periods. Mang's own observations of the labouring poor would necessarily have been made at a distance - perhaps he too shared in this sentimental myopia. The evidence suggests that the peasantry did not welcome this aspect of the reforms

7) Food was the first concern of Confucian government, but coinage was the second. Only fair prices could encourage the farmers. Only markets could create fair prices. Only with coins could markets exist. Mang introduced a rational set of 15 denominations of coin, valued from 1 to 1,000 cash and circulated by government fiat. Mang did not invent the idea of fiat or fiduciary currency, a brief attempt had been made to circulate one in China a century earlier. However Mang was the first to systematically think through the matter in a practical context, and to apply it over a protracted period. Future successful ancient and medieval experiments with fiat currency, first in China, then in Japan and Central Asia, and unsuccessful ones in medieval India and Persia all looked back - directly or indirectly - to Mang. The first successful fully fiduciary currencies in Europe are products of the 20th century, more than 700 years after Europeans became aware of Chinese practices. (I am neglecting a great deal of late Roman copper coin here of course. I am by no means knowledgeable on such coins, but my understanding is that in principle, if not in practice, Rome was generally on the silver or the gold standard, and copper was exchangeable on demand.) On my own reading of the text, Mang's main concern is to get gold and silver off the market, so they could not be used to bid his tokens down - his coinage was intended to replace gold coinage, not supplement it."--Robert Tye

For a more complete study of Wang Mang, see Robert Tye's compositon about this enigmatic leader at http://www.anythinganywhere.com/info/tye/Wang%20Mang.htm
Cleisthenes
image00263.jpg
Cilician Armenia, Seljuq of Rum: Hetoum I and Kaykhusraw II Bilingual Tram (Album-1221, Nercessian-325)54 viewsIn compliance with a peace treaty previously signed by Levon I with the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, Kaykhusraw I, Hetoum struck silver coins bearing both Armenian and Arabic legends. Known as bilingual issues, Hetoum struck them first with Kaykhusraw’s son, Kayqubad I, and later with Kayqubad’s son, Kaykhusraw II.

Obverse:
King on horseback trotting to right holding sceptre over right shoulder, a cross above horse’s
tail and crescent over horse’s head. Armenian legend around - ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՑ, Hethum King of the Armenians

Reverse:
السلطان الاعظم, The Sublime Sultan
غياث الدنيا والدين, Protector of the World and Faith
كيخسرو بن كيقباد, Kaykhusraw, Son of Kayqubad

Reverse Top Margin:
ضرب ﺑﺴﻴﺲ سنة أربع و, Struck in the City of Sis, the Year Four and

Reverse Left Margin:
أربعون, Forty

Reverse Right Margin:
وستمائة, And Six Hundred
1 commentsSpongeBob
Cilicia_Satraps_Pharnabazos_SNG-Levante72v.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Pharnabazos8 viewsPharnabazos. 380-379 BC. AR Stater (10.66 gm) of Tarsos. Baaltars seated l. holding lotus-tipped scepter. 'BAALTRZ' in Aramaic r. / Bearded male head (Ares?) left, wearing crested Attic helmet. FRNBZW (Pharnabazos) in Aramaic to l., KLK (Cilicia) r.  EF.  Pegasi 127 #123. SNG Levante 72; SNG France 2 #251ff; Casabonne Series 4; Moysey Issue 2, 1-27; SNG von Aulock 5927; SNG Cop Supp. 609. Christian T
Cilicia_Satraps_Pharnabazos_SNG-Lev76.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Pharnabazos9 viewsPharnabazos. 379-374 BC. AR Obol (0.65 gm) of Tarsos. Baaltars seated left, holding scepter / Bust of a warrior (Ares?) l. wearing crested Attic helmet. gVF.  CNG EA 259 #137. Minor chipping on edge. SNG France 2 #257; SNG Levante 76; Casabonne Series 4. Christian T
SNG_Paris_1730_var_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Cilicia_Tarsos_Philippus_Arabs_SNG France 1730 var.5 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Cilicia, Tarsos
Struck: 244-249 / 35-36,5 mm / 23,62 g

Av: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΙΟΥ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΝ ΕΥΤ ΕΥC CE
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from the front

In fields: Π / Π

Rv: ΤΑΡCΟΥ ΜΗΤ-ΡΟΠΟΛΕΩC
Tyche with Kaleitos standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

In left field: Α / Μ / Κ
In right field: Γ / B

Reference: SNG France 1730 var.
Andicz
BIZ 26 D.jpg
Constans II27 viewsConstans II (641-668), 12 nummia of Alexandria, Sear 1027. This type was probably struck between September 641 when Constans became Augustus and Autumn 642, when the Arabs finally subjugated Egypt, though it is possible that the Arabs might have continued striking it for a while after the conquest.
Tanit
Costantine2.jpg
Constantine II 337-340 A.D.34 views
Metal: Bronze
Diam: 16 mm.
Weight: 1.6 gr.

OBV: Constantine II, Elder son of Constantine The Great :Diademed and cuirassed bust facing Right
OBV-LEGEND: CONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing one standard between them.
REV-LEGEND : GLOR IAEXER ITUS
Marks-REV: In Exergue: SMNA also Alignment shifted 180 (Obv and Rev. are upside down one to aother)

Source : N/A
Age: 337-340 A.D.
Mint: Nicomedia *
*Nicomedia Nicomedia (Greek: Νικομήδεια, modern İzmit in Turkey) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens to the Propontis. The city was founded in 712 BC and, in early Antiquity, was called Astacus or Olbia. After being destroyed, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. Hannibal came to Nicomedia in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Diliskelesi, Gebze). The historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, and Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) in 324. Constantine mainly resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years, until in 330 he declared the nearby Byzantium as Nova Roma, which eventually became known as Constantinople (present-day Istanbul). Constantine died in a royal villa at the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.[1]

However, a major earthquake on 24 August 358 caused extensive devastation to Nicomedia and was followed by a fire which completed the catastrophe. Nicomedia was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale.[2] In the sixth century under Emperor Justinian the city was extended with new public buildings. Situated on the roads leading to the capital, the city remained a major military center, playing an important role in the Byzantine campaigns against the Caliphate.[3]

From the 840s on, Nicomedia was the capital of the thema of the Optimatoi. By that time, most of the old, seawards city had been abandoned and is described by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh as lying in ruins. The settlement had obviously been restricted to the hilltop citadel.[3] In the 1080s, the city served as the main military base for Alexios I Komnenos in his campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, and the First and Second Crusades both encamped there. The city was held by the Latin Empire between 1204 and ca. 1240, when it was recovered by John III Vatatzes. It remained in Byzantine control for a further century, but following the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302, it was threatened by the rising Ottoman beylik. The city was twice blockaded by the Ottomans (in 1304 and 1330) before finally succumbing in 1337.[3]



Ref : Ric VII 189
Michel C2
DSCN6990.JPG
Constantine X Doukas 1059 - 67 AE 25-29mm8 viewsConstantine X Doukas 1059 - 67

Obv. Eudocia on l., Constantine bearded on r., stg. facing holding cross between them labarum with cross on shaft resting on three steps each wearing crown and loros.

Rev. + KWN T AK EVAK AVTO or similar . countermark near the center is Mardin #14, with the Arabic name 'Imad. It is attributed to the Zengid ruler 'Imad al-din Zengi II, Atabeg of Sinjar and Nisibin (565-94 AH / 1169-97 AD), probably applied at the mint of Nisibin.
Lee S
kAFFA_1.JPG
CRIMEA, KAFFA GENOESE TRADING COLONY (1420 - 1475) AR bi-lingual asper7 viewsObverse: Arms of Genoa within Rhombus of dots, Latin inscription (DVX) (M)D CA(R) around

Reverse: Giray Tamga symbol within Rhombus of dots, Arabic inscription naming Khan Hajji Ginay of the Crimean Khanate as overlord around

Mint: Kaffa

Minted: 1425-1473

Ref: Retowski 205 - 219; ME5336
jimbomar
10039b.jpg
Crusader States, Normans of Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro, Spahr 117.75 viewsCrusader States, Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro (24-25 mm), 8,82 g.
Obv.: Facing head of lioness within circle of dots.
Re.: Palm tree with five branches and two bunches of dates, within circle of dots.
Biaggi 1231, Spahr 117 ; Grie 210 (Roger II); Thom 2480 .

William II of Sicily (1153-1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189.
William was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I, when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre.
Until the king came of age in 1171 the government was controlled first by the chancellor Stephen du Perche, cousin of Margaret (1166-1168), and then by Walter Ophamil, archbishop of Palermo, and Matthew of Ajello, the vice-chancellor.
William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1174 and 1175 he made treaties with Genoa and Venice and his marriage in February 1177 with Joan, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, marks his high position in European politics.
In July 1177, he sent a delegation of Archbishop Romuald of Salerno and Count Roger of Andria to sign the Treaty of Venice with the emperor. To secure the peace, he sanctioned the marriage of his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger II, with Frederick's son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry VI, causing a general oath to be taken to her as his successor in case of his death without heirs. This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder. A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Comnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople. Durazzo was captured (June 11, 1185). Afterwards while the army marched upon Thessalonica, the fleet sailed towards the same target capturing on their way the Ionian islands of Corfu, Cephalonia,Ithaca and Zakynthos. In August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The troops then marched upon the capital, but the troop of the emperor Isaac Angelus overthrew the invaders on the banks of the Strymon (September 7, 1185). Thessalonica was at once abandoned and in 1189 William made peace with Isaac, abandoning all the conquests. He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the Third Crusade. His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 60 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In November 1189 William died, leaving no children. Though Orderic Vitalis records a (presumably short-lived) son in 1181: Bohemond, Duke of Apulia. His title of "the Good" is due perhaps less to his character than to the cessation of internal troubles in his reign. The "Voyage" of Ibn Jubair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Muslim women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
tripoli_sidon.jpg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise53 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 15mm.
Obverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.
Reverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon pommeté .
CCS 35 .
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
9C6D2C04-80EC-4212-8765-A3B60EB50585.jpeg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise .25 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 0.63 g
Obverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.
Reverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon

CCS 35 .
Ex Byzantium Coins, Wolfgang Leimenstoll, Gundelfingen, April 2011.
Ex Erich Wäckerlin collection
Ex Münzen & Medaillen GmbH
Auction 47 lot 67
Vladislav D
trsid.jpg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise47 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 14-17 mm ; 0,5 g
Obverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.
Reverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon pommeté .
CCS 35 .
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
sd.jpg
Crusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 . AE - Pougeoise 31 viewsCrusaders, Tripoli, Sidon or Other Uncertain Syrian City, 1250 - 1268 .
AE - Pougeoise . 16 mm , 0.53 g
Obverse : uncertain blundered Arabic legend, six-rayed chrismon pommeté .
Reverse : Uncertain blundered Arabic legend, cross pommeté, pellets in upper left and lower right quarters.

CCS 35 .
Very Rare .
Vladislav D
3810692.jpg
Cypriot Man-Faced Bull Scarab in Silver Bezel33 viewsMan-Faced Bull Scarab of Pink Quartz, with Silver Bezel. c. 700 BC. Marion, Cyprus.1 commentsMolinari
AMNG_I_I_16_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Dacia_Sarmizegetusa_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 167 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Dacia, Sarmizegetusa
Struck: 248 / 28-29 mm / 15,70 g

Av: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: PROVINCIA DACIA
Dacia standing left between eagle (left) and lion (right), wearing phrygian cap, holding curved sword and vexillum marked XIII, vexillum marked V to left

In exergue: AN III (ANno III)

Reference: AMNG I/I 16
Andicz
Darius_I_-_Xerxes_II_Siglos.jpg
Darius I-Xerxes II Siglos --485-420 BC9 views5.54 g, 14 mm
Silver Siglos; Bright Surfaces
Minted sometime between reigns of Darius I and Xerxes II
Carradice Type IIIb A/B (plate XII 16-26); BMC Arabia plate XXV, 17

Obverse: Persian King or Hero in Kneeling-Running Stance Right, Holding Spear and Bow.
Reverse: Rectangular Incuse Punch.

Cyrus the Great conquered the Lydian kingdom of Kroisos in 546 BC. The Persian Empire first struck coins with Lydian types until 510, when the Daric and Siglos were introduced, each bearing the same obverse design that earned the coinage its nickname, “Archers”. The gold Daric (8.3 g) and the silver Siglos (5.3 g) continued the Lydian weight standard, circulating mostly in Asia Minor. Over nearly two centuries their archaic types hardly changed; as they bear no legends, attribution by reign can be difficult. After Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire in 330 BC, Persians used Greek coins - first Alexander's imperial coinage, and then the royal Seleukid coinage that succeeded it.
_______________________
Not exactly a Greek coin, but the Persian Wars are incredibly significant in Greek history and inspired me to add this Siglos to my collection.
Hydro
tugluq_tankah_k.jpg
Dehli Sultanate, Muhammad III b. Tughluq, AD 1325-1351 4 viewsÆ Tanka, 20mm, 9.1gm, 9h), Takhtgah Dehli mint, AH 731.
Obv.: Persian, Muhr shod tankah ra'ij dar rozgar bandah amidvar Muhammad Tughluq (Sealed as a tanka current in the reign of the slave, hopeful [of grace], Muhammad Tughluq).
Rev.: Arabic, Min ata'a all-sultn faqad ata'a al-rahman (He who obeyed the Sultan obeyed the Merciful One); Persian mint and date formula in margin.
Reference: G/G D403; R 1138.
Notes: Tughluq attempted to foist this brass coin as a silver substitute onto his subjects. It did not last long.
John Anthony
s-l500_(20).jpg
DELHI SULTAN - GIYATH AL DIN TUGHLOUQUE - 4 GANI _25013 viewsWEIGHT - 3.62 gm.
DIAMETER - 16 mm
Silver 4-ghani of Ghiyath al-din Tughluq (1320-1325), dated to 1321 AD, Sultanate of Delhi, India
Arabic inscription on both sides: Al-sultan al-ghazi ghiyath al-dunya wa'l din / abu'l muzaffar tughluq shah al-sultan. Dated to 721 AH = 1321 AD. "The coins of the Indian Sultanates" #D311; Rajgor 1071.
Antonivs Protti
DEMAK_SULTANATE_AL_PATAH.jpg
DEMAK SULTANATE - Sultan Pangeran Al-Patah33 viewsDEMAK SULTANATE - Java, present-day Indonesia, Sultan Pangeran Al-Patah (1475-1518) Tin Pitis. Obv.: In Arabic script: Sultan Pungeran al-adil ("the Just sultan Pangeran") Rev.: Blank. The Demak Sultanate was Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak. Foundation of Demak is traditionally attributed to Raden Patah, also known as Pangeran al-Patah or al-Fatah (1475–1518), a Javanese nobility related to Majapahit royalty. The Sultanate lasted from about 1478 to 1548. Despite its short duration, the sultanate played an important role in the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, especially on Java and neighboring area.dpaul7
fa1divibosOR.jpg
Diva Faustina Senior, Spijkerman 1517 viewsArabia, Bostra mint, Diva Faustina Senior, Died AD 140/1 AE, 11mm 1.17g, Kindler 11; Rosenberger 11-2; Spijkerman 15
O: ΘEA ΦAVCT, Veiled and draped bust right
R: NT O/B, three heads of barley fastened together, all within wreath
1 commentscasata137ec
Domitian_Adlocutio.jpg
Domitian Sestertius, Adlocutio, RIC 288140 viewsDomitian. A.D. 81-96. Æ sestertius (33 mm, 22.94 g). Rome, A.D. 85. Laureate bust right, wearing aegis / Domitian standing right, clasping hands with general over altar; two soldiers behind. RIC 288; Cohen 497. BMCRE 344, RCV 2775, Kampmann 24.129 Near VF. F500 VF2500

The representation on the rev. of this issue is a very controversial one. For some it depicts the arrival in Rome of the general Agricola due to the fact that the scene is first shown in the same year in which Domitian had to recall the British general. In reality the theme has a much more general meaning: in ca. AD 85 the Daci started to invade the Roman province of Moesia. The Roman army was seriously defeated, comparable to the defeats of P. Quinctilius Varus in AD 9. From all over the empire troops were sent to Moesia, in the end 9 legions were stationed against the Daci. In this context the Concordia between the emperor and his army is seen, the handshake over the burning altar remembers the oath of allegiance. By how important the harmony in the army was, is shown by the defection of Antonius Saturninus, legate for the Upper Rhine. This defection forced Domitian in AD 89 to agree to an unsatisfactory peace agreement with the Daci; but this agreement would not last for more than a couple of years.
3 commentsmattpat
104n.jpg
Draped bust and Δ158 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Septimius Severus. Æ 23. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (..)KMAV(...) or similar. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: (…)MHTPO(…). Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?); countermark (1) behind and (2) below figure of Tyche. Ref: Spijkerman 27-36 (??). Axis: 180°. Weight: 8.35 g. Ntoe: It is not certain that this coin comes from Petra, although it seems likely. The obverse legend, however, does not seem to match any of those listed by Spijkerman. CM(1): Draped bust in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego (?). Note: It is unlikely that this countermark corresponds to Howgego 126, since that countermark is applied to the obverse. CM(2): Δ in triangular punch, 6 x 5 mm. Howgego 801 (?) (19 pcs). Note: It is not certain that this is actually a countermark, since the outline if very faint. Although since it seems too regular to be part of the coin's design, this can not be excluded. Collection Automan.Automan
Immagine.jpg
Dutch India (VOC), Pulicat, 1 Cash 164617 viewsPulicat - Dutch India (VOC)
1 Cash (since) 1646
9mm 1,76g
D/ VOC monogram and "P" retrograde.
R/ Arabic inscription "in the name of the Sultan Abd'allah"
KM #35.1
Matteo
DHbyzweight15mm8mm554g.jpg
Early Arabic weight19 viewsPart of likely cup weight used to fit together different weights and dimensions.
15mm by 8mm thick. 5.54g
wileyc
EB0310b_scaled.JPG
EB0310 Menorah / Inscription3 viewsABD-EL-MELIK?, Arabic, Ca. 700 AD.
Obverse: Menorah.
Reverse: Inscription.
References: -.
Diameter: 15mm, Weight: 2.407g.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0329b_scaled.JPG
EB0329 Farkhan / Fire Altar10 viewsIspahbads of Tabaristan, Farkhan (Farroxan), AD 711 to 728, 1/2 dirhem.
Obverse: Head of Farkhan right, with his name in Arabic.
Reverse: Sassanian style fire altar with attendants, with the mint and date at the sides.
References: Mitchiner Islamic - 274 variety.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 1.977g.
1 commentsEB
EB0420_scaled.JPG
EB0420 Trajan / Arabia19 viewsTrajan, AR drachm, 113-114 AD.
Obv: AYTOKΡ KAIC NEΡ TΡAIAN CEB ΓEΡM, Laureate head right, slight drapery on left shoulder.
Rev: ΔHMAΡX [EX IC (or IZ)] YΠAT ς, Arabia standing left, holding branch and bundle of cinnamon sticks, camel to left.
References: Sydenham 184-185 (under Caesarea).
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.082 grams.
1 commentsEB
EB0479_scaled.JPG
EB0479 Septimius Severus / ARAB ADIAB12 viewsSeptimius Severus, AR Denarius, 195 AD.
Obv: [L SEP]T SEV PERT AVG IMP V, laureate head right.
Rev: ARAB [ADIAB] COS II PP, Victory walking left holding wreath and trophy.
References: RIC 58.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 3.072 grams.
EB
EB0582_scaled.JPG
EB0582 Gordian III / Abgar X11 viewsGordian III and Abgar X Phraates, AE 20 of Edessa, Mesopotamia, 242-244 AD.
Obv: Laureate bust right.
Rev: Bust of Abgar right, wearing tiara.
References: SNG Cop 227; BMC Arabia pg.116, 159.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 6.336 grams.
EB
EB0721_scaled.JPG
EB0721 Philip I / Temple8 viewsPhilip I, NESIBI, Mesopotamia, AE 26.
Obverse: AUTOK K M IOULI FILIPPOC CEB, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: IOY CEΠ KOΛΩ NECIBI MHT, tetrastyle temple with twisted columns; within arched central bay statue of Tyche seated facing, ram leaping right above, river-god swimming right below.
References: BMC Arabia p. 122, 17 var.
Diameter: 25.5mm, Weight: 8.36g.
EB
coin339.JPG
Edessa, MESOPOTAMIA; Elagabalus22 viewsMESOPOTAMIA, Edessa. Elagabalus. AD 218-222.

Radiate head right / Tyche seated left on rocks, holding branch, altar before; Orontes swimming right below. BMC Arabia pg 101, 67 var.; SNG Copenhagen 209 var
ecoli
Babylon_in_Egypt.jpg
Egypt, Babylon299 viewsThis elegant red and white banded brickwork is about all that remains on the surface to mark the Roman fortress of ‘Babylon in Egypt’. The Roman structure was started during the reign of Trajan on the site of an earlier Egyptian stronghold which marked the border between Lower and Middle Egypt. The fortress remained an important strategic outpost down through Byzantine times. In the fifth century the Legio XIII Gemina was stationed here. During the Arab conquest of Egypt in 640/1, Babylon endured a seven month siege before its capture.

These days most of the extensive Babylon complex lies buried under the streets of the Christian quarter of Old Cairo. The nearby medieval Coptic Orthodox Church of the Virgin Mary is popularly known as the ‘Hanging Church’ because its nave was built suspended over two towers of the Roman fort.
1 commentsAbu Galyon
IMG_3095.JPG
Egypt, New Kingdom, 16th - 11th Century BC, Faience Scarab18 viewsEgypt, New Kingdom, 16th - 11th Century BC
Blue faience scarab measuring 27mm. Intact with a nice blue color, simple incised details, blank base.

ex. DeVries Collection. Carl DeVries (born 1921, died 2010), research associate and professor for the Oriental Institute, was a renowned collector of antiquities. Dr. DeVries attended Wheaton College in Illinois, earning his B.A. in 1942, M.A. in 1944 and B.D. in 1947. Because he lost an eye as a teenager he could not serve in the military during World War II. Wheaton recruited him as a 22-year-old to be head coach for track and football. Known as "The Kid Coach”, he served on the coaching staff from 1942 to 1952. He served as an instructor in Biblical archaeology at Wheaton from 1945 until 1952 before leaving to pursue his Ph.D. in archaeology from the University of Chicago, which he attained in 1960. As a member of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago he excavated in Egypt from 1950 to 1972 and served on many culturally important undertakings such as the Nubian Expedition and Aswan Dam Recovery Project. Many items in his collection were purchased in Luxor from Sayed Molattam, a noted antiquities dealer based in Luxor, where Devrie’s work with the Oriental Institute was based.
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
00ascarab.jpg
EGYPTIAN44 viewsScarabs. Steatite.
1. Hyksos. c 1600 BC. 15,9 mm. Rope pattern.
1 commentsbenito
scarab.jpg
Egyptian Scarab12 views1.17g., 14mm x 10mm x 7mm
ancientone
Scarab2_b.jpg
Egyptian steatite scarab amulet18 viewsHyksos - Second Intermediate Period
circa 1700-1600 B.C.
Tibsi
Scarab1_b.jpg
Egyptian steatite scarab amulet23 viewsHyksos - Second Intermediate Period
circa 1700-1600 B.C.
Tibsi
Elagabal_Charachmoba_ab.jpg
Elagabalus - Charachmoba, Arabia32 viewsElagabalus (218-222 AD) Æ (22 mm, 7.75 g). Charachmoba, Arabia.
Obverse: AVK M AV AN (...), laurate head right, flower in right field.
Reverse: XAPAX MWBA, Tyche standing facing with head left holding rudder and cornucopiae.
Reference: Spijkerman 1.

The coinage of Charachmoba (today's Kerak) east of the Dead Sea was in production solely during the reign of Elagabalus and the coins from the mint are rare.


Jan (jbc)
Elagabalus_Oxen_Plowing_Petra.JPG
Elagabalus Oxen Plowing Petra26 viewsElagabalus, Petra, Arabia, 218 - 222 AD, 22mm, 5g, SNG Cop 150, Spijkerman 56,
REV: IMP C M AVP ANTONINOC, laureate draped bust right
OBV: PETΛA COLONIA, founder, togate, right hand raised, ploughing right with pair of oxen
Romanorvm
Elagabalus_Petra.jpg
Elagabalus, 16 May 218 - 11 March 222 A.D., Petra, Provincia Arabia44 viewsBronze AE 20,
4.47g, 17.7mm, 270°, Petra mint,
Obv.: [IMP C] M AVP ANT[ONINOC], laureate draped bust right
Rev.: PETLA COLONI A, founder, togate, right hand raised, ploughing right with pair of oxen
Spijkerman 56
ex FORVM
areich
petra.jpg
Elagabalus, Petra, Two bulls8 viewsElagabalus, AE18, Petra, Arabia, 218-222AD. 18 mm, 5.8 g. Obverse: IMP S M AYR ANTONINOS, laureate draped bust right. Reverse: PET“L”A COLONI A, founder, togate, right hand raised, plowing right with pair of oxen. Spijkerman 56. ex Jerome HoldermanPodiceps
efounderpetORweb.jpg
Elagabalus, Sp-5630 viewsArabia Petraea mint, Elagabalus, 218-222 A.D. AE Sp-56, Ros-35.
O: IMP M AVR ANTONINVS, Laureate bust right.
R: PETRA COL, Founder plows to right with two oxen.
1 commentscasata137ec
60319LG.jpg
Elis, Olympia192 viewsOlympia (Greek: Ολυμπία Olympí'a or Ολύμπια Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every olympiad (i.e. every four years), the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC. In 394 emperor Theodosius I, or possibly his grandson Theodosius II in 435, abolished them because they were reminiscent of paganism.

The sanctuary itself consists of an unordered arrangement of various buildings. To the north of the sanctuary can be found the prytaneion and the Philippeion, as well as the array of treasuries representing the various city states. The metroon lies to the south of these treasuries, with the Echo Stoa to the East. To the south of the sanctuary is the South Stoa and the Bouleuterion, whereas the West side houses the palaistra, the workshop of Pheidias, the Gymnasion and the Leonidaion. Enclosed within the temenos are the temples of Hera and Zeus, the Pelopion and the area of the altar, where the sacrifices were made. The hippodrome and later stadium were also to the East.

Olympia is also known for the gigantic ivory and gold statue of Zeus that used to stand there, sculpted by Pheidias, which was named one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World by Antipater of Sidon. Very close to the temple of Zeus (see photo of ruins below) which housed this statue, the studio of Pheidias was excavated in the 1950s. Evidence found there such as sculptor's tools, corroborates this opinion.

Excavation of the Olympia temple district and its surroundings began with a French expedition in 1829. German archaeologists continued the work in the latter part of the 19th century. The latter group uncovered, intact, the Hermes of Praxiteles statue, among other artifacts. In the middle of the 20th Century, the stadium where the running contests took place was excavated.

The Olympic flame of the modern-day Olympic Games is lit by reflection of sunlight in a parabolic mirror at the restored Olympia stadium and then transported by a torch to the place where the games are held.

When the modern Olympics came to Athens in 2004, the men's and women's shot put competition was held at the restored stadium.

The ancient ruins sits north of the Alfeios River and lies next to Cronius or Kronios hill (the hill of Kronos, or Saturn). Kladeos, a tributary of Alfeios, flows around the area.

The town has a school and a square (plateia). Tourism is popular throughout the late-20th century. The city has a train station and is the easternmost terminus of the line of Olympia-Pyrgos (Ilia). The train station which the freight yard is west of it is about 300 m east of the town centre.

It is linked by GR-74 and the new road was opened in the 1980s, the next stretch N and NE of Olympia will open in around 2005. Distance from Pyrgos is 20 km E(old: 21 km), about 50 km SW of Lampeia, W of Tripoli and Arcadia and 4 km north of Krestena and N of Kyparissia and Messenia. The highway passed north of the ancient ruins.

A reservoir is located 2 km southwest damming up the Alfeios river and has a road from Olympia and Krestena which in the late-1990s has been closed.

The area is hilly and mountainous, most of the area within Olympia is forested.

Elis, Olympia. After ca. 340/30-late 3rd century B.C. Æ unit (20 mm, 5.99 g). Laureate head of Zeus right / FA above, horse trotting right; [L]U below. BCD 339.3 (this coin). Near VF, dark brown patina.
Ex BCD Collection. Ex-John C Lavender G18
ecoli73
axoum_ae.jpg
ETHIOPIA, Kingdom of Axum, Anonymous AE, c.5th century AD29 viewsObverse : CΛ X Λ CΛ (?), crowned and draped bust right, holding cross-tipped sceptre. In left field, cross.
Reverse : TOYTO APECH TH XѠPA (May this please the country), cross with gilded centre.
Munro-Hay type 76

The Kingdom of Axum was an isolated and independent Christian kingdom in what is now Ethiopia and Eritrea that survived from the 1st century to circa the 9th century AD. They existed alongside the other empires in their day, Rome, Persia and China. At some point they conquered the Himyarite Confederacy, in what is now Yemen, and absorbed the Sabean culture. Axum maintained strong ties with the Byzantine Empire until they were cut off from that trade by the Arab conquests of the surrounding area, which caused Axum to fall into decline. The Kingdom of Axum is the proposed home of the Ark of the Covenant and the legendary home of the Queen of Sheba. The Axumite Monarchy was established based on a genealogical relationship with King Solomon of Judea and the Queen of Sheba.
ginolerhino2
axoum_ar.jpg
ETHIOPIA, Kingdom of Axum, Anonymous AR, c.4th-5th century AD28 viewsObverse : CΛX ΛCΛ or BΛX ΛBΛ (?), draped bust of king wearing scarf, with necklace and earring.
Reverse : OTYOTAPCEHTHXWPΛ (the Greek letters in the right order would be TOYTO APECH TH XWPA, May this (the Cross) please the country). Gilded cross in circle.
Munro-Hay type 50.

The Kingdom of Axum was an isolated and independent Christian kingdom in what is now Ethiopia and Eritrea that survived from the 1st century to circa the 9th century AD. They existed alongside the other empires in their day, Rome, Persia and China. At some point they conquered the Himyarite Confederacy, in what is now Yemen, and absorbed the Sabean culture. Axum maintained strong ties with the Byzantine Empire until they were cut off from that trade by the Arab conquests of the surrounding area, which caused Axum to fall into decline. The Kingdom of Axum is the proposed home of the Ark of the Covenant and the legendary home of the Queen of Sheba. The Axumite Monarchy was established based on a genealogical relationship with King Solomon of Judea and the Queen of Sheba.
ginolerhino2
FH-G-027_(0s).jpg
FH-G-0276 viewsCilicia, Tarsos; 164-30 BC; bronze AE17

- ΤΑΠΣΕΩΝ
- TARSEWN
- Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre, star in lower left field.

- Μ-Η-ΤΡ-Ο
- M-H-TR-O (TR ligate)- Clockwise from lower left
- Knobby club, with pommel and hilt, bound with filet; all within wreath.

3.63gm / 17.68mm / Axis: 0

References:
SNG France 1370-2 var. (magistrate’s name)
SNG Levante 974
Waddington 4613
SNG Pfalz 1327

Notes: Dec 2, 15 - Although fully and accurately attributed, this coin may show considerable aesthetic improvement with proper cleaning.
- This coin is closely comparable in detail and style to coin listed here: https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=98417
Jonathan P
FH-G-030_(0s).jpg
FH-G-0307 viewsCilicia, Tarsos; 164-0 BC; AE17

- ΤΑΠΣΕΩΝ
- TARSEWN
- Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre, star in lower left field.

- Μ-Η-ΤΡ-Ο
- M-H-TR-O (TR ligate) - Clockwise from lower left
- Solid, wide club, bound with filet; all within wreath.

4.21gm / 17.97mm / Axis: 0

References:
SNG France 1366
SNG Levante 974
Waddington 4613
SNG Pfalz 1327

Notes: Dec 2, 15 - Although faint, minor details of this coin are visible, including star on obverse and legend on reverse, making this coin nicely attributable.
- The club on the obverse is distinctly wider than others of this type, almost trumpet shape. I have not yet found a comparable example.
- This coin is noticably heavy compared to the other three of the same type in this collection.
Jonathan P
Philippus_I_FIDES_EXERCITVS_ba_b.jpg
FIDES EXERCITVS18 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Philippus_I_FIDES_EXERCITVS_az_b.jpg
FIDES EXERCITVS51 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Pseudo-Byzantine_1.jpg
Follis (Fals)44 viewsPseudo-Byzantine Syrian Arabic, imitating the coinage of Constans II; weight 2.2g (lighter standard), diameter 21mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure type, with traces of an obverse legend, notably the prominent Є (or θ) in the upper right.

Reverse: Large cursive m, between [?] / X and Λ / Є / T; cross above; in exergue: O A retrograde-C

Abu Galyon
BCL0180.jpg
Follis (Fals)48 viewsPseudo-Byzantine Syrian Arabic, imitating the coinage of Constans II; weight 4.2g (heavier standard), diameter 25 x 17mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure type, with traces of an obverse legend.

Reverse: Large cursive m; cross above; θ / retrograde-N / [?] to left; also faint traces of letters in exergue

Abu Galyon
BCL0336.jpg
Follis (Fals)23 viewsPseudo-Byzantine Syrian Arabic, imitating the coinage of Constans II; weight 3.18g, diameter 25x20mm.

Obverse: Crowned imperial bust facing, holding globus cruciger, with traces of an obverse legend.

Reverse: Large M, between X / X and I [?] ; attempted cross (or monogram?) above; obscure symbol (perhaps blundered Γ) below.

This appears to be similar to Goodwin’s “Type G”, i.e. imitating the Constans II follis reference Sear 1004.
Abu Galyon
Arab-Byzantine_Cyprus_imitation.jpg
Follis (Fals)32 viewsPseudo-Byzantine Syrian Arabic, imitating the Cypriot folles of Heraclius (Sear 849); weight 3.99g, diameter 25x20mm.

Obverse: No legend. Three standing crowned imperial figures, each holding long cross in right hand.

Reverse: Large M, cross above, Γ below; to left, garbled, perhaps [?] | retrograde-N | I I I | A; to right, illegible symbols; in exergue, possibly C[ΠΡ].

Official folles from the Cyprus mint were struck during the years 626/9 (= regnal years 17 to 19) and were introduced into the Levant following the Byzantine reoccupation of Syria from the Persians in 629. These imitatives were among the first coins struck after the Arab conquest in 636, and production may have continued into the mid-640s. On this specimen it seems that the central imperial figure has the long beard and moustache portrait type, which was only introduced in Heraclius’ regnal year 20, cf. DOC II(1) Heraclius 184a.3

Reference: Foss pp. 22 – 24
Abu Galyon
Pseudo-Byzantine_2.jpg
Follis (Fals)15 viewsPseudo-Byzantine Syrian Arabic, imitating the coinage of Constans II; weight 5.01g (heavier standard), diameter 23mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure type, with blundered legend, perhaps N OU-ligate T O [?]Є A

Reverse: Large cursive m, between N / N / O and (ω?)/ Є / Λ / [?]; star above; in exergue: garbled symbols, perhaps retrograde-Є [?] T N
Abu Galyon
Pseudo-Byzantine_3.jpg
Follis (Fals)15 viewsPseudo-Byzantine Syrian Arabic, imitating the coinage of Constans II; weight 3.04g (heavier standard), diameter 24 x 17mm.

Obverse: Standing imperial figure type. Very faint traces of an obverse legend, e.g. immediately above the globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large cursive m; [?] / N / [?] to left; in exergue: ~ H ~
Abu Galyon
Philippus_I_FORTVNA_REDVX_bm_b.jpg
FORTVNA REDVX34 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Ancient_Counterfeits_Trajan_Fouree_ARAB_ATQ.jpg
Fouree Denarius of Trajan, ARAB ATQ38 viewsImitating RIC 245, but with an interesting different legend.
Obv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIAN GOER (?) DAC
(RIC 245 has IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P)
Rev: SPOR OPTIMO PRINCIPI - ARAB ATQ
18mm, 2.93g

Ok, what do we have here?
- ARAB ATQ: The engraver has a d/t-problem.
- Legends do not match.
- The coin is undated.
- He forgot AVG.
- NERVAE requires TRAIANO.
- If I am correct in reading "GOER", is that the actual pronunciation in ancient times? Even today in the English "Germany" it has an oe/ö-sound, whereas in German we pronounce it with an "e" like in "elephant".
1 commentsklausklage
JET_Capture_of_Fontarabie.jpg
France. The Taking of Fontarabie8 viewsFeuardent cf. 13216-13223; La Tour cf. 2181-2187

Jeton, brass; minted in Nuremburg, 24 mm, 180°

Obv: LUD • XV D • G FR • -- ET N • REX, bust of Louis XV (1715-1774) facing left.

Rev: PACIS FIRMANDÆ EREPTUM PIGNUS (= peace strengthened, recovered, assured), Helmeted France on the left, standing to the right facing helmeted Spain, holding out an olive branch.

The jeton commemorates the capture of Fontarabie/Hondarribia (in the Spanish Basque country, on the French border) on June 16, 1719 by James I Fitz-James, Duke of Berwick, during the War of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720). By the Peace of Utrecht, the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1714) ended with the Spanish inheritance divided between the Austrian Habsburgs and Spain to create a balance of power in Europe. Soon thereafter, Spain invaded Italy in an attempt to regain territories lost to the Habsburgs. Britain, France, the Dutch Republic and Austria formed the Quadruple Alliance to prevent Spanish revanchism.

Berwick (1670-1734) was the illegitimate son of James II Stuart, King of England and Scotland. He became a French citizen in 1703, Marshal of France in 1706 and Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1714, after his storming of Barcelona that year, essentially ending the War of the Spanish Succession. He resigned his titles in 1718 in favor of his son but remained in office by commission. Following the War of the Quadruple Alliance, Berwick was not called to serve in the field again until, 1733, when he led the Army of the Rhine in the War of the Polish Succession. He was decapitated by a cannonball during the Siege of Philippsburg in 1734.
Stkp
Gadara.jpg
GADARA - Decápolis - Arabia27 viewsAmonedación autónoma de la Ciudad (Biblia - San Lucas 8 - El endemoniado Gadareno).

AE 18 x 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: Busto vestido con corona mural o torreada de tyche (Diosa de la Ciudad) viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΓAΔA / PEΩN / LEI" (GADARA Fecha LEI = año 15 - 50/49 A.C. Gadara se inicia en el 64 A.C.), Leyenda a los lados de una cornucopia.

Mr. Curtis says: “Yours seems to be a new date, LEI = year 15 = 50/49 BC. The dates listed by Spijkerman for this type are LIH = 18, LK = 20, KA = 21, LEK = 25.”

Acuñada: 50 – 49 A.C.
Ceca: Gadara - Decápolis – Arabia

Referencias: Lindgren & Kovacs #2205 – Spijkerman #7 - SNG.ANS.6.1287/88/89/90
mdelvalle
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S_656.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10345, RIC V S-656 var. (reverse legend and bust type), Göbl 1626c, Alföldi, Weltkrise p. 159, Van Meter 251.

AR Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264 or 265 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust facing right.

Rev: SAECVLARHS AVG (Greek H [eta] instead of Latin E), stag standing right, palm branch in exergue.

The reverse legend means means “the Secular (Games) of the Emperor.” The Secular Games (Latin Ludi Saeculares) was a pagan celebration, involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum (supposedly the longest possible length of human life, considered to be either 100 or 110 years in length) and the beginning of the next. The only clearly attested celebrations under the Roman Republic took place in 249 B.C. and in the 140s B.C. The Games were revived in 17 B.C. by Augustus, who observed the traditional 110-year cycle. Claudius, however, introduced an alternative cycle for the games in 47 A.D. on the 800th anniversary of Rome's foundation, based on a century instead of a 110-year cycle, and from that point onward there were essentially two sets of games. Domitian followed Augustus in 88 A.D. using the traditional 110-year cycle, albeit with his games being six years ahead of schedule. Antoninus Pius followed the Claudian “century cycle” in 147/8 A.D. (though without his using the term saecular). Septimius Severus restored the 110-year cycle of Augustus in 204 A.D. Philip the Arab, whose Games of 247/8 marked the millennium of Rome, followed the Claudian cycle.

Alföldi, followed by Göbl, thinks this type proves that Gallienus intended to perform Saecular Games in 264 A.D. The repetition of Saecular games only sixteen years after Philip's games fits with the strong desire at the time to depict every emperor as the restorer of good times and the founder of a new Golden Age.

The stag refers to Diana as patroness of the Saecular Games and divine protectress of Gallienus. The palm branch symbol used with the type is also appropriate for anniversary celebrations.
1 commentsStkp
asper_k.jpg
Genoese Caffa, Filippo Maria Visconti, r. 1421-14355 viewsAR Asper, 14.93 mm x 0.8 grams
Obv.: DV_M.D.:CAF; The arms of Genoa in a beaded oval of four arches, one dot to right of portal
Rev.: Small Jujid tamga with 3 dots. Circular Arabic legend that is not visible, السلطان العادل محمد خان (The Just Ruler, Muhammad Khan)
Ref.: Similar to Retowski, Genoese-Tartar Coinage, no. 14
From the FitzNigel Collection
John Anthony
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_3.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan47 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_2.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan46 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_1.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan38 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_No_5.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan43 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.dpaul7
GEORIA_-_TAMAR_IRR_WITH_CM.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Tamar29 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Tamar (1184-1213) AE irregular fals. Decorative monogram on obverse; Arabic legends on reverse. With countermark, old Georgian letter "D" - Which Georgian numismatists believe stand for either DAVIT, Tamar's husband, or a location in Georgia where most of these countermarked coins are found. Mitchener #2383.dpaul7
GEORIA_-_TAMAR_IRR_NO_CM.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Tamar38 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Tamar (1184-1213) AE irregular fals. Decorative monogram on obverse; Arabic legends on reverse. Mitchener #2383.dpaul7
georgia_arghun___dmitri_iii.jpg
GEORGIA -- Arghun (1284-1291) and Dimitri II (1271-1289)48 viewsGEORGIA -- Under Ilkhan Mongols, Arghun (1284-1291) and Dimitri II (1271-1289) AR Dirham. Tiflis mint. Obv.: Christian legend in Arabic script, with cross: bism al-ab wa'l-ibn wa ruh al-quds, alah wahid" - IN THE NAME OF THE FATHER / AND THE SON AND THE SPIRIT / HOLY-GOD / ONE Rev.: in Uiguric-arabian script: OF THE KAGAN / IN THE NAME / BY ARGHUN / STRUCK / ARGHUN.dpaul7
Bennett-179.jpg
Georgia: Giorgi IV Lasha (1208-1223) AE unit (Kap-66; Bennett-179)14 viewsObv: Design of six knots surrounding two-line central Mtavruli legend: ႢႨႻႤ / ႧႫႰႱႠ (Giorgi son of Tamar). Outside of knot design, circular Mtavruli legend: † ႱႾႤႪႨႧႠ ႶႧႠ ႨႵႬ ႽႤႣႠ ႥႺႾႪႱ ႠႫႱ ႵႩႱ ჃႪ († In the name of God, this coin was struck in the year 430 of the koronikon)

Rev: Central four-line Arabic inscription:

ملك الملوك (The King of kings,)
جلال الدنيا و الدين (Glory of the world and faith,)
كيوركى بن تامار (Giorgi, son of Tamar,)
حسام المسيح (sword of the Messiah)

Marginal Persian legend: بنام خداى پاك اين سيمرا زده اند بتاريح چهار صی وسی سال (In the name of God most pure, this coin was struck in the year 430)


The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 430 + 780 = March 22, 1210 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
Paghava, Irakli, Georgian Coins in the Collection of the National Museum-Náprstek Museum in Prague, 2013
SpongeBob
Lang-13.jpg
Georgia: Queen Rusudan (1223-1245) AE fals (Lang-13; Langlois-30)34 viewsObv: In center; Asomtavruli ႰႱႬ (RSN), standing for RuSudaNi, surmounted by the queen’s monogram being a part of the ornamental device. Surrounded by a linear border. Asomtavruli characters ႵႩႬჃႫႦ (K’KNUMZ, standing for the date formula K’oroniKoN UMZ, i.e. 447, which corresponds to 1227, the frozen date) are placed into the right, bottom and left compartments between the ornamental device and the linear border
Rev: name and titles of Rusudan in Arabic in four lines across field surrounded by a beaded or a linear border;

الملكة الملوك والملكات; Queen of Kings and Queens
جلال الدنيا والدين; Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith
روسدان بنت تامار ظهير المسح; Rusudan, daughter of Tamar, Champion of the Messiah
عزالله انصاره; May God increase [her] victories

The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 420 + 780 = March 22, 1200 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
Paghava, Irakli, Georgian Coins in the Collection of the National Museum-Náprstek Museum in Prague, 2013
SpongeBob
Georgia_Lang-11.jpg
Georgia: Queen T'amar (1184-1213) AE dirham (Koronikov-420; Lang-11b) w. countermark #423 viewsGeorgia: Queen T'amar (1184-1213) AE dirham (Koronikov-420; Lang-11b)

Obv: Bagratid royal emblem in the form of a standard; Georgian initials to left and right: ႧႰ=ႧამაႰ (T'amar) and ႣႧ=ႣავიႧ (David); Georgian initials on top left and top right: ႵႩ=ႵორონიႩონსა (Koronikonsa/Year); Georgian initials on bottom left and bottom right: ႯႩ=420
Rev: Christian inscriptions in arabic script; countermark #4

ملكة الملكات (Malekat al-Malekaat(s); Queen of Queens)
جلال الدنيا و الدين (Jellal Al-Dunya Wal Din; Glory of the World and Faith)
تامارابنة كوركى (Tamar Ibnat Kurki; T'amar daughter of Giorgi)
ظهير المسيح (Zahir Al-Massih; Champion of the Messiah)

The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 420 + 780 = March 22, 1200 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
SpongeBob
Album-1664_2.jpg
Ghaznavids: Khusraw Malik (1160-1186) AE Jital (Album-1664.2; Deyell-115; Tye-120.3; MWI-802)33 viewsObv: Arabic legend in four lines: السلطان الاعظم سراج الدولة (The Very Great Sultan, Light of the State); border of pellets and outer circle
Rev: Within inner circle, Arabic legend: خسرو ملک (Khusraw Malik); above, crescent; border of pellets and outer circle
SpongeBob
Album-1663.jpg
Ghaznavids: Khusraw Malik (1160-1186) AR Jital (Album-1663; Deyell-116; Tye-117.3)41 viewsObv: Blundered Nagari script, Rajput bull left.
Rev: Arabic Legend in five lines: Malik / al-sultan / al-a'zam / abu'l-malik / Khusru
SpongeBob
GIRAY_KHANS_HAJJI_I.jpg
GIRAY KHANS (Crimea) HAJJI I GIRAY37 viewsGIRAY KHANS (Crimea) HAJJI I GIRAY (1437-1466) AR Akce. Obv.: Tamgha surrounded by inscriptions. Rev.: Arabic script inscriptions. dpaul7
GIRAY_KHANS_MENGLI_II_1ST_REIGN.jpg
GIRAY KHANS (Crimea) MENGLI II GIRAY 1st REIGN28 viewsGIRAY KHANS (Crimea) MENGLI II GIRAY 1st REIGN (1724-1730) AR Beshlik. ARabic inscriptions both sides.dpaul7
GIRAY_KHANS_MURAD_GIRAY.jpg
GIRAY KHANS (Crimea) MURAD GIRAY31 viewsGIRAY KHANS (Crimea) MURAD GIRAY (1678-1683) AR Beshlik. 1678. Obv.: Tamgha surrounded by script and date. Rev.: Arabis script inscriptions.dpaul7
GIRAY_KHANS_SAADET_I.jpg
GIRAY KHANS (Crimea) SA`ADET I GIRAY30 viewsGIRAY KHANS (Crimea) SA`ADET I GIRAY (1524-1532) AR Akce, 1524. Obv.: Tamgha surrounded by inscriptions. Rev.: Arabic script inscriptions.dpaul7
GIRAY_KHANS_SAADET_IV.jpg
GIRAY KHANS (Crimea) SA`ADET IV GIRAY30 viewsGIRAY KHANS (Crimea) SA`ADET IV GIRAY (1717-1724) AR Para, 1717 AD. Inscriptions both sides in Arabic script, date on obverse.dpaul7
GIRAY_KHANS_SELIM_I_2ND_REIGN.jpg
GIRAY KHANS (Crimea) SELIM I GIRAY 2nd REIGN24 viewsGIRAY KHANS (Crimea) SELIM I GIRAY 2nd REIGN (1684-1691) AR Akce. Arabic script; Tamgha visible. dpaul7
gordian-3-edessa-dealer-photo.jpg
Gordian III (238-244 AD) with Abgar X Phraates, Edessa, Mesopotamia19 viewsRoman Provincial Edessa, Mesopotamia, Gordian III (238-244 AD) with Abgar X Phraates, AE24 apx

Obverse: AVTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CЄ, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; star to right.

Reverse: Rev: ABΓAPOC BACIΛЄVC, Draped bust of Abgar right, wearing tiara; star to left.

Reference: BMC Arabia 144, SNG Copenhagen 225

Ex: pending - dealer photo
Gil-galad
gordian-3-reshoot-1.jpg
Gordian III (238-244 AD) with Abgar X Phraates, Edessa, Mesopotamia20 viewsRoman Provincial Edessa, Mesopotamia, Gordian III (238-244 AD) with Abgar X Phraates, AE24 apx

Obverse: AΥTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CƐ, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; star to right.

Reverse: Rev: ABΓAPOC BACIΛƐΥC, Draped bust of Abgar right, wearing tiara; star to left.

Reference: BMC Arabia 144, SNG Copenhagen 225
Gil-galad
Gordian_III_Singara.jpg
Gordian III - Singara10 views242 - II 244 AD
radiate bust right, draped shoulder
AYTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC CEB
turreted bust of Tyche right, Centaur Sagittarius above
AVP CEΠ__KOΛ CINΓAPA
BMC Arabia 1; SNG Copenhagen 254
10,5g
Johny SYSEL
Gordian_Tranqillina_Singara.jpg
Gordian III - Singara15 views242 - II 244 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III right from behind, confronting draped bust of Tranquillina left wearing stephane
AVTOK K M ANT ΓOPΔIANON CAB TPANKVΛΛINA CEB
City goddess left seated on rocks, holding branch; Centaur Sagittarius above; river-god swimming below
AVP CEΠ KOΛ CINΓAPA
BMC Arabia 8, SGICV 3804
17,4g
Johny SYSEL
Album-1969.jpg
Great Mongols: Chingiz Khan (1206-1227) AE Jital, Ghazna (Album-1969; Nyamaa-5; SICA 9, 1008; SNA Tübingen XIVd, 651-3; Tye-329)33 viewsObv: Arabic legend in three lines; الاعظم خاقان العادل (The Just, Supreme Khan)
Rev: Arabic laqab of caliph al-Nasir in four lines; الناصر لدين الله أمير المؤمنين (Defender of the Faith, Commander of the Faithful)
SpongeBob
Album-1971.jpg
Great Mongols: Malik of Kurzuwan (June-July 1221) Æ Jital, Kurzuwan (Album-1971; Tye-324.2; Nyamaa-31)37 viewsObv: Arabic inscription around margin with date and month; تاريخ ربيع الآخرسنة ثمان عشروستمائة (dated to Rabi II, of the year 618); in center, الملك‎ (al-Malik)
Rev: Mint and Kalima in four lines; ○ كرزوان لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول ○ الله (Kurzuwan; There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the apostle of Allah)
1 commentsSpongeBob
arabia2008.jpg
Greek, Alexander the great arabian imitation coin - unlisted309 viewsTetradrachm
16.74gm, 30mm
This coin was found near Petra but the style for this coin from Molieha ( south arabian )

Molieha mint
head of Heracles right, wearing lion's skin, rev. ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, holding sceptre right eagle left

Not listed in ( D.T.POTTS ) the pre -islamic coinage of Eastern arabia also not listed in the supplement of this reference
1 commentsromancoins-lover
greek.jpg
GREEK, ARABIA, Himyarites and Sabaeans, AR Drachm14 viewsSABAEAN AND HIMYARITES. Arabia. 3rd-2nd Century B.C.
Obv. Helmeted head of Athena r.
Rev. Owl standing r., head facing.
John B8
RudrasenaII-moeda1.jpg
GREEK, INDIA, Rudrasena II 256-274 AC.29 viewsAR Drachm of Rudrasena II 256-274 AC.

Weight: 2.9gr
Ø: 15mm.

Obv: Bust of Rudrasena II right.

Rev: Arab legends.

EF/EF

Mitchiner ACW 2779
1 commentsJorge C
Greece,_Mysia,_Pergamum,_Cistophoric_Tetradrachm,_12_57g,_28mm,_166-67_BC,_issued_76_BC.jpg
GREEK, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm86 viewsGreece, Mysia, Pergamon, Cistophoric Tetradrachm, 12.57g, 28mm, 166-67 BC, issued 76 BC

Obv: Cista Mystica containing serpent escaping, all within an ivy wreath.

Rev: Bow case between 2 serpents. Pergamon monogram at left. Snake entwined Asklepian staff at right. "AP" above.

Near the West coast of present day Turkey, Pergamon, in the province of Mysia, was an insignificant city under the Persian empire. After Alexander the Great died, his bodyguard "Lysimachus" was given Thrace and north western Asia. After the battle of Ipsus "Lysimachus" secured Alexander's treasury worth over 25,000 talents. Pergamon was located in a natural fortress and "Lysimachus" strengthened the city and deposited his Asian treasure (9000 talents) in the city along with a military guard under his loyal follower "Philetaerus". "Lysimachus" died in 281 BC and Pergamon officially fell under Seulcid control. "Philetaerus" played the part of a faithful governor, but all the time he used the money to strengthen the city's defenses and founded the Attalid dynasty of the kingdom of "Pergamon". The kingdom successfully withstood attempts by Seulicid rulers to regain control. In 190 BC, Pergamon assisted the Romans to defeat Antiochus III of Syria. At this time, Rome had no territorial desires in Asia and they gave all the territories to Pergamon. Pergamon prospered and soon ranked as one of the major Greek cultural centers. Pergamon's library ranked second only to the library of Alexandria. But, to Rome's surprize the Pergamon King Attalus III (138 - 133 BC) gave the kingdom to Rome upon his death in 133 BC. During the confusion a certain "Aristonicus" seized the throne and changed his name to "Eumenes III". This forced the Romans to intervene and they seized the kingdom and made it the capital of the Roman province of Asia.

Pergamon first issued this coin under Eumenes II, who likely required a new currency after the treaty with Apameia in 188 BC expanded his economic and political territory. The new coinage is the first time a king’s portrait and name are omitted from Hellenistic currency. The cistophori (basket bearers) were the chief currency in Asia Minor for about 300 years. Originally introduced by king Eumenes II of Pergamon around 166 BCE, the obverse of these coins shows a cista mystica, i.e., a woven basket containing the sacred objects of a mystery cult. In the case of the cistophori, the basket contains snakes associated with the worship of Dionysus (Bacchus), the Greek god of wine and ecstasy. In the Dionysian mysteries a serpent, representing the god, was carried in a box called a cista on a bed of vine leaves. This may be the Cista mentioned by Clement of Alexandria which was exhibited as containing the phallus of Dionysus. The depiction on this famous type is what gives the coin its name - the Cistophorus. It was one of the most widely minted coin types in the ancient world. It seems that the Asian Greek states in what is now Turkey minted this coin in unison from around 150 BC. Some scholars believe this was undertaken for the common good, so traders could be confident in a coin of uniform weight and value, representing the collective wealth of Asian Greekdom.

The ivy wreath and the thyrsos staff on the reverse are also references to this god whom the Attalid kings of Pergamon claimed as their ancestor. The bow case (gorytos) on the reverse points to Herakles, the father of Telephos, the legendary founder and first king of Pergamon. Taken together, the obverse and reverse scenes appear to capture allegorical acts one and two of the Dionysian Cista fertility mythology in progress.

When the last Attalid king, Attalos III, died in 133 BCE, he left his entire kingdom to the Roman people. At the same time, his last will declared Pergamon and the other important cities of his realm "free cities", which meant that they did not have to pay tribute to Rome. Not surprisingly, Pergamon and the other cities continued to mint cistophori in grateful tribute to their former ruler. The city of Pergamum continued issue of cistophoric tetradrachm for eight decades after the city was willed to Rome in 133 BC.

1 cistophor equaled 3 Attic drachms, the currency of Athens, which had become the world's key currency during the campaigns of Alexander the Great. Later, 1 cistophor was equivalent to 3 Roman denarii. Because they were so easy to convert into the key currencies, 16 Anatolian towns soon minted cistophors, forming a kind of monetary union. When Pergamum became Roman about 133 BC, the Romans continued to mint cistophors.

Under the Attalids, Pergamon was not only the capital of an empire that soon stretched over most of Asia Minor, but also the seat of the second most famous library of the ancient world with more than 200,000 book rolls. When the kings of Egypt, the Ptolemies, whose capital, Alexandria, boasted the only comparable library, cut off Pergamene access to papyrus, the most important writing material, the Pergamenes invented pergamentum, i.e., parchment or vellum made from animal skins.

Today, the city is called Bergama and belongs to Turkey.
mitresh
bpP1C1Nabat.jpg
GREEK, Nabataea, Aretas IV and Queen Shaqilath48 viewsObv: (Aramaic legend)
Conjoined busts of King Aretas IV (right) and queen Shaqilath.
Rev: (Aramaic inscription in three lines).
Two cornucopiae crossed. between them 'Aretas Shaqilath' in three lines.
4.6 gm 19 mm 9 BC-40 AD. Sear (GIC) 5699
Comment: Nabataea remained a kingdom until the 2nd century AD when Trajan created the Roman Province of Arabia.
Massanutten
Hadrien As.jpg
Hadrian - large semis ?42 viewsHADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, draped and laureate bust right
COS III / S C, cithar

Handsome coin. The cithar (ancestor of the Spanish guitar or the Indian sitar) is the instrument played by Apollo. I always wondered what kind of music was played with it. Did it sound more like Spanish, Greek, Arabic, Indian music ?
2 commentsGinolerhino
hadrian_phil_k.jpg
Hadrian, AD 117-1387 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
Æ25, 14g, 12h. ARABIA PETRAEA, Philadelphia.
Obv.: ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑ AΔΡIANOC CEBACTOC; Laureate and draped bust right, seen from behind.
Rev.: ΦIΛAΔEΛΦEΩN ΚΟΙΛΗC CYPIAC; Bust of Herakles right, lion's skin tied around neck.
Reference: Spijkerman 11; Rosenberger 15 var. (seen from front); SNG ANS 1385 var. (same).
John Anthony
Album-514.jpg
Hafsids: Anonymous (ca. 1300) AR Dirham, Ifriqiya (Album-514; Hohertz-74)35 viewsObv: Arabic legend in Nashki script لا اله الا الله الامر كله لله لا قوة الا بالله (There is no Lord except Allah; The command is all up to Allah; There is no power except through Allah)
Rev: Arabic legend in Nashki script الله ربنا محمد رسولنا المهدي امامنا (Allah is our Lord; Muhammad is our Messenger; al-Mahdi is our Imam)
5 commentsSpongeBob
Portus_Traiani-2.jpg
HARBOUR, TRAJAN, AE Sestertius (Portus Trajani)175 viewsPortus Trajani
Æ Sestertius (26.66g, Ø35mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 104-111.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate draped bust of Trajan facing right.
Rev.: (PORTVM TRAIANI around, S C in ex.), Basin of Trajan's harbour (Portus Traiani), near Ostia, surrounded by warehouses, ships in centre.
RIC 471 (R2); Cohen 305; BMC 770A; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 104:59
ex Jean Elsen Auction 95; ex coll. A. Senden: "L'architecture des monnaies Romaines".

Due to the vulnarability of Portus Claudii, witness the events of 62 AD when a violent storm destroyed some 200 ships in the port, Trajan built a second one farther inland behind the port of Claudius. The work was carried out in the years 100-112 AD, and included improvements of the Claudian harbour. It was a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 39 hectares, and communicating by canals with the harbour of Claudius, with the Tiber directly, and with the sea. The capacity of the harbour was much enlarged, and many new warehouses were built around it, remains of which may still be seen: The fineness of the brickwork of which they are built is remarkable. The sides of the hexagonal basin were over 350 m, the maximum diameter more than 700 m., and 5m deep. The bottom was covered with stones, at the north end gradually sloping upwards, to reach a depth of only one meter at the edge of the basin.

The basin could contain more than 100 ships that did not moor alongside the quays, but at a straight angle. It was surrounded by a few wide treads (total width c. 6 m.). On the quays was a wall, with five narrow doorways (1.80) on each side of the hexagon. The doorways are too narrow for wagons. Apparently the goods were unloaded and carried by slaves. This can also be seen on several reliefs and mosaics. The wall facilitated the control of the flow of goods, for the Customs Service and the levying of import duties (the portorium).

The hexagon may have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus, the architect of Trajan's Market in Rome. No other harbours are known with this shape, suggesting that it was chosen not only for practical purposes, but also for aesthetic reasons.

Portus was the main port of ancient Rome for more than 500 years and provided a conduit for everything from glass, ceramics, marble and slaves to wild animals caught in Africa and shipped to Rome for spectacles in the Colosseum.
3 commentsCharles S
Heraclius_(610-641)_dodekanummion_(AE).png
Heraclius (610-641) dodekanummion (AE)77 viewsObv.: dd MM h hERAC (Bust of Heraclius left and bust of Heraclius Constantinus right) Rev.: Cross on two steps, I to left, B to right Exergue: ALEZ Diameter: 17 mm Weight: 4.9 g SB 853

Heraclius remains one of the greatest and most tragic of Constantinople's emperors. He inherited half an empire from the cruel Phocas, with the East as good as lost to the Persians. He managed, through reforms and aggressive campaigning, to reclaim all of it, only to have most of the East permanently wrested from Byzantine hands by the Arabs at the closing of his reign. His series struck at Alexandria were the last Byzantine coins to be struck in Egypt.
Nick.vdw
her-rav1a.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 91428 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
her-rav1a~0.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, 630-631 AD (year 21), Sear 914, celebrating the defeat of the Sasanid kingdom and the restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem. 103 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

630-631 AD (year 21)

Follis

Obverse: DD NN HЄRACLIVS ЄT HЄRA CONST PP AVCC (or similar), Heraclius, crowned, in military attire and holding long cross, standing facing, foot on prostrate figure (a Persian?) below; to right, Heraclius Constantine, wearing crown and chlamys, holding globus cruciger, standing facing

Reverse: Large M; Above, cross; To left, ANNO; To right, XXI ; Exergus, RAV

Ravenna mint

This issue commemorates the victory of Heraclius over the Sasanid kingdom in 629 AD.

After years of war between Romans and Sasanids, in 612, Heraclius launched a major counter-offensive in Syria in 613. He was decisively defeated outside Antioch by Shahrbaraz and Shahin, and the Roman position collapsed. Over the following decade the Persians were able to conquer Palestine and Egypt and to devastate Anatolia. Meanwhile, the Avars and Slavs took advantage of the situation to overrun the Balkans, bringing the Roman Empire to the brink of destruction.
During these years, Heraclius strove to rebuild his army, slashing non-military expenditures, devaluing the currency and melting down Church plate, with the backing of Patriarch Sergius, to raise the necessary funds to continue the war. In 622, Heraclius left Constantinople, entrusting the city to Sergius and general Bonus as regents of his son. He assembled his forces in Asia Minor and, after conducting exercises to revive their morale, he launched a new counter-offensive, which took on the character of a holy war. In the Caucasus he inflicted a defeat on an army led by a Persian-allied Arab chief and then won a victory over the Persians under Shahrbaraz. Following a lull in 623, while he negotiated a truce with the Avars, Heraclius resumed his campaigns in the East in 624 and routed an army led by Khosrau at Ganzak in Atropatene. In 625 he defeated the generals Shahrbaraz, Shahin and Shahraplakan in Armenia, and in a surprise attack that winter he stormed Shahrbaraz's headquarters and attacked his troops in their winter billets. Supported by a Persian army commanded by Shahrbaraz, the Avars and Slavs unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626, while a second Persian army under Shahin suffered another crushing defeat at the hands of Heraclius' brother Theodore. Meanwhile, Heraclius formed an alliance with the Turks, who took advantage of the dwindling strength of the Persians to ravage their territories in the Caucasus. Late in 627, Heraclius launched a winter offensive into Mesopotamia, where, despite the desertion of the Turkish contingent that had accompanied him, he defeated the Persians at the Battle of Nineveh. Continuing south along the Tigris, he sacked Khosrau's great palace at Dastagird and was only prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal. Discredited by this series of disasters, Khosrau was overthrown and killed in a coup led by his son Kavadh II, who at once sued for peace, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem with a majestic ceremony in 629.


Sear 914, D.O. 297, B.M.C. 452, T. 282, B.N. 5, M.I.B. 253a.

RRR

VF

6,98 g.
L.e.
AntipasHalfUnit.jpg
Herod Antipas Half Unit88 viewsHERODIANS. Herod Antipas (4 BCE - 39 CE). Tiberias Mint, Æ half denomination, 19.4mm, 5.3 g.
O: TIBE PIAC in two lines within wreath.
R: HPΩΔOY TETPAPXOY (Herod Tetrarch), vertical palm branch, L to left, ΛZ to right, (RY 37 = 33/34 CE)
Hendin-1212 in GBC 5; ex. Hendin; ex. Teddy Kollek Collection; Menorah Coin Project ANT 15, Die 02/R12; Sear certificate.

Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was brought up in Rome with his brother Archelaus.

In Herod’s will, Antipas had been named to receive the kingship, but Herod changed his will, naming Archelaus instead. Antipas contested the will before Augustus Caesar, who upheld Archelaus’ claim but divided the kingdom, giving Antipas the tetrarchy of Galilee and Perea. “Tetrarch,” meaning ‘ruler over one fourth’ of a province, was a term applied to a minor district ruler or territorial prince.

Antipas married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But on one of his trips to Rome, Antipas visited his half brother Herod Philip, the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne II (not Philip the tetrarch). While visiting, he became infatuated with Philip’s wife Herodias, who was quite the ambitious woman. He took her back to Galilee and married her, divorcing Aretas’ daughter and sending her back home. This insulting action brought war. Aretas invaded and Antipas suffered major losses before receiving orders from Rome for Aretas to stop.

According to Josephus, Herod's defeat was popularly believed to be divine punishment for his execution of John the Baptist. Tiberius ordered Vitellius, the governor of Syria, to capture or kill Aretas, but Vitellius was reluctant to support Herod and abandoned his campaign upon Tiberius' death in 37.

It was Herod Antipas’ adulterous relationship with Herodias that brought reproof from John the Baptizer. John was correct in reproving Antipas, because Antipas was nominally a Jew and professedly under the Law. This would lead to John's murder being schemed during a celebration of Antipas' birthday.

On the last day of Jesus’ earthly life, when he was brought before Pontius Pilate and Pilate heard that Jesus was a Galilean, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas who happened to be in Jerusalem. Herod, disappointed in Jesus, discredited him and made fun of him, then sent him back to Pilate, who was the superior authority as far as Rome was concerned. Pilate and Herod had been enemies, possibly because of certain accusations that Herod had leveled against Pilate. But this move on Pilate’s part pleased Herod and they became friends.
Nemonater
Hetoum_II_B.jpg
Hetoum II, 1289-1303 AD, AE Kardez, Sis17 viewsHetoum II
King of Armenian Cilicia, 1289-1303 A.D.

Coin: AE Kardez
Obverse: +ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳ ՀԱՅՈՑ (Hetoum King of the Armenians), King Hetoum, seated in oriental style, holding a Mace with his right hand.
Reverse: +ՇԻՆԱ... (Minted in the city of Sis), around a Latin Cross,▕ in each corner. Possibly overstruck in an Arabic Islamic script, during the Mamluke conquest.

Weight: 2.92 g
Diameter: 21 x 19.9 x 0.8 mm
Die axis: 270°
Mint: Sis
Masis
Hierapolis Philippe.jpg
Hierapolis (Mambij, Syria) - Philip the Arab18 views(description later)Ginolerhino
14.jpg
Himiariti e sabeiti (Arabia felix), I sec. d.C.42 viewsARABIA FELIX, Himiariti e sabeiti (Saba) I sec. d.C.
AR, 16mm, 2.39 g, 3h. BB (VF)
D/ [simbolo a forma di luna? al centro], firma curva e lancia a fianco
R/ bucranio, mezza luna crescente sopra, simboli di fianco.
Apparentemente impubblicata.
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (21 giugno 2008, numero catalogo 60); ex CNG (Classical Numismatic Group, Lancaster PA Usa, nel 2008)
paolo
Himyar,_Arabia,_Southern,___MDN_BYN_(cc__100-120_AD),_AR-Unit,_Raidan,_SNG_ANS_1595-1601,_Q-001,_3h,_14,5mm,_1,18g-s.jpg
Himyar, Arabia, Southern, 'MDN BYN (cc. 100-120 A.D.), SNG ANS 1595-1601, AR-Unit, Raidan, #176 viewsHimyar, Arabia, Southern, 'MDN BYN (cc. 100-120 A.D.), SNG ANS 1595-1601, AR-Unit, Raidan, #1
avers: Male head right within pelleted torc, monogram to left.
reverse: Small head right, an oblong symbol to left, ‘sceptre’ to right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 1,18g, axes: 3h,
mint: Himyar, Arabia, Southern, date: cc. 100-120 A.D.,
ref: SNG ANS 1595-1601,
Q-001
quadrans
1324_Arabia_Raydan.jpg
Himyarites ‘Mdn Byn - AR quinarius22 viewsArabia Felix, Raydan
50-100 AD
male head right, serpent torc around
small head right, legend around
Munro-Hay 3.2ai; SNG ANS 1575
ex 21.6.2018 Rauch
2 commentsJohny SYSEL
22694q00.jpg
Himyarites, Scyphate quinarius9 viewsHimyarites, South Arabia, Amdan Bayyin, c. 50 - 150 A.D. Silver Scyphate quinarius, BMC Arabia p. 71, 5 var (obverse head right), SNG ANS -, aEF, Raidan, 1.499g, 14.9mm, 45o, obverse head left, hair in ringlets, surrounded by torc, Sabaean monogram (HNR?) left; reverse Sabaean script ('MDN BYN RYDN), small head right, hair in ringlets, monogram or symbol left, branch symbol right; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
arabian_owl.jpg
Himyarites, Silver Drachm, Owl standing on amphora4 viewsArabia - The Himyarites, Silver Drachm, Ca. 100 - 24 B.C. AR 27mm, 4.6g; O: Male head right. R: Owl standing on amphora, aramaic legend. Sear GCV II: 6125. Ex Jason FaillaPodiceps
arabia_fake.jpg
Himyarites, Silver fourree Drachm; Antelope's head facing/ Male head l.11 viewsArabia Felix, Himyarite Confederacy Anonymous Fourree Denarius (silver plated bronze, 14mm) minted c. 1st century B.C. Antelope’s head facing, plume above. / Male head facing left. A considerable amount of the original plating is intact, just 2 voids on the obverse. Note the prominent overlap seam visible around the edge of the reverse. Ex Barry & DarlingPodiceps
BELA III.jpg
HUNGARY - BELA III359 viewsHungary -- Bela III (1172-1196) AE Follis. 22 mm. 0.97 grams.

These coins are attributed to Bela III, notice the "islamic" script. Some believe they may have been made for use by Crusaders. Most of the inscriptions are meaningless - I am not sure the maker had any idea what he was copying. Many early Crusader coins of the Levant were made with Arabic-letter inscriptions.

Other coins of Bela III (and that time period of Hungary) show a Byzantine influence.
dpaul7
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-__2.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124- , Unger 456 , Réthy II 129 102 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 12-13 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, I–symbol (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) (per Pohl), known as Istropolis in the middle ages (hence the I in the mark), but the precise combination of marks is unlisted.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This privy mark is unrecorded.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, 223-224)
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-44.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-44, Unger 456h, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1428 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .47 g., 13.19 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, n--n in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya/now Baia Mare, Romania, under a collective authority (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586_Pohl_124-55.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-55, Unger 456hh, Réthy II 129 50 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, S–P (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Segesvár, Transylvania (now Sighișoara, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is of a better strike than many.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, 223-224).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-9.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-9, Unger 456v, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1422 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .50 g., 14.21 mm. max., 90°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, A--n in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Székesfehérvár (per Poh).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-__Unger_456__2.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-_, Unger 456_, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1419 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .31 g., 12.56 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, P--uncertain privy mark in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár). This privy mark is not listed in Pohl, Huszár and Unger.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_quarting_Huszár_586_Pohl_124-__Unger_456_.jpg
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-_, Unger 456_, Réthy II 129, Frynas H.27.1427 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437)

Billon quarting, .48 g., 12.54 mm. max., 270°

Obv: Patriarchal cross, uncertain privy mark in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár). This privy mark is not listed in Pohl, Huszár and Unger.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3; Frynas rarity C.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Lajos_II_contemprary_counterfeit.png
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 (contemporary counterfeit).15 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526)

AR (contemporary counterfeit) denar, .33 g., 15.46 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: [LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI] * 1525, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon [bungled and retrograde legend and date].

Rev: [PATRONA] * – * [VNGAR]IE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B in fields [bungled and retrograde legend].

Type struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl, Unger & Gyöngyössy). Officially struck coins bearing this privy mark struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, the kammergraf appointed by Queen Maria in 1524, who continued in office until 1545 (per Pohl).

The silver content of this coin appears to be comparable to that of the inflationary currency referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova” (Huszár 846, Pohl 258, Unger 675, Réthy II 308A). Four hundred denars, each weighing on average 0.49 g., were struck form an Ofner mark of silver and had an average fineness of 0.250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ½ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3, Unger value 8 DM (re official emission).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586,_Pohl_124-_.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124- , Unger 456_ , Réthy II 129 172 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 12-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, B–H (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This privy mark is unrecorded. This specimen is of a superior alloy (suggesting that it was struck very early in the history of the emission) and is of a better strike than many.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
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Huszár 586, Pohl 124-24, Unger 456 eta, Réthy II 129 161 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, .56 g., 12-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, c–n (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Crown

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is of a better strike than most.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_586_Pohl_124-39.JPG
Huszár 586, Pohl 124-39, Unger 456a, Réthy II 129 178 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxemburg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, K–W (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Patriarchal cross.

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Valentin Winche (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
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Huszár 586, Pohl 124-49, Unger 456 alpha-alpha, Réthy II 129 165 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). Billon quarting, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Patriarchal cross, Q or koppa–L (privy mark) in central fields.

Rev: Patriarchal cross.

The type was struck in 1430-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was probably struck in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This specimen is poorly struck, even for the emission, with the obverse devise also appearing on the reverse.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

The quarting (also known as the fryling and as a moneta minor) was originally worth a quarter of a denar, but it “soon fell victim to the manipulations of the treasury. Its fineness decreased at such a rate that soon it contained almost nothing but copper. The result was economic anarchy. Trust in these silver coins was irreparably damaged, and, although the government officially devalued the quarting several times, its market value fell even more drastically. In the last years of Sigismund’s reign, 6,000 to 8,000 quartings were equivalent to one florin instead of the original 400” (Engel, at 223-224)
Stkp
Traianus-Denar-ARB_ADQ_-RIC244.jpg
II-TRAIANUS -a - Denar WOYTEK 039626 viewsAv) IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TRP COS VI PP
Laureate bust with drapea on left shoulder right

Rv) SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI
Exergue: ARAB ADQ
Arabia standing frontale,head left, holding brach and in other hand parts of plants (calamus oderatus ?), at the left appears a dromedar, half hidden by Arabia

Weight:3,0g; Ø: 19mm; Reference: RIC II/245; WOYTEK page 390/Nr.:396; ROME mint struck 112-113 A.D.
sulcipius
Album-2204.jpg
Ilkhan: Abu Sa'id (1316-1335) AR 2 dirhams, AH722, Baghdad Mint (Album-2204, Type D)37 viewsObv: Arabic legend within pentafoil - ﺿﺮﺏ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻳﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﺑﻮﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻬﺎﺩﺭﺧﺎﻥ ﺧﻠﺪﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﻠﻜﻪ (Struck in the days of prosperity of the Supreme Sultan Abu Sa‘id Bahadur Khan, may God perpetuate his sovereignty); date within arms of pentafoil - ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ (year twenty two and seven hundred)
Rev: Arabic legend in multiple lines - ﻻ ﺍﻟﻪ ﺍﻻ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ (There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is the apostle of Allah); ﺿﺮﺏ ﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ above and below ﻣﺤﻤﺪ (Struck at Baghdad above and below Muhammad); names of the four “Rightly Guided” Caliphs at 12:00 ﺍﺑﻮﺑﻜﺮ (Abu bakr), at 3:00 ﻋﻤﺮ (Umar), at 6:00 ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ (Uthman), at 9:00 ﻋﻠﻰ (Ali)
SpongeBob
Album-2202(1).jpg
Ilkhanid: Abu Sa'id (1316-1335) AV Dinar, AH722, Wasit Mint (Album 2202, Type D; Diler 502; ICV 2133)25 viewsObv: Arabic legend within pentafoil - ﺿﺮﺏ ﻓﻰ ﺍﻳﺎﻡ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﻻﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﺑﻮﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺑﻬﺎﺩﺭﺧﺎﻥ ﺧﻠﺪﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﻠﻜﻪ (Struck in the days of prosperity of the Supreme Sultan Abu Sa‘id Bahadur Khan, may God perpetuate his sovereignty); date within arms of pentafoil - ﺳﻨﺔ ﺍﺛﻨﺘﻴﻦ ﻭﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﻤﺎﺋﺔ (year twenty two and seven hundred)
Rev: Arabic legend in multiple lines - ﻻ ﺍﻟﻪ ﺍﻻ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻣﺤﻤﺪ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ (There is no God but Allah, Muhammad is the apostle of Allah); ﺿﺮﺏ واسط above and below ﻣﺤﻤﺪ (Struck at Wasit above and below Muhammad); names of the four “Rightly Guided” Caliphs at 12:00 ﺍﺑﻮﺑﻜﺮ (Abu bakr), at 3:00 ﻋﻤﺮ (Umar), at 6:00 ﻋﺜﻤﺎﻥ (Uthman), at 9:00 ﻋﻠﻰ (Ali)
1 commentsQuant.Geek
abaqa fals.jpg
ILKHANS - Abaqa56 viewsILKHANS (Mongols of Peria) - Abaqa (1265-1282) AE Fals. 6.60 g. Arabic inscriptions. Album 2131.5; BMC 58.dpaul7
abaqa dirhem.jpg
ILKHANS - Abaqa73 viewsILKHANS (Mongols of Peria) - Abaqa (1265-1282) AR Direhm. Album 2132, BMC 41. Anonymous issue. 1.99 g. Arab inscription "Great Khan" inside square/Arabic inscription inside ornamented hexagram. dpaul7
Safavid_Quran_Manuscript_A001.JPG
Illuminated Qur'an Manuscript: Safavid Persia (ca. 1575 AD) Anonymous Scribe11 viewsA leaf from an illuminated Safavid Koran, Persia, circa 1575 A.D., Arabic manuscript on paper, (155 x 90 mm.) There are twelve lines of text to the page in black strong hand of Naskhi script with full vowels and diacritical signs, gold ruled borders, sura headings in white ornamental ruja' script on a gold ground within illuminated panels, blue centered gold roundels mark the 5th and 10th verses and marginal annotations in gold and red and poly-chromed marginal medallions. Verso: twelve lines of text to the page in black strong hand of Naskhi script with full vowels and diacritical signs, gold ruled borders, sura headings in white ornamental ruja' script on a gold ground within illuminated panels, blue centered gold roundels mark the 5th and 10th verses and marginal annotations in gold and red and poly-chromed marginal medallions.
SpongeBob
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IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
Delhi_Qutbuddin-Mubarak-Shah_AH718=1318AD_obv.jpg
India - Delhi Sultanate - AH 718, obv6 viewsDelhi,
Sultan Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah (1316 - 1320 AD)
Dated: Hijri Year: AH 718 = 1318 AD.
(Date located in bottom left corner on reverse, in Arabic numerals "718")
rexesq
Delhi_Qutbuddin-Mubarak-Shah_AH718=1318AD_rev.jpg
India - Delhi Sultanate - AH 718, rev.6 viewsDelhi,
Sultan Qutubuddin Mubarak Shah (1316 - 1320 AD)
Dated: Hijri Year: AH 718 = 1318 AD.
(Date located in bottom left corner on reverse, in Arabic numerals "718")
rexesq
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India State - Indore - AH 1292 = 1875 AD - obv7 viewsIndia of Princely States - Indore.
One Silver Rupee. 11.3 Grams.

obverse: Sunface with bindi on forehead.

reverse: (Date on reverse)
Date: "1292 AH" (written in Arabic numerals and using Hijri dating), located just below the upper-most long horizontal line.
Arabic (AH) date = 1292 AH (which is 1875 AD)
rexesq
s-l400_(68).jpg
India State - Indore - AH 1292 = 1875 AD - rev.6 viewsIndia of Princely States - Indore.
One Silver Rupee. 11.3 Grams.

obverse: Sunface with bindi on forehead.

reverse: (Date on reverse)
Date: "1292 AH" (written in Arabic numerals and using Hijri dating), located just below the upper-most long horizontal line.
Arabic (AH) date = 1292 AH (which is 1875 AD)
rexesq
balbancollection.jpg
INDIA, Delhi Sultans of India. Ghiyath al-Din Balban (1266-1287 AD) billon 2-Ghani61 viewsDelhi Sultans of India. Ghiyath al-Din Balban (1266-1287 AD) billon 2-Ghani. Bilingual inscriptions (reflecting the intersection of Islamic and Hindu cultures): Balban in Arbic in a double circle, Sri Sultan Ghayasadin in nagari around / al-sultan al-azam ghiyath al-dunya wal din in arabic. Two-ghani piece (=2 jitals = jital dugani = 1/24th of a silver tanka). debased silver, coppery appearance. 15mm, 3.39 grams. "The Coins of the Indian Sultanates" D-165; Rajgor 927, 930; Mitchiner WOI 2526; Tye 400.oneill6217
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India. Independent Kingdoms. Sultans of Golkonda. Abdullah Qutb Shah A.H. 1035 - 1083. Copper falus 1068 A.H. 14 viewsIndia. Independent Kingdoms. Sultans of Golkonda. Abdullah Qutb Shah A.H. 1035 - 1083. Copper falus 1068 A.H.
18.5mm
10.6 grams
falus
mint: Dar al-Saltanat Haidarabad.
Goron and Goenka(2001), Q 73.
KM 8.3
oneill6217
1943annahyder.jpg
India. Princely States. Hyderabad. Bronze Anna AH 1362 (A.D. 1943) Haidarabad Farkhanda Bunyad mint and value. KM y5915 viewsoneill6217
hyderbad3.jpg
India. Princely States. hyderbad. Mir Mahbub Ali Khan II A.H. 1285 - 1329 (A.D. 1869 - 1911). Copper Pai 1326 A.H. (1908 A.D.).14 viewsIndia. Princely States. hyderbad. Mir Mahbub Ali Khan II A.H. 1285 - 1329 (A.D. 1869 - 1911). Copper Pai 1326 A.H. (1908 A.D.). Toughra, date within below / Haidarabad Mint. (Farkhanda Bunyad).

KM y34
oneill6217
Iran027.jpg
Iran, Naqsh-e-Rostam, Fars Province46 viewsThe Sasanian king Shahpur I (241-272 AD) with his characteristic hairdo, the korymbos, in front of two prisoners, the supplicant Roman emperor Valerian and Philip the Arab after the battle of Edessa in 240 AD
Schatz
iraq_1932_200-fils_dr-martin_obv_04_rev_04.JPG
Iraq 1932 - Riyal (200 Fils)22 views~
~~
Iraq 1932 - 200 Fils - King Faisal I
~~
20.0 grams - .500 fine silver - .3215oz Actual Silver Weight
~~
Edge Lettering: repeating design and the number, in Arabic '200' for the denomination, 200 fils.
~
rexesq
iraq_1932_200-fils_dr-martin_obv_02_rev_01.JPG
Iraq 1932 - Riyal (200 Fils)22 views~
~~
Iraq 1932 - 200 Fils - King Faisal I
~~
20.0 grams - .500 fine silver - .3215oz Actual Silver Weight
~~
Edge Lettering: repeating design and the number, in Arabic '200' for the denomination, 200 fils.
~
rexesq
iraq_1932_200-fils_dr-martin_rev_05.JPG
Iraq 1932 - Riyal (200 Fils)26 views~
~~
Iraq 1932 - 200 Fils - King Faisal I
~~
20.0 grams - .500 fine silver - .3215oz Actual Silver Weight
~~
Edge Lettering: repeating stylized design followed by the number, in Arabic '200' for the denomination, 200 fils, and it repeats several times.
~
rexesq
isfandiyarids.jpg
Isfendiyarids81 views Isfendiyarids, Suleyman I, AH 709-742/ AD 1309-1341 Denomination: Anonymous AR Akche in the name of Abu Sa'id. Struck Date missing, but c. AH 725. No mint signature, but Qastamuniyah (Kostamonu) type. Obverse: Within divided square: al-sultan Abu Sa'id / arabesque ornament / khallad Allah mulkahu (blundered); date in three margin segments, knot at left in place of mint name. Reverse: Octofoil containing kalima in three lines, stars top and left, crescent at right; Rashidun in margin. Weight 1.16gm Diameter 18x17mm Reference Album 1279. Grade Good Very Fine with peripheral weakness, toned. Ex- CNG Triton IX, lot 2506 (part). dpaul7
Umayyad-governors-baysan-fals-reshoot.jpg
Islamic Empire, Umayyad, Palestine, Anonymous (738+ AD, 120+ AH), AE Fals, Baysan mint25 viewsIslamic Empire, Umayyad, Palestine, Anonymous (738+ AD, 120+ AH), AE Fals, Baysan mint

Obverse: محمد رسول الله , Arabic text surrounding fish pointing left, within looped square, all within linear circle border. "Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."


Reverse: لا إله إلا الله وحده , Arabic text on three lines, within looped square, all within linear circle border. "There is no God but Allah alone."

Reference: Album 165, SNAT 4a #274-276

Ex: Charachmoba Gym
Gil-galad
Byz3.jpg
Islamic Umayyad Arab-byzantine38 viewsAE Fals from Damascus.
Mint Balabak
Walker 36 Bones Balabakk

Rare
Tanit
MBT.jpg
ISLAMIC, Delhi Sultanate, Muhammed Bin Tughlaq, AV Dinar43 viewsDelhi Sultanate, Muhammad Bin Tughlaq, 1325-51 AD, Gold Heavy Dinar, 24mm, 12.8g, AH 726 / 1326 AD, Hazrat Delhi mint

References: Rajgor; T1206, Goron and Goenka; D343

Legend Description & Translation
Obverse: 'al-wathiq bi-ta'yid al-rahman muhammad shah al-sultan' (invocation in the name of the Abbassid Caliph Al-Wathiq (Ibn Mutasim) together with the name of Mohd Shah (Tughlaq) and his title (Sultan).

Reverse: Within inner circle: 'ashhad an la illah illa allah wa ashhad an muhammad 'abdahu wa rasuluhu' (invocation of the Islamic faith - Kalima/Shahada - stating 'there is no God other than Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger').

Reverse: around outer margin: 'darb hazah al-dinar ba-hadrat Dehli sanh sitta wa ashrin wa sab'amayah' (this coin of the denomination dinar was struck in Venerable Delhi in the Year 726).

Mohammad bin Tughlaq was formally crowned in AH 725 (1325 AD), when his father (Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, founder of the Tughlaq dynasty) met an accidental death in which Muhammad was implicated. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq is best remembered as a ruler who undertook a number of bold experiments, including coinage, and many administrative reforms that mostly failed due to his impatience and lack of judgement earning him the moniker of a 'wise fool' and an entry in the Urdu language dictionary where the word 'Tughlaqi' is immortalized as meaning 'eccentricity'. The famous Arab traveller from Morocco, Ibn Batuta, spent the maximum years of his travel in the court of Muhammad Bin Tughlaq as a 'Qazi' (Islamic Judge) from 1334-1343 AD ie 10 years, and documented his experience in his book 'Rahla' (The Journey).

Soon after his accession in 1325 AD, Muhammad experimented first with the weightage of the coins. The large influx of gold from his plunder of the South Indian campaign led him to increase the weight of the gold dinar from the standard of 172 grains (11g) to 202 grains (13g), however, due to the ensuing confusion between the weight differential of the standard vs heavy weight series, lack of popularity and acceptance among his subjects, the heavy weight series was soon withdrawn after 3 years.

The weight of these heavy series coins range from 12.7 to 13.0 grams and only 2 mints are known - Dehli and Shahr Sultanpur in Telangana (Deccan). The known dates for these coins is AH 725, 726 & 727 corresponding to the first 3 years of his reign ie 1325-27 AD. The featured coin is dated AH 726.

This coin type is indicated as the most rare of all Mohd Bin Tughlaq coins by Goron. Certainly, the calligraphy style is beautiful and the strike is full, bold and sharp with complete die impressions on both Obv & Rev. A lovely specimen of a remarkable but troubled ruler!
mitresh
square~0.jpg
ISLAMIC, IFRIQIYA, HAFSIDS, AH 700/ 1300 A.D.30 viewsSquare AR Dirham
O: Arabic legend in Nashki script لا اله الا الله الامر كله لله لا قوة الا بالله (There is no Lord except Allah; The command is all up to Allah; There is no power except through Allah)
R: Arabic legend in Nashki script الله ربنا محمد رسولنا المهدي امامنا (Allah is our Lord; Muhammad is our Messenger; al-Mahdi is our Imam)
1.33g
15x14mm
Hohertz 74; Album 514
Mat
Shah_Jahan,_Nazrana_Gold_Mohur,_10_88g,_22mm,_Akbarabad_mint,_AH_1052,_RY_15.jpg
ISLAMIC, India, Mughals, Shah Jahan, Nazrana Mohur64 viewsMughal Empire, Shihab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan( AH 1037-1068 / AD 1628-1658), Gold Mohur, 24 mm, 10.88g, Akbarabad mint, AH 1052 (AD 1642), RY 15, Quatrefoil type

Reference: Lane-Poole 547; KM 258.1

Obverse: Centre (within Quatrefoil): Kalima. Margins: bi-sudq Abu Bakr / wa 'adl 'Umar / bi-azram 'Uthman / wa 'ilm 'Ali (name and attributes of the Four Caliphs - Ali, Usman, Omar and Abu Bakr)

Reverse: Centre (within Quatrefoil): Badshah Ghazi Shah Jahan 1052 / 15. Margins: Shihab ud-din / Muhammad Sahib / Qiran Sani / Zarb Akbarabad. (The title 'Badshah or Padshah' is a Persian title meaning Great King (literally meaning Lord or Master of Kings), often translated as Emperor, while 'Ghazi' means an Islamic warrior. 'Sahib Qiran Sani' means the splendid or guiding light, as 'Qiran' in Urdu means light and 'Sani' means brilliant or bright. 'Sahib' means lord, master or owner. 'Zarb' means mint.

Shah Jahan ascended the throne following the death of his father, Jahangir in AH 1037 (1627 AD). He maintained the fine numismatic tradition of his father but did not introduce any innovation. Shah Jahan concentrated more on the grandeur, design and architecture of monuments and fine buildings, Taj Mahal being the most well known.

Akbarabad was a name given to the city, and Mughal capital, of Agra by Shah Jahan in honour of his grandfather Akbar. This changeover of name happened in RY2/3 of Shah Jahan's reign.

The featured coin depicts fine calligraphy within a perfectly centred Quatrefoil (Obv/Rev) and alongside the margins. The complete die impression with legends is fully visible on the broad flan. A well struck specimen befitting its status as a Nazrana or presentation coin from the builder of one of the present wonders of the world.
1 commentsmitresh
Alfonso 8 gold~0.jpg
Islamic, Spain, Alfonso VIII of Castille & Leon80 viewsAlfonso VIII of Castille and Leon led a coalition of Christian Kings and foreign crusaders to defeat the Muslim Alhomads at the Battle of Navas de Tolosa in 1212.

This coin is unusual in that it combines Arabic writing and the Cross.
1 commentsgoldcoin
Hamat-gader-archeol-site-synagoge.jpg
Israel, Hamat Gadar, Ruins of Synagogue19 viewsHamat Gader was already a well known health and recreation site in Roman times, mentioned in Strabo, Origen and Eunapius, as well as the Rabbinic literature. Construction of the bath complex began in the 2nd century by the 10th Roman Legion, which was garrisoned in nearby Gadara. The ancient Hebrew name means hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara. Gadar today is nearby modern Umm Qais. The Arabic name El-Hamma preserves this, and the name of the tel located near the site, Tel Bani, is a corruption of the Latin word meaning "baths." The empress Aelia Eudocia composed a poem praising the qualities of the multiple springs which was inscribed so that visitors could see it as they went into the pool. The mosaic pavement recovered from the 5th century Hamat Gader synagogue, is now installed in the entrance hall of the Supreme Court of Israel.


Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hamat-gader-archeol-site-synagoge.jpg
Joe Sermarini
Hamat-gader_25.jpg
Israel, Hamat Gadar, Ruins of the Roman Baths31 viewsHamat Gader was already a well known health and recreation site in Roman times, mentioned in Strabo, Origen and Eunapius, as well as the Rabbinic literature. Construction of the bath complex began in the 2nd century by the 10th Roman Legion, which was garrisoned in nearby Gadara (modern Umm Qais). The ancient Hebrew name means hot springs of (the ancient city of) Gadara. The Arabic name El-Hamma preserves this, and the name of the tel located near the site, Tel Bani, is a corruption of the Latin word meaning "baths." The empress Aelia Eudocia composed a poem praising the qualities of the multiple springs which was inscribed so that visitors could see it as they went into the pool.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hamat-gader_25.jpg
Photo by Daniel Ventura
Joe Sermarini
Kidron_Valley_Tomb_of_Absalom.JPG
Israel, Jerusalem - Kidron Valley (1)163 viewsThis curious structure is known in Arabic as Tantour Faroun (‘Pharaoh’s Hat’). In fact it’s a funerary monument (nefesh) marking the entrance to a substantial catacomb with eight burial chambers cut into the cliff behind. It probably dates from the reign of Herod the Great. In guidebooks it’s sometimes marked as the ‘Tomb of Absalom’, but the legend that this is the tomb of David’s rebellious son is a medieval fantasy. Abu Galyon
MISC_Italy_Norman_Sicily_Roger_II_D__Andrea-Contreras_227.jpg
Italian States: Norman Sicily. Roger II (Count 1105-1130; King 1130-1154)10 viewsD'Andrea-Contreras 227, Travaini 192; Spahr 77; Biaggi 1217-1222; MEC Italy XIV 180-182

AE Follaro, fourth period (initial phase), from 1129 or 1130 perhaps to 1138. most presumably Messina mint. 1.76 g., 14.14 mm. max, 90°

Obv: King seated on throne, P/O/Γ/E/P/I/O/C -- A/N/A/Σ [=Roger -- King/ANAΣ is the Greek form of the Latin Rex and the Arabic Malik]

Rev: Cross potent, IC-XC-NI-KA (=Jesus Christ Conquors) in quadrants.
Stkp
5989368.jpg
Italy, Sicily, Casale - roman villa - Basin at the entrance240 viewsbuilt 301-325 AD
it was centre of huge latifundium but later it was used for holiday in byzantine and arabic times. It was abandoned in twelfth century.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Romana_del_Casale
Johny SYSEL
6132469.jpg
Italy, Sicily, Syracuse - temple of Apollo143 viewsfrom 6. century BC
adapted to a church in Byzantine times and to a mosque under Arab rule
Johny SYSEL
5989402.jpg
Italy, Sicily, Villa Casale135 viewsbuilt 301-325 AD
it was centre of huge latifundium but later it was used for holiday in byzantine and arabic times. It was abandoned in twelfth century.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Romana_del_Casale
Johny SYSEL
5989413.jpg
Italy, Sicily, Villa Casale - room of the 10 girls in bikinis181 viewsbuilt 301-325 AD
it was centre of huge latifundium but later it was used for holiday in byzantine and arabic times. It was abandoned in twelfth century.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Romana_del_Casale
Johny SYSEL
Gerasa.JPG
Jordan, Jerash (Ancient Gerasa), The Oval Forum in Jerash, and the Cardo Maximus6 viewsThe Greco-Roman city of Gerasa, the Oval Forum in Jerash, and the Cardo Maximus, with modern Jerash in the background.

Ancient Greek inscriptions from the city support that the city was founded by Alexander the Great and his general Perdiccas, who allegedly settled aged Macedonian soldiers there during the spring of 331 BC, when he left Egypt and crossed Syria en route to Mesopotamia. However, other sources, namely the city's former name of "Antioch on the Chrysorrhoas, point to a founding by Seleucid King Antioch IV, while still others attribute the founding to Ptolemy II of Egypt.

After the Roman conquest in 63 BC, Jerash and the land surrounding it were annexed to the Roman province of Syria, and later joined the Decapolis league of cities. The historian Josephus mentions the city as being principally inhabited by Syrians, and also having a small Jewish community.[19] In AD 106, Jerash was absorbed into the Roman province of Arabia, which included the city of Philadelphia (modern day Amman). The Romans ensured security and peace in this area, which enabled its people to devote their efforts and time to economic development and encouraged civic building activity.[20]

Jerash is considered one of the largest and most well-preserved sites of Roman architecture in the world outside Italy. And is sometimes misleadingly referred to as the "Pompeii of the Middle East" or of Asia, referring to its size, extent of excavation and level of preservation.

Jerash was the birthplace of the mathematician Nicomachus of Gerasa (Greek: Νικόμαχος) (c. 60 – c. 120 AD).

In the second half of the 1st century AD, the city of Jerash achieved great prosperity. In AD 106, the Emperor Trajan constructed roads throughout the province, and more trade came to Jerash. The Emperor Hadrian visited Jerash in AD 129–130. The triumphal arch (or Arch of Hadrian) was built to celebrate his visit.

The city finally reached a size of about 800,000 square meters within its walls. The Persian invasion in AD 614 caused the rapid decline of Jerash. Beneath the foundations of a Byzantine church that was built in Jerash in AD 530 there was discovered a mosaic floor with ancient Greek and Hebrew-Aramaic inscriptions. The presence of the Hebrew-Aramaic script has led scholars to think that the place was formerly a synagogue, before being converted into a church.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerash

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Place_ovale_de_Gerasa_new.JPG
Azurfrog, 2 November 2013
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Joe Sermarini
juliamambostra33.jpg
JULIA MAMAEA37 viewsAE 31. Bostra (Arabia). 222-235 AD. 16,52 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. IVLIA MAMAEA AVGVSTA / City-goddess ( Tyche) standing facing,holding spear with trophy-top and cornucopiae, left foot over river- god, flanked by centaurs, within tetrastyle temple with central arch. N TR A-LEXA-ANDRI-ANAE. In exergue COL BOSTR.
Kindler 39. Spijkerman 55. Rosenberger 45.
Münzen & Medaillen. List 583 # 34.
benito
Kamnaskires-Orodes.jpg
Kamnaskires-Orodes - AE Drachm7 viewsElymais - Susa or Seleukeia on Hedyphon
early - mid 2nd century AD
diademed, long bearded bust facing; pellet inside crescent and double crossbar anchor right
dashes
vant Haaff 12.3.1-2A2; BMC Arabia p. 270, 90 ff. (Kamnaskires-Orodes II); SGICV 5910 var. (Kamnaskires-Orodes III, double crossbar)
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
Rama 9_comm.jpg
King Rama 9 of Thailand, 60th Anniversary30 viewsKing Rama 9 of Thailand, 60 th Anniversary Celebrations of His Majesty's Accession to the Throne. These coins were issued on 9 June 2006.

His Majesty, King Bhumibol Adulyadej was born December 5, 1927; he is officially styled "the Great" (Thai: มหาราช, Maharaja) and also known as Rama IX. His name, Bhumibol Adulyadej, means "Strength of the Land, Incomparable Power". Having reigned since June 9, 1946, Bhumibol is the world's longest-serving current Head of State and the longest-serving monarch in Thai history.

Although Bhumibol is a constitutional monarch, he has several times made decisive interventions in Thai politics, including the political crisis of 2005-2006. Bhumibol has been widely credited with facilitating Thailand's transition to democracy in the 1990s.

Bhumibol uses his great wealth to fund numerous development projects, particularly in rural areas. He is immensely popular in Thailand, and is revered by all Thais.

In May 2006, UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, presented the United Nations' first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award to Bhumibol.

Bhumibol is an accomplished jazz musician and composer. He was awarded honorary membership of the Vienna Institute of Music and Arts at the age of 32. He used to play jazz music on air on the Or Sor radio station. In his travels, he has played with such jazz legends as Benny Goodman, Jack Teagarden, Lionel Hampton and Maynard Ferguson. His songs can often be heard at social gatherings and are performed in concerts.

Bhumibol is also a painter, photographer, author and translator. His book Phra Mahachanok is based on a traditional Jataka story of Buddhist scripture. The Story of Thong Daeng is the story of his dog Thong Daeng. He is also the only Thai monarch—and possibly the only monarch in the world, to hold a patent; holding one in 1993 for a waste water aerator named "Chai Pattana" and several patents on rainmaking since 1955: the "sandwich" rainmaking patent in 1999 and lately the "supersandwich" patent in 2003.

Bhumibol is an accomplished sailor and sailboat designer. He won a gold medal for sailing in the Fourth Southeast Asian Peninsular (SEAP) Games in 1967, together with HRH Princess Ubol Ratana who he tied for points. This accomplishment is all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. Bhumibol has also sailed the Gulf of Thailand from Hua Hin to Toey Harbour in Sattahip, covering 60 nautical miles in a 14-hour journey on the "Vega 1", an OK Class dinghy he built.

Like his father, a former naval engineer, Bhumibol was an avid boat designer and builder. He produced several small sail-boat designs in the International Enterprise, OK, and Moth Classes. His designs in the Moth class include the “Mod”, “Super Mod”, and “Micro Mod”.

Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on May 5, 1950 at the Royal Palace in Bangkok where he pronounced his Oath of Succession "I will reign with righteousness for the benefit and happiness of the Siamese people" ("เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม").


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhumibol_Adulyadej




Cleisthenes
JERUSALEM ARAB IMITATION.jpg
Kingdom of Jerusalem72 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem -- Imitation of Ayyubids of Damascus. Al-Salih Ismail, 1237, 1240-45 AD. AR Dirham. 1.8 gm. 20 mm.dpaul7
71888q00.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM . Imitative of Damascus Dirham of Ayyubid al-Salih Isma'il and the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir, 1244 - 125038 viewsKingdom of JERUSALEM . Imitative of Damascus Dirham of Ayyubid al-Salih Isma'il and the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir, 1244 - 1250
2.894g, 22.9mm, Acre(?) mint, 1244 - 1250
obverse : Arabic legends: in center: "al-Malik al-Salih / Imad al-Dunya wa'l-Din / Isma'il b. Abi Bakr", in margins: "In the name of God, struck in Damascus year 641 (or another year)" (or similar, blundered, margins mostly off flan)
reverse : Arabic legends: in center: "al- Imam / Al-Mustansir / billah Abu Ja'far / al-Mansur Amir al-Mu'mininin", in margins: "There is no god but God alone; none is associated with him; Muhammad is the Messenger of God" (or similar, blundered, margins mostly off flan).
Bates Crusader type I, Balog 36 - 37 ; CCS 3
Ex Alex G. Malloy ; Ex FORUM
Vladislav D
3D2FD934-2E0A-4048-8689-49A2A4C3E2AD.jpeg
Kingdom of Jerusalem. Imitating al-Amir. 12th-13th centuries. AV Bezant9 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem. Imitating al-Amir. 12th-13th centuries. AV Bezant
Acre mint. Third phase . 3.9 g.
Corrupted Arabic legends both sides.
CCS 5
Ex Artemide aste XXVII Lot 549 ; Ex Numismatica Tintinna 81
Vladislav D
27872_Kingdom_of_Persis,_Namopad,_c__25_-_75_A_D_.jpg
Kingdom of Persis, Namopad, c. 25 - 75 A.D. Silver obol3 viewsKingdom of Persis, Namopad, c. 25 - 75 A.D. Silver obol, SGICV 5942; BMC Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia, p. 226, 9; Alram 602, VF, 0.414g, 11.6mm, 0o, obverse bust left, bearded, waved back hair, wearing turreted crown, diadem, torque and robe; dot border interrupted by bust; reverse , the king standing right, crowned, hand extended, star and crescent right, Aramaic legend around. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
William_II,_Norman_Kingdom_of_Sicily,_AE_follaro,__1166-1189_AD.jpg
Kingdom of Sicily - William II, AE follaro, 1166-1189 AD38 viewsWilliam II
Norman Kingdom of Sicily
AE Follaro – 15mm
Messina, 1166 – 1189 AD
REX SCYS in circle
+OPERATA IN VRBE MESSANE
Arabic legend in circle surrounded by Arabic legend
MEC14: 401-409
Ardatirion
GRK_Persis_Pakor_I_Sear_5946.jpg
Kings Of Persis. Pakor I (early to mid first century A.D.)26 viewsSear GI 5946; Klose & Müseler 4/29; Tyler-Smith 178 (Pakor II); Alram 597-598 (Pakor II); Sunrise 608-610; BMC Arabia pg. 229, 3

AR Hemidrachm, Persepolis (Fars Province, Iran) mint; .52 g., 10.21 mm. max., 90°

Obv: Bearded bust left, wearing diadem.

Rev: Triskeles with Aramaic inscription around.
2 commentsStkp
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 18 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
188.jpg
Lambda-shaped letter102 viewsARABIA or PHENICIA (?). Uncertain mint. Uncertain emperor. Æ 21. 1st-2nd Century A.D.(?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Imperial bust right. Rev: Inscription illegible. City goddess seated right. Axis: 360°. Weight: 6.58 g. CM: Lambda-shaped letter with horizontal on top, dot on either side, in oval punch, 6.5 x 5 mm . Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
liberalitas_person.JPG
Liberalitas290 viewsPhilipp I Arabs 244 - 249
AR - Antoninian, 5.4g, 23mm
Rome AD 244-247
obv. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
bust draped and cuirassed, radiate head r.
rev. LIBERALITAS AVGG II
Liberalitas standing l., holding abacus and cornucopiae
RIC IV/3, 38(b); C.87
nice EF

LIBERALITAS, liberality, the personification of generosity.
The so-called ABACUS is a misattribution! Really it is a kind of shovel with depressions on its surface, designed to pick up from a bag the correct number of coins when a distribution of money was being made, the 'largitio', largesse; here the second largesse of the emperor.
1 commentsJochen
Philippus_I_LIBERLITAS_AVGG_II_bj_b.jpg
LIBERLITAS AVGG II30 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Rev.: LIBERLITAS... (instead of LIBERALITAS...)
unique
Tibsi
M_Aemilius_1_opt.jpg
M. AEMILIUS Denarius Syd 912, POMPEY Victory v ARETAS 18 viewsOBV: M . SCAVR / AED CVR above king Aretas kneeling beside a camel r., EX on ,S . C on right, REX ARETAS in ex.
REV: HYPSAE (vs) / AED CVR above Jupiter in quadriga left, CAPTVM on right, c. HYPSAEVS cos PREIV (ER) in ex. scorpion below horses
3.1g, 17mm

Minted 58BC
M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus. When M. Aemilius was Governor of Syria, he repressed the incursions of the Nabathean Arabians, compelling their king, Aretas, to submit and pay a fine of 300 talents to Pompey. Pub. Plautius was curule aedile with him in B.C. 58.
Legatus
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M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus26 viewsIn 67 BCE, Hyrcanus II ascended to the throne of Judea. Scarcely three months later, his younger brother Aristobulus II incited a rebellion, successfully leading the uprising to overthrow Hyrcanus and take the offices of both King and High Priest. Hyrcanus was confined to Jerusalem, where he would continue to receive revenues of the latter office. However, fearing for his life, he fled to Petra and allied himself with Aretas, who agreed to support Hyrcanus after receiving the promise of having the Arabian towns taken by the Hasmoneans returned to Nabataea by Hyrcanus' chief advisor, Antipater the Idumaean.

Aretas advanced towards Jerusalem at the head of 50,000 men, besieging the city for several months. Eventually, Aristobulus bribed Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, deputy of the Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Scaurus ordered Aretas to withdraw his army, which then suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Aristobulus on the journey back to Nabatea.

Despite the compliance of Aretas, in 62 BCE Scaurus marched on Petra. However, a combination of the rough terrain and low supplies, obliged Scaurus to seek the aid of Hyrcanus, now High Priest (not king) of Judea, who sent Antipater to barter for peace with Aretas. The siege was lifted in exchange for several hundred talents of silver (to Scaurus himself) and recognition of Roman supremacy over Nabatea. Aretas would retain all Nabataean territory and possessions, becoming a vassal of the Roman Empire.

M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus. 58 B.C. AR denarius (18.8 mm, 3.75 g, 3 h). Rome mint. M SCAVRV above, AED CVR in exergue, EX - SC on either side, REX ARETAS in exergue, King Aretas kneeling beside camel right, offering olive branch / P HVPSAEVS/AED CVR above, C·HVPSAE COS/PREIVER in exergue, CAPTV on right, Jupiter driving quadriga left. Crawford 422/1b; Sydenham 913; RSC Aemilia 8. Fine.
ecoli
m.aemilius.scaurus_Cr422.1b.jpg
M. Aemilius Scaurus, Crawford 422/1b55 viewsM. Aemilius Scaurus, gens Aemilia & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus, gens Plautia
AR - denarius, 3.97g, 16mm
Rome, 58 BC
obv. above [M SCAVR] / AED CVR, in ex. REX ARETAS
The Nabatean king Aretas IV Philhellenos kneeling beside a dromedary,
holding reins with his l. hand and in his raised hand filleted olive-branch.
in field l. and r. EX - SC
rev. above P HYPSAEV[S] / AED CVR, r. CAPTV
in ex. C HYPSAE C[OS] / PREIVER
Jupiter in quadriga l., holding reins in l. hand and hurling thunderbolt in raised
r. hand; in front of the horses scorpion r.
Crawford 422/1b; Sydenham 913; Aemilia 8; Plautia 8; BMC 3878; Hendin 740
small scratch on l. rev. field, otherwise about EF; struck on small flan

This type commemorates the conquest of Privernum by C.Plautius in 329 BC and the success of Scaurus as legate of Pompeius in conquering Palestine and Arabia, and shows the submission of king Aretas in 62 BC.

1 commentsJochen
5880LG.jpg
Macedon, Alexander III, 336-323 BC215 viewsAlexander the Great (Greek:Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1], Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death; he is frequently included in a list along with Napoleon Bonaparte, Julius Caesar, and Ghengis Khan, as the greatest military strategists and tacticians who ever lived. Alexander is also known in the Zoroastrian Middle Persian work Arda Wiraz Nāmag as "the accursed Alexander" due to his conquest of the Persian Empire and the destruction of its capital Persepolis. He is known as Eskandar in Persian and even acclaimed during the construction of the Great Wall Sadd-e Eskandar by the Parthian Dynasty[citation needed]. He is often identified as Dhul-Qarnayn in Middle Eastern traditions and is called al-Iskandar al-Kabeer in Arabic, Sikandar-e-azam in Urdu, Skandar in Pashto, Dul-Qarnayim in Hebrew, and Tre-Qarnayia in Aramaic (the two-horned one), apparently due to an image on coins minted during his rule that seemingly depicted him with the two ram's horns of the Egyptian god Ammon. He is known as Sikandar in Urdu and Hindi, a term also used as a synonym for "expert" or "extremely skilled".

Following the unification of the multiple city-states of ancient Greece under the rule of his father, Philip II of Macedon, (a labour Alexander had to repeat twice because the southern Greeks rebelled after Philip's death), Alexander would conquer the Persian Empire, including Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Gaza, Egypt, Bactria and Mesopotamia and extend the boundaries of his own empire as far as the Punjab. Alexander integrated foreigners (non-Macedonians, non-Greeks known as the Successors[2]) into his army and administration, leading some scholars to credit him with a "policy of fusion." He encouraged marriage between his army and foreigners, and practised it himself. After twelve years of constant military campaigning, Alexander died, possibly of malaria, typhoid, or viral encephalitis. His conquests ushered in centuries of Greek settlement and rule over distant areas, a period known as the Hellenistic Age. Alexander himself lived on in the history and myth of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. Already during his lifetime, and especially after his death, his exploits inspired a literary tradition in which he appears as a legendary hero in the tradition of Achilles.

Alexander III, 336-323 BC, Bronze AE18, Price-275, struck 336-323BC at Macedonia, 7.09 grams, 17.3 mm. Choice VF

Obv: Head of Herakles with a lion scalp headdress
Rev: Club above legend with bow and quiver below, thunderbolt above club, 'Delta' below quiver

A wonderful bronze issue from the lifetime of Alexander III 'the Great.' Perfectly centered and struck with minimal, if any, actual wear. Highly attractive.
Ex-Glenn Woods g28
ecoli
Varbanov_3964_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Edessa_Philippus_Arabs_Varbanov 39644 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Edessa
Struck: 244-249 / 23-24,5 mm / 7,77 g

Av: AY K M IOYΛΙOC ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: EΔEC-C-AI-ΩN
Roma throning left, holding Nike, being crowned by behind standing turetted Tyche of Edessa, holding sceptre

Reference: Varbanov 3964
Andicz
Moushmov_6835v_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Thessalonika_Philippus_Arabs_Moushmov 6835 var.4 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Thessalonika
Struck: 244-245 / 24-25,5 mm / 11,13 g

Av: AY K MA IOYΛΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΘECCAΛONIKEΩN NE
Apollo standing left, holding Kabeiros and palm branch, price crown on tripod to his feet

Reference: Moushmov 6835 var.
Andicz
Moushmov_6840_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Thessalonika_Philippus_Arabs_Moushmov 68406 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Thessalonika
Struck: 244-245 / 24,5-26 mm / 8,13 g

Av: AY K MA IOYΛΙOC ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΘECCAΛONIKEΩN NEΩKOPΩN
Nike advancing left, holding Kabeiros and palm branch

Reference: Moushmov 6840
Andicz
Moushmov_6845_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Thessalonika_Philippus_Arabs_Moushmov 68458 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Thessalonika
Struck: 244-245 / 23,5-26 mm / 10,77 g

Av: AY K MA IOYΛΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΘECCAΛONIKEΩN NEΩKOPΩN
Price crown, five apples and urn on competition table

Reference: Moushmov 6845
Andicz
XXX1_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Thessalonika_Philippus_Arabs_XXX14 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Thessalonika
Struck: 244-245 / 23-25 mm / 7,42 g

Av: AY K M IOY ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΘECCAΛONIKEΩN NEΩ
Nike advancing left, holding five apples and palm branch

Reference: XXX
Andicz
XXX2_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Thessalonika_Philippus_Arabs_XXX26 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Thessalonika
Struck: 244-245 / 25-26,5 mm / 10,46 g

Av: AY K MA IOYΛ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΘECCAΛONIKEΩN Π-YΘΙΑ
Price crown, five apples and urn on competition table

Reference: XXX
Andicz
XXX3_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Macedonia_Thessalonika_Philippus_Arabs_XXX36 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Macedonia, Thessalonika
Struck: 244-245 / 25,5-27 mm / 10,58 g

Av: AY K M A IOYΛI ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: ΘECCAΛONIK-EΩN NEOΩKO
Nike advancing left, holding five apples and palm branch, price crown on tripod at her feet

Reference: XXX
Andicz
macriniusperge.jpg
Macrinus Assarion, Perge, Pamphylia.33 viewsAV KAI M OΠEΛ CEV MAKPEINOC CEB, laureate and draped bust right

ΠEPΓ - AIΩN, winged Nike advancing left, holding wreath in extended right, palm fron in left hand

SNG PFPS 347 (same dies, additional CM on reverse), SNG von Aulock 4683 (same dies)
obv. on neck countermark: Eagle with spread wings (Howgego 168, no. 334)

The ruins of the city of Perge reside just under an hours drive from the seaside resort of Antalya on the south coast of Turkey. Strabo claims the city was founded by Greek colonists under the leadership of Mopsos and Calchas.

After the comings and going of the Persians, Alexanders Empire and the Seleucids, Perge passed over to Rome in 133BC.In 46 A.D., Perge became the setting of an event important to the Christian world. The New Testament book, the Acts of the Apostles, writes that St. Paul journeyed from Cyprus to Perge, from there continued on to Antiocheia in Pisidia. During the Constantinian era, the city became a centre of Christian worship, but waned in power after the Arab raids of the 7th centuries.
GaiusCaligula
MALACCA_KEPING.jpg
MALACCA42 viewsMALACCA - British Administration. Cu Keping, 1831. Obv.: Rooster facing right. Legend in Arabic above. Rev.: Arabic script showing value and AH Date. Reference: KM#8.1.dpaul7
MALACCA_-_MUZZAFAR_SHAH.jpg
MALACCA SULTANATE - Muzzafar Shah12 viewsMALACCA SULTANATE - Muzzafar Shah (1445-1458) Tin Cash. Ornate arabic inscriptions on both sides: Obverse: Muzaffar Shah al-Sultan Rev.: Nasir al-Funya wa'l Din (Helper of the world and faith). Reference: Journal of the Malayann branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol.XVII, part 1, coin #A1 (1939). Before the conquest by the Portuguese in the early 1500's, Melaka in Malaysia was the center of a prosperous Islamic Sultanate. The issue of tin coins issued by the Sultanes were later continued by the Portuguese. These tin coins, especially in high quality, are rare.dpaul7
malaysia_5-rm_rev_01.JPG
Malaysia - RM5 - Five Ringgit Malaysia - Reverse10 viewsMalaysia
Five Ringgit Reverse.
-
Bank Negara Malaysia = National Bank of Malaysia.
---
-
rexesq
056n.jpg
Male bust and B169 viewsARABIA PETRAEA (?). Petra (?). Hadrian (?). Æ 26. A.D. 117-138 (?). 2 countermarks. Worn smooth. Weight: 6.96 g. CM(1): Male bust right, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 125 (4 pcs). CM(2): B in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 770 (4 pcs). Note: The two countermarks were probably applied at the same time, but were likely earlier than other denomination countermarks of Petra. Collection Automan.Automan
ISL_Mamluks_Balog_245a_al-N_#257;s_#803;ir_N_#257;s_#803;ir_al-D_#299;n_Mu_#7717;ammad.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Hasan (al-Nasir Nasir al-Din Abu'l-Mahasin) (1st reign, 748-752 A.H. = 1347-1351 A.D.; 2nd reign 755-762 A.H. = 1354-1361 A.D.)17 viewsBalog 250 (Muhammad I); SNAT Hamah 526-527; Album 947

AE fals; Hamah mint, undated (2nd reign); 2.04 g., 17.84 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Linear circle border in border of dots. Field on both sides divided by two horizontal lines into three segments (fesse): ضرب (= duriba/struck) in upper segment; الملك الناصر (= al-Malik al-Nasir/King Nasir) in central segment; بحماة (= Hamah) in lower segment.

Rev.: Shield divided by horizontal band into three horizontal segments (fesse). The central band is bendy of thirteen pieces to the left. Upper and lower segment contains a floral arabesque.

Hasan was the seventh son of Muhammad I to hold office. Upon the death of his half-brother, Sultan Hajji, in 1347, Hasan was raised to the sultanate at age 12 by senior Mamluk emirs formerly belonging to his father. Upon his accession, he disavowed his given (Turkic) name and assumed the Arabic name, Hasan. He was toppled by the emirs in 1351 when he attempted to assert executive authority, and reinstated by them three years later during a coup against his half-brother, Sultan Salih. During his second reign, he pursued a policy of minimizing the role of the mamluk emirs in the state and relying instead on the descendants of mamluks, known as awlad al-nas. Hasan was killed in 1361 at age 27 by one of his own mamluks, who led a faction opposed to Hasan's policy of elevating the awlad al-nas to positions of authority. Hasan was the only descendant of Muhammad to have had a significant impact on events in the sultanate, and was referred to by a Mamluk-era historian as one of the "best kings of the Turks."

Atribution courtesy of Alex Koifman
1 commentsStkp
ISL_MAMLUKS_Hasan.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Hasan (al-Nasir Nasir al-Din Abu'l-Mahasin) (1st reign, 748-752 A.H. = 1347-1351 A.D.; 2nd reign 755-762 A.H. = 1354-1361 A.D.)9 viewsBalog (1970) 905B; SNAT Hamah 505-511; Album 947

AE fals, Hamah mint, dated (75)1 A.H. = 1350/51 A.D. (first reign): 2.36 g., 18.72 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Solid border. الملك / الناصر (= al-malik / al-Násir) in two rows in center.

Rev. Octolobe of dots, solid octolobe within, mint name and date separated by ornamental border in center.

Hasan was the seventh son of Muhammad I to hold office. Upon the death of his half-brother, Sultan Hajji, in 1347, Hasan was raised to the sultanate at age 12 by senior Mamluk emirs formerly belonging to his father. Upon his accession, he disavowed his given (Turkic) name and assumed the Arabic name, Hasan. He was toppled by the emirs in 1351 when he attempted to assert executive authority, and reinstated by them three years later during a coup against his half-brother, Sultan Salih. During his second reign, he pursued a policy of minimizing the role of the mamluk emirs in the state and relying instead on the descendants of mamluks, known as awlad al-nas. Hasan was killed in 1361 at age 27 by one of his own mamluks, who led a faction opposed to Hasan's policy of elevating the awlad al-nas to positions of authority. Hasan was the only descendant of Muhammad to have had a significant impact on events in the sultanate, and was referred to by a Mamluk-era historian as one of the "best kings of the Turks."
Stkp
ISL_MAMLUK_Balog_296_Isma__il.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Isma`il (al-Salih `Imad al-Din Isma`il) (743-746 A.H. = 1342-1345 A.D.)6 viewsBalog 296 Plate XII 296; SNAT Hamah 441-445; Album 935

AE fals; Hamah mint, dated 746 A.H. = 1345/6 A.D.: 3.15 g., 19.98 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Circular line border. الملك / حالصال (=al-Malik / al-Salih) in two lines.

Rev.: Circular line border. In it, double linear square; Arabic legend in two rows within: ضرب / بحماد (=duriba bi-Hamah). Counter-clockwise Arabic legend in he segments: سبعماية (=sbemaya/seven hundred) / اربعين سن (=arbeyn/forty) / سته (=satah/six) / سنة (=sana/year).

Isma'il was the fourth son of Muhammad I to succeed their father. Under his orders or those close to him, his two surviving predecessors and brothers, Kujuk and Ahmad, were killed. He was 17 upon his accession and died of natural causes at age 20. During his short reign, a level of political stability was restored. He was deemed by Mamluk-era historians to be the best of Muhammad's sons and referred to as the renewer of the Islamic faith in the sultanate.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluks_Balog_245b_al-N_#257;s_#803;ir_N_#257;s_#803;ir_al-D_#299;n_Mu_#7717;ammad.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Muhammad I (al-Nasir Nasir al-Din Muhammad) (1st reign, 693-694 A.H. = 1293-1294 A.D.; 2nd reign 698-708 A.H. = 1299-1309 A.D.; 3rd reign, 709-741 A.H. = 1310-1341 A.D.)12 viewsBalog 245b, Plate X No. 245b; SNAT Hamah 394-395; Album 922.

AE fals; Hamah mint, undated (3rd reign); 3.26 g., 20.20 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Border on both sides, dotted circle between two linear circles; الماك (al-Malik) / الناصر (al-Nasir) in two rows in field.

Rev.: Shield divided by horizontal band into three horizontal segments (fesse). The central band is bendy of eleven pieces. Upper and lower segment contains a floral arabesque.

Muhammad I, the ninth Bahri Mamluk sultan, was the youngest son of Sultan Qala'un (of Turkic origin from the Kipchak tribe) and a mother of Mongol origin, and the brother of Sultan Khalil. After the assassination of Khalil in December 1293 by a faction lead by Lajin, Muhammad became sultan at age nine. In December 1294 Muhammad's regent, Kitbugha, deposed Muhammad with the support of Lajin and installed himself as sultan. In 1296 Kitbugha was deposed by Lajin, who then ruled as a sultan until he was murdered in 1299. Muhammad was recalled and reinstated as sultan at age 14, although power was held by Baybars. In 1309 Muhammad, who sought to free himself from the domination of Baybars, withdrew from Egypt and attempted to have Baybars arrested. This failed and Baybars installed himself as sultan, ending Muhammad's second reign. His second reign was dominated by Mongol threats in the Levant. After only ten months an Egyptian mob forced Baybars to flee and Muhammad was reinstated. at age 24. He reigned until his death 31 years later. His third reign was the apogee of Mamluk power and the high-water mark of culture in Egypt since Ptolemaic Alexandria. Eight of his sons and four of his grandsons would be enthroned as sultans.
Stkp
ISL_MAMLUK_Balog_462_v_al-Ashraf_N_#257;s_#803;ir_al-D_#299;n_Sha__ban_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)21 viewsBalog 462 Plate XVII 462 var. (orientation of bendy); SNAT Hamah 615-616; Album 958

AE fals; Hamah mint, undated 776-778 A.H. = 1374-1377 A.D.; 1.62 g., 17.81 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Solid border, circular border within; الملك الاشرف (= al-Malik al-Ashraf) between arabesque ornaments in center.

Rev.: Field divided into three horizontal segments, the central fesse segment bendy with seven pieces to left; بحما (= bi-Hamah) in upper segment, ضرب (= duriba/struck) in lower.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
1 commentsStkp
ISL_Mamluk_Balog_458_Shaban.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)21 viewsBalog 458, Plate XVII, Nos. 458a-458b; Album 958

AE fals; Dimashq/Damascus mint, undated; 2.89 g., 19.43 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Circular line border. Clockwise circular legend, السلطان الملك الا شرف شعبان (= al-Sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf Sha`ban), in the center, spindle-shaped cartouche with fleur-de-lis edges; in it حسن بن (= bin Hasayn).

Rev.: Circular line border. Concave-sided linear octolobe with floweret on the edges. Pellets between the flowerets. In the center: ضرب / مشق بد (= darab=struck / in Dimashq).

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
1 commentsStkp
mumlak-fals.jpg
Mamluk sultan Al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha'ban II AE Fals13 viewsIslamic Empire, Mamluk, al-Ashraf Sha'ban II, (1363-1377 AD), AE fals, Dimashq, 2.7g, 20.28mm

Obverse: Eye-shaped cartouche with Arabic al-sultan al-malik al-Ashraf Sha'ban clockwise around perimeter; at center, bin Hasan.

Reverse: Floreated octolabe with zarb Dimashq at center.

Reference: Balog 458
Gil-galad
marc_antony_denar_legXIX.jpg
MARC ANTONY legionary denarius - 32-31 BC58 viewsobv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C (praetorian galley right)
rev: LEG XIX (legionary eagle between two standards)
ref: Crawford 544/35, RSC 55, Syd 1242, Albert1736 (100eur)
2.15gms, 16mm

The massive issue of legionary denarii minted under Mark Antony was used to pay for military preparations for the comming war with Octavian. They tend to be of baser metal, leading some modern numismatists to classify them as "money of necessity," and they provide a record of the number of legions in Antony's army. This legionary denarii are known for being of much lower- grade silver than the comparable official Roman denarii.
The Legio XIX was founded in 41 or 40 BC, after the battle of Philippi by Octavian. The legion were completely destroyed in the Teutoburg Forest.
berserker
0063.jpg
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus & Publius Plautius Hypsaeus; Denarius20 viewsRRC 422/1b
58 b.c.

Obverse:M . SCAVR / AED CVR above king Aretas kneeling beside a camel right. EX on ,S . C on right, REX ARETAS in ex.
Reverse: HYPSAE/AED CVR above Jupiter in quadriga left, CAPTVM on right, C. HYPSAEVS cos PREIV (ER) in ex. scorpion below horses.

One of the first moneyers commemorating on his coins an event of own history. M. Aemilius, as the Governor of Syria, repressed the incursions of the Nabathean Arabians, compelling their king, Aretas, to submit and pay a fine of 300 talents to Pompey.
He also was one of the richest and most influential men of his time. Still failed to be elected consul in 54 after a bribery case he won with the help of his friend Cicero.

Pub. Plautius was curule aedile with him in B.C. 58.

Purchased from Numismatica Varesina at "World Money Fair" 08.02.2014; Berlin
1 commentsNorbert
Merovingian coin at time of Charles Martel~0.jpg
MEDIEVAL, FRANCE, Merovingians. Châteaudun. AR Denier87 viewsFRANCE, Merovingians. Châteaudun. AR Denier (1.04 gm). Touraine, 670-750 AD.

This coin was struck at the time of Charles Martel who defeated an Arab invasion led by Abdul Rahman at the battle of Tours in 732 AD. His army of 15,000 infantry defeated an Arab army of 60,000 cavalry, an astonishing feat for outnumbered infantry to defeat cavalry. This victory turned the tide of the Muslim invasion in western Europe. This coin was minted in Touraine, the province where the famous Battle of Tours took place.
goldcoin
Alfonso VIII~0.jpg
MEDIEVAL, Spain, Castile and Leon, Alfonso VIII507 viewsAlfonso VIII (November 11, 1155 – October 5, 1214), king of Castile and grandson of Alfonso VII, is a great name in Spanish history, for he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohades at the battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212.
The gold maravedi of Alfonso VIII is a strange blend of Muslim and Christian worlds. It has a Cross surrounded by Arabic writings!

Is there anyone who can read Arabic?
1 commentsgoldcoin
IMG_0999.JPG
Menander I Drachm47 viewsAR Drachm
Size: 17mm, Weight: 2.45 grams, Die Axis: 9h

Bactria, Menander I
Circa 155 – 130 BCE

Obverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ MENAN∆POY (of saviour king Menander)
Diademed and draped bust of Menander I to right.

Reverse: The Kharoshthi script 𐨣𐨚𐨯 𐨚𐨟𐨪𐨯 𐨨𐨱𐨪𐨗𐨯ꅐ (maharajasa tratarasa menadrasa - translation as obverse)
Athena Alkidemos advancing left, brandishing thunderbolt and shield held horizontally decorated with head of Gorgon. Monogram to right.

Notes:
-Menander was one of the most successful Baktrian kings, and according to Strabo conquered more tribes than Alexander the Great. He was said to have raided as far east as modern day Patna, India.
-He is also reported to have converted to Buddhism, but that is according to the Buddhist text the Milinda Panha (The questions of king Milinda). However it is recorded by Plutarch that upon his death his remains were shared amongst cities and 'monuments' were erected to honour these. This may be a reference to Buddhist stupas. There is no doubt, like Alexander before him, he respected the various religions of his kingdom, and used them to gain advantage wherever possible.
-The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, thought to have been written in the mid first century CE, records the following:
"To the present day ancient drachmae are current in Barygaza (modern day Bharuch in Gujarat, India), coming from this country, bearing inscriptions in Greek letters, and the devices of those who reigned after Alexander, Apollodorus and Menander."
-Kharosthi (also known as Gandharan) was a script used in the region of modern day Afghanistan and Pakistan from about the 3rd century BCE to about the 3rd century CE. There is evidence of the script surviving as late as the 7th century CE in some outposts along the Silk Road. Interestingly, some early Chinese translations of Buddhist works indicate a Kharosthi source.
-Kharosthi is read from right to left, like for example modern Arabic. In the case of Menander, his epithets all end in 𐨯 (sa), so it is quite east to make out each word on the coin. The first letter of Menadrasa ꅐ (me) is made up of 𐨨 (m) combined with the diacritic vowel mark ' (e). This letter 'me', is quite distinctive and clearly visible directly below the monogram on my coin. Thus reading (by English convention) backwards the word me . na . dra . sa is clear. Note I was not able to find the Unicode script for Kharosthi 'me', so the symbol I have used is from 'Yi' script which was the closest approximation of The Kharosthi symbol I could find.

Ex Frank S Robinson Auction 97 lot 13, 2016
1 commentsPharsalos
IMG_0458.JPG
MESOPOTAMIA, Edessa; Septimius Severus9 viewsMESOPOTAMIA, Edessa. Septimius Severus, with Abgar VIII. AD 193-211. Æ. Laureate head right / Bust of Abgar right wearing tiara. BMC Arabia p. 96, 33.ecoli
nisibis_philippI_Sear3970.jpg
Mesopotamia, Nisibis, Philip I, Sear 397030 viewsPhilip I Arabs, AD 246-249
AE 25, 11.5g
obv. AVTOK KM IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. IOV CEP KOLW NECIBI MET
Tetrastyle temple with twisted columns and central arch, within City Tyche std.
facing(!), above ram leaping r., head turned backwards, beneath river-god
Mygdonius swimming r.
Sear GICV 3970

The depiction of the City Tyche facing is very rare. On worn coins it looks often like a canopus.
Mygdonios, today Kharmis, a tributary of the Khabur, which opens into the Euphrates.
Jochen
15556127_1140364429404934_608084627_n.jpg
Mixed lot of Roman, Byzantine, Arab-Sassanian, Vietnam cash, modern German coins16 viewsMixed lot of Roman, Byzantine, Arab-Sassanian, Vietnam cash, modern German coins

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics
Gil-galad
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrHJ(2015)8_14_1_22corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.01.2312 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 18, 3.63g, 18.46mm, 30°
obv. AV - K - CEVHROC
Laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOL - I PROC I
Zeus in himation enthroned l0. resting with raised l. hand on sceptre and holding in
extended r. hand patera
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1346 (like ex. #2, Bassarabescu)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf. #2245 (rev. only)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.1.1.23
F+, dark green patina, both sides a bit excentrical
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2011)8_23_43_3cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.04 (plate coin)36 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 28, 11.12g, 27.87mm, 195°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT K OPPEL C - EVH MA[KRINOC]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIP[PA NIKOP]OLITWN PROC I / CTRW
Nude youth (mountain-god Haimos), slight drapery over r. shoulder and knees, wearing boots, std. r.(!)
on rocks, looking back, l. hand on head, r. arm with spear resting on tree behind
in r. field AIMOC
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1700, pl. III, 24 (1 ex., Bassarabescu)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf.#3390: different obv. legend, spear not mentioned, pic of rev. from Pick, pic of obv. called #3407 in
error
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.4 (plate coin)
unique (R10), about VF
pedigree:
ex dianacoins, Ebay, 2009
ex coll. Steve Cady, Tantalus Coins, #34158, 2012

The pic in Hristova/Jekov (2011) was taken from Varbanov, Varbanov's pic was taken from Moushmov, Moushmov's pick was taken from Pick! Therefore the copies are so bad and the spear has disappeared!

One of the rarest types of Nikopolis at all. This type was listed and depicted in AMNG I/1. Nicolae Bassarabescu, a Romanian collector, was in AD 1890 the director of the journal "Poporul" in Bukaresti. But the coin vanished in the course of time. It is now the first time that this type appears in the public after more than 100 years. Enjoy!
1 commentsJochen
Philippus_I_3~0.jpg
Moesia Superior, Viminacium, AD 244, Philippus I the Arab 11 viewsPhilippus I, the Arab
Moesia Superior, Viminacium
AD 244
Obv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Laureate and draped bust right.
Rev.: P M S COL VIM / AN V = year 244, Moesia standing facing, head left, extending hands to bull and lion standing at feet to either side.
AE, 19.63g, 28.4mm
Ref.: Varbanov 130
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 11, Lot 376
shanxi
PhilippII_viminacium_Pick104.jpg
Moesia superior, Viminacium, Philipp I, AMNG 140212 viewsPhilipp I Arabs, AD 244-249
AE 30, 18.3g
obv. IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. PMS C - OL VIM
Moesia, draped, standing l., holding hands above bull l. and lion r.
in ex. AN VIII
AMNG I/1, 140; SNG München 180-5
gVF, nice green patina

PMS COL VIM is the abbreviation of PROVINCIAE MOESIAE SVPERIORIS COLONIA VIMINACIVM. Viminacium, today Kostolac near Pozarevac/Serbia, was the capital of Moesia superior.
The bull and the lion are symbols of the two legions standing in Viminacium, the legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis and the legio IIII Flavia Felix.
AN VIII stands for the 8th year of the mint of Viminacium (AD 239-255) AD 247
5 commentsJochen
AMNG_97_V_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Moesia Superior_Viminacium_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 0975 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Moesia Superior, Viminacium
Struck: 244/45 / 22-23 mm / 9,46 g

Av: IMP IVL PHILIPPVS PIVS FEL AVG P M
Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: P M S COL VIM
Moesia standing left between bull and lion

In exergue: AN V (ANno V)

Reference: AMNG I/I 97
Andicz
AMNG_100_V_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Moesia Superior_Viminacium_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 1004 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Moesia Superior, Viminacium
Struck: 244/45 / 27 mm / 17,03 g

Av: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: P M S COL VIM
Moesia standing left between bull and lion

In exergue: AN V (ANno V)

Reference: AMNG I/I 100
Andicz
AMNG_102_VI_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs_01.jpg
Moesia Superior_Viminacium_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 102 014 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Moesia Superior, Viminacium
Struck: 245 / 29 mm / 18,67 g

Av: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: P M S COL VIM
Moesia standing left between bull and lion

In exergue: AN VI (ANno VI)

Reference: AMNG I/I 102
Andicz
AMNG_102_VI_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs_02.jpg
Moesia Superior_Viminacium_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 102 025 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Moesia Superior, Viminacium
Struck: 245 / 28-29 mm / 19,92 g

Av: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: P M S COL VIM
Moesia standing left between bull and lion

In exergue: AN VI (ANno VI)

Reference: AMNG I/I 102
Andicz
AMNG_103_VII_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs_01.jpg
Moesia Superior_Viminacium_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 103 017 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Moesia Superior, Viminacium
Struck: 246 / 25,5-27 mm / 13,13 g

Av: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: P M S COL VIM
Moesia standing left between bull and lion

In exergue: AN VII (ANno VII)

Reference: AMNG I/I 103
Andicz
AMNG_103_VII_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs_02.jpg
Moesia Superior_Viminacium_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 103 025 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Moesia Superior, Viminacium
Struck: 246 / 27 mm / 19,68 g

Av: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: P M S COL VIM
Moesia standing left between bull and lion

In exergue: AN VII (ANno VII)

Reference: AMNG I/I 103
Andicz
AMNG_105_VIIII_244-249_Philippus_I__Arabs.jpg
Moesia Superior_Viminacium_Philippus_Arabs_AMNG I/I 1057 viewsPhilippus Arabs
AE, Moesia Superior, Viminacium
Struck: 248 / 27-29 mm / 17,92 g

Av: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: P M S COL VIM
Moesia standing left between bull and lion

In exergue: AN VIIII (ANno VIIII)

Reference: AMNG I/I 105
Andicz
13370LG.jpg
MOESIA, Istros177 viewsMOESIA, Istros. Circa 4th Century BC. AR Drachm (5.86 gm).

Histria or Istros (Ancient Greek: Ἰστρίη, Thracian river god, Danube), was a Greek colony or polis (πόλις, city) near the mouths of the Danube (known as Ister in Ancient Greek), on the western coast of the Black Sea. Established by Milesian settlers in order to facilitate trade with the native Getae, it is considered the oldest urban settlement on Romanian territory. Scymnus of Chios (ca 110 BC), dated its founding to 630 BC, while Eusebius of Caesarea set it during the time of the 33rd Olympic Games (657 – 656 BC). The earliest documented currency on Romanian territory was an 8-gram silver drachma, issued by the city around 480 BC.

Archaeological evidence seems to confirm that all trade with the interior followed the foundation of Histria. Traders reached the interior via Histria and the Danube valley, demonstrated by finds of Attic black-figure pottery, coins, ornamental objects, an Ionian lebes and many fragments of amphoras. Amphoras have been found in great quantity at Histria, some imported but some local. Local pottery was produced following establishment of the colony and certainly before mid-6th century. During the archaic and classical periods, when Histria flourished, it was situated near fertile arable land. It served as a port of trade soon after its establishment, with fishing and agriculture as additional sources of income. By 100 AD, however, fishing had become the main source of Istrian revenue.

Around 30 AD, Histria came under Roman domination. During the Roman period from the 1st to 3rd centuries AD, temples were built for the Roman gods, besides a public bath and houses for the wealthy. Altogether, it was in continuous existence for some 14 centuries, starting with the Greek period up to the Roman-Byzantine period. The Halmyris bay where was the city founded was closed by sand deposits and access to the Black Sea gradually was cut. Trade continued until the 6th century AD. The invasion of the Avars and the Slavs in the 7th century AD almost entirely destroyed the fortress, and the Istrians dispersed; the name and the city disappeared.

Facing male heads, the left inverted / Sea-eagle left, grasping dolphin with talons; H between wing and tail, D below dolphin. SNG BMC Black Sea 245; Pick 431. EF.
Ex-Barry Murphy g30
2 commentsecoli
istros.jpg
Moesia, Istros. (Circa 340-313 BC)41 viewsAR Drachm

6.19 g

Obverse: Two facing male heads; the right inverted

Reverse: IΣTPIH, sea-eagle left, grasping dolphin left with talons; H behind, Δ below.

AMNG I 431. SNG BM Black Sea 245.

Istros was a Greek colony near the mouths of the Danube (known as Ister in Ancient Greek), on the western coast of the Black Sea. Established by Milesian settlers in order to facilitate trade with the native Getae, Scymnus of Chios (ca 110 BC), dated its founding to 630 BC, while Eusebius of Caesarea set it during the time of the 33rd Olympic Games (657 – 656 BC). During the archaic and classical periods, when Istros flourished, it was situated near fertile arable land. It served as a port of trade soon after its establishment, with fishing and agriculture as additional sources of income.
1 commentsNathan P
Lixus_in_Morocco.jpg
Morocco, Lixus65 viewsLixus is the site of an ancient Roman city located in Morocco just north of the modern seaport of Larache on the bank of the Loukkos River. The location was one of the main cities of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana .

Ancient Lixus is located on Tchemmich Hill on the right bank of the Loukkos River (other names: Oued Loukous; Locus River), just to the north of the modern seaport of Larache. The site lies within the urban perimeter of Larache, and about three kilometers inland from the mouth of the river and the Atlantic ocean. From its 80 meters above the plain the site dominates the marshes through which the river flows. To the north, Lixus is surrounded by hills which themselves are bordered to the north and east by a forest of cork oaks.

Among the ruins there are Roman baths, temples, 4th century walls, a mosaic floor, a Christian church and the intricate and confusing remains of the Capitol Hill.

Lixus was first settled by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC and was later annexed by Carthage. Lixus was part of a chain of Phoenician/Carthaginian settlements along the Atlantic coast of modern Morocco; other major settlements further to the south are Chellah (called Sala Colonia by the Romans) and Mogador. When Carthage fell to Ancient Rome, Lixus, Chellah and Mogador became imperial outposts of the Roman province Mauretania Tingitana.

The ancient sources agree to make of Lixus a counter Phoenician, which is confirmed by the archaeological discovery of material dating from 8th century BC. It gradually grew in importance, later coming under Carthaginian domination. After the destruction of Carthage, Lixus fell to Roman control and was made an imperial colony, reaching its zenith during the reign of the emperor Claudius I (AD 41-54).

Some ancient Greek writers located at Lixus the mythological garden of the Hesperides, the keepers of the golden apples. The name of the city was often mentioned by writers from Hanno the Navigator to the Geographer of Ravenna, and confirmed by the legend on its coins and by an inscription. The ancients believed Lixus to be the site of the Garden of the Hesperides and of a sanctuary of Hercules, where Hercules gathered gold apples, more ancient than the one at Cadiz, Spain. However, there are no grounds for the claim that Lixus was founded at the end of the second millennium BC.

Lixus flourished during the Roman Empire, mainly when Claudius established a Roman Colonia with full rights for the citizens. Lixus was one of the few Roman cities in Berber Africa that enjoyed an amphitheater: the amphitheater at Lixus. In the third century Lixus become nearly fully Christian and there are even now the ruins of a paleochristian church overlooking the archeological area. The Arab invasions destroyed the Roman city. Some berber life was maintained there nevertheless until one century after the Islamic conquest of North Africa by the presence of a mosque and a house with patio with the covered walls of painted stuccos.

The site was excavated continuously from 1948 to 1969. In the 1960s, Lixus was restored and consolidated. In 1989, following an international conference which brought together many scientists, specialists, historians and archaeologists of the Mediterranean around the history and archaeology of Lixus, the site was partly enclosed. Work was undertaken to study the Roman mosaics of the site, which constitute a very rich unit. In addition to the vestiges interesting to discover the such mosaics whose one of sixty meters representing Poseidon. Lixus was on a surface of approximately 75 hectares (190 acres). The excavated zones constitute approximately 20% of the total surface of the site.

This site was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on July 1, 1995 in the Cultural category.
Joe Sermarini
MUGHALS-AURANGZEB-RY46-AKBARABAD_MINT-ONE_RUPEE.jpg
MUGHALS-AURANGZEB-RY:46-AKBARABAD MINT-ONE RUPEE-RAREST BEAUTIFUL SILVER COIN-2911 views____29Antonivs Protti
MUGHALS-FARUKHSIYAR-AKBARABAD_MINT-ONE_RUPEE-RAREST_SILVER_COIN-84.jpg
MUGHALS-FARUKHSIYAR-AKBARABAD MINT-ONE RUPEE-RAREST SILVER COIN10 views33Antonivs Protti
MUGHALS-SHAH_ALAM_BAHADUR-AKBARABAD_MINT-ONE_RUPEE-.jpg
MUGHALS-SHAH ALAM BAHADUR-AKBARABAD MINT-ONE RUPEE-RAREST SILVER COIN-567 views ___29Antonivs Protti
am_83_combo.jpg
Muntoni 8343 views1684 on the obverse, no regnal date.

A handful of the early varieties have the arabic calendar year on the obverse, squeezed above the arms in small letters resulting in a somewhat cluttered looking obverse. Although not every variety carried a date, the subsequent convention appears to be the regnal date on the obverse in Latin numerals, and the calendar year on the reverse in arabic numbers.
stlnats
am_88_combo.jpg
Muntoni 8825 views1684 on the obverse, no regnal date.

A handful of the early varieties have the arabic calendar year on the obverse, squeezed above the arms in small letters resulting in a somewhat cluttered looking obverse. Although not every variety carried a date, the subsequent convention appears to be the regnal date on the obverse in Latin numerals, and the calendar year on the reverse in arabic numbers.
stlnats
rabgambmca3_7OR.jpg
Nabataea, Rabbel II, BMC Arabia 3-729 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Petra mint, Rabbel II c. 76 - 102 A.D. AE, 16mm 2.38g, Meshorer Nabataean 163, SNG ANS 1450, BMC Arabia 3-7, SGICV 5706
O: jugate laureate busts of Rabbel II and Gamilath, Rabbel II has long hair and ornament on the top of his head
R: two crossed cornucopias, Aramaic legend "Rabbel / Gamilath" in two lines between the horns
casata137ec
Comb04042017104535.jpg
NABATAEA. Malichus II, with Shaqilat II. AD 40-70.37 viewsObv : Jugate laureate and draped bust of Malichus II and Shuqailat II right .
Rev : Two cornucopias, crossed and filleted; Aramaic, "Malichus / Shuqai/lat" in two lines above and one below the cornucopias.
Reference : Meshorer Nabataean 140A, SGICV 5703, SNG ANS 1444, BMC Arabia 4-5.
16mm, 2.61 grams.


1 commentsCanaan
syllaeus.jpg
NABATAEAN KINGDOM - SYLLAEUS141 viewsNABATAEAN KINGDOM - SYLLAEUS (9 B.C.E.) bronze of 13.3 mm, 2.30 grams. Struck at the mint of Petra, capital of the Nabataeans. Obverse: Laureate bust Syllaeus right. Reverse: Double cornucopias with grapes, initial of Syllaeus on left and right. Reference: not in Meshorer, but similar to Meshorer 43. RARE!

Syllaeus was minister and advisor under the aged king Obodas III. It appears that at the end of his reign Syllaeus and another noble, Aretas, were engaged in a struggle to succeed the king. There is still some question whether Aretas was the son of Obodas. Scarce bronze and truly rare silver coins were struck with the initials for Syllaeus and Aretas. Obviously the two rivals sought a brief accomodation in a joint reign. However, Syllaeus had earned the enmity of the new power in the near east, Rome. In 24 BC he had betrayed the Roman army sent into Arabia Felix, causing its almost complete destruction. He then clashed with Rome's tame prince, Herod of Judaea. Facing accusations of treason, Syllaeus twice had to go to the court at Rome to defend himself and justify his claim to the throne, in 9 and 6 BC. Syllaeus was subsequently beheaded and Aretas left as sole ruler.
1 commentsdpaul7
nabataean-aretas-ii-iii-reshoot.jpg
Nabataean Kingdom, Arabia, Aretas II-III (c. 120+ BC), AE18, Damascus mint21 viewsAncient Greek, Nabataean Kingdom, Arabia, Aretas II (c. 120+ BC), AE18, Damascus mint, 18mm, 4.1g

Obverse: No legend, Corinthian helmeted head of Athena right.

Reverse: No legend, Nike standing left holding wreath, crescent over Λ field mark left.

Reference: Meshorer 1

Ex: Charachmoba Gym
Gil-galad
Nabatean_aretas_shiliquat.jpg
Nabatea Arabia, Aretas IV and Shugailat16 viewsObv. Jugate heads of Aretas IV and Shiliquat right
Rev. Double cornucopia crossed
1 commentsSkyler
nabatea_aretasIV_Meshorer114cf.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, Meshorer 114128 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AE 18, 3.45g, 18.10mm, 330°
Petra, AD 23-40
obv. Jugate busts of Aretas IV and queen Shuqailat, draped and laureate, r.
in l. field ח (for Harithath), in r. field ש (for Shuqailat)
rev. 2 crossed filleted cornuacopiae
between Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
חרתת / שקי / לת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HRTT / SQY / LT
= Harithat / Shuqailat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 114; SNG ANS 1438
EF, superb sand patina

The Nabatean name of Aretas was Harithath. Originally he was named Aeneas. His 1st wife was Huldu (AD 1-16), his 2nd wife his sister Shuqailath (since AD 23). Under his reign the Nabatean kingdom reached its largest expansion. He was called Aretas the Great. He is not related to Aretas III. The Nabatean is the origin of the Arabic script.
3 commentsJochen
nabatea_aretasIV_Meshorer73A.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV, Meshorer 73A14 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AE 13, 1.88g, 13.22mm, 0°
Petra, 4/3 BC
obv. Laureate head of Aretas IV, long hair, r.
in l. field monogram no.6 (חר)
rev. 2 crossed filleted cornucopias, in between o
in l. and r. field ח (for Harithath?)
ref. Meshorer Nabatea 73A; BMC Arabia 34; Lindgren 2522; SGICV 5701
about VF, sand Patina

o possibly stands for the mint of Petra (nabatäisch Reqem = stain, spot)
ח can stand for the family of the mintmasters (Meshorer)
Jochen
nabatea_obodasIII_Meshorersupp3.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Obodas III & Hagru I, Meshorer Supp. 329 viewsObodas III & Hagru, 30-9 BC
Nabatean: Abadat
AR - Drachm, 4.46g, 17.7mm, 0°
Petra, 19-10 BC
obv. Joined busts of Obodas III and his queen Hagru, diademed and draped, r.
behind ח
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
אבדת מלכ נבתו
from r. o l. (transcribed):
ABDT MLK NBTW
= Abadat Malik Nabatu
= Abadat king of the Nabateans
Laureate head of Obodas III. r.
behind ח (heth) and date (outside the flan)
ref. cf. Huth 55; Hoover & Barkay 23; Meshorer Nabatea Sup. 3; BMC Arabia, p.4, 2-3
very rare, VF, some areas of flat strike
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Obodas' reign was an era of cultural flowering for the Nabatean kingdom. Most of its temples were built during his reign, including the temple of Avdat. During his reign the Romans attempted to discover the sources of the perfume and spice trade (FAC).
Jochen
nabatea_obodasIII_Meshorer42.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Obodas III & Syllaeus, Meshorer 4230 viewsObodas III, 30 - 9 BC
Nabatean: Abadad
AE 14, 2.68g, 13.9mm, 0°
Petra, 9 BC - AD 6
obv. laureate head of Obodas III, r.
rev. 2 crossed filleted cornucopias
in l. field ש (for Syllaeus), in r. field ח (for Harithath)
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 42
rare, EF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Syllaeus was chief minister for Obodas III and he briefly shared rule of Nabataea with Aretas IV after Obodas death. But Syllaeus had a powerful enemy. In 24 B.C. Syllaeus had betrayed Rome causing almost the complete destruction of an army sent into Arabia Felix. Syllaeus was twice called to the court at Rome, where in 6 B.C. he was convicted of treason and Obodas' murder. He was beheaded and his body was pitched from the Tarpeian Rock (FAC).
Jochen
nabatea_rabbelII_Meshorer163.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II & Gamilat, Meshorer 16327 viewsRabbel II, AD 70-106
Nabatean: Rab'el
AE 17, 2.76g, 16.62mm, 330°
Petra, AD 101/102
obv. joined busts of Rabbel II and his queen Gamilat
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias, within Nabatean legends in 2 lines:
רבאל / גמלת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
RB'L / GMLT
= Rab'el / Gamilat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 163; BMC Arabia 3-7; SNG ANS 1450
about VF, complete legends
Jochen
nabatea_rabbelII_Meshorer146.JPG
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II & Shuqailat II, Meshorer 146 (#1)21 viewsRabbel II, AD 70-160
Nabatean: Rab'el
AE 17, 2.89g, 17.23mm, 0°
Petra, AD 75/76
obv. joined busts of Rabbel II and his mother Shuqailat II
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias, within Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
רבאל / שקילת / אמה
from r. to l. (transcribed):
RB'L / SQYLT / 'MH
= Rab'el / Shuqailat / Ameh
= Rabbel / Shuqailat/ his mother
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 146
rare, about VF, complete legends!

Rabbel II, son of Malichus II, was the last king of the Nabatean kingdom. After his death Trajan conquered the Nabatean kingdom nearly without any resistance making it to the Roman province Arabia with the capital Bostra.
Jochen
Spahr-139.jpg
Normans in Sicily: Tancred (1189-1194) Æ Follaro, ND (MEC 447-8; Spahr 139; Biaggi 1237)9 viewsObv: 🞣ROGERIVS:; in center, REX; above and below, ◎
Rev: Arabic kufic legend on two lines - المالك تنقرير (al-malik Tanqrir; the King, Tancred)
Quant.Geek
Spahr-118.jpg
Normans in Sicily: William II "The Good" (1166-1189) AE follaro, Messina, ND (MEC 432-437; Spahr 118; Biaggi 1232; Thomsen 2481-2483; Varesi 37)15 viewsObv: Lion scalp facing ¾ left; beaded border
Rev: Arabic kufic legend, الملك غليوم الثاني (al-malik Ghulyalim al-thani; the King, William the Second); beaded border
SpongeBob
Spahr-112.jpg
Normans in Sicily: William II (1166-1189) AR 1/3 Apuliense, Palermo (Spahr-112; MEC 397-8; MIR 440)10 viewsObv: Palm tree with dates between •W• Rx and two pellets
Rev: +TERCI APVLIENSIS:I, in center, Arabic legend - الملك غليليم الثاني (al-malik Ghulyalim al-thani, with pellet on Gh as diacritic sign)
SpongeBob
Orodes_II~0.jpg
Orodes II - AE Drachm6 viewsElymais - Susa or Seleukeia on Hedyphon
early - mid 2nd century AD
bearded head facing, wearing tiara; pellet inside crescent and anchor with double crossbar right
dashes
vant Haaff 13.3.2-1A; BMC Arabia p. 262, 19; SGICV 5905
ex Lanz
Johny SYSEL
RIC_208a.jpg
Otacilia Severa 18 viewsAv. MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG
Diademed and draped bust right
Rv. PIETAS AVGVSTAE
Pietas standing left, right hand raised, holding box of incense in left
RIC 208a 18,63g 31mm Rom
Priscus
00584Q00.JPG
Otacilia Severa, antoninianus, 24825 viewswife of Philip I the Arab
OTACIL SEVERA AVG
SAECVLARES AVGG
3 commentsWesly V
Otacilia_Severa_RIC_P125c.JPG
Otacilia Severa, Wife of Philip the Arab21 viewsObv: M OTICIL SEVERA AVG, diademed, draped bust of Octicilia facing right, on a crescent.

Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG, Concordia seated left, holding a patera in her right hand and a double cornucopia in her left.

Silver Antoninianus, Rome mint, 245 – 247 AD

4.7 grams, 24 mm, 180°

RIC IViii Philip I 125c, RSC 4, S9147, VM 16
Matt Inglima
ISL_Ottoman_Bayezid_I_manghir.jpg
Ottoman Empire. Bayezid I Yildirim (“The Thunderbolt") (791-805 A.H. = 1389-1402 A.D.)5 viewsAlbum 1292

AE manghir; no mint, undated; 3.10 g., 19.76 mm. max, 180° (left image is upside down)

Obv: Arabic legend and pentagram flanked by pellets in triangular formations within circle, divided horizontally by three straight lines.

Rev: Arabic legend in two lines divided by three straight lines.
Stkp
islamic 1.jpg
Ottoman Suleyman II37 viewsAE Mangir Suleyman II Trablus mint ( Tarabulus Gharb modern Tripoli in Libya)
Date is 1100AH.
rare
Tanit
Philippus_I_PMTRP_IIII_COS_II_PP_bl_b.jpg
P M TR P IIII COS II P P57 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
rare
Tibsi
Gordianus_PMTRP_IIII_COS_III_PP_go16_b.jpg
P M TR P IIII COS III P P12 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
ancient barabaric imitation
...PIVS PEL AVG on obverse (instead of ...FEL...)
...COS III P P on reverse (instead of ...COS II...)
very rare
Tibsi
Philippus_I_PMTRP_V_COS_III_PP_bf_b.jpg
P M TR P V COS III P P27 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Philippus_I_PMTRP_VI_COS_PP_av_b.jpg
P M TR P VI COS P P20 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
rare
Tibsi
duck.jpg
Palestine, Umayyad Rule, Anonymous Bronze Fals. AD 661-750. Lillah/ Duck11 viewsPalestine, Umayyad Rule, Anonymous Bronze Fals. AD 661-750. 3.69g, 15mm. Arabic Lillah with pellet below, all within central circle, legend around. Duck standing left, pellet above, all within central circle, legend around. Album 164. 1 commentsPodiceps
Siglos_king_dagger_bow~0.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Achaemenid, AR Siglos159 viewsLydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silver siglos, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.2 commentsNemonater
db_file_img_29883_478x230.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Achaemenid, AR Siglos, 420-375 bc38 viewsPersia, Achaemenid Empire AR Siglos. Time of Xerxes II to Artaxerxes II, circa 420-375 BC.
Persian king kneeling right, holding spear and bow; quiver over shoulder / Incuse punch.
Carradice type IIIb C; BMC Arabia pl. XXV, 15.
5.54g, 15mm.
chance v
3420363.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Achaemenid, AR Siglos, c.505 - 480 B.C.37 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. temp. Darios I to Xerxes I. Circa 505-480 BC. AR Siglos (14.5mm, 5.28 g).
O: Persian king or hero, wearing kidaris and kandys, quiver over shoulder, in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow
R: Incuse punch.
Carradice Type II (pl. XI, 12); Meadows, Administration 320; BMC Arabia pl. XXVII, 23; Sunrise 21.
chance v
AbdallahIbnZubayr1.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Arab Sasanian Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr28 viewsARAB-SASANIAN: 'Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr, 680-692, AR drachm (3.93g), DA+P (Fasa), YE60, A-16, pellet at 11:30 in reverse margin
Some traces of horn silver
1 commentsarash p
87423q00.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Kingdom of Elymais, Kamnaskires-Orodes, Early - Mid 2nd Century A.D., Bronze Drachm18 viewsGB87423. Bronze drachm, vant Haaff 12.3.1-2A2, e.; SGICV 5910 (Kamnaskires-Orodes III), BMC Arabia p. 268, 74 ff. (Kamnaskires), VF, dark patina with highlighting earthen deposits, weight 3.610g, maximum diameter 16.2mm, die axis 0o, obverse long bearded cuirassed bust facing, large tufts of upward-oriented hair at sides, wearing diademed tiara; to right, pellet inside crescent above anchor; reverse irregular dashes