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Search results - "Agrippa"
AGRIPPA-1.jpg
46 viewsAS - Agrippa - 37/41 (Caligula)
Obv.: M AGRIPPA L F COS III Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev.: Neptune standing, head left, holding trident and little dolphin; S C at sides.
g. 10,7 mm. 28
Cohen 3, RIC 58, Sear RCV 1812
Maxentius
aajudaeabrit.jpg
31 viewsCaesarea, Paneas. AE23.
Obv : head of Claudius
Rev : His 3 children : Antonia, Britannicus and Octavia

Ref : RPC 4842
Hen-567
This coin type seems questionable to place under the coinage of Agrippa II since the legends do not mention Agrippa and the time of minting does not conform to the other Agrippa II coins. We will notice the absence of Agrippa's name in other issues as well. At the very least, though, it was struck at Caesarea-Paneas, so it is definitely part of the city coinage. It is catalogued in The Numismatic Legacy of the Jews in the city coinage section as #208.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
AE_As_Agrippa.JPG
25 viewsAntonivs Protti
Agrippa_As.jpg
18 views1 commentsSosius
augustus_agripa.jpg
20 viewsGAUL, Nemausus. Augustus, with Agrippa. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ Dupondius (26mm, 13.19 g,). Struck AD 10-14. Heads of Agrippa, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus, laureate, back to back / Crocodile right, chained to palm frond with wreath at top; two palm fronds at base. RPC I 525; RIC I 159; SNG Copenhagen 700-1.Britanikus
Augustus_Agrippa_Nemausus_2~0.jpg
2 Augustus and Agrippa37 viewsAUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA
AE As of Gaul, Nemausus, struck. ca. 10 BC - 10 AD

IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, in oak wreath / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm behind, wreath to left.

Sear 1730, Cohen 10, RPC 523/4
RI0006
Sosius
Augustus_-_Nemausus_halved.jpg
2 Augustus and Agrippa AE As of Nemausus18 viewsSplit for change in antiquity.

RI0004
Sosius
Augustus_Agrippa_2~0.jpg
2 Augustus and Agrippa AE As of Nemausus40 viewsAUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA
AE As of Gaul, Nemausus, struck. ca. 10 BC - 10 AD

IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, in oak wreath / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm behind, wreath to left.

Sear 1730, Cohen 10, RPC 523/4. gF
RI0005
Sosius
Agrippa_As_2.jpg
2.75 Agrippa56 viewsAGRIPPA
Æ As. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD

M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.

Cohen 3, RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius] Fine, roughness
RI0003
Sosius
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c.jpg
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 64 – 12 BCE27 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
Augustus_moneyer_As.jpg
1 Augustus16 viewsAugustus
AE As. 7 B.C., P. Lurius Agrippa, moneyer

CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT, bare head right / PLVRIVS AGRIPPA IIIVIR AAAFF around large SC.

RIC 427. C 445. Sear ’88 510
Sosius
AUGUDU03-2.jpg
28 BC Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army423 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius or as?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

Denomination uncertain. COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (present Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium.
2 commentsCharles S
Diadumenian_4_Assaria.jpg
28 Diadumenian14 viewsDIADUMENIAN
4 Assaria (27mm), Nikopolis ad Istrum, Marcus Claudius Agrippa, Magistrate

M OPELLI DI-ADOUMENIANO C K, Bust of Diadumenian / UP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTRWN, Nike standing r., holding garland and palm

NIC4.32b; AMNG I. 1800, p. 459 111 VF, encrustations
Sosius
As_de_Nimes.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC. 48 viewsIMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above. Cohen 7, RPC 523, RIC 155, sear5 1729.Antonivs Protti
agrippa1.jpg
Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37-44 CE20 viewsBronze Prutah, Hendin 1244, Meshorer TJC 120
Jurusalem mint, 41-42 CE.
Obverse: AGRIPA BACILEOC (king Agrippa) umbrella-like canopy with fringes.
Reverse: Three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L-s (year 6)
17.0 mm., 2.12 g.
sold 1-2018
NORMAN K
macrinus3342.jpg
Macrinus, AE 27of Nikopolis ad Istrum, magistrate Agrippa.23 viewsMoesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Macrinius 217-218 CE.
Obverse: AV K M OPEL CEVH MAKRINOC, laureate, cuirassed bust with scale armour right.
Reverse: VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC / ICTRW, Tyche in long double chiton and palla, wearing kalathos standing left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopiae.
Varbanov 3420, 27.75mm 12.8 g.
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
auguste-agrippa-as-nimes.JPG
RIC.158 Augustus (AE, Nimes dupondius)9 viewsAugusutus, emperor (-27/14)
AE: Nimes dupondius (-8/-3, Nimes mint)

bronze, 20mm diameter, 12.74 g, die axis: 1h

A/ IMP / DIVI F above and below heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right), back to back, that of Agrippa wearing rostral crown and that of Augustus is oak-wreathed
R/ COL / ENM to left and right of a chained crocodile and a palm tree
1 commentsDroger
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"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa33 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
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(02) AUGUSTUS84 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 26 mm, 12.91 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
1 commentslaney
col_nem_3.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS24 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 28 mm max, 11.87 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
col_nem_aug_agr_res.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS38 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 27 mm, 12.5 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
Diadumenian08_08_10.jpg
(0217) DIADUMENIAN37 views217-218 AD
struck 218 AD
AE 27 mm 11.84 g
O: [K M] OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVM[ENIANOC], bare head right
R: VII AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTR, Zeus seated left holding patera and scepter
Legate Marcus Claudius Agrippa
Moushmov 1327
Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior
laney
diadum_nimb_snake_res.jpg
(0217) DIADUMENIAN (as Caesar)51 views217-218 AD (Marcus Claudius Agrippa, legatus consularis)
AE 27 mm; 12.64 g
O: K M OΠΠEΛ ANTΩNI ∆IA∆OYMENIANOC Bareheaded bust right, slight drapery
R: VΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPO C ICTPCoiled serpent, radiate and nimbate head right (Agathodaemon)
Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum
Varbanov 3659 var.; H&J Nikopolis 8.25.22.1
laney
caligula_pegasos_corinthc.jpg
(04) CALIGULA23 views37-41 AD.
Struck 37-38 AD
AE21 (6.69 g)
Obv. C CAESAR AVG, Bare head to right.
Rev. P VIPSANIO AGRIPPA IIV CO, Pegasus flying to right.
Achaea, Corinth. RPC 1172; BCD Korinth 402.
laney
domitian_nike_bow_res.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN (AGRIPPA II)32 viewsHerodian Dynasty--Agrippa II
55 - 95 AD
Struck under Domitian
AE 19.5 mm 4.77 g
O: Laureate bust of Domitian right
R: Nike standing right, holding shield on knee
"Judaea Capta" issue
Judaea, Caesarea mint
laney
Agrippa_2_RCV_1731.jpg
(Augustus &) Agrippa AE 'half dupondius,' A.D. 10-14 RIC 159-160, RCV 1731, Cohen 8, RPC 525 39 viewsIMP DIVI F P-P, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate / COL NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right. Gaul, Nemausus.
Maximum Diameter: 25.2 mm
Weight: 7.01 g

Cut in half for fractional change.
1 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
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000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
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001 - Augustus and Agrippa Broken Half Dupondius34 viewsObv:– Heads of [Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath,] and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, [IM]P [DIV]I F.
Rev:– COL [NEM], Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
RI_001g_img.jpg
001 - Augustus and Agrippa Broken Half Dupondius32 viewsObv:– Heads of [Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath,] and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, [IM]P [DIV]I F.
Rev:– COL [NEM], Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
RI_001i_img.jpg
001 - Augustus and Agrippa Broken Half Dupondius19 viewsBroken Half Dupondius
Obv:– Heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, [IMP D]IVI F.
Rev:– [COL] NEM, Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
RI_001h_img.jpg
001 - Augustus and Agrippa Dupondius32 viewsObv:– Heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, P-P, [IMP] DIVI [F].
Rev:– [COL] NEM, Crocodile chained to palm branch
Minted in Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD.
maridvnvm
Augustus_AE-As_CAESAR_AVGVST_PONT_MAX_TRIBVNIC_POT_P_LVRIVS_AGRIPPA_IIIVIR_A_A_A_F_F__SdotC_RIC_428,_Cohen_446,_BMC_244_Rome_7-BC-Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 428, Rome, AE-As, (moneyer P Lurius Agrippa), P LVRIVS AGRIPPA IIIVIR •A•A•A•F•F•, around large S•C, #191 views002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 428, Rome, AE-As, (moneyer P Lurius Agrippa), P LVRIVS AGRIPPA IIIVIR •A•A•A•F•F•, around large S•C, #1
avers:- CAESAR-AVGVST-PONT-MAX-TRIBVNIC-POT, Bare head left.
revers:- P-LVRIVS-AGRIPPA-IIIVIR•A•A•A•F•F•, around large S•C.
exe: S•C//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 8,42g, axis:5h,
mint: Rome, date: 7 B.C., ref: RIC-I-428, C-446, BMC-244,
Q-001
quadrans
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002a. Agrippa 54 viewsAgrippa

A close friend of Octavian (later Emperor Augustus), he won a name in the wars in Gaul before becoming consul in 37 He organized Octavian's fleet and is generally given much credit for the defeat (36 ) of Sextus Pompeius in the naval battles at Mylae and Naulochus (N Sicily). Agrippa took part in the war against Antony, and his naval operations were the basis of Octavian's decisive victory at Actium in 31 He was perhaps the most trusted of all Augustus' lieutenants and rendered many services, notably in putting down disorders in both the East and West. His third wife was Augustus' daughter Julia.

AS. M AGRIPPA L F COS III Head left, wearing rostral crown. / Neptune standing, head left, S C at sides.

It seems like the quality and price of Agrippa coins run the whole spectrum...I think a decent example can be had for as little as $20. This is a bit more than that but I am happy with the quality of the metal and portrait.
ecoli
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002c. Gaius and Lucius Caesars65 viewsJulia, daughter of Augustus, who has had no child by Marcellus (she is only sixteen when he dies), is married to Agrippa, a soldier who has long been the emperor's most trusted supporter. They have two sons, Gaius and Lucius, born in 20 and 17 BC. The boys are adopted by the emperor. The intention now, if Augustus dies, is that Agrippa should rule until one of these grandsons is of an age to take control. But Agrippa dies in 12 BC.

Julia has had a total of five children by Agrippa (the two sons adopted by the emperor, two daughters, and another posthumous son, Agrippa Posthumus). She now has one son by Tiberius, but the child dies in infancy.

By 6 BC it is evident that Tiberius is being set aside. Julia refuses to live with him, and her eldest son Gaius (at the age of fourteen) is given a nominal high appointment as consul. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, grandsons and adopted sons of the emperor, are now clearly the family members in line for the succession. But they die young, Lucius Caesar in AD 2 and then Gaius in AD 4.

LYDIA, Magnesia ad Sipylum. Augustus. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ 19mm (4.93 g). Jugate heads of Augustus and Livia right / Confronted heads of Gaius and Lucius Caesars. RPC 2449. Fair. Rare. Ex-Cng
ecoli
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002d. Julia and Livia, Pergamon, Mysia43 viewsBronze AE 18, RPC I 2359, SNG Cop 467, aF, weight 3.903 g, maximum diameter 18.3 mm, die axis 0o, Pergamon mint, obverse ΛIBIAN HPAN CAPINOΣ, draped bust of Livia right; reverse IOYΛIAN AΦPO∆ITHN, draped bust of Julia right; ex Forum, ex Malter Galleries

Julia was Augustus' only natural child, the daughter of his second wife Scribonia. She was born the same day that Octavian divorced Scribonia, to marry Livia.

Julia's tragic destiny was to serve as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. At age two, she was betrothed to Mark Antony's ten-year-old son, but the fathers' hostility ended the engagement. At age 14, she was married to her cousin but he died two years later. In 21 B.C., Julia married Agrippa, nearly 25 years her elder, Augustus' most trusted general and friend. Augustus had been advised, "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Agrippa died suddenly in 12 B.C. and Julia was married in 11 B.C. to Tiberius.

During her marriages to Agrippa and Tiberius Julia took lovers. In 2 B.C., Julia was arrested for adultery and treason. Augustus declared her marriage null and void. He also asserted in public that she had been plotting against his own life. Reluctant to execute her, Augustus had her exiled, with no men in sight, forbidden even to drink wine. Scribonia, Julia's mother, accompanied her into exile. Five years later, she was allowed to move to Rhegium but Augustus never forgave her. When Tiberius became emperor, he cut off her allowance and put her in solitary confinement in one room in her house. Within months she died from malnutrition.
ecoli
Agrippa_AE-As_M_AGRIPPA_L_F_COS_III_S-C_RIC_58_(Caligula),_Cohen_3,_BMC_161_(Tiberius)_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
004 Agrippa (63-12 B.C.), RIC I 058 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.86 views004 Agrippa (63-12 B.C.), RIC I 058 (Tiberius), Rome, AE-As, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.
avers:- M•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•III, head left wearing rostral crown.
revers:- Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin in right hand, trident in left, S-C at sides.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 27-29mm, weight: 10,82 g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: Struck under Caligula, 37-41 A.D., ref: RIC 58 (Caligula), Cohen 3, BMC 161(Tiberius),
Q-001
quadrans
5.jpg
005 Agrippa. AE as 10.9gm27 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III head l. wearing rostral crown
rev: SC Neptune stg. l., clocked, r. holding small dolphin, l. vert. trident
"son in law of Augustus"
hill132
6.jpg
006 Gaius Caesar. AE17 3.4gm APAMIA38 viewsobv: GAOIS KAISAR laur. head r.
rev: ROUFOS/MASONIOS/APAMEWN cult statue of artimis
"son of Agrippa and Julia"
hill132
7.jpg
007 Lucius Caesar. AE21 6.7gm28 viewsobv: CAESAR CORINTH bare head r. of Augustus
rev: C SERVILIO M ANTONIO HIPPARCHO IIVIR/ CL confronted busts of Lucis and Gaius Caesar
"sons of Agrippa and Julia, grandsons of Augustus"
hill132
IMG_6996~0.JPG
008. Marcus Agrippa, general and son-in-law of Augustus (Died 12 B.C.) 48 viewsAv.: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Rv.: Neptune, in r. hand small dolphin, in l. hand trident / S–C

AE As Ø28 / 10.2g
RIC 58 Rome, Cohen 3
Juancho
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire83 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
AS Augusto RIC 427.jpg
01-23 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)59 viewsAE AS (Serie de los Triunviros Monetales) 24 mm 8.3 gr.
Legado Monetario PLURIUS AGRIPPA

Anv: "[CA]ESAR AVGVS[T PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PLVRIVS AGRIPPA [III VIR A A A F F]" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".
"SENATUS CONSULTO" - Era potestad del Senado la promulgación de la acuñación de las emisiones de bronce (cobre) - Ley Julia (19-15 A.C.)

Acuñada 7 A.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #427 Pag.75 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1686 Pag.331 - BMCRE #209 - Cohen Vol.1 #445 Pag.126 - DVM #100a Pag.71 - CBN #623
mdelvalle
RIC_427_AS_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01-23 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)19 viewsAE AS (Serie de los Triunviros Monetales) 24 mm 8.3 gr.
Legado Monetario PLURIUS AGRIPPA

Anv: "[CA]ESAR AVGVS[T PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PLVRIVS AGRIPPA [III VIR A A A F F]" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".
"SENATUS CONSULTO" - Era potestad del Senado la promulgación de la acuñación de las emisiones de bronce (cobre) - Ley Julia (19-15 A.C.)

Acuñada 7 A.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #427 Pag.75 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1686 Pag.331 - BMCRE #209 - Cohen Vol.1 #445 Pag.126 - DVM #100a Pag.71 - CBN #623
mdelvalle
321356_513921868644729_989151575_n.jpg
011 Agrippa76 viewsAgrippa, Æ As. Agrippa. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius]


It's a bit glossy and hard to get a great shot
7 commentsRandygeki(h2)
0168.jpg
0168 - Semis Augustus 12-11 BC42 viewsObv/ M AGRIP QVIN HIBERO PRAE, bare head of Agrippa (?) r.
Rev/ L BENNIO PRAEF, trophy over shields.

AE, 19.5mm, 4.65g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/164 – RPC I/164 - AB589
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 132, lot 548 (ex-Hispanic Society of America, colln. Archer M. Huntington, #21102)
1 commentsdafnis
0220_RICI_58.jpg
0220 - As Caligula 37-41 AC21 viewsObv/ Bust of Agrippa l., wearing rostral crown; around, M AGRIPPA L F COS III.
Rev/ Neptune standing l., wearing cape and holding trident and dolphin; SC on field.

AE, 28.5 mm, 11.46 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC I/58 [C] – BMCRE I/161 (Tib.)
ex-Artemide Aste, auction XLVII, lot 255
1 commentsdafnis
261-augustus as-ctmk02.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE As - struck by P LVRIVS AGRIPPA (7 BC)91 viewsobv: [CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT] (bare head of Augustus left) (with ALAR countermark)
rev: [P LVRIVS AGRIPP]A IIIVIR AAA FF / S.C.
ref: RIC I 426
9.81gms, 24mm

ALAR = ALA II Hispanorum et Arvacorum. It was a cavalry from Hispania settled to Pannonia at the limes of Danube (near Aquincum, today Budapest)
berserker
306-augustus as-ctmk01.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE As - struck by P. Lurius Agrippa moneyer (7 BC)58 viewsobv: [CAESAR] AVGVST PONT [MAX TRIBVNIC POT] (with AVG countermark)
rev: P LVRIVS [AGRIPPA] IIIVIR [AAA FF] / S.C.
ref: RIC I 426
9.18gms, 26mm
berserker
augustus_RIC207.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 2 BC-ca. 13 AD85 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE (laureate head right)
rev: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below (Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ["b9"])
ref: RIC I 207, BMC 533, RSC 43
mint: Lugdunum
3.35gms, 18mm

This type was struck to celebrate Gaius and Lucius Caesars, the sons of Marcus Agrippa, as heirs to the imperial throne. Gaius became Princeps Iuventutis in 5 BC and Lucius in 2 BC. They died in 4 AD and 2 AD respectively, thus promoting Tiberius to heir apparent. An obligatory issue for collectors.
berserker
augustus_RIC373.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE as - struck by Ascinius Gallus moneyer (16 BC)65 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST (bare head right)
rev: C ASINIVS C F GALLVS III VIR AAAFF around large SC
ref: RIC I 373, Cohen 369 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
9.60gms, 25mm

Ascinius Gallus, the former moneyer was an important senator, who married Vipsania, the daughter of Agrippa. On the death of Augustus, briefly, he was offered as a possible alternate to the throne, instead of Tiberius. After the death of Vipsania, he was also an ally of Agrippina Senior, and the "leak green party," a possible plot against the throne identified by Sejanus. He was executed for treason by Tiberius during the Praetorian Prefect's nominal rule of the capital.
berserker
RIC_I_58_AS_Agripa.jpg
03-01 - AGRIPA (27 - 12 A.C.)15 viewsAE AS 28 mm 8.3 gr.
(Emisión Póstuma realizada por Gaius (Calígula), Tiberio es también responsable por esta extensa emisión)

Anv: "M AGRIPPA · L · F · COS · III" - Busto con Corona Rostral viendo a izquierda.
"Corona Rostral" de oro (corona de laureles adornada con proas y popas de barcos, que se concedía por haber capturado una nave enemiga o bien por un gran acto de valor en combate naval)
Rev: "S C " - Neptuno de pié a izquierda, portando delfín en mano derecha y tridente en izquierda.

Acuñada 37 - 41 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #58 Pag.112 (Gaius) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1812 Pag.358 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #161 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.175/6 - DVM #4 Pag.74 - CBN #77
mdelvalle
AS Agrippa RIC 58.jpg
03-01 - AGRIPPA (27 - 12 A.C.)85 viewsAE AS (Emisión Póstuma realizada por Gaius (Calígula), Tiberio es también responsable por esta extensa emisión) 28 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: "M AGRIPPA · L · F · COS · III" - Busto con Corona Rostral viendo a izquierda.
"Corona Rostral" de oro (corona de laureles adornada con proas y popas de barcos, que se concedía por haber capturado una nave enemiga o bien por un gran acto de valor en combate naval)
Rev: "S C " - Neptuno de pié a izquierda, portando delfín en mano derecha y tridente en izquierda.

Acuñada 37 - 41 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #58 Pag.112 (Gaius) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1812 Pag.358 - BMCRE (Tiberius) #161 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.175/6 - DVM #4 Pag.74 - CBN #77
mdelvalle
AGRIPPINA.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)91 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_102_Sestercio_Agripina_Sr_.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)14 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
mdelvalle
IMG_5132.JPG
080. Diadumenian (217-218 A.D.)16 viewsAv.: K M OPPEL ANTWNIN DIADOVMENIANOC
Rv.: VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN P / ROC ICTR

AE27 / 11.5g
Hristova/Jekov (2011) 8.25.43.5; AMNG I/1, 1810
Juancho
PompeyDenNeptune.jpg
1ac1 Pompey the Great28 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus in 60 BC. Murdered in Egypt, 48 BC.

Denarius, minted by son Sextus Pompey

42-40 BC

Head of Pompey the Great right between jug and lituus
Neptune right foot on prow, flanked by the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, with their parents on their shoulders

Struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the Son of Neptune. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was, however, defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.). He was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C.

SRCV I 1392, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, Crawford 511/3a, BM Sicily 93

Plutarch said of Pompey: In Pompey, there were many [causes] that helped to make him the object of [the Roman people's] love; his temperance, his skill and exercise in war, his eloquence of speech, integrity of mind, and affability in conversation and address; insomuch that no man ever asked a favour with less offence, or conferred one with a better grace. When he gave, it was without assumption; when he received, it was with dignity and honour.
1 commentsBlindado
AgrippaAsNeptune.jpg
1ah Marcus Agrippa36 viewsDied 12 BC
As, minted by Caligula.

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c 63 BC–12 BC) was a close friend, and defence minister of the future emperor Augustus. He was responsible for many of his military victories, most notably Actium against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII of Egypt. He was son-in-law to Augustus, maternal grandfather of the Emperor Caligula, father-in-law of the Emperors Tiberius and Claudius, and maternal great-grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He probably served in Caesar’s campaign of 46/45 BC against Pompey and Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to study at Apollonia. From then on Agrippa played a major part in Augustus’ career, as military commander and admiral, also undertaking major public works, and writing works on geography (following his survey of the Empire) and other subjects. He erected many fine buildings in Rome, including the original Pantheon on the Campus Martius (during his third consulship 27 BC). He married Claudia Marcella the Elder, daughter of Octavia the Younger in 28 BC, and Julia the Elder in 21 BC, with whom he had five children. His daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Younger the married Tiberius, and his daughter Agrippina Vipsania the Elder married Germanicus. His last campaign initiated the conquest of the upper Danube region, which would become the Roman province of Pannonia in 13 BC. Augustus had Agrippa’s remains placed in his own mausoleum. Ronald Syme offers a compelling case that Agrippa was much more co-ruler of the empire with Augustus than he was a subordinate.
Blindado
AugustusDenC_LCaesar.jpg
1ak Augustus/ Caius and Lucius Caesars41 viewsCaius and Lucius died in 4 and 2 AD, respectively

Denarius
Laureate head, right, CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE
Gaius and Lucius Caesars, C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG

According to Suetonius, "Gaius and Lucius [Augustus] adopted into his House (in 17BC), ‘buying’ them from Agrippa by means of a token sale, initiating them in public affairs while they were young, and granting them command in the provinces while still only consuls-elect."

RIC 207
Blindado
TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
Blindado
Caligula_Drusilla_AE20.jpg
1ao3 Julia Drusilla33 viewsAE 20 of Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey)
Laureate head of Caligula, right, ΓAION KAICAPA EΠI AOYIOΛA
Drusilla as Persephone seated left, poppies between two stalks of grain in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand, ∆POYCIΛΛAN ZMYPNAIΩN MHNOΦANHC

Caligula’s sister

Klose XXVIII, 27 (Vs4/Rs10); RPC I 2472; SNG Cop 1343; SNGvA 2202; BMC Ionia p. 269, 272

According to Suetonius’ salacious account: Germanicus had married Agrippina the Elder, daughter of Marcus Agrippa and Julia the Elder, and she had borne him nine children. Two died in infancy, another in early childhood. . . .

The other children survived their father: three girls, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Livilla, born in successive years; and three boys, Nero, Drusus, and Gaius Caesar (Caligula). . . . [Caligula] habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. It is believed that he violated Drusilla’s virginity while a minor, and been caught in bed with her by his grandmother Antonia, in whose household they were jointly raised. Later, when Drusilla was married to Lucius Cassius Longinus, an ex-consul, he took her from him and openly treated her as his lawful married wife. When he fell ill he made her heir to his estate and the throne.

When Drusilla died (in 38AD) he declared a period of public mourning during which it was a capital offense to laugh, or bathe, or to dine with parents, spouse or children. Caligula himself was so overcome with grief that he fled the City in the middle of the night, and travelled through Campania, and on to Syracuse, returning again with the same degree of haste, and without cutting his hair or shaving. From that time forwards whenever he took an important oath, even in public or in front of the army, he always swore by Drusilla’s divinity.
Blindado
SextPompeyAs~0.jpg
1bd1 Sextus Pompey Battles Octavian8 viewsPompey the Great

As, minted by son Sextus Pompey
43-36 BC

Janiform head with features of Pompey the Great, MAGN above.
Prow of galley, PIVS above, IMP below.

This engraver had at best a dim notion of what the great man looked like! Pompey was a member of the first triumvirate, 59-53 BC.
Struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the Son of Neptune. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was, however, defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.). He was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C.

Sydenham 1044a
Blindado
COLNEM~0.jpg
20-10 BC Octavian and Agrippa173 viewsAugustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius
IMP DIVI F
back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare

COL NEM
palm shoot, crocodile before (not chained), two wreaths with long ties trailing above palm tip

Nemausus Mint
20-10 BC.

RPC 523

15.93g Heavy Early Issue!
5 commentsJay GT4
0030-405.jpg
2000 - Octavian & Agrippa, AE Dupondius 81 viewsArausio mint (Orange), 30-29 BC (Colonia Firma Julia Secundanorum Arausio)
IMP DIVI F (IMPerator DIVI Filii), bare heads of Augustus (right) and Agrippa (left), back to back
Prow of galley right, ram's head (?) enclosed in a medaillion above
17.61 gr - 28 mm.
Ref : RPC # 533
Ex. CNG e-auction #181/28, from the Patrick Villemur collection

Following comment taken from http://www.asdenimes.com/ :

Un très bel exemplaire du dupondius d'Orange. Têtes adossées d'Agrippa (à gauche) et Octave (à droite). Très beaux reliefs.
L’as (ou dupondius) d’Orange est très rare et nombre d'exemplaires connus (quelques dizaines) sont souvent de médiocre conservation. Le dupondius d'Orange préfigure le dupondius de Nîmes frappé à partir de 28/27 av. J.-C. et qui reprendra l’avers quasiment à l’identique (y compris les légendes), avec les profils d’Octave devenu Auguste et d’Agrippa. Le revers sera interprété de façon parodique sur l’as de Nîmes, puisque la galère sera remplacée par le crocodile qui garde à peu près la forme générale du vaisseau et dont l’oeil prophylactique (pas visible sur cet exemplaire : voir les as de Vienne page suivante) deviendra l’oeil du crocodile. On y ajoutera la palme pour former le mat et quelques autres accessoires tout aussi symboliques.
La tête de bélier représentée dans le médaillon du revers serait l’emblème des vétérans de la légio II Gallica qui a fondé la colonie d’Arausio vers 35 av. J.-C.
On distingue 2 types de dupondius d'Orange : ceux dont les portraits occupent la plus grande partie de l'avers et ceux qui montrent des têtes plutôt petites.
1 commentsPotator II
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201161 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
22067.jpg
22067 Augustus/CAE Countermark15 viewsAugustus/Large SC
As
Obv: CAESARAVGVSTPONT MAXTRIBVNICPOT –
Bare head right.
Rev: PLVRIVSAGRIPPA IIIVIRAAAFF –
Legend around large SC.
with CAE monogram countermark.
Mint: Rome 28.4mm 9.4g
RIC I (second edition) Augustus 427
Blayne W
22119.jpg
22119 Augustus and Agrippa21 viewsAgrippa & Augustus
Æ As. Gaul, Nemausus, circa 10-14 AD.
Obv: IMP/DIVI F P-P,
back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in combined rostral crown & laurel wreath, and Augustus, aureate
Rev:COL-NEM, long, vertical palm with crocodile chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with ties trailing to right.
Mint: Nemausus 25.9mm 11.0g
RIC 159-161; RPC 525
Blayne W
agrippa cmk as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)76 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)(with Vespasian countermark)
rev: - / S.C. (Neptune holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left)
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
10.51gms, 28mm
Rare with this cmk

The capricorn originally a sign related to Augustus, it became a symbol of Vespasian' reign also. This countermark often attributed to Vespasian during the civil war, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region. The emblem beneath could be variously interpreted as a plough or a globe with ships rudder, or maybe instrument. This Agrippa coin with Vespasian cmk was found in the balkan region, too. Top of the picture is the original counterstamp-mint.
berserker
160-agrippa as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)47 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)
rev: Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. / S.C.
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
mint: Rome
11.10gms, 28mm

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C.
berserker
127_P_Hadrian__Rouvier_532.jpg
3855 PHOENICIA Berytus Hadrian 128-138 AD two legionary Aquilae 27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3855; Rouvier 532; SNG Cop 101; BMC Phoenicia 99 (p. 66)

Obv. IMP CAES TRAI HADRIANVS AVG P P
Laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. COL / BER
Two legionary aquilae (eagles) flanking inscription in two lines, all within laurel wreath, pellet between eagles.

4.99 gr
20 mm
die axis 0o

Note.
Named for the daughter of Augustus, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus was founded in 14 B.C. with veterans of the 5th and 8th legions. Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II built sumptuous monuments and sponsored gladiatorial combats at Berytos. After the siege of Jerusalem, Titus gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews.

ex.
FORVM
okidoki
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius49 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
RM0002
4 commentsSosius
Augustus_thunderbolt.jpg
40 BC Octavian denarius164 viewsC CAESAR III VIR R P C
Bare haed of Octavian right

Q SALVIVS IMP COS DESIG
thunderbolt

Italy early 40 BC
3.43g

Sear 1541

SOLD!

David Sear says that this Q Salvius may be Quintus Salvius Salvidienus Rufus who was the boyhood friend and confidant of Octavian. In 42 BC Octavian made him admiral of his fleet and instructed him to attack Sextus Pompey in Sicily. Despite being beaten by Sextus he was granted the title of Imperator which appears on this coin.

After the battle of Philippi Salvidienus was given command of 6 Legions an sent to Spain however he quickly had to return to Italy to confront Fulvia (Antony's wife) and Lucius Antonius (Antony's brother). Salvidienus captured and destroyed the city of Sentinum and then moved on to Perusia with Agrippa to besiege Lucius Antony. At the end of the Perusian War Octavian sent Salvidienus to Gallia as Governor, with eleven legions. He was also designated as consul for 39 BC, although he had not reached senatorial rank.

Salvidienus proved to be unworthy of Octavian's trust and entered into secret negotiations with Mark Antony thinking that Antony would prevail. Unfortunately for Salvidienus, Antony and Octavian were reconciled and Antony informed Octavian of Salvidienus treachary. Antony's decision to inform on Salvidienus has been used to show his desire to settle the differences with Octavian. The senate declared Salvidienus a public enemy and shortly after he was killed, either by his own hand or by execution.
Jay GT4
Augustus_Agrippa_Nemausus_2.jpg
5) Octavian and Agrippa26 viewsAUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA
AE As of Gaul, Nemausus, struck. ca. 10 BC - 10 AD

IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, in oak wreath / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm behind, wreath to left.

Sear 1730, Cohen 10, RPC 523/4

Not really Imperatorial, but it definitely refers to Octavian and Agrippa's Imperatorial achievements!
RM0016
Sosius
juliusoctavian33edit.jpg
534/2 Octavian, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa44 viewsOctavian and M. Vipsanius Agrippa. AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Octavian. c. 38 A.D. (3.48g, 18.2mm, 6h). Obv: DIVOS IVLIVS DIVI F, confronting heads of Julius Caesar, wreathed r., Octavian, bare headed, l. banker's marks Rev: M AGRIPPA COS DESIG. Craw. 534/2, Vipsania 2.

An exceedingly rare issue, I had to have this despite its condition. Worn, but not beyond recognition, this was an issue under the authority of Agrippa who was governor of Gaul at the time. This is a first use of confronting busts which became more common on dynastic issues of the Empire. The picture does not show it well, but the reverse legend is all there.
1 commentsLucas H
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
hagrippa2.jpg
AE Prutah of Herod Agrippa I Year 6 (41/42 AD)13 viewsObverse: Fringed Triangular Umbrella with legend BACILEWC AGRIPA
Reverse: 3 Ears of Barley with leaves at the base; Year L -- S (6) to right and left
Herod Agrippa was the grandson of Herod the Great. He was admired by the Jews as a strong supporter of their traditions but hated by the early Christian for the execution of James and the imprisonment of Peter.
Hendin 553 (ref. Wildwinds) wt 2.6 gms
daverino
M.AGRPa1D+R.jpg
AGRIPPA79 viewsAE as. Cohen 3, RIC (tib.) 32, BMC 161
D/ M.AGRIPPA.L.F.COS.III Hd. l., wearing rostral crown.
R/ SC Neptune stg. l., holding dolphin and trident.
Struck by Tiberius
Rugser
agrippaII.jpg
AGRIPPA32 viewsAE As. 37-41 AD ( struck under Caligula ) 11,79 grs. . Head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown. M AGRIPPA L F COS III / Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. S C.
RIC I 58 (Gaius). Cohen 3.
benito
Agrippa.JPG
Agrippa22 viewsStruck under Caligula
AD 37-41
Rome Mint
RIC 58?
Jeromy G
Agrippa 1+.jpg
Agrippa114 viewsAGRIPPA. Died 12 BC. Æ As. Struck under Gaius Caligula, 37-41 AD. M • AGRIPPA • L • F • COS • III • , head left, wearing rostral crown / S-C across field, Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. RIC 58 (Gaius); Cohen 3.1 commentsTanit
00020-agrippa.jpg
Agrippa 23 viewsAgrippa AS
29 mm 10.39 gm
O: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Laureate head right
R: S C
Neptune standing holding trident and dolphin.
1 commentsKoffy
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa24 viewsRIC 58Soxfan
image01857.jpg
Agrippa51 viewsIn the name of Agrippa.
As 37-41, Æ 11.39 g. Head of Agrippa l. wearing rostral crown. Rev. Neptune standing l., holding small dolphin and trident. C 3. RIC 58
Green patina somewhat porous
4 commentsTLP
agrippa_r_res.jpg
AGRIPPA29 views(d. 12 BC)
Struck under Caligua, 37-41 AD
AE As 30 MM 10.0 G
O: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left
R: Neptune standing, S-C
laney
agrippa_b_resi.jpg
AGRIPPA15 views(b 63 BC - d. 12 BC)
Struck under Caligua, 37-41 AD
AE As 26.5 mm 8.49.g
O: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left
R: Neptune standing left holding dolphin & trident, S-C
laney
agrippa_a_res.jpg
AGRIPPA14 views(b. 63 BC - d. 12 BC)
Struck under Caligua, 37 41 ad
AE As 28 mm 9.61 g
O: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left, wearing rostral crown
R: Neptune standing S-C
laney
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa55 viewsAgrippa, as (struck under Caligula).
Son-in-law of Augustus.
RIC 58.
11,37 g, 28-29 mm.
Rome, 37-41 A.D.
Obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown.
Rev. S C either side of Neptune standing left holding dolphin and trident.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a renowned Roman general and close friend of Octavian (Augustus). As general, Agrippa defeated the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium. In 21 B.C., Augustus married his own daughter Julia to Agrippa. By Julia, Agrippa had two daughters, Vipsania Julia Agrippina and Vipsania Agrippina maior, and three sons, Gaius, Lucius and Agrippa Postumus.
1 commentsMarsman
agrippa_res.jpg
AGRIPPA16 viewsd. 12 BC
AE 27 mm 9.07 g
O: Head left, wearing rostral crown
R: SC across field, Neptune standing left holding small dolphin and trident.
laney
agrippa.jpg
AGRIPPA81 viewsAE As. 37-41 AD ( struck under Caligula ) 11,79 grs. . Head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown. M AGRIPPA L F COS III / Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. S C.
RIC I 58 (Gaius). Cohen 3.
1 commentsbenito
agrippa_res~0.jpg
AGRIPPA13 viewslaney
agrippa_01_29_res.jpg
AGRIPPA23 viewsStruck 38 AD, under Caligula
AE As 27 mm; 9.92 g
O: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing a rostral crown
R: Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields
Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556
laney
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa136 viewsBust of Agrippa, on show at the "Moi, Auguste" exhibition in the Grand Palais, Paris in 2014. Photo by me, taken in May 2014Masis
agrippa_06_14_res.jpg
AGRIPPA21 views(b. 63 BC - d. 12 BC)
Struck posthumously 38 AD, under Caligula
AE As 30 mm; 8.7 g
O: Head left wearing a rostral crown
R: Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields
Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556
laney
Nemausus.png
Agrippa & Augustus2 viewsAgrippa & Augustus, dupondius.
Mint Gaul Nemausus, ca 10-14 AD.
Obv. Back-to-back heads, Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown and Augustus right, laureate; IMP above, P P across fields, DIVI F below.
Rev. Crocodile right, chained to palm branch with long vertical fronds; above, wreath with long ties, palms below; COL NEM.
27 mm 13,12 g.
RIC I 160 RPC 525
Marsman
agrippa.JPG
Agrippa (Died 12 B.C.)49 viewsÆ As
O: M. AGRIPPA. F. COS. III, head left, wearing rostral crown.
R: Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident; S-C across field.
Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula)
27mm
9.72g
RIC I 58 (Gaius); MIR 3, 24-6; BMCRE 161 (Tiberius); Cohen 3
2 commentsMat
00353.jpg
Agrippa (RIC 58, Coin #353)42 views
RIC 58 (C), Copper AS, Rome, 38 AD.
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Rev: S C Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left.
Size: 29.2mm 10.22gm
MaynardGee
00730.jpg
Agrippa (RIC 58, Coin #730)7 viewsRIC 58 (C), Copper As, Rome, 38 AD.
OBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III; Head left wearing a rostral crown.
REV: S C; Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left.
SIZE: 28.0mm, 11.02g
MaynardGee
422_Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa - AE as7 viewsstruck by Caligula
Rome
38 AD
head wearing rostrate crown left
M•AGRIPPA•L_•F • COS III
Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident
S C
RIC I Gaius 58; BMCRE II Tiberius 161 - 168; Cohen I 3, BnF II Caligula 77 - 97, SRCV I 1812
10,51g
Johny SYSEL
agrippa_neptunus_ric58.jpg
Agrippa - as14 viewsNeptuno
Ric 58
antvwala
agrippa_neptuno_ric58.jpg
Agrippa - as4 viewsNeptuno
ric 58
antvwala
00-agrippa.jpg
Agrippa - RIC 5817 viewsAgrippa, AE As.
Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD.
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown /
S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms,
holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.
xokleng
Agrippa_with_title.jpg
Agrippa - Struck under Caligula48 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown
Rev: SC, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left
Size: 29mm, 11.3g
Mint: Rome, struck under Caligula 37-41AD
Id: RIC 58
Notes: I picked this one up cheap, knowing it was riddled with bronze disease, so I could learn how to deal with the disease. I cleaned it, baked it, and sealed it in 2011. It seems to have stabilized nicely.
ickster
agrippa_01.jpg
Agrippa AE As32 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.
Date: 37 AD
Ref: Cohen 3, RIC 58
oa
agrippa_02.jpg
Agrippa AE As20 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.
Date: 37 AD
Ref: Cohen 3, RIC 58
oa
Agrippa_b.jpg
Agrippa AE as78 viewsbarbaric imitation1 commentsTibsi
agrippa~0.jpg
Agrippa AE AS61 viewsOBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
head left wearing rostral crown
REV: S C, Neptune standing left
holding dolphin and trident
Date: 37-41 AD
28.46 mm, 10.46 grams
RIC I 58 (Caligula)
1 commentsmiffy
AgrippaSest1.jpg
Agrippa AE As15 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left, wearing rostral crown

Rev: S C - Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident

Rome 37-41 A.D.
BamaCS
agrippa.jpg
Agrippa AE As17 viewsAgrippa AE As. 37-41 A.D. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, Bust of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, holding dolphin and trident. RIC I 58Holding_History
Agrippa2_opt.jpg
AGRIPPA AE As RIC 58, 100 viewsOBV: M AGRIPPA L F COSIII - Head left, wearing rostral crown
REV: No legend - Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident; S C across fields.
11.0g, 28mm

Minted at Rome, 37-41 AD
Legatus
7Zora2X98AbfPp4FG9e2Tf3R6FNsjD.jpg
Agrippa AE As, by Caligula.27 viewsAgrippa. Died 12 BC. Æ As 28 mm, 10.5 gm. Rome mint. Struck under Gaius (Caligula), AD 37-41. Obv: Head of Agrippa facing left, wearing rostral crown Rev: Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident. RIC I 58 (Gaius). Antonivs Protti
__57Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa AE AS. Neptune.17 viewsAgrippa AE As. 37-41 A.D. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, Bust of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, holding dolphin and trident. RIC I 58 Antonivs Protti
1050.jpg
Agrippa AS111 viewsAgrippa --AE AS. Struck by Caligula. Obv.: M AGRIPPA LF COS III, Head of Agrippa l. wearing rostral crown. Rev.: S-C either side of Neptune stg. l. holding dolphin and trident. Cohen 3; RIC (Caligula) 58. Probably of provincial mintage. 1 commentsfeatherz
AgrippaAs3.jpg
Agrippa As97 viewsAgrippa head left, wearing rostral crown, M AGRIPPA L F COS III / S-C to left and right of Neptune, standing left, cloaked, holding small dolphin in right hand and trident in left. Rome mint. RIC I 58 (pg. 112); Cohen 3.
socalcoins
agrippa.jpg
Agrippa As28 viewsOBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Laureate bust left
REV: S C, Neptune standing left
holding dolphin and trident
Date: 37-41 AD
28.46 mm, 10.46 grams
RIC I 58 (Caligula)
miffy
Agrippa-.jpg
Agrippa As5 viewsAE As ; 37 AD; struck under Caligula, Rome
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.

Ref: Cohen 3, RIC 58
Tanit
Agrippa_As_Neptune.jpg
Agrippa As Neptune175 viewsObv.
M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Head right, wearing Rostral Crown

Rev.
SC
Neptune standing facing, looking right, arms draped holding trident and dolphin
2 commentsancientdave
Agrippa_As_Neptune_2.jpg
Agrippa As Neptune 250 viewsObv.
M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Head left wearing rostral crown

Rev.
SC
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left

RIC 58 Cohen 3 BMC 161
1 commentsancientdave
00027x0.jpg
Agrippa As, Issue by Caligula12 viewsMarcus Agrippa, struck by Caligula, 39 - 40 AD
Æ As, 29mm, 11.0 grams
Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, Head left.
Reverse: S C, Neptune standing left holding dolphin and trident.

Reference:
RIC58 (Caligula)

Notes:
One of the first ancient coins I purchased, from a bag of mostly junk at a local coin shop mid 1980's. This coin cost me about 70 cents at the time.
Ken Dorney
AGRIPPA.jpg
Agrippa As, Neptune10 viewsAgrippa, † 12 B.C. As, Rome 37-41, Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III; head left, wearing rostral crown. Reverse: SC across field, Neptune standing left holding small dolphin and trident. Sear RCV 1812, RIC Caligula 58.Podiceps
agrippa.jpg
Agrippa by Caligula (37 - 41 AD)43 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III-Busto a esquerda. SC-Netuno parado à esquerda segurando tridente e golfinho. RIC 32; Cohen 3. mestreaudi
60245p00.jpg
Agrippa Copper As32 viewsFrom Forum:RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556, aVF, corrosion, 11.123g, 29.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caligula 38 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bare head right; reverse Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields;

This is the coin that convinced me that I'd rather pay more for quality rather than less for quantity.
1 commentsMagisterRiggs
Agrippa_I.jpg
Agrippa I9 viewsOBV: Umbrella-like canopy with fringes; inscription,
AGRIPA BACILEWC
REV: Three ears of barley growing between two leaves,
flanked by date LV (Year 6 = AD 42)
AJC II, 249, 11. Hendin-553 A.D. 42 15 mm 3.12 gm
goldenancients
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
agrippa.jpg
Agrippa I prutah32 viewsAgrippa I 37-44 AD, Year 6=41/42 AD
Prutah. 3.19g, 17.65mm
Hendin 553
Obv: Umbrella-like canopy with fringes
Rx: Three ears of barley, flanked by date
ex HJB
1 commentsareich
good.jpg
Agrippa I Prutah134 viewsHendin 553 - Judaea, Agrippa I Æ Prutah. Dated Year 6 = 41/42 AD. ΒACIΛEΩC AΓPIΠA, umbrella-like canopy with fringes / three ears of barley between two leaves, date L L at sides. SGI 5567, AJC II 113 commentsaarmale
Agrippa_II.jpg
Agrippa II34 viewsOBV: DOMIT KAICAR
(Domitian Caesar), laureate bust of Domitian, right.
REV: ET KS BACI AGRIPPA (year 26, King Agrippa) Nike-Victory stanging right, left foot on helmet, inscribing shield which rest on her left knee. Star in upper right reverse field.

Regnal Year 26, A.D. 74-75
Hendin 5th ed, 1285a, p. 299; AJC 37a; RPC II 2279
6.29gm 19mm
1 commentsgoldenancients
Agrippa II H604var.jpg
Agrippa II (55-95 AD) Hendin 604 var81 viewsAE17, 17mm, 4.89g.

Obverse: DOMET KAI GERMAN, Head of Domitian R.

Reverse: ETOU IE BA AGRIPPA, Nike standing R, foot on helmet, writing on shield. Crescent in L field.

Year 24, 83/4 AD.

Hendin 604 var

TJC 165c

SNG ANS 298
Robert_Brenchley
P1010243.JPG
Agrippa II Domitian,Hendin-60981 viewsAgrippa II, 55-95 AD, bronze of 11.7 mm, Struck 85/85 AD.
O: Laureate bust of Domitian to right.
R: Single cornucopia with grapes and fruits.
Hendin 609.
1 commentsMaritima
P1010250.JPG
Agrippa II PANIAS mint69 viewsAgrippa II, 56-95 AD, bronze of 17 mm.
Bust of Nero to right
Wreath with Greek legend naming BOTH Agrippa II and Nero within. ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ

Hendin 582. This is the middle of three denominations of this early type of Agrippa II as king.
ΠΙΕ\ΒΑΣΙΛΕ\ΑΓΡΙΠΠ\ΝΕΡΩ\ΝΙΕ
Maritima
agrippa-cng.jpg
Agrippa RIC 5831 viewsRoma 37-41 AD.
27mm e 11.01 g.
ex Chiltern Collection.
ex CNG
xokleng
Agrippa_1_opt.jpg
AGRIPPA RIC 58, Ae As45 viewsOBV: MAGRIPPALFCOSIII - Head left, wearing rostral crown
REV: No legend - Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident; S C across fields.
9.3g, 28mm

Minted at Rome, 37-41 AD
Legatus
agrippa_58.jpg
Agrippa RIC I, Gaius 58634 viewsAgrippa, died 12 BC, friend and son-in-law of Augustus
AE - As, 10.84g, 22.5mm
Rome, undated
obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III
head l., with corona rostrata
rev. Neptune standing l., cloaked, r. holding small dolphin,
l. vertical trident
S C l. and r.
RIC I, Gaius 58; C.3; BMCR (Tiberius)161
about VF, black patina

CORONA ROSTRATA (or CORONA NAVALIS), a crown decorated with prows, dedicated to Agrippa due to the victory over Sextus Pompeius in the naval battle of Naulochos 36 BC.
Jochen
Agrippa_Struck_by_Caligula~0.JPG
Agrippa Struck by Caligula59 viewsAgrippa Copper AS struck by Caligula RIC 58
OBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa facing left, wearing rostral crown.
REV: S – C on either side of Neptune, standing left, holding dolphin and trident.
37 - 41 AD, Rome, 28mm 10.5g
Cohen 3
BMCRE 161

2 commentsRomanorvm
Agrippa_RIC_I_58.jpg
Agrippa, AE As, RIC I 585 viewsAgrippa
As Consul for the third time, 27 B.C.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bust facing left, wearing Rostral crown.
Reverse: Neptune, standing, facing left, a Chlamys draped over his arms, holding a Dolphin in his right hand and a Trident with his left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 9.52 g, Diameter: 26.8 x 28 x 1.5 mm, Die axis: 160°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue by his grandson, Gaius "Caligula", between 37-41 A.D. Reference: RIC I 58
Masis
Agrippa_RIC_I_58_Second_example.jpg
Agrippa, AE As, RIC I 58, Second example6 viewsAgrippa
As Consul for the third time, 27 B.C.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bust facing left, wearing Rostral crown.
Reverse: Neptune, standing, facing left, a Chlamys draped over his arms, holding a Dolphin in his right hand and a Trident with his left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 9.43 g, Diameter: 27.2 x 27 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 220°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue by his grandson, Gaius "Caligula", between 37-41 A.D. Reference: RIC I 58
Masis
Agrippa_RIC_I_58_Third_example.jpg
Agrippa, AE As, RIC I 58, Third example4 viewsAgrippa
As Consul for the third time, 27 B.C.

Coin: AE As

Obverse: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·III·, bust wearing a Rostral crown, facing left.
Reverse: Neptune, standing, facing left, a Chlamys draped over his arms, holding a Dolphin in his right hand and a Trident with his left. S - C across the fields.

Weight: 9.65 g, Diameter: 27.1 x 26.6 x 1.8 mm, Die axis: 210°, Mint: Rome, posthumous issue by his grandson, Gaius "Caligula", between 37-41 A.D. Reference: RIC I 58
Masis
072.jpg
AGRIPPA, AE-As. Neptune.33 viewsRoman Empire, Agrippa. Died 12 BC. AE-As. Rome Mint. Struck under Caligula. Rx./ Neptune standing lt. VG with pitting.
1350
Antonivs Protti
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *323 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
Agrippa_RIC_C58.JPG
Agrippa, died 12 BC85 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa, facing left, wearing a rostral crown.

Rev: Neptune standing left, holding a dolphin in his right hand and a trident in his left; S C across field.

Copper As, Rome mint, Issue of Caligula 38 AD

10.6 grams, 27.8 mm, 180°

RIC I Caligula 58, S1812, VM Agrippa; 4

Ex: FORVM
4 commentsSPQR Matt
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa, Military commander, friend of Augustus, grandfather of Caligula, great-grandfather of Nero155 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, S 556, gF, 11.830g, 28.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caligula 38 A.D.;
obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bare head right;
reverse - S C, Neptune holding a dolphin and trident;
b70
Agrippa.JPG
Agrippa, Neptune As37 viewsStruck under Caligula (37 - 41 AD)

AE AS

Obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, left wearing rostral crown.
Rev: SC Neptune standing with dolphin in in right hand and trident in left.
RIC I 58

Weight: 11.6g
Diameter: 28mm
Jose Polanco
Agrippa-RIC58.JPG
Agrippa, RIC 5825 viewsM•AGRIPPA•L•F•COS•III
AE as, 27mm, 10.48g
Crowned head left
Neptune standing holding trident and dolphin
1 commentsnovacystis
AGRIPPA-1-ROMAN~0.jpg
Agrippa, RIC I-58 Rome12 viewsAE As
Rome mint, 37-41 A.D.
29mm, 10.50
RIC I-58, RCVv.1-1812

Obverse:
M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Head left, wearing rostral crown.

Reverse:
S-C
Neptune standing left, cloaked, right holding small dolphin, left vertical trident.
Will J
Agrippa_AE_As.JPG
Agrippa, Æ As. Struck under Caligula28 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. Agrippa Died 12 BC. Struck under Caligula 37-41 AD. Ref Agrippa AE As, RIC 58 [Caligula], Cohen 3, BMC 161 [Tiberius]. Sear Roman Coins and their Values (RCV 2000 Edition) Number 1812. Large 27mm. _3601
Antonivs Protti
Agrippa S C.jpg
Agrippa- Anepigraphic79 viewsAgrippa – 63- 12 BC, Military commander and friend of Augustus

Obverse:

Head left wearing a rostral crown.

M.(Marcus) AGRIPPA L.F. (Lucius Filius = son of Lucius) COS. III (Consul for the third time.)

M:Marcus
L.F: Lucius Filius = son of Lucius
COS. III: Consul for the third time

Agrippa he wears a crown on his head which is decorated by prows of (war)ships, a so-called 'rostral crown' probably given to him to honour him as a fleetcommander during the battle of Actium, the decisiove battle in which Octavian defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra.

Reverse:

S—C, Senatus Consulto

The reverse is 'anepigraphic' without text, apart from S.C. (Senatus Consulto = by approval of the Senate) Neptune holds a trident and has a dolphin on his outstretched hand. Neptune too is a reference to the sea and Agrippa's nautical carreer.

Domination: AS, Copper, 29 mm

Mint: Rome. This AS of Agrippa is struck under Caligula.

AGRIPPA
63 - 12 BC
Roman General
Agrippa was the companion of Octavian by the time Caesar was murdered in 44 BC. Agrippa was Octavian's most brilliant military commander. He defeated Pompeius in two naval battles and was responsible for for Octavian's victory over Mark Antony. When Octavian became emperor under the name Augustus Agrippa was second only to the emperor in authority. He suppressed rebellions, founded colonies and built an extensive road-network throughout the Roman empire.
John Schou
Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa. As minted under Caligula99 viewsM. AGRIPPA L.F. COS. III : head of Agrippa wearing the Rostral crown.
Rev.: Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident. S C.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was Augustus' closest friend, and Caligula's grandfather. The rostral crown and the Neptune remind us of the victory of the fleet, commanded by Agrippa, at Actium in 31 BC.
Ginolerhino
AGRSSE01.JPG
Agrippina maior, grand daughter of Augustus, daughter of Agrippa, wife of Germanicus, mother of Gaius ("Caligula"), 14 BC- 33 AD232 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (26.9g, 36mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Gaius, AD 37.
AGRIPPINA·M·F·MAT·C·CAESARIS·AVGVSTI, draped bust right
S·P·Q·R· in field above, MEMORIAE / AGRIPPINAE in two lines
Carpentum drawn by two mules moving left. The Carpentum's cover is supported by standing figures at the corners and its sides are ornamented.
Gaius had the ashes of his mother returned to Rome soon after he came to power in 37 AD. He celebrated the memory of his mother, father and brothers, all murdered by Tiberius, with a series of coins. The sestertius issue was reserved for the memory of his mother. Note the lack of S C on this issue which has S P Q R instead.
RIC 55; Cohen 1
2 commentsCharles S
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~4.jpg
Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1191 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen originally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv.Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
10 commentsPetitioncrown
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c~0.jpg
AN countermark in rectangle punch.82 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. A N in rectangle Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
NORMAN K
Hendin-1244.jpg
Ancient Judaea, Herodian Kingdom: Agrippa I (37-44 CE) Æ Prutah, Jerusalem, RY 6 (Hendin 1244; TJC 120)9 viewsObv: BACIΛEOC AΓPIΠΠA; umbrella-like canopy
Rev: Three grain ears; across field, date L ς
Quant.Geek
32653_Antonius_Felix_prutah,_Hendin_651.jpg
Antonius Felix, prutah, Hendin 6512 viewsJudaea, Antonius Felix, Roman Procurator under Claudius, 52 - 60 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 651, over struck on earlier prutah, probably Agrippa I, Hendin 651, F, Caesarea mint, 0.952g, 14.9mm, 0o, 54 A.D.; obverse “ΙΟΥ/ΛΙΑ ΑΓ/ΡΙΠΠΙ/ΝΑ” (Julia Agrippina - wife of Claudius), within a wreath tied at the bottom with an X; reverse , TI K“ΛΑΥΔ”IOC KAICAP “Γ”EPM (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus), two crossed palm fronds, L I“Δ” below (year 14). Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
augustus_RIC_207.jpg
Augustus135 viewsAugustus, denarius.
RIC I 207, RSC 43.
Lugdunum mint.
19.5 mm, 3.8 g
Obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right.
Rev. AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius and Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, and in field above, a lituus right and simpulum left.

Gaius and Lucius were adopted in 17 BC by their maternal grandfather Augustus, who named the two boys his heirs. They were raised and educated by their grandparents. Lucius died in Gaul of an illness in 2 A.D and Gaius died two years later in Lycia, after being wounded during a campaign in Artagira. The death of both Gaius and Lucius, the Emperor's two most favored heirs, compelled Augustus to adopt his stepson, Tiberius, and his sole remaining grandson, Postumus Agrippa as his new respective heirs.

I love this Augustus portrait!
3 commentsMarsman
CollageMaker_20180702_184713806.jpg
Augustus15 viewsAE As, Issued 7 B.C. by P. Lurius Agrippa, Rome Mint
Obverse: [CAESAR A]VGVS[T PONT MAX TR]IBVNIC POT, bare head of Augustus to right.
Reverse: [P LV]RIVS AGRIPPA III [VIR AAA FF], large SC in field.
Reference: Sear 1686, RIC I 428
Size: 28mm, 9.28g
Justin L
000a~2.jpg
AUGUSTUS and AGRIPPA112 views Nemausus. Æ Dupondius (13.02 g, 9h). Struck circa AD 10-14. Head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown, and head of Augustus right, wearing oak wreath, back to back.IMP above, DIVI F below, P-P across field. / Chained crocodile standing right; palm and filleted wreath behind; palms on either side of stem base.COL NEM across field. RPC I 525; RIC I 160. Dark chocolate brown patina.3 commentsbenito
NMf52W3dH5c6Ts3Xr8TaCaD97Pifz4.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa8 viewsAugustus & Agrippa, AE dupondius struck in Nemausus, after 10 BCAncient Aussie
augustus-agrippa-merged.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC24 viewsRoman Provincial, Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius, Nemausus Mint, (20-10 BC), 11.2g, 26mm

Obverse: IMP DIVI F, Back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate.

Reverse: COL-NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above.

Reference: RIC 155, Cohen 7, RPC 523, Sear (RCV 2000) 1730, aorta 580

Ex: Holding History Coins+photo
Gil-galad
AS_DE_NIMES_1.JPG
Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC. 51 viewsIMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above. Cohen 7, RPC 523, RIC 155, sear5 1729.
12,38gr
Antonivs Protti
AS_DE_NIME2.JPG
Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC. 36 viewsIMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above. Cohen 7, RPC 523, RIC 155, sear5 1729.
12,57gr
Antonivs Protti
__57gbgf.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC. 32 viewsIMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above. Cohen 7, RPC 523, RIC 155, sear5 1729.
12,68 g. 26 mm.
Antonivs Protti
AS_DE_NUMES__3.JPG
Augustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC. 30 viewsIMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above. Cohen 7, RPC 523, RIC 155, sear5 1729.
7,92 gr
Antonivs Protti
dKs48t3F6RZs3i2NzR27L68n5cZWfQ.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa AE dupondius. Nemausus Mint. Gaul43 viewsHeads of Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, and Augustus, bare headed, back to back, IMP DIVI F.
COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm branch.
RCV 1730. _8620
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
AugustusAgrippa.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa by C. Sulpicius Platorinus121 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS
bare head right

C SVLPICIVS PLATORIN
Augustus and Agrippa, both togate, seated half l. on bisellium set on platform ornamented with rostra. On l., staff upright.

3.72g
Rome 13 BC

RSC 529, RIC 407, Sear 1599

Ex-ANE,
5 commentsJay GT4
auagcr.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa Nemausus37 viewsColony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army
bronze 13.1, 26.2mm, Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC E- 10 CE.
Obverse: IMP DIVI F P P Agrippa laureate head left and
Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Reverse: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to
right, wreath at top.
RIC 159
sold 4-2018
2 commentsNORMAN K
augrcr.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa Nemausus 53 views Colony established at Nemausus by Augustus' army
bronze 13.1, 26.2mm, Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC E- 10 CE.
Obverse: IMP DIVI F P P Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Reverse: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC 159
sold 4-2018
2 commentsNORMAN K
Gaul_Nemausus_AE_Dupondius.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa, AE As, COL NEM Crocodile16 viewsAugustus & Agrippa, AE As, COL NEM
Nemausus, circa 10 BC to AD 10
weight = 12.32 gm, 24 mm
NGC Choice VF* - Strike 5/5 - Surface 5/5 [4241718-008]

Obv: Addorsed heads of Agrippa on left, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus on right, wearing oak wreath, IMP above and DIVI F below
Rev: Crocodile chained to palm tip, wreath in upper left and COL - NEM above.

Cohen 10. RIC 158. RPC 524.
Kevin P
0030-411.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa, AE Dupondius 83 viewsNemausus mint, after AD 10
4th type
IMP DIVI F PP, Laureate heads of Augustus looking right and Agrippa looking left, back to back
COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm tree
13,52 gr
Ref : RCV #1731, Cohen #8
5 commentsPotator II
0030-410np_noir.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa, AE Dupondius - *285 viewsDupondius struck in Nemausus, after 10 AD
4th type
IMP DIVI F PP, Laureate heads of Augustus and Agrippa back to back
COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm tree
12.84 gr
Ref : RCV #1731, Cohen #8
3 commentsPotator II
0030-409.jpg
Augustus & Agrippa, AE halved dupondius92 viewsHalved dupondius struck in Nemausus, after 10 BC
3rd type
[IM]P [DI]VI F , Laureate head of Augustus right
[COL NEM], Crocodile chained to palm tree
6.70 gr
Ref : RCV #1730, Cohen # 10
1 commentsPotator II
RIC_Augustus_RIC_I_427.JPG
Augustus (Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus) (27 B.C. - 14 A.D.)36 viewsRIC I (Augustus) 427

AE As (26-27 mm.), Rome mint, struck, 7 B.C.

Obv: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT, bare head right.

Rev: P LVRIVS AGRIPPA III VIR AAA FF, around large S C.

Note: P. Lurius Agrippa was a moneyer, and the reverse legend refers to the board of three moneyers (tres viri auro argento aere flando feriundo).

RIC rarity C

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
00564.jpg
Augustus (RIC 159, Coin #564)54 viewsAugustus , RIC 159, AE AS, Nemausus, Gaul (Nimes, France), 10 - 14 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F P P Laureate heads of Agrippa and Augustus back-to-back.
Rev: COL NEM Crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties
above, two palms fronds below.
Size: 26.7mm 12.36g.
2 commentsMaynardGee
AugustusAgrippaAsCroc~0.jpg
Augustus - Agrippa As179 viewsAddorsed heads of Agrippa on left, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus on right, wearing oak wreath, IMP above and DIVI F below / Crocodile chained to palm tip, wreath in upper left and COL - NEM above. Nemausus, c. 10 BC - AD 10. RIC I 158 (pg. 51); RPC I 524.
5 commentssocalcoins
Augustus_RIC427.jpg
Augustus - As - RIC 427 (moneyer P. Lurius Agrippa)19 viewsObv: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT, bare head r.
Rev: P LVRIVS AGRIPPA III VIR A A A F F, round S C
Size: 27 mm
Weight: 8,84 g
Mint: Rome
Date: 7 BC
Ref: RIC I 427; CBN 623
vs1969
00-nemau.jpg
Augustus - RPC 52318 viewsAugustus & Agrippa
AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC.
IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare /
COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above.
RIC 155.
xokleng
ARP_-_Augustus___Agrippa-3.jpg
Augustus 27BC - AD14 & Agrippa born 63BC - died 12BC22 viewsAE Dupondius - This coin was issued from 16/15-10BC - Sear #1729, RIC-155
Ch VF Strike 4/5 - Surface 5/5
Obv. - IMP DIVI F, Heads back to back of Augustus r., bare, and Agrippa l., wearing rostral crown
Rev. - COL NEM, crocodile., chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms below.

Issue of Nemausus in Gaul (now the city of Nimes in France). The Cities coat of arms shows a palm tree with a crocodile chained to it. Veterans of the Roman legions who had served Julius Caesar in his Nile campaigns, at the end of fifteen years of soldiering, were given plots of land to cultivate on the plain of Nimes.
Richard M10
Augustus17.jpg
AUGUSTUS AE Dupondius, RIC 155, Crocodile44 viewsOBV: IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare
REV: COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above


Minted at Nemausus (Gaul), 20-10 BC
Legatus
augagrippa84[1].jpg
Augustus and Agrippa94 viewsAUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA AE dupondius. Nemausus Mint, Gaul, struck after 10 AD. Heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, and Augustus, wearing laurel wreath, back to back, IMP DIVI F. Reverse - COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm branch. 27mm, Weight 14.0g. RCV 1730.5 commentsSoxfan
00augagrip.jpg
AUGUSTUS and AGRIPPA 69 viewsNemausus. Æ Dupondius (13.02 g, 9h). Struck circa AD 10-14. Head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown, and head of Augustus right, wearing oak wreath, back to back.IMP above, DIVI F below, P-P across field. / Chained crocodile standing right; palm and filleted wreath behind; palms on either side of stem base.COL NEM across field. RPC I 525; RIC I 160. benito
AUGVSTVS__AGRIPPA.JPG
Augustus and Agrippa Dupondius, Nemausus24 viewsAugustus and Agrippa Dupondius, Nemausus. Sear RCV 1731, RIC 159-60. RIC 159-160, Cohen 8, RPC 525. Gaul, Nemausus. ca 10-14 AD. IMP DIVI F P-P, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, & Augustus, laureate/ COL NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right. 1 commentsPodiceps
Nimes.JPG
Augustus and Agrippa, Nimes dupondius46 viewsAugustus (27 BC – 14 AD)

Æ Dupondius. Nemausus (Nimes), 12 BC

Struck to commemorate the defeat of Mark Antony at Actium and the capture of Egypt.

Obv: IMP DIVI F P P. adduced heads of Augustus (right) and Agrippa (left), Augustus laureate, Agrippa wearing rostral crown.
Rev.: COL NEM. crocodile chained to palm tree.
RIC 157

Weight: 12.9g.
Diameter: 26mm.
1 commentsJose P
RIC159.jpg
Augustus and Agrippa, RIC 15924 viewsIPM DIVI•F
Back to back heads of Augustus, bare head right, and Agrippa, wearing rostral wreath, P P to the sides in field
COL NEM
Crocodile right chained to a palm, wreath above with long trailing ribbons, two palm fronds below
AE dupondius, 27.5mm, 13.14g
Colonia Augusta Nemausus
novacystis
Augustus~2.jpg
Augustus As24 viewsAugustus AE As , ca. 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F; heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus laureate back to back

Rev: COL NEM ; crocodile r., chained to palm tree, wreath and fillet in upper field.

RIC 158
Tanit
AVGCL.jpg
Augustus denarius92 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI PATER PATRIAE
Laureate head right

C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT
Gaius and Lucius stg. facing, shields and spears between them

Lugdunum 2 BC-4 AD
2.76g

Sear 1597

Ex-Calgary Coins, ex-Rudnik Numismatics

Cracked and repaired, crystallized but stable.


Gaius and Lucius where the children of Marcus Agrippa and Augustus' daughter Julia.

SOLD
2 commentsJay GT4
Augustus_CL_denarius.jpg
Augustus denarius97 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI PATER PATRIAE
Laureate head of Augustus right

C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT
Gaius and Lucius stg. facing, shields and spears between them


Lugdunum 2 BC-4 AD

3.76g

Sear 1597

ex-Holding History
Encrustations cleaned from behind Augustus head

Children of Marcus Agrippa and Augustus daughter Julia.
2 commentsJay GT4
Augustus_CL_denarius_2.jpg
Augustus denarius42 viewsCAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI PATER PATRIAE
Laureate head of Augustus right

C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT
Gaius and Lucius stg. facing, shields and spears between them


Lugdunum 2 BC-4 AD

3.72g

Sear 1597

ex-Nilus

Children of Marcus Agrippa and Augustus daughter Julia.

New Photo

Sold to Calgary Coin Jan 2016
Jay GT4
AUG_407.jpg
Augustus Denarius RIC 407101 viewsAugustus Denarius. Struck 13 BC by C Sulpicius Platorinus. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right / C SVLPICIVS PLATORIN, Augustus and Agrippa seated side-by-side. RSC 529. 18.5mm, 3.61g2 commentsAldo
AugustusmoneyerA.jpg
Augustus moneyer series65 viewsCAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT.
Bare head right.

P LVRIVS AGRIPPA IIIVIR AAAFF.
Large S C.

RIC 427.

9.92g

Ex Londinium

Much nicer in hand
1 commentsJay GT4
AugustusCLXI.jpg
Augustus RIC 211104 views27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius. Lugdunum mint. Struck 2 BC-AD 4.
O: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Head, laureate, to right
R: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT; C L CAESARES in ex; Gaius and Lucius Caesar standing facing, each resting a hand on a shield. Crossed spears behind the shields. Simpulum on l. and lituus on r., X below.
RIC 211; BMC 537; RSC 43a.

The brothers, Caius and Lucius, were the sons of Agrippa and Julia, daughter of Augustus. They were due to succeed Augustus but predeceased him in 4 and 2 A.D. respectively. Gaius, the elder of the two brothers, has the more prestigious position on the left and the ladle above him marking him as Pontifex. He should have his shield placed in front of that of his younger brother Lucius, who has lituus above marking him as augur. The shield placement is likely just an engravers error.
Nemonater
AugustusRIC212.jpg
Augustus RIC 21258 views27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius. Lugdunum mint. Struck 2 BC-AD 4.
O: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Head, laureate, to right
R: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT; C L CAESARES in ex; Gaius and Lucius Caesar standing facing, each resting a hand on a shield. Crossed spears behind the shields. Lituus on l. and Simpulum on r., X below.
- RIC 212 (R)

"The brothers, Caius and Lucius, were the sons of Agrippa and Julia, daughter of Augustus. They were due to succeed Augustus but predeceased him in 4 and 2 A.D. respectively. Gaius, the elder of the two brothers has his shield placed in front of that of his younger brother and the ladle above him marking him as Pontifex. Lucius has lituus above marking him as augur. Gaius should have the more prestigious position on the left but this variety has him on the right." - Forum
2 commentsNemonater
nemausus_k.jpg
Augustus, 27 BC - AD 1421 viewsÆ26, 12.5g, 7h; Nemausus, c. AD 10-14
Obv.: IMP DIVI F P-P; back-to-back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, and Augustus, laureate.
Rev.: COL-NEM, palm tree curving to left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long ties trailing to right.
Reference: Cohen 8, RPC 525, RIC I Augustus 159.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
46.jpg
Augustus, 27 BC-AD 1430 viewsGAUL, Nemausus.

AE As, 25.54mm (10.59 gm).

Addorsed heads of Agrippa left, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus on right, bare headed; IMP above and DIVI F below; D-D countermark / Crocodile chained to palm tip, wreath with long ties above; COL-NEM.

RIC I, 155 (pg. 51); RPC I, 523; RCV I, 1729.

This particular coin carries the D-D countermark, which is within a dotted circle and with the two D's disected by a dotted line, branch or club. This countermark stands for Decreto Decurionum, which means 'by decree of the town Decuria (or Council)'.
socalcoins
normal_AUGUDU03-2~0.jpg
Augustus, RIC 158, medium bronze of 10 BC to AD 1068 viewsmedium bronze (dupondius ?) (12.6g, 25mm, 2h) Nemausus mint. Struck 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv.: IMP DIVI F Agrippa laureate head left and Augustus laureate head right, back to back
Rev.: COL NEM crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top.
RIC (Augustus) 158

COL NEM stands for COLONIA AVGVSTA NEMAVSVS (now the city of Nîmes, France), built by Augustus' army after their conquest and return from Egypt. The crocodile chained to the palm tree symbolizes the defeat of the Cleopatra and Marc Antony at Actium. This symbol is still used as the city's emblem in Nîmes today.
3 commentsCharles S
crock.jpg
Augustus, with Agrippa  (27. B.C. 14 A.D.)52 viewsGAUL, Nemausus
Æ As
O:  Heads of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus right, wearing oak wreath, back to back.  IMP above, DIVI F below.
R: Crocodile right chained to palm branch with long vertical fronds; above, wreath with long ties, palms below; COL NEM flanking vertical palm.
Nemausus mint, 9-3 B.C
10.26g
27mm
RPC I 524; RIC 1 158
3 commentsMat
agrippa_I_prutah.png
BCC j142 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
Agrippa I 37-44CE
Obv: ΒΑϹΙΛ[ΕWΣ ΑΓ]ΡΙΠΑ
Umbrella-like canopy with fringes
Rev: Three ears of barley, flanked by date
LS (year six) 41-42CE
16.5mm approx.2.5g. Axis:0
Hendin 553
v-drome
Agrippa_KS_BCC_J19.jpg
BCC J1929 viewsRoman Provincial
Judaean Mint
Agrippa II 56-95CE
Domitian 81-96CE
Obv:IM CA D VES F DOM AV GER COS XII
Laur. bust of Domitian Rt.
Rev :ΕΠΙ ΒΑ ΑΓΡΙ (in the era of King Agrippa)
around large SC. Below: ET KS (year 26 = 86/87 CE).
AE 20mm. 5.83gm. Axis:0
Hendin (III) 616
v-drome
agrippa_year_35.png
BCC j3 (BCC 33)59 viewsRoman Judaea
Agrippa II 56-95CE
Domitian 81-96CE
Obv:[ΑΥTΟ ΔΟΜΙ]
Laur. bust of Domitian Rt.
Rev:ΒΑ ΑΓΡ / ΕT ΕΛ
(King Agrippa, Year 35
(94/95CE) very thick flan. Black Patina.
Agrippa II issued coins in several denominations in
this year, possibly from the mint at Caesarea
Paneas. This one is the smallest of the 4 types.
AE 12.5mm 3.15gm.
Hendin 634 (1996)
v-drome
AugustusAgrippa.jpg
Bronze As of Augustus and Agrippa15 viewsA bronze As of Augustus and Agrippa, minted in Nimes Gaul between 10-14 AD. 27 mm, 12.25 g.

Obverse: IMP DIVI F P-P, Back to back heads of Agrippa, in rostral crown, and Augustus, Laureate.

Reverse: COL NEM, Palm tree curving to the left, crocodile right chained below, wreath to left of palm tip with long tie trailing to the right

Attribution: RIC I Augustus 159-160, Cohen 8, PRC 525
chuy1530
collagemaker_2018060_ied4O.jpg
Caligula (Gaius)12 viewsAE21, Corinthian, Issued by P. Vipsanius Agrippa and M. Bellius Proculus, duoviri. Struck 37-38 AD
Obverse: CAESAR AVGVST, bare head of Caligula left.
Reverse: P VIPSANIO AGRIPPA IIVIR, Pegasus flying right, COR below.
References: RPC 1173 (left), BCD Corinth 407, Amandry group XVII pp. 186-189, British Museum (Corinth) 531-533
Justin L
MA Agrip SC dolphin.jpg
Caligula As (Issue in honour of his deceased grandfather Agrippa)23 viewsAE 29mm, Rome, 38 A.D.
Obv: M Agrippa Cos III
Rev: S.C. ( Neptune holding dolphin and trident)
Ref: Roman coins ATV, David R. Sear, vol I, p. 358 # 1812
Jean Paul D
nikopolis_23_macrinus_HrHJ(2013)8_23_46_04corr+.jpg
CITY-GATE, Macrinus, Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. HrHJ (2013) 8.23.46.04 corr. (plate coin)111 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 14.01g, 27.34mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
bust, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC / C ICTRW
city-gate with three towers, all with three pinnacles, closed double-door
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1826 (for Diadumenian)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3383
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. 8.23.46.4 corr. (plate coin)
writes NIKOPOLEITWN
very rare, VF/EF, dark-brown patina, a wunderful coin!
2 commentsJochen
as_de_nimes_7.JPG
Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 21 views11 gr.Antonivs Protti
as_de_nimes_6.JPG
Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 21 views11 grAntonivs Protti
as_de_nimes_5.JPG
Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 22 views12.7 gr.Antonivs Protti
as_de_nimes_4.JPG
Colonia Nemeasus. Augustus & Agrippa AE AS. 23 views12.36 gr soldAntonivs Protti
agrippa.jpg
Corinth AE, Unknown Imperator.27 viewsCORINTHI, Bare headed bust right.

C MUSSIO PRISCO IIVIR C HEIO POLLIONE ITER, in a wreath of parsley.

The identity of the obverse bust remains a mystery. I submitted it for identifcation on the boards with both archivium and Curtis Clay responding. They also were unable to attribute the bust to either Augustus, Tiberius, Agrippa Postumus or Drusus!

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=55882.0

On Curtis's advice I contacted Dr. Michael Amandry, who completed a significant work on the subject of Romano-Corinthian coinage titled "LE MONNAYAGE DES DUOVIRS CORINTHIENS."

Dr. Amandry's reply stated that the die on my coin was similar to other dies of Augustus or Drusus, but was unable to differentiate further. The identity of the bust must therefore remain partly solved until I can collect further examples of this coin for comparison.
Will Hooton
coins110.JPG
CORINTHIA, Corinth; Caligula17 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth. Gaius (Caligula). 37-41 AD. Æ 19mm Struck 37-38 AD. P. Vipsanius Agrippa and M. Bellius Proculus, magistrates. Bare head right / Pegasos flying right.
Amandry XVII; RPC I 1172.
ecoli
1465E084-50A0-4BB3-A4B3-EDA9A6E8C3DB.jpeg
CORINTHIA, Corinth; Caligula9 viewsCORINTHIA, Corinth. Gaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. Æ As. P. Vipsanius Agrippa, duovir. Struck AD 37/8. Bare head right / Pegasus flying right. RPC 1172; Amandry Em. XVII21; BCD Corinth 402.ecoli
agrippa-cm.jpg
Countermark: Bust of Hercules14 viewsAgrippa AE As. Countermark: Bust of HercluesHolding_History
855_Diadumenianus.jpg
Diadumenian - Nicopolis ad Istrum5 viewsAgrippa, consular legate
217-218 AD
bare head right
K M OΠΠEΛ ANTΩNI ΔIAΔOVMENIANOC
Homonoia facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia
VΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIK_OΠOΛITΩN ΠΡOCIC
TΡΩ
AMNG I 1817f. (Var.); Varbanov 3641
12,4g
ex Lucernae
Johny SYSEL
diadumenian1298[1].jpg
Diadumenian AE 28 of Nikopolis ad Istrum, Moushmov 129810 viewsObverse - K M OPELL ANTWNIN DIADOUMENIANOC, bare headed, draped bust right
Reverse - UP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTRWN, Apollo standing left, naked, holding laurel branch over burning altar to left and leaning on tripod to right.
26.5 mm., 11.3g
NORMAN K
GI 070a img.jpg
Diadumenian AE2764 viewsObv:– K-M OΠΕΛΛΙ ANTWNI DIADOMENIANOC, Draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– V P AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PPO C I C TROΣ, Nike advancing right with palm and wreath
Reverse Legend – V P AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PPO C I C TROΣ
Minted in Nicopolis ad Istrum, Magistrate Agrippa
References:– SNGC unlisted, Moushmov 1312
2 commentsmaridvnvm
diadumenian_k.jpg
Diadumenian, AD 217-2184 viewsAE28, 11.4g, 12h;
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Magistrate Agrippa.
Obv.: K M OΠEΛ ΔIAΔOUMENIANOC AV;
Draped bust right.
Rev.: UΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTΠ, city gate with three crenulated towers.
Reference: Moushmov 1314.
John Anthony
dartemisORweb.jpg
Diadumenian, Moushmov 1302, AMNG I, 184231 viewsNicopolis ad Istrum mint, Diadumenian Four Assaria, A.D. AE, 26mm 11.15g, Moushmov 1302, AMNG I, 1842
O: K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOC, Bare head right – seen from behind
R: VP CTA LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN / PPOC I C, Artemis huntress advancing right, holding in right hand bow and arrow, with left raised hand; next to her - a hound
Under Governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
1 commentscasata137ec
Diadumenian_Nikopolis_Agrippa_Artemis_AE28.jpg
Diadumenian, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Agrippa, Artemis, AE2836 viewsAE28, 13.6g
obv: K M OΠΠEΛ ANTΩNI ΔIAΔOVMENIANOC, bare head right, seen from behind
rev: VΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICTΠΩN, Artemis huntress advancing right, holding in right hand bow and arrow, with left raised hand; next to her - a hound

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/auction/APViewItem.asp?ID=12649
1 commentsareich
diadumenian.jpg
Diadumenian, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Zeus13 viewsDiadumenian, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Zeus, AE26, 217-218 AD
26 mm, 12.2 g
Obverse: K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOS; bare head right
Reverse: VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PR / OS ISTRWN; Zeus seated left, holding patera and scepter. ex areich
Podiceps
dvarbi3654eORweb.jpg
Diadumenian, Varbanov I 3654 (e)35 viewsNikopolis ad Istrum mint, Legat Agrippa, Diadumenian, 217-218 A.D. AE, 27mm 12.66g., Varbanov I 3654 (e)
O: M OPELLI DIADOYMENIANOC K, bareheaded, dr., and cuir. bust r. seen from behind
R: VP AGPIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PPOC ICTP, Nike advancing r., holding wreath and palm
2 commentscasata137ec
Domitian-Agrippa II-Hendin 604.JPG
Domitian-Agrippa II-Hendin 60437 viewsAE20, Maritima? Mint, 83-84 AD
Obverse: DOMIT KAIPEPMAN, Laureate head of Domitian right.
Reverse: ETO KDBA AGPIPP, Nike inscribing shield foot on helmet.
Year 24 of king Agrippa
Hendin 604
19.9mm, 6.3gm
Jerome Holderman
EB0255b_scaled.JPG
EB0255 Domitian / Nike3 viewsJUDAEA, Herodian Kings, Agrippa II, DOMITIAN, AE 18, 81-96 AD.
Obverse: DOMITIANOC KAICAPE, laureate head of Domitian right.
Reverse: ETO IQ BA A GRIPP, Nike inscribing shield right.
References: SG 5590; Hendin 600.
Diameter: 18.5mm, Weight: 6.085g.
EB
EB0382_scaled.JPG
EB0382 M. Agrippa / Neptune5 viewsM. Agrippa, AE As, Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD.
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown
Rev: S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.
References: RIC I 58; Cohen 3.
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 10.455 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0383_scaled.JPG
EB0383 M. Agrippa / Neptune7 viewsM. Agrippa, AE As, Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD.
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown
Rev: S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.
References: RIC I 58; Cohen 3.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 10.316 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0529_scaled.JPG
EB0529 Agrippa and Augustus / Crocodile20 viewsAgrippa and Augustus, AE 24 (As) of Gaul, Nemausus, ca 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa left in rostral crown, & Augustus right (bare? / in oak wreath?).
Rev: COL [NEM], Crocodile chained to palm tree, [wreath] with long ties trailing above.
References: cf. RIC 158, Cohen 10; RPC 523 (bare head) or 524 (oak wreath).
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 6.642 grams.
EB
EB0530_scaled.JPG
EB0530 Agrippa and Augustus / Crocodile33 viewsAgrippa and Augustus, AE As of Gaul, Nemausus, ca 10 BC - 10 AD.
Obv: IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa left in rostral crown, & Augustus right in oak wreath.
Rev: COL NEM, Crocodile chained to palm tree, wreath to left of palm with long ties trailing right.
References: cf. RIC 158, Cohen 10; RPC 524.
27mm, Weight: 11.477 grams.
1 commentsEB
orange.JPG
France, Orange - Triumphal Arch255 viewsIt was built on the former via Agrippa to honor the veterans of the Gallic Wars and Legio II Augusta. It was later reconstructed by emperor Tiberius to celebrate the victories of Germanicus over the German tribes in Rhineland.pax
Agrias03-2.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 58, for Agrippa, As of AD 37-41 (flatbed scan)130 viewsÆ As (11.5g, 28mm, 6h). Rome mint, struck under Gaius, AD 37-41.
Obv.: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·III head of Agrippa with rostral crown facing left
Rev.: S C Neptune standing facing left, holding dolphin and trident
RIC (Gaius) 58; Cohen 3; BMC (Tiberius) 161

Perhaps struck under Caligula in memory of his maternal grandfather Agrippa, although Caligula hated him; perhaps under Tiberius starting as early as 14 AD.
Charles S
agrias03-3.jpg
Gaius ("Caligula"), RIC 58, for Agrippa, As of AD 37-41 (Neptune)151 viewsÆ As (11.5g, 28mm, 6h). Rome mint, struck under Gaius, AD 37-41.
Obv.: M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·III head of Agrippa with rostral crown facing left
Rev.: S C Neptune standing facing left, holding dolphin and trident
RIC (Gaius) 58; Cohen 3; BMC (Tiberius) 161

Perhaps struck under Caligula in memory of his maternal grandfather Agrippa, although Caligula hated him; perhaps under Tiberius starting as early as 14 AD.
6 commentsCharles S
Gaius_-_RIC_I_58_-_NavN_pic.jpg
Gaius RIC I 5840 viewsAE As. Agrippa. Struck under Caligula, 37-41 AD. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing rostral crown / S-C, Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left. 3 commentsAldo
Nemausus_k~0.jpg
GAUL, Nemausus. Augustus, with Agrippa. 27 BC-AD 14. 29 viewsÆ Dupondius, 26mm, 12.3g, 2h; Nemausus mint. Struck circa AD 10-14.
Obv.: Heads of Agrippa left and Augustus right, back to back, that of Agrippa wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, that of Augustus laureate.
Rev.: COL NEM; Crocodile right chained to palm-branch; wreath with long ties above.
Reference: RPC I 525; RIC I 159 / 17-144-225
2 commentsJohn Anthony
coin15~0.JPG
Gaul, Nemausus; Augustus23 viewsGAUL, Nemausus. Augustus, with Agrippa. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ As. Nemausus mint.

Struck circa AD 10-14. Heads of Agrippa, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus, laureate, back to back; P-P flanking portraits / Crocodile right, chained to palm frond with wreath at top; two palm fronds at base. RIC I 160; RPC I 525
ecoli
cnmag.jpg
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 107 viewsCN MAG

Lead sling shot reportedly from the battle of Munda.

Found in Estepa, Spain
74.19g

49x28mm


The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains of Munda, which is in modern southern Spain. This was the last great battle of Julius Caesar's civil war against the republican armies. After this victory, and the deaths of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey's oldest son), Caesar was free to return to Rome and govern as dictator. Tens of thousands of Romans died at Munda. About one month after defeat, Gnaeus was captured and executed. His brother Sextus survived to initiate another rebellion, on Sicily, where he was finally defeated by Marcus Agrippa and executed in Asia in 35 BC by Mark Antony, ten years after Munda.

Eitan Hirsch, a ballistics expert with the Israeli Defense Forces calculated that an expert slinger could hit a target from 35 meters away. According to his calculations a projectile could be hurled at a velocity of 34 meters per second. Equivalent to a modern day handgun.
4 commentsJay GT4
coin306.jpg
Gov. Marcus Claudius Agrippa Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum16 viewsGov. Marcus Claudius Agrippa Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum 27mm, 12.81gr., , Obv./M OPELLI DI-ADOVMENIANOC K bare head r., Rev/VΠ AΓPIΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN / ΠP-OC Nike (Victory) standing, holding garland and palm Coin #306
cars100
2012-07-1510.jpg
Halved Augustan As17 viewsThis is a halved As of Augustus struck under the moneyer P. Lurius Agrippa in 7 BC. The reverse is [P LVRIVS AGRIP]PA IIIVIR AA[AFF] around large SC. It is clear on the reverse that it was struck at least four times with a chisel to cut it and that once cut most of the way through it was twisted to finish the job resulting in the raised edge at the top of the remaining legend.otlichnik
1__Herod_Agrippa_I~0.jpg
Hendin-553 17 viewsHEROD AGRIPPA I 37-44 AD
Mint:Jerusalem;AE prutah, Date:41-42 AD
Obv- AGRIPA BACILEWC -Surrounding umbrella canopy with fringes.
Rev-Three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date,L-V:year 6.
Size: 1.88gms; 16.8 mm
Meshorer:TJC-120
brian l
H553.jpg
Hendin-553 / 1244135 viewsAgrippa I - prutah (year 6 = 41/42AD)
2.66 grams
2 commentscmcdon0923
H604.jpg
Hendin-604 / 131766 viewsAgrippa II under Domitian - AE18 (year 24 = 83/84AD)
4.42 grams
cmcdon0923
046n.jpg
Herakles (bearded head)160 viewsIMPERIAL. Augustus or Agrippa (?) .Æ As (26 mm). Obv: Laureate head left; countermark below face. Weight: 8.51 g. CM: Bearded head of Herakles right, in oval punch, 6 x 7 mm. Howgego -. Note: The countermark is of lower Danubian origin. Collection Automan.Automan
Herod_Agrippa.JPG
Herod Agrippa15 viewsBronze prutah, Hendin 553, VF, maximum diameter Jerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.;
OBV: AΓΡΙΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes;
REV: three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - stigma (year 6);
Romanorvm
judaean-herod-agrippa-i-prutah.jpg
Herod Agrippa I25 viewsJudaea, Herod Agrippa I Æ Prutah, (41/42 AD), Year 6, 2.8g, 17mm

Obverse: ΒΑCΙΛƐWC ΑΓΡΙΠΑ, Umbrella-like canopy with fringes.

Reverse: Three ears of barley between two leaves, date L-ς at sides.

Reference: Hendin 1244 (553), SGI 5567, AJC II 11
Gil-galad
J11-Agrippa.jpg
Herod Agrippa I, (Herodian Tetrarch), Prutah, 37-44 CE64 viewsBronze Prutah of Agrippa I, minted 41-42 CE, 17mm, 3 grams.

Obverse: Umbrella type canopy with fringes and partial Greek inscription AΓPIΠA BACIΛEWC (“[coin] Of Agrippa the King”).
Reverse: Three ears of barley between two leaves and date marks L ς (stigma) (year 6 = 42 CE)

Reference: Hendin 553

Added to collection: April 1, 2005
Daniel Friedman
hendin_553~0.jpg
Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. 37024. Bronze prutah (2), Hendin 5532 viewsHerod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 553, aF, Jerusalem mint, 3.462g, 17.3mm, 0o, 41-42 A.D.; obverse A“ΓΡΙΠ”A BACI“Λ”EWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes; reverse , three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - stigma (year 6). Ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin_553.jpg
Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. 37024. Bronze prutah, Hendin 5533 viewsHerod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 553, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 3.444g, 17.2mm, 0o, 41-42 A.D.; obverse A“ΓΡΙΠ”A BACI“Λ”EWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes; reverse , three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - stigma (year 6). Ex FORVMPodiceps
Herod1.JPG
Herod Agrippa I, 37-44 A.D.34 viewsBronze Prutah, 17.5mm, Jerusalem mint

Obverse: Three heads of barley between two leaves
Reverse: Inscription (King Agrippa) umbrella canopy with fringes.
1 commentsDk0311USMC
J11E-Agrippa II.jpg
Herod Agrippa II, (Herodian Tetrarch), Domitian, Æ, 55-95 CE46 viewsBronze hemiassarion of Agrippa II, 55-95 CE, struck with portrait of Domitian year 25 = 84/5, 15.9 mm, 2.69 grams.

Obverse: Laureate bust Domitian to right.
Reverse: Palm tree.

One of the SCARCE dates in this series.

Reference: Hendin 607, AJC 28-29, RPC 2267-2268, TJC 156, SNG 6 - 63.

Added to collection: January 16, 2006
Daniel Friedman
J11D-Agrippa II.jpg
Herod Agrippa II, (Herodian Tetrarch), Vespasian, Æ, 55-95 CE39 viewsBronze of Agrippa II struck with portrait of Vespasian, dated HI = Year 18 = 79 CE, 28mm.

Obverse: AYTOKPA OYECIIACI KAICAPI CEBACTΩ (For the Emperor Vespasian Caesar Augustus), laureate bust of Vespasian right
Reverse: ETOY HIBA/AΓPI ΠΠA. Turreted Tyche standing left on platform holding full cornucopiae and ears of corn; inscription and date across fields.

Reference: Hendin 595, Meshorer 142, RPC II 2254.

Added to collection: January 18, 2006
Daniel Friedman
herod_agrippa_II.jpg
Herod Agrippa II, 55 - 95 A.D. Bronze quarter unit, Hendin 639 viewsJudaean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa II, 55 - 95 A.D. Bronze quarter unit, Hendin 634; AJC II 258, 56; RPC II 2299, F, nice green patina, Caesarea Maritima? mint, 3.539g, 13.8mm, 180o, 94 - 95 A.D.; obverse AVTO DOM, Domitian's laureate head right; reverse , “ΒΑ ΑΓΡ ΕΤ ΕΛ” (=year 35 King Agrippa) within wreath; scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Herod_Agrippa,_bronze_prutah,_canopy.JPG
Herod Agrippa, bronze prutah, canopy / barley5 viewsHerod Agrippa, 37-44 AD. Size/Weight: 17mm, 2.35g. Obverse: BASILEWS AGRIPPA; umbrella-like canopy with fringes. Reverse: Three ears of barley growing between two leaves, flanked by date (year off-flan). Ex areich, photo credit areich

Podiceps
Pantheon~0.JPG
Interior of the Pantheon53 viewsInterior view of the Pantheon's dome. An engeneering masterpiece the concrete gets thinner as it rises. The open occular in the center allows light to flood into this massive ancient space. The walls at the bottom are about 12 feet thick. Origianlly dedicated to all the god's it is now a Catholic church. Titus Pullo
Pantheonoutside.jpg
Italy, Rome, Pantheon344 viewsM AGRIPPA COS TERTIVM FECIT

The original Pantheon was built by Marcus Agrippa and later restored and rebuilt by Hadrian added and engineered the worlds largest unsupported domed roof. He kept the original dedication to Agrippa. A marvel of engineering and a sight to see.
Titus Pullo
IMG_2301wp.jpg
Italy, Rome, Pantheon158 viewsbuilt by Agrippa 27 BC
rebuilt by Hadrian into present shape in 123 AD

remains of Neptune's basilica
Johny SYSEL
IMG_2305wp.jpg
Italy, Rome, Pantheon237 viewsbuilt by Agrippa 27 BC
rebuilt by Hadrian into present shape in 123 AD

M AGRIPPA L F COS TERTIVM FECIT

In 609 panteon was converted into church of St. Mary and the Martyrs.
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Pantheon.JPG
Italy, Rome, Pantheon inside347 viewsInterior view of Hadrian's dome and ocular center. An engeneering masterpiece, the concrete gets thinner as it rises. The open ocular in the center allows light to flood into this massive ancient space. The walls at the bottom are about 12 feet thick. The interior is completely ancient from the marble floors to the walls and dome. Origianlly dedicated to all the god's it is now a Catholic church.Titus Pullo
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Cloaca Maxima.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum Cloaca Maxima163 viewsDoor leading to the Cloaca Maxima, situated in the eastern stairs of the Basilica Julia at the Roman Forum. Here, you can sometimes hear (and smell) the sewer.

The outlet of the Cloaca maxima ("greatest sewer"). This drain was built as a canal through the Forum Romanum in the sixth century and its construction is generally attributed to king Tarquinius Priscus. In the second century BCE, the canal was covered.

The Cloaca Maxima was one of the world's earliest sewage systems. Constructed in ancient Rome in order to drain local marshes and remove the waste of one of the world's most populous cities, it carried effluent to the River Tiber, which ran beside the city.

The name literally means Great Sewer. According to tradition it may have been initially constructed around 600 BC under the orders of the king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.

This public work was largely achieved through the use of Etruscan engineers and large amounts of semi-forced labour from the poorer classes of Roman citizens.

Although Livy describes it as being tunnelled out beneath Rome, he was writing a great deal after the event. From other writings and from the path that it takes, it seems more likely that it was originally an open drain, formed from streams from three of the neighbouring hills, that were channeled through the main Forum and then on to the Tiber. This open drain would then have been gradually built over, as building space within the city became more valuable. It is possible that both theories are correct, and certainly some of the lower parts of the system suggest that they would have been below ground level even at the time of the supposed construction.

There were many branches off from the main sewer, but all seem to be 'official' drains that would have served public toilets, bath-houses and other public buildings. Private residences in Rome, even of the rich, would have relied on some sort of cess-pit arrangement for sewage.

The Cloaca Maxima was well maintained throughout the life of the Roman Empire and there is evidence to suggest it was still working long after the traditional fall of the Western Empire. In 33 BC it is known to have received an inspection and overhaul from Agrippa, and archaeology reveals several building styles and material from various ages, suggesting that the systems received regular attention. In more recent times, the remaining passages have been connected to the modern-day sewage system, mainly to cope with problems of backwash from the river.

The Cloaca Maxima was thought to be presided over by the goddess Cloacina.

The Romans are recorded — the veracity of the accounts depending on the case — to have dragged the bodies of a number of people to the sewers rather than give them proper burial, among them the emperor Elagabalus and Saint Sebastian: the latter scene is the subject of a well-known artwork by Lodovico Carracci.

The outfall of the Cloaca Maxima into the river Tiber is still visible today near the bridge Ponte Rotto, and near Ponte Palatino. There is a stairway going down to it visible next to the Basilica Julia at the Forum.

It is often said that it is still in use; this is not untrue, but the whole truth is that only a trickle of water flows through the age-old sewer. The exit shown on this picture is just south of the ancient Roman bridge now known as Ponte Rotto.


1 commentsJohn Schou
Italy- Rome- Pantheon and the old street level beside.jpg
Italy- Rome- Pantheon and the old street level beside41 viewsThe inscription on the architrave of the portico "M. Agrippa L. F. Cos tertium fecit" refers to a temple erected by Agrippa in 27 B.C. to the tutelary divinities of the Julia family. In reality Agrippa's building was destroyed by a great fire in A.D. 80. Recent studies have proven that the present Pantheon is a reconstruction of the temple from the time of Hadrian. The interior measures 43.40 meters in diameter, and the same in height. Light and air still enter through the opening at the top (a circle of 8m, 92cms in diameter).

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian45 viewsPantheon
The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely intact and which has been in continuous use throughout its history.

History
The original Pantheon was built in 27 BC under the Roman Republic, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building. The inscription reads M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIUM·FECIT, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built this."

In fact, Agrippa's Pantheon was destroyed by fire in AD 80, and the Pantheon was completely rebuilt in about AD 125, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, as date-stamps on the bricks reveal. It was totally reconstructed, with the text of the original inscription (referring to Agrippa) added to the new facade, a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome.

Hadrian was a cosmopolitan emperor who travelled widely in the east and was a great admirer of Greek culture. He seems to have intended the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, to be a sort of ecumenical or syncretist gesture to the subjects of the Roman Empire who did not worship the old gods of Rome, or who (as was increasingly the case) worshipped them under other names.

In AD 609 the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who reconsecrated it as a Christian church, the Church of Mary and all the Martyr Saints (Santa Maria ad Martyres), which title it retains.

The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment and spoliation which befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early mediaeval period. The only loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The marble interior and the great bronze doors have survived, although the latter have been restored several times.

During the reign of Pope Urban VIII, the Pope ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Chamber for various other works. (It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating the baldachin above the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice.[1]) This led to the Latin proverb, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini" ("What the barbarians did not do, the Barberinis [family name of Urban VIII] did").

Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been used as a tomb. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Caracci, the architect Baldassare Peruzzi and two kings of Italy: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Vittorio Emanuele's Queen, Margharita.

Although Italy has been a republic since 1946, volunteer members of Italian monarchist organisations maintain a vigil over the royal tombs in the Pantheon. This has aroused protests from time to time from republicans, but the Catholic authorities allow the practice to continue, although the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage [2] is in charge of the security and maintenance. The Pantheon is still a church and Masses are still celebrated in the church, particularly for weddings.

Structure
The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (8 in the first rank and 16 in total) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus), open to the sky. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same (43 metres), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (alternatively, the interior could house a sphere 43 metres in diameter). The dome is the largest surviving from antiquity, and was the largest dome in western Europe until Brunelleschi's dome of the Duomo of Florence was completed in 1436.

It may well be noted that the proportions of the building are in discord with respect to the classical ideal. Most evident is the rather large pediment, which appears far too "heavy" for the columns supporting it. The reason for this was the expectation that the building would be much taller than it actually is, which would effect larger columns. However, by the time the pediment was built, it was realised that the proposed height was unrealistic, and so the builders had to settle with a building somewhat out of proportion.

The composition of the Roman concrete used in the dome remains a mystery. An unreinforced dome in these proportions made of modern concrete would hardly stand the load of its own weight, since concrete has very low tensile strength, yet the Pantheon has stood for centuries. It is known from Roman sources that their concrete is made up of a pasty hydrate lime; pozzolanic ash from a nearby volcano; and fist-sized pieces of rock. In this, it is very similar to modern concrete. The high tensile strength appears to come from the way the concrete was applied in very small amounts and then was tamped down to remove excess water at all stages. This appears to have prevented the air bubbles that normally form in concrete as the material dries, thus increasing its strength enormously.

As the best preserved example of monumental Roman architecture, the Pantheon was enormously influential on European and American architects from the Renaissance to the 19th century. Numerous city halls, universities and public libraries echo its portico-and-dome structure. Examples of notable buildings influenced by the Pantheon include Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda at the University of Virginia, Low Library at Columbia University, New York, and the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.

John Schou
coins69.JPG
JUDAEA AGRIPPA II Æ PRUTAH10 viewsecoli
agrippa_II_domitian_judaea_capta_nike_bow_res.jpg
Judaea Capta--AGRIPPA II (under Domitian)23 viewsDOMITIAN (AGRIPPA II)
Herodian Dynasty--Agrippa II
55 - 95 AD
Struck under Domitian
AE 19.5 mm 4.77 g
O: Laureate bust of Domitian right
R: Nike standing right, holding shield on knee
"Judaea Capta" issue
Judaea, Caesarea mint
laney
agripa.JPG
JUDAEA, Agrippa, Jerusalem55 viewsJerusalem mint, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AGRIPA BACILEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes1 commentsanthivs
prutah_1.jpg
Judaea, Herod Agrippa14 viewsAE Prutah, 17mm, 2.7g, 5h; Jerusalem, 41/42 AD.
Obv.: BACIΛEWC AΓPIПA; fringed, umbrella-like canopy.
Rev.: Three ears of barley and two leaves; date L-ς (year 6).
Reference: Hendin 1244.
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale 3/16/15, 46.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
bpP1I1JudaeaHerod2.jpg
Judaea, Herod Agrippa, c.A.D.4252 viewsObv: ΒΑСΙΛЄWС ΑΓΡΙΠΑ
Canopy with fringe.
Rev: L S
Three ears of barly.
Prutah 2.6 gm 16 mm 42 AD Sear GIC 5567
Comment: Reverse inscription places this coin in the sixth year of Herod's rule during the reign of Claudius.
Massanutten
Comb04042017010100.jpg
Judaea, Herodian Kingdom. Agrippa I. 37-44 C.E. AE prutah 31 viewsObv. BACIΛEΩC AΓPIΠA, umbrella.
Rev. Three ears of barley, flanked by L-ς.
Hendin 1244b; Meshorer TJC 120.
Jerusalem mint, struck 41-42 C.E.
18mm, 2.8 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
Comb06042017113655.jpg
Judaea, Herodian Kingdom. Agrippa I. 37-44 C.E. AE prutah 17 viewsObv. BACIΛEΩC AΓPIΠA, umbrella.
Rev. Three ears of barley, flanked by L-ς.
Hendin 1244b; Meshorer TJC 120.
Jerusalem mint, struck 41-42 C.E.
18mm, 2.9 grams.
Canaan
Judaea,_Herodian_Kings,_Agrippa_I_(or_Agrippa_II)_Prutah__Dated_Year_6_(_41,42)_(or_66,67)_AD_,_Hendin_553,_Q-001,_0h,_16-17mm,_2,09g-s.jpg
Judaea, Herodian Kings, Agrippa I. (37-44 A.D.) (Year 6 = 41-42 A.D.) (or Agrippa II. (55-95 A.D., Year 6 = 41-42 A.D.), AE-16 (Prutah), Hedin 533, Three ears of barley, #1153 viewsJudaea, Herodian Kings, Agrippa I. (37-44 A.D.) (Year 6 = 41-42 A.D.) (or Agrippa II. (55-95 A.D., Year 6 = 41-42 A.D.), AE-16 (Prutah), Hedin 533, Three ears of barley, #1
avers: ΑΓΡΙΠΑ ΒΑСΙΛЄωС, Umbrella-like canopy with fringes.
reverse: Three ears of barley between two leaves, date L-S at sides.
exergue: L/S//--, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 2,09g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, Herodian Kings, Agrippa I. (or Agrippa II.), date: Year 6 = 41-42 A.D. (or Year 6 = 41-42 A.D.), ref: Hendin 533, SGI 5567, AJC II 11,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
agrippa_i_canopy_barley.jpg
JUDAEA--AGRIPPA I (Herod Agrippa)14 views37 - 44 AD
Struck 41 - 42 (year 6)
AE Prutah 17 mm max. 2.22 g
O: AΓΡΙΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes
R: three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L-stigma (year 6)
laney
agrippa_1_canopoy_res.jpg
JUDAEA--AGRIPPA I (Herod Agrippa)8 views37 - 44 AD
AE Prutah 17 mm 3.08 g
O: AΓΡΙΠA BACIΛEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes
R: three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date
Hendin 553
laney
herod_agrippa_res.jpg
JUDAEA--AGRIPPA I (Herod Agrippa)23 views37-44 AD
AE prutah 17 mm; 2.17 g
O: ΑΓΡΙΠΑ ΒΑCΙΛΕWC (King Agrippa), umbrella-like canopy with fringes
R: Three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L - ς (year 6= 42AD);
Jerusalem mint; cf Hendin 1244, Meshorer TJC 120,
laney
JUD_Herod_Agrippa_Hendin_553.JPG
Judaea. Herod Agrippa I (37-44 A.D.)11 viewsHendin 553, Meshorer TJC 120, Meshorer AJC II, 249, 11

AE Prutah, Jerusalem mint, dated year 6 (41-42 A.D.), 17 mm.

Obv: Canopy with fringes, ΑΓΡΙΠΑ ΒΑСΙΛΕWС (counterclockwise).

Rev: Three ears of grain growing between two leaves, flanked by L—ζ (date).

Note: There is a body of scholarship that attributes this coin to Agrippa II (55-95 A.D.)
Stkp
AGRIPPA~1.jpg
Judea Herod Agrippa I57 viewsAΓΡI ΠA BACIΛEWC
King Agrippa umbrella canopy with fringes

Three ears of barley between two leaves flanked by date L - ς
(year 6).

Jerusalem Mint 41-42 AD
Bronze Prutah

Hendin 1244

Ex-Zurgieh


Herod Agrippa I was a son of Aristobulus and grandson of Herod the Great by Mariamne I, granddaughter of High Priest Hyrcanus II. His father Aristobulus had been put to death by Herod the Great. Named after Augustus best friend and genreal Marcus Agrippa, Herod Agrippa was the last of the Herods to become king of all Palestine, as his grandfather had been. Agrippa was educated in Rome with the Emperor Tiberius’ son Drusus and his nephew Claudius and he became a familiar figure in important circles in Rome.

An injudicious statement got Agrippa into trouble with Emperor Tiberius. In an unguarded moment he expressed the wish to Gaius (Caligula) that he, Gaius, might soon be emperor. Overheard by Agrippa’s servant, his remarks came to the ears of Tiberius, who cast Agrippa into prison. His life was in the balance for several months. Fortunately for Agrippa, Tiberius died and Caligula became emperor. He released Agrippa and elevated him to the position of king over the territories that his late uncle Philip had governed.

When Caligula was assassinated Agrippa was in Rome. He was able to act as liaison between the Senate and his friend, the new Emperor Claudius. Claudius expressed his appreciation by awarding him the territory of Judea and Samaria as well as the kingdom of Lysanias. Agrippa now became ruler of about the same dominion that his grandfather Herod the Great had held.


1 commentsJay GT4
HEN553.jpg
JUDEA - HEROD AGRIPPA I37 viewsAE Prutah, 41-42 A.D. 3 Gain ears/Umbrella. Hendin #553. AGPIPA BACILEWC.dpaul7
herod_agrippa_2.jpg
JUDEA - HEROD AGRIPPA I 23 viewsJUDEA - HEROD AGRIPPA I AE Prutah, 41-42 A.D. 3 Gain ears/Umbrella. AGPIPA BACILEWC. Dated year 6 (AD 41/2). Hendin #553.dpaul7
060717g.jpg
Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37-44 CE15 viewsBronze Prutah, Hendin 1244, Meshorer TJC 120
Jurusalem mint, 41-42 CE.
Obverse: AGRIPA BACILEOC (king Agrippa) umbrella-like canopy with fringes.
Reverse: Three heads of barley between two leaves, flanked by L-s (year 6)
17.0 mm., 2.12 g.
sold 1-2018
NORMAN K
MacDiaAgrippaMarkHermes.JPG
Macrinus & Diadumenian, AE 2922 viewsAVT K OΠEΛ CEVH MAKPEINOC K M OΠEL ANTΩNEINOC
Macrinus, head laureate, and Diadumenian, head bare, confronted
VΠ AΓΡIΠΠOV MAP/KIANOΠOΛEITΩN
Hermes, nude, holding purse and caduceus, E in left field
AMNG 785
Varbanov (Eng) I, -
H & J 6.24.9.3 but attributed to Pontianus
Megaw MAR5.33a
whitetd49
Macrinus_AE29_of_Nikopolis.jpg
Macrinus 217-218 AD., AE26 of Nikopolisad Istrum29 viewsMacrinus AE26 of Nikopolis ad Istrum. Magistrate Agrippa. AV K OPPEL CEVH MAKRINOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / UP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT, river-god reclining left, holding reed and resting left elbow on shield; galley to left. Varbanov 3366 (this coin): AMNG 1698. . 26mm.,9,81g,
Antonivs Protti
Macrinus_Diadumenian.jpg
Macrinus Marcianopolis17 viewsAE 28 (14.g)
Obv: AVTK OPEL CEVH MAKPEINOC K M OPEL ANTWNEINOC
Laureate head of Macrinus right and bare head of Diadumenianus left, facing
each other
Rev:VP AGRIPPOV MAP IANOPOLEIT WN
Hermes standing left, holding purse and caduceus,
resting with elbow on column; E in field left
struck under Marcius Agrippa
Hristova/Jekov (2013) 6.24.10.8
HG
Macrinus_Nicopolis_Hristova_Jekov_Hoeft_No_8_23_27.jpg
Macrinus Nicopolis24 viewsAE 27 (10.2g)
obv. AV K OPPEL CEVN MAKPEINOC
laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PPOC ICTP
Helios advancing left, naked, with raised right hand and holding chlamis & whip
struck under Marcus Claudius Agrippa
HG
Macrinus_Quadriga~0.jpg
Macrinus Quadriga16 viewsMACRINUS, Nicopolis ad Istrum, Moesia Inferior, 217 - 218 AD, 29.1mm, 13g, Die Alignment 0°, Moushmov 1254, Pick 1713, Agrippa, consular legate
OBV: AV K 0ΠΠEΛ CEVH MAKPINOC, Laureate, cuirassed, with Aegis and snake on left shoulder, bust right
REV: VP AG-RI-PPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT, Macrinus in quadriga right being crowned by Nike standing behind him,
led by soldier carrying a banner, trophy with captives above
ITΩN πPOC in exergue
Romanorvm
MacNikoCityGate.JPG
Macrinus, AE 2633 viewsAV K OPPEL CE/VH MAKRINOC
Bust laureate, right
VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PRO/C ICTRW
City gate with three crennulated towers
Varbanov (Eng.) I, 3344 citing Numismatik Lanz, Auction 92, 890.
This obverse die was initially issued by Pontianus.
1 commentswhitetd49
MacNikoHeraklesbow.JPG
Macrinus, AE 2644 viewsAVT K M OPEL C CE/HR MAKRINOC
Bust laureate, right
VP K AGRIPPA NI/KOPOLITWN PROC /ICTRON
Herakles standing, head right, nude, holding club and bow, lion skin draped over arm.
AMNG 1696
cf. Varbanov (Eng) I, 3744 for reverse die only.
1 commentswhitetd49
MacNikoAgrippaHomon.JPG
Macrinus, AE 2633 viewsAV K OPPEL CE/VH MAKRINOC
Bust laureate, right
VP AGRIPA NIKO/POLITWN PROC ICT[R?]
Homonoia standing, head left, holding cornucopia and patera
AMNG Pick 1705
Varbanov (Eng) I, 3337 (illustrated, same dies) but incorrect obverse legend, citing AMNG Pick 1706
Varbanov (Eng) I, 3338 (not illustrated) with correct description, citing private collection
Varbanov (Eng) I, 3340 (not illustrated) with incorrect obverse legend and portrait type but citing AMNG 1705
This is Patricia Lawrence's obverse F and reverse 59. These dies are not known to occur with any others.
1 commentswhitetd49
MacNikoApolloTripod.JPG
Macrinus, AE 2640 viewsAV K OPPEL CE/VE MAKPEINOC
Bust laurate, right
VP MARK AGRI NI/KOPOLITWN PROC / ICTRW
Apollo standing right, holding laurel branch over garlanded altar, leaning on tripod
AMNG 1688; Varbanov (Eng) I, 3575 (illustrated, same dies)
1 commentswhitetd49
MacNikoAsklepios.JPG
Macrinus, AE 2830 viewsAV K OPPEL CE/VH MAKREINOC
Bust laureate, right
VP AGRIPPA NI/KOPOLTWN PROC ICTRW
Asklepios standing facing, head left, holding snake entwined staff
Varbanov (Eng.) I, 3381
1 commentswhitetd49
MacNikoApolloSaur.JPG
Macrinus, AE2749 viewsAV K OPPEL CE/VH MACRIENOC
Head laureate, right
VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOL/ITWN PROC IC/TR/W
Apollo Sauroktonos, nude, standing left, legs crossed, holding dart in raised left arm, holding (?) tail of lizard leaping toward tree in right hand
AMNG Pick 1687 (courtesy of Patricia Lawrence)
Varbanov (Eng.) I, 3372 (same dies illustrated but obverse legend listed as MAKREINOC)
1 commentswhitetd49
0210-410np_noir.jpg
Macrinus, Bronze - *66 viewsBronze struck in Nicopolis
AVT KM .... H MAKRINOC, Laureate and cuirassed bust of Macrinus right
V M AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWNPROC IC TR, Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia and rudder
14.26 gr
Ref : ANMG #1710
2 commentsPotator II
Macrinus_NikopolisAdIstrum_ApolloSauroktonos_AE29_13_3g.jpg
Macrinus, Nikopolis ad Istrum, Apollo Sauroktonos, AE2947 viewsMacrinus 217-218 AD. Nikopolis ad Istrum, governor Claudius Agrippa.
AE29, 13.3g
Obv: AVT K CEV MAKPEINOC, laureate head right
Rev: Apollo Saurocton standing on one of his legs, with right hand on his breast and resting with the left hand on trunk with crawling lizard on it
GICV -
3 commentsareich
100_0729.JPG
Marc Antony22 viewsRef Marc Antony RSC 32 denarius
Marc Antony AR Denarius. 32-1 BC. Praetorian galley travelling right / LEG V, legionary Eagle between two standards. Cr544/18, Syd 1221.

Legion V was founded in transalpine Gaul in 52 BCE by Julius Caesar. It was the first legion to be recruited in the provinces, and Caesar paid the soldiers from his private purse. After playing key roles in Caesar's conquest of Gaul , the Fifth Alauda was also with Caesar when he crossed the Rubicon in 49BC. It then went on to fight the Republicans in the African campaign (46BC).

After Caesar's assassination in 44BC, the Fifth Alauda sided with Antonius, and participated in Antonius' ill-fated war against the Parthians. From there, the Fifth Alauda fought against Marcus Agrippa at the battle of Actium, and after Antonius' defeat, Octavian assumed control of the legion and transferred it to Merida .
simmurray
coin7.jpg
Marc Antony 18 viewsRef Marc Antony RSC 32 denarius
Marc Antony AR Denarius. 32-1 BC. Praetorian galley travelling right / LEG V, legionary Eagle between two standards. Cr544/18, Syd 1221.

Legion V was founded in transalpine Gaul in 52 BCE by Julius Caesar. It was the first legion to be recruited in the provinces, and Caesar paid the soldiers from his private purse. After playing key roles in Caesar's conquest of Gaul , the Fifth Alauda was also with Caesar when he crossed the Rubicon in 49BC. It then went on to fight the Republicans in the African campaign (46BC).

After Caesar's assassination in 44BC, the Fifth Alauda sided with Antonius, and participated in Antonius' ill-fated war against the Parthians. From there, the Fifth Alauda fought against Marcus Agrippa at the battle of Actium, and after Antonius' defeat, Octavian assumed control of the legion and transferred it to Merida .
simmurray
13.jpg
Marco Vipsanio Agrippa (asse, conio Caligola) 38 d.C.51 viewsMarco Vipsanio Agrippa, amico di Augusto, nonno di Caligola, parente di Nerone
Asse, coniato sotto Caligola nel 38 d.C. , zecca di Roma
AE, 9.477 gr, 29.1 mm, 180°, F (MB)
D/ M AGRIPPA L F COS III, testa a sx
R/ Nettuno con delfino e tridente, S C
RIC Caligola 58, S 556
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (13 novembre 2007, numero catalogo 106); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2007)
paolo
Agrippa~0.jpg
Marcus Agrippa 40 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III
head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown

Rev. SC either side of Neptune standing holding dolphin and trident

Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased grandfather Agrippa

Minted in Rome 37-41 A.D.

Sold!
Titus Pullo
Agrippa~2.jpg
Marcus Agrippa97 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III
head of Agrippa left wearing rostral crown

SC
Neptune standing holding dolphin and trident

AE As
Issued by Caligula in honour of his deceased grandfather Agrippa

Minted in Rome 37-41 A.D.

9.06g

Ex- Ancient Treasures
5 commentsJay GT4
agrippa-reshoot.jpg
Marcus Agrippa AE As. - Neptune33 viewsRoman Imperial, Marcus Agrippa AE As, Rome mint, (37-41 AD), 10.2g, 28mm, Axis 180° .

Obverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III: Head left wearing rostral crown.

Reverse: S-C: Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left.

Reference: RIC-58, C-3, aorta 4

Ex: Imperator Coins
Gil-galad
M Agrippa.jpg
Marcus Agrippa AS37 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Agrippa facing left

Rev:S C
Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident
rick fox
Marcus_Agrippa.jpg
Marcus Agrippa As4 viewsOBV: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Head of Marcus Agrippa, left wearing rostral crown
REV: S-C Neptune standing facing, head left, naked
except for cloak draped behind him & over both
arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical
trident in left.

Cohen 3; RIC 58; Sear 5 #1812
A.D. 37-41
11.01gm 27mm
goldenancients
aprippa1.JPG
Marcus Agrippa, Struck under Caligula34 viewsRome mint, struck under Caligula, A.D. 37
Obverse: M • AGRIPPA • L • F • COS • III, head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown
Reverse: S C across field, Neptune standing facing, head left, holding small dolphin in right hand and trident in left.

General of the battle of Actium, and friend of Octavian Augustus
1 commentsDk0311USMC
Diadumenian_V_3669.JPG
Marcus Opelius Diadumenian (as Caesar), 217 - 218 AD25 viewsObv: K M OΠΠEΛ ANTΩNI ΔIAΔOYMAIAN[OC], bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Diadumenian facing right.

Rev: YΠ AГPΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPO-C ICTPΩ, Artemis running right, holding a bow and drawing an arrow from a quiver, a hound at her side.

Legate: Marcus Claudius Agrippa

Æ 28, Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior, c. 217 - 218 AD

15.5 grams, 28.02 mm, 180°

Varbanov I 3669 (variety, bust type)
SPQR Coins
0452-310np_noir.jpg
Marius, Antoninianus - *128 viewsMint #2 : Köln or Mainz
MP C M AVR MARIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VICT - ORIA AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm
3,2 gr
Ref : RIC # 17, RCV # 11124, Cohen # 21 (20Fr), Schulzki 7a

Many thanks to Mauseus and Agrippa1 for precisions in IDing this very interesting coin
5 commentsPotator II
38348q00.jpg
Mark Antony105 viewsMark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., Silver denarius, cf. Crawford 544/14, Sydenham 1216, BMCRR 190, and RSC I 27 ff., Fair, Patrae?, 2.818g, 17.7mm, 180o, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots; reverse LEG - [...], legionary eagle between two standards, border of dots Ex Forvm


The silver for this issue may have come from the Ptolemaic treasury, and this coin may have been present at the Battle of Actium.

"The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic. It was fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII. The battle took place on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the city of Actium, at the Roman province of Epirus vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the ships of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over Rome and its dominions. To that end, he adopted the title of Princeps ("first citizen") and some years after the victory was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in later times. As Augustus, he would retain the trappings of a restored Republican leader; however, historians generally view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire."
3 commentsrandy h2
037n.jpg
MAT (monogram of?)140 viewsTHRACE. Topirus. Antoninus Pius. Æ 23. A.D. 138-161. Obv: AVTKAITAIΛA)ΔPIANO(CANTΩNEINOC). Bare head right; countermark on neck. Rev: EΠIΦABAΓ(PIΠΠEINOVTOΠ)EIPEITΩN. Naked Herakles seated left on rock, right hand extended, holding club. Ref: BMC 2-3. Axis: 180°. Weight: 4.74 g. Magistrate: Faustinius Agrippa. CM: Monogram of MAT (?) in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 621 (25 pcs). Note: The monogram may read Marcus Antoninus or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and may have been applied at the time of Caracalla, since some his coins of Topirus have a countermark-like feature engraved on the die. Collection Automan.Automan
098n.jpg
MAT (monogram of?)162 viewsTHRACE. Topirus. Antoninus Pius. Æ 26. A.D. 138-161. Obv: (AVTKAIT)AIΛAΔPIANO-(CANTΩNEINOC). Bare head right; countermark on neck. Rev: EΠI(ΦABAΓPIΠΠEINOVTOΠEIPEI)TΩN. Naked Herakles seated left on rock, right hand extended, holding club. Ref: BMC 2-3. Axis: 180°. Weight: 8.24 g. Magistrate: Faustinius Agrippa. CM: Monogram of MAT (?) in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 621 (25 pcs). Note: The monogram may read Marcus Antoninus or Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, and may have been applied at the time of Caracalla, since some his coins of Topirus have a countermark-like feature engraved on the die. Collection Automan.Automan
nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2012)8_23_5_6corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.05.06 (plate coin)15 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.22g, 27.44mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP AGRIPA NIKOP - O - LITWN PROC IC
Demeter, diademed, in long garment and mantle, veiled(?), stg. l., resting with raised l. hand on long
burning torch and holding in lowered r. hand grain-ears
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.5.6 (plate coin)
scarce (R5), about VF
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1687.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.07.02 #134 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 29, 13.3g, 28.67mm, 30°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. V[P] AGRIPPA NIKOPOL - ITWN PROC IC
in l. and r. field TR - W
Apollo Sauroktonos, nude, stg. r. with crossed legs, r. arm drawn back, l. hand on tree-stump from which a lizard is jumping against him.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1687, pl.XIV, 35 (5 ex.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3372
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.7.2
about VF
Pedigree:
ex coll. Andreas Reich

An interesting interpretation of this famous theme!
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_HJ8_23_7_2_#1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.07.02 #271 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.42g, 26.82mm, 345°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRI NOC
laureate head r.
rev. [VP AG]RIPPA NIKOPOL - ITWN PROC IC
in l. and middle field TR - W
Apollo Sauroktonos, nude, with crossed legs, l. leg set behind r. leg, stg. r., l.
hand resting on tree-stump, in bent r. hand holding branch with which he touches
the tree
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1687, pl. XIV, 35 (5 ex.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3372
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.7.2 (same dies)
d) Pat Lawrence obv. M, no.10 (gap between I and N on obv. not mentioned)
VF, dark green patina

Pick writes:"the left on a tree-stump from which a lizard(?) is jumping to him." But on this coin it is rather a branch with small round fruits.
Pat Lawrence (in 'The Pontianus and Agrippa Dies for Macrinus and Diadumenianus at Nicopolis ad Istrum"): Apollo Sauroktonos, so labeled by Pick (and Taf. XIV, 35) and earlier, though Postolakas at Athens: Achilles Postolakas, Catalogue of the Ancient Coins of Regions, Nations, Cities and Kingdoms, National Numismatic Museum, 1872, no.847, is at pains to describe what he sees: "...to one side and the other of Apollo, naked, stg. r., bending his l. knee, having his head laureate and holding with his r. hand a twig (or branch) slanting downwards, placing his raised l. hand on the little tree, stripped of its branches, stand in front of him." He, too, doubted wether we may read the elements between Apollo's torso and the tree trunk as a leaping lizard. Just as the 'Medici' Aphrodite of Agrippa's engraver is comically misconstrued, so is his Apollo Sauroktonos.
3 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1688.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.07.05 61 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 12.0g, 26.22mm, 210°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH M[AKRINOC]
laureate head r.
rev. VP MARK AGRI NIKOPOLITWN PROC I / CTRW
Apollon, nude, laureate, stg. l., holding laurel-branch in outstretched r. hand and
leaning with l. arm on tripod behind, eventually holding vine-grapes in l. hand;
in front of him flaming, garlanded altar.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1688, pl. XIV, 29 (the same rev. I have for Diadumenian!)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3575
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.7.5 (same dies, even with flan break on rev.)
scarce (R5), about VF, green patina

Here the rather rare legend with MARK. The type probably goes back - like the related types of the Seleucids and the tetradrachms of Magnesia in Ionia - to a statuary model; ... On coins of imperial time the typus occurs only rarely. Most similar to our type he is depicted on a coin of Ilion. A particularity of the coin of Nikopolis is that here the god stands in front of the altar (Pick).
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_Varbanov3375.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.07.16 (plate coin)27 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 13.13g, 26.09mm, 210°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL [CE- VH] MAKRINOC
Bust, bearded, cuirassed with scale armor, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN P[ROC ICTRW]
Apollo, nude, chlamys over l. shoulder, stg. r., seen from back, holding laurel-branch in lowered r. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG
obv. AMNG I/1, 1796 (for Diadumenian, same die as ex. from Pat Lawrence)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3375 (same dies)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.7.16 (plate coin)
scarce (R5), about VF

The rev. is known for Diadumenian too. I think it is a rarer bust type of Macrinus, a variant of Pat Lawrence's type C. Pat: "That is the most beautiful Macrinus I ever saw (and my favourite reverse from a purely artistic point of view)."
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1691.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.09.01 (plate coin)75 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 28, 13.03g, 27.52mm, 225°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL C - EVH MAKRINOC
bust, cuirassed, wearing scale armour, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP MARK AGRIPP - A NIKOPOLITWN / PROC IC / TRW
Nike, with open wings, draped, stg. l., holding palm-branch in l. arm
and wreath in raised r. hand
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1691
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3576
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.9.1 (plate coin)
VF+, deep black-green patina, impressive portrait

Legend with MARK rather rare. Only 3 Types known with first names of Agrippa: 2 coins with MARK, 2 coins with KLAV and 4 coins with abbreviation K.
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2011)8_23_9_2var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.09.02 (plate coin)18 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE - AE 27, 11.96g, 27.44mm, 15°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CEV - H MAKRINOC
Bust, cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.; on breastplate gorgoneion, on l. shoulder
aegis
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PROC / ICTRW
Nike stg. l., holding in l. arm palm branch and in raised r. hand wreath
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1691
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3408
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.9.2 (plate coin)
about VF, dark green patina

A rare bust variant which must be differentiated from that one of e.g. HrHJ (2015) 8.23.21.3 (Hygieia)
Jochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1693(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.10.07 (plate coin)21 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 28, 12.56g, 28.14mm
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT K OPPEL C - EVH MAKRINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT
Hermes, nude, chlamys over l. arm, stg. l., kerykeion in l. arm and purse in r.
hand; cock at his r. foot stg. l.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 1693
obv. not listed
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.10.7 (plate coin)
VF/about VF, dark-green Patina

The obv. is Pat Lawrence' s type M. But not listed with this rev.
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrHJ(2013)8_23_10_8corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.10.08 (plate coin)10 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 9.74g, 25.99mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKREINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PROC / [ICT]
Hermes, nude, chlamys over l. shoulder, stg. frontal, head l., head l., holding kerykeion in
l. arm and in extended r. hand purse; at his feet l. the cock
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1692 var. (has MAKRINOC)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf. #3362 (different bust, but cites AMNG 1692)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.10.8 (plate coin)
F+
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ8_23_13_1(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.13.02 (plate coin)20 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE - AE 29, 12.97g, 28.78mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CEV - HR MAKRINOC AVG
laureate head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIK - OPOLITWN PRO / C ICTRW
Artemis as huntress, in short cloak and with boots, advancing r., holding bow in l. hand and drawing with
r. hand arrow from quiver over r. shoulder; at her feet hound leaping r.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
obv. legend not listed
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
obv. legend not listed
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.13.2 (plate coin)
very rare, F+, dirty oliv-green patina

The obv. legend CEVHR with R at the end seems to be an unknown variant. Interesting the hair-do of Artemis which is bound as "lampadion"!
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macrinus_moushmov1294.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.21.03 (plate coin)72 viewsMacrinus ,AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.1g, 26.51mm, 135°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
bust with breastplate with gorgoneion, laureate r., Aegis with snakes on l. shoulder
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC IC / TRW
Hygieia, draped, with drapery over l. arm, stg. r., holding patera in l. hand, feeding snake holding in r. arm
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1694
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1694 var. (cites AMNG 1694 but has MAKREINOC)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.21.3 (plate coin)
d) BMC 41 (Curtis Clay)
VF, deep black-green patina
added to www.wildwinds.com
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_Pick1712.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.34.0282 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.57g, 27.06mm, 180°
struck under governorMarcus Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CEV - H MAKRI[NOC]
bust, cuirassed, Aegis with erected snake on left shoulder, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOL / ITWN PROC / ICTRW
Emperor with raised r. hand, standing in quadriga r., led by soldier, head l.,
carrying standard with banner on l. shoulder; above tropaeum with two
captives, sitting on the ground at each side.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1712, pl. XIX, 226
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3405
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.34.2 (same dies)
about VF
added to www.wildwinds.com
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1713.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.34.0382 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.14g, 27.36mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP - AG - RI - PPA (PP ligate)
in ex. NIKOPOLITWN / PROC IC
Emperor with raised r. hand, standing in quadriga r., led by soldier, head l.,
carrying standard with banner on l. shoulder; above tropaeum with two
captives, sitting on the ground at each side. Like #1712, but in the quadriga behind the emperor Nike is standing.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1713 (2 ex., Mandl, Philippopolis)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3407 corr. (Nike described as Diadumenian!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.34.3
rare (R5), about VF, nice green patina

It seems to be the depiction of a local event. We know tat Severus after his campaign against the Parthians AD 202 or 203 visited the camps in Moesia and Pannonia. At this occasion he could have visited Nikopolis too and the coin could be struck to celebrate his advent...Under Macrinus this depiction returns; there was no celebration of an advent for him, but perhaps there was another unknown reason (Pick)
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1704(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.36.03 (plate coin)30 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 10.82g, 26.69mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPA(sic!) NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC
Homonoia, in long garment, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and patera in r. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG:
obv. AMNG I/1, 1703
rev. AMNG I/1, 1704
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3334 cf. (cites AMNG 1705, but has a different legend)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.36.3 (plate coin)
d) Pat Lawrence 59 (cites AMNG 1705 in error)
about VF, dark green patina
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nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1704.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.36.04 #1 (plate coin)60 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 11.16g, 26.64mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CEOV - HROC MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP AGRIPA(sic!) NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC
Homonoia, in long clothes and with kalathos, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l.
arm and in outstretched re hand patera
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1704 (2 ex., Berlin, Paris)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3334 (cites AMNG 1704, but describes AMNG 1705)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.36.4 (plate coin)
about VF, deep black-green patina
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nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1708var(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.36.04 #238 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 25, 10.1g, 25.06mm, 0°
struck under legate Marcus Caudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CEOV - HROC MAK[RINOC]
laureate head r.
rev. [VP AGR]IPA(sic!) NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC
Female figure in long garment and wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding in outstretched r.
hand purse(?) and in l. arm cornucopiae.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1704 (2 ex., Berlin, Paris)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3334 (cites AMNG 1705, but description matches rather AMNG 1704)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.36.4
very rare, about VF, dark green patina

Note from Pick: This figure is called by Gardner Uberitas because he saw the attribute in the r. hand as purse. From the cast which I have this could be prossible, but more probable it is that this attribute is an unskillfully added patera so that we have a Concordia too like on the previous coin.
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2011)8_23_36_5.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.36.0715 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 8.88g, 26.11mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. [AV K OPPEL] CE - VH MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIK - OPOLITWN PRoC IC / TRW
Homonoia, in long garment and mantle, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and in
outstretched r. hand over burning altar
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1703 (1 ex., Wien)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3398 corr. (writes without kalathos)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.36.7
F+, dark-green patina

Pick writes: Possibly without kalathos. But here it is clearly a kalathos. Interesting: The small o left of PRC on the rev. is the correction of a legend error. The same rev. is known for Diadumenian.
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2011)8_23_38_1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.38.01 #1 (plate coin)75 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.59g, 26.61mm, 195°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CEV - H.MAKREINOC
Bust, cuirassed with scale armour, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PROC / ICTRW
Tyche in long double chiton and palla, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and in r.
hand rudder set on globe
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3420 (same dies)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.8.1 (plate coin)
EF, black green patina, Portrait!

One of the most beautiful Macrinus busts I have seen!
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_Varbanov3420.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.38.01 #2 (plate coin)13 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 9.41g, 27.11mm, 15°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT K M OPPEL CEV - [H MAKREINOC]
Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PROC / ICTRW
Tyche in long garment and mantle, wearing kalathos, stg. frontal, head l., holding in l.
arm cornucopiae and in outstretched r. hand rudder set on globe
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3420 (same dies)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.38.1 (plate coin)
F+
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2012)8_23_38_2_#1.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.38.02 #1 (plate coin)15 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 11.95g, 26.69mm, 15°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT KM OPELLI - CEVH MAKRINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.
rev. V KLAV AGRIPPA - NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT.
in l. and r. field R - ON
Tyche in long girded double chiton and mantle, stg. l., wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding in
l. arm cornucopiae and in extended r. hand rudder set on globe
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1709 (1 Ex., Wien)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.) (#3333 cites in error AMNG 1709, but has bust cuirassed only)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.38.2 (plate coin)
rare, about VF, dark green patina

A coin with the rare praenomen KLAV, but sadly obv. tooled!
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2012)8_23_38_2_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.38.02 #2 (plate coin)18 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 12.02g, 26.20mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT KM OPELLI - CEVH MAKRINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.
rev. V KLAV AGRIPPA - NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT.
in l. and r. field R - ON
Tyche in long girded double chiton and mantle, stg. l., wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding in
l. arm cornucopiae and in extended r. hand rudder set on globe
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1709 (1 Ex., Wien)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.) (#3333 cites in error AMNG 1709, but has bust cuirassed only)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.38.2 (plate coin)
rare, about VF, dark brown-green patina, high places metallic

A coin with the rare praenomen KLAV.
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrHJ(2015)8_23_43_3.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.035 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.23g, 27.28mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA - NIKOPOLITWN PR / C ICTRW
Mountain god Haimos, nude to hips, std. l., head r., holding plant in raised r. hand and resting with l. hand on rock
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.3 (same dies, even with the traces of a double strike on obv.!)
very rare (R8), about VF, brown patina, traces of a double strike on obv.
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrJ(2011)8_23_43_3cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.04 (plate coin)36 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 28, 11.12g, 27.87mm, 195°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT K OPPEL C - EVH MA[KRINOC]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIP[PA NIKOP]OLITWN PROC I / CTRW
Nude youth (mountain-god Haimos), slight drapery over r. shoulder and knees, wearing boots, std. r.(!)
on rocks, looking back, l. hand on head, r. arm with spear resting on tree behind
in r. field AIMOC
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1700, pl. III, 24 (1 ex., Bassarabescu)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf.#3390: different obv. legend, spear not mentioned, pic of rev. from Pick, pic of obv. called #3407 in
error
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.4 (plate coin)
unique (R10), about VF
pedigree:
ex dianacoins, Ebay, 2009
ex coll. Steve Cady, Tantalus Coins, #34158, 2012

The pic in Hristova/Jekov (2011) was taken from Varbanov, Varbanov's pic was taken from Moushmov, Moushmov's pick was taken from Pick! Therefore the copies are so bad and the spear has disappeared!

One of the rarest types of Nikopolis at all. This type was listed and depicted in AMNG I/1. Nicolae Bassarabescu, a Romanian collector, was in AD 1890 the director of the journal "Poporul" in Bukaresti. But the coin vanished in the course of time. It is now the first time that this type appears in the public after more than 100 years. Enjoy!
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_Pick1763var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.0887 viewsMacrinus AD 217-218
AE 27, 11.24g, 27.48mm, 30°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - [VH MAKRINOC]
head, bearded, laureate, r.
rev. VP CTATIOV LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICT / R W
Youthful rivergod (Istros?), nude to hips, leaning l., holding in l. arm reeds, in
raised r. hand branch; water flows from vase behind him.
ref. a) not in AMNG
rev. AMNG I/1, Pick 1764 (depiction)
AMNG I/1, 1785 (legend)
obv. f.e. AMNG I/1, 1713 (but under Agrippa)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.8 (same dies)
scarce, F/VF
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1764cf.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.43.0935 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 29, 13g, 28.55mm, 225°
struck under governor Statius Longinus
obv. AV K OPPEL CEOV - HROC MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP CTATIOV LONGINOV NIKOPOLIT / WN PROC IC / TRW
Youth, nude to hips, sitting on rocks l., holding branch in r. hand, resting
with l. ellbow on rocks and holding reed with l. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG
rev. AMNG I/1, 1764 var. (depiction, but without reed!)
legend not listed
obv. AMNG I/1, 1719 (but for Agrippa!)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.43.9 (same dies, even the same die breaks on obv.)
good F, brown patina, some small bronze pits

Rev. depiction matches the description of AMNG 1764, but the rev. legend is unknow! Obv. legend is known only for Agrippa f.e. AMNG 1719, but not for Statius Longinus. Probably a mountain-god.
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nikopolis_makrinos_Moushmov1234.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.46.06 (plate coin)380 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 14.01g, 27.34mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
laureate head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC / C ICTRW
city-gate with three towers, all with three pinnacles, closed double-door
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1826 (for Diadumenian)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3383
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.46.6 (plate coin)
very rare, VF/EF, dark-brown patina, a wunderful coin!
16 commentsJochen
nikopolis_macrinus_AMNG1714.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.47.02 (plate coin)43 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 11.48g, 26.69mm, 210°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRINOC
Bust, cuirassed with chain armour, laureate, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA.NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICT
Eagle with spread wings stg. l. on garlanded altar between two standards, head r.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1714 (like ex. #1, Copenhagen)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3360 (cites in error AMNG 1715 and mentions wreath in the beak)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.47.2 (plate coin)
rare (R5), VF+

This bust is a variant of Pat Lawrence's type C!
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nikopolis_macrinus_HrHJ(2018)8_25_5_6(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.05.06 (rev. only, for Diadumenian)18 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.43g, 26.37mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AVT K OPPEL - MAKRINO --- C
Bust, cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r., aegis on l. shoulder, gorgoneion on breast
plate
rev. VP AGRIPPA - NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICT / [RW]
Demeter in long double chiton, veiled, stg. frontal and looking l., resting
with raised l. hand on long burning torch and holding in lowered r. hand grain-ears over
burning altar
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) not in Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018)
rev. No. 8.25.5.6 (for Diadumenian, same die)
obv. from an unknown die
probably unpublished
rare, about VF/F+, glossy dark green patina

A new example for a parallel issue for members of the imperial family!
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1694.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.05.01 (plate coin)71 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 14.19g, 27.12mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. KM OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANO - C
bare head, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PR / [OC ICT]
Female figure, in long clothes and cloak, stg. l., holding patera in
outstretched r. hand, resting with l. hand on torch (Hestia?)
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1794, pl. XIV, 20, same rev. die (2 ex., Paris, Sofia)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1840 (in error called Hera with sceptre)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.5.1 (plate coin)
rare, about VF, nice patina

Pick: The rev. of both coins are from the same die, probably too the rev. of Nr. 1684, so that we here have NI-KOPOLITWN PR and in ex. should be added OC ICT.
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2013)8_25_5_2_2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.05.0212 viewsDiadumenian,AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.74g, 26.68mm, 345°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippe
obv. [K M OP]PEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIAN - OC
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PR / OC ICTR
Goddess with mural crown enthroned l., resting with raised l. hand on sceptre and holding in extended r.
hand patera(?)
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1795 (2 ex., Bukarest, Rollin)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3651 (writes city-goddess)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.5.2 (writes Demeter)
about VF, dark green patina
pedigree:
ex Pecunem Auction 25, Lot 105

Pick writes: Cf. the note on a similar type on a coin for Macrinus, n. 1734. There the goddess hold grain-ears in her r. hand; here on the ex. from Bukarest the attribut seems to be unsure for me, whereas Svoronos on the ex. from Rollin means to see a patera; thereafter it remains uncertain wether Hera or Demeter is seen as city-goddess.
On my coin it does look more like a patera than grain-ears!
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1688(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.07.0360 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.21g, 27.48mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. KM OPPEL ANTWNIN - DIADOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP [AGRIP]PA - NIKOPOLIT[WN PR] / OC ICT[RW?]
Apollon, nude, laureate, stg. l., holding branch in outstretched r. hand and
leaning with l. arm on tripod behind, eventually holding vine-grapes in l. hand;
in front of him flaming, garlanded altar.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
obv. AMNG I/1, 1810
rev. AMNG I/1, 1688 var. (for Macrinus)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.7.3
rare, about VF, dark-green patina

The type probably goes back - like the related types of the Seleucids and the tetradrachms of Magnesia in Ionia - to a statuary model; ... On coins of imperial time the typus occurs only rarely. Most similar to our type he is depicted on a coin of Ilion. A particularity of the coin of Nikopolis is that here the altar stands in front of the god (Pick).
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.07.04 (plate coin)37 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 28, 8.89g, 27.65mm, 180°
Struck under legate Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. [M] OPELLI DI - ADOVMENIANOC [K?]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA N[I] - KOPOLITWN PROC / [ICTRW]
Apollo, nude, quiver over l. shoulder, stg. l., holding his bow in lowered l. hand
and patera in outstretched r. hand.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
obv. f.e. AMNG I/1, 1804
rev. AMNG I/1, 1804 (legend)
AMNG I/1, 1839 var. (depiction only!)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) No. 8.25.7.8 (plate coin)
rare, F/good F, partially destroyed patina on obv., corrosion pits on rev.

AMNG 1839, struck under Statius Longinus, has a similar rev. but Apollo is holding chlamys over l. arm and quiver not mentioned. Pick writes: The rather rare depiction of Apollo with bow and patera is found too on a coin of Severus (n. 1340, pl. XV, 7).
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_Moushmov1312.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.09.01 (plate coin)103 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 12.93g, 25.68mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
bare head right
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PRO / C ICTR
Nike, with open wings, standing r., holding palm in r. arm and and wreath in
extended l. hand
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1802 (1 ex., Bukarest)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.9.1 (plate coin)
about VF
added to www.wildwinds.com
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1803.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.10.0338 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.07g, 27.25mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. M OPELLI DI - DOVMENIANOC K
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. V K AGRIPPA NIK - OPOLITWN PROC I / CTRON
Hermes, nude, chlamys over l. forearm, holding kerykeion in l. arm and purse in r. hand
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1803 (1 ex., Imhoof)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.10.3
about VF, green patina

This is one of the types with a hint to Agrippa's prenomen. Here it is the K. Known are too KLAV and MARK.
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_Pick1799.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.15.01 corr. #178 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 29, 10.59g, 28.97mm, 225°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
bare head, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC / TIW(sic!)
Aphrodite standing facing, head r., hair in bun, draped and with cloak,
holding puff of drapery in r. arm and l. hand before belly, flaming altar r.,
dolphin, standing vertical with head down, l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1799 corr., pl. XV, 34, same rev. die (3 ex., Bukarest, Turin, trade)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3667
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.15.1 corr. (writes in ex. TRW)
rare, about VF, various patinas

Pick has written: in ex. TRW. But here as well on his pic it is clearly TIW. Directly at the right side of I a vertical die break, seen on Pick's specimen too.
3 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadum_AMNG1799corr_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.15.01 corr. #240 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.53g, 27.38mm, 210°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
bare head, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC / TIW(sic!)
Aphrodite in attitude of Venus Medici standing facing, head r., hair in bun, wearing palla,
holding puff of drapery in r. arm and l. hand before belly; r. flaming
altar, l. dolphin, standing vertical with head down
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1799 corr., pl. XV, 34 (3 ex., Bukarest, Turin, traded), same rev. die
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3667 corr. (cites AMNG 1799)
d) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.15.1 corr. (writes in ex. TRW)
rare, about VF, as found

Pick has written: in ex. TRW. But here as well on his pic it is clearly TIW. Directly at the right side of the I a vertical die break, seen on Pick's specimen too.
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrJ8_25_20_2(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.20.03 #1 (plate coin)34 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 28, 12.40g, 28.12mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANO - C
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC ICTRW
Asklepios in himation, nude to waist, snake stuff under r. shoulder, stg. frontal. looking l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1805
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3670 (cites AMNG 1805, correct description, wrong pic!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.20.3 (plate coin)
F+, nearly black patina
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2013)8_25_20_03_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.20.03 #2 (plate coin)40 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 10.91g, 26.65mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANO - C
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC ICTRW
Asklepios, in himation, stg. frontal, head l., resting with r. hand on snake staff set in arm pit, l. hand at hip
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1805
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3670
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.20.3 (plate coin)
about VF, dark green patina
3 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrJ(2011)8_25_21_3(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.21.03 (plate coin)15 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.07g, 27.38mm, 165°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA N - IKOPOLITWN PRO / C ICTRW
Hygieia, in long girded double chiton and mantle, stg. l.(!), feeding snake in l. arm from patera in r. hand
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3681
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.21.3 (plate coin)
rare, VF, dark green patina

The only type from Nikopolis where Hygieia is standing l.!
Jochen
nikopolis_diadum_AMNG1823var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.22.01 (plate coin)43 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 10.52g, 25.46g, 210°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. [K] M OPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANO - [C]
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN PRO / C ICTRW
Loricated snake, erected in four elaborate coils, head r., mouth wide open, with fishtail and nimbus; nimbus of rays in circle, dots between the rays.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1823 var. (has different legend breaks)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3659 var. (different obv. legend)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.22.1 (plate coin)
F+/about VF, dark green patina

The snake probably is Glycon.
1 commentsJochen
diadumenian_nikopolis_pick1823.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.22.02 (plate coin)99 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 10.25g, 26.18mm, 15°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. KM OPPEL ANTONIN DIADOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA - NIKOPOLITW[N PR] / OC ICTR
Snake, decorated with knobs, erected in two elaborate coils, head, radiate and with
nimbus, r., with dots aound
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1823 (3 ex., Berlin, Wien, Mous. Theup. 1909)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3660 var. (different bust!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.22.2 (plate coin)
very rare, about VF, interesting style of the snake!
added to www.wildwinds.com

The snake will be Glykon.
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_Varbanov3666var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.32.01 (plate coin)46 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.3g, 26.12mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. KM O[PPEL AN]TWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICT
Youthful mountain god, garment over l. shoulder, otherwise nude to hips, std. l. on rocks, resting l. ellbow on rock with cave entry(?), holding in r. hand water plant.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1809 var. (3 ex.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3644 var. (different rev. legend)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.32.1 (plate coin)
F+/about VF, deep olive-green patina
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nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2018)8_25_32_3corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.32.03 corr.6 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 12.44g, 27.31mm, 0°
struck under governor Marcus Agrippa
obv. M OPELL[I DI] - ADOVMENIANOC K
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP A[GRIPPA NIKO]POLITWN / PROC ICT
River god, nude to hips, chlamys hanging down from l. shoulder, std. l. on rock(?), resting
with r. arm on prora behind, holding long branch in l. arm and resting with l. hand on
urn(?)
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1807, pl. XVIII, 4 (1 ex., trade)
b) Varbanov 3645 (same dies)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.32.3 corr. (writes PROC ICTR / W)
d) Megaw NIC4.38e
coll. Hoeft

The depiction is not clear. Instead of a rock and an urn it could well be a kind of kline (you see the feet) and a misunderstood back rest. There is no water flowing from it and the left arm floats over it without contact (Pick).
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1806.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.32.0543 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.3g, 27.51mm, 30°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIAN - [OC]
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN P / ROC ICTR / W
Youthful river-god, unbearded, nude, leaning l., r. hand on r. knee, resting l.
hand on vase, from which water flows
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1806 (1 ex., Petersburg)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3633 var. (has ANTWN)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.32.5
very rare, about VF, black-green patina

This ex. is identical to Pick's description except the W in the second line of the ex. I suppose that on Pick's ex. the W was not visible.
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2012)8_25_36_8var(rev).JPG
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.36.05 (plate coin)20 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.15g, 26.85mm, 345°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. M OPELLI DI - ADOVMENIANOC K
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC / TRW
Homonoia in long garment and mantle, stg. l., holding in l. arm cornucopiae and in
extended r. hand patera
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1818 (2 ex., Rollin, Sofia)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.36.5 (plate coin)
F/F+, dark green patina
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nikopolis_diadum_AMNG1813var.JPG
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.36.07 (plate coin)23 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.58g, 27.28mm, 195°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIAN - OC
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIK - OPOLITWN PRC IC / TRW (small o subscribed under RC!)
Homonoia, in long garment and with mantle, wearing kalathos, stg.l., holding
cornucopiae and patera; l. before her burning altar
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 1813 (depiction)
legend with the small o not listed
obv. AMNG I/1, 1813
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3676
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No.8.25.36.7 (plate coin)
about VF

Interesting corrected legend error on rev.: Seems that the die-cutter has forgotten the O of PROC and then added later!
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrJ(2012)8_25_36_9(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.36.12 (plate coin) 15 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
AE 27, 12.92g, 27.49mm, 0°
struck under Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANO - C
bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIK - OPOLITWN PROC I / CTRW
Homonoia, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and patera in
extended r. hand
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1817 var. (without kalathos, in ex. TRW)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3678 corr. (cites AMNG 1817, but writes "wearing kalathos")
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.36.12 (plate coin)
F+, dark green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2012)8_25_36_9var(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.36.13 (plate coin)13 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.30g, 25.84mm, 120°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI - DIADOVMENIANO - C
bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIK - OPOLITWN PROC ICT
Homonoia in long garment and mantle, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding in l. arm
cornucopiae and in extended r. hand patera
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1815
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3641
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.36.13 (plate coin)
d) Megaw NIK 4.26h (image not available)
F+, incrustations
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2017)8_25_38_1var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.38.01 var.7 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 25, 10.15g, 25.41mm, 180°
struck under governor Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNEI DIADOVMENIANO - c
bare head r.
rev. V KLAV AGRIPPA - NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT
in l. and r. field R - ON
Tyche wearing kalathos, stg. frontal, head l., holding in l. arm cornucopiae and in
extended r. hand rudder set on globe
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1819 (like ex. #2, Wien)
b) Varbanov 3626 var. (has ANTWNI)
c) not in Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018):
rev. No. 8.25.38.1 (same die)
obv. e.g. 8.25.38.1 var. (has ANTWNI, writes ANTWNEI in error)
F+, dark green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1820cf_neu.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.38.03 (plate coin)27 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.98g, 26.31mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K [M OPPEL ANTWNI] DIADOVMENIANo - c
Bare head r.
rev. VP - AGRIPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC ICTR / [ON?]
Tyche in long garment and mantle, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding cornucopiae
in l. arm and with r. hand rudder.
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. AMNG I/1, 1820 (depiction)
AMNG I/1, 1818 var. (different ex.)
obv. AMNG I/1, 1820
b) not in Varbanov (engl.):
cf. #3692 (= AMNG 1820)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.38.3 (plate coin)
scarce, F+
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1810cf(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.43.05 (plate coin)76 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 29, 12.45g, 28.76mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNIN - DIADOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPP - A NIKOPOLITWN P / ROC ICT (PP ligate)
Youth, nude to hips, std. l. on rocks, looking r., holding reed in raised r. hand
and resting with l. hand on rock.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1810 (2 ex., Paris, trade)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3663
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.43.5 (plate coin)
very rare, VF, deep green patina

Because there is now urn with flowing water, Pick thinks that the youth is a mountain-god.
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1822.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.47.02 (plate coin)35 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 25, 9.4g, 25.18mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. [K M OPPE]L ANTW[NIN - DIADOVMEN]IAN[O - C]
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA N[IKOPO - L]ITWN PRO / C ICTRW
Tropaion, consisting of (Scythian?) helmet, cuirass and four spears; at base
sitting two captives; on l. side Nike stg. r., and writing on shield which she is
holding wth her l. hand; on r. side emperor, wearing military cloak, stg. r., raising
r. hand to tropaion, holding spear in l. hand and paludamentum over l. arm (Pick).
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1822, pl. XIX, 28 (1 ex., Basel)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3688 var.
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.47.2 (plate coin)
rare (R5), F/F+

The rev. is from the same die as Macrinus AMNG I/1 #1711. This tropaion seems to be the same one as on the coins from Severus, Macrinus and Diadumenian showing the procession with the emperor in a quadriga r. For more informations please take a look at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=47190.0
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2018)8_25_47_3.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.47.033 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 10.22g, 26.33mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI - DIA[DOVMENIAN - OC]
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN P / ROC ICTR
Tripod with snake coiling around central foot upwards, head r.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1825 (like ex. #1. Haag)
b) Varbanov 3662 (AMNG not mentioned)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.47.3 (same dies)
F/F+, brown patina
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nikopolis_macrinus_Brockage_dimple~0.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, X brockage, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.34'.01 (plate coin) 14 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 26, 10.38g, 25.89mm
struck under Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. [AV K] OPPEL CE - [VH MAKREINOC]
laureate head r.
rev. reverse incus of obv.
ref. e.g. Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.34'.1 (this coin)
extremely rare (R9)
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
Jochen
009~2.JPG
NEMAUSUS - Dupondius (as) de Nîmes, -10/-1450 viewsDupondius, bronze, 12,54 g, 26 mm.
Av./ IMP// DIVI F/ P-P, têtes adossées d'Agrippa coiffe de la couronne rostrale à gauche et d'Auguste laure à droite .
Rv./ COL - NEM, crocodile enchaîné à un palmier qui est surmonté d’une couronne ; sous le crocodile, deux palmettes .
Réfs : LT.2837 ; RIC.160 ; RPC.525
3 commentsGabalor
037~2.JPG
NEMAUSUS - Dupondius (as) de Nîmes, -10/-1446 viewsDupondius, bronze, 12,93 g, 26,5 mm.
Av./ IMP// DIVI F/ P-P, têtes adossées d'Agrippa coiffe de la couronne rostrale à gauche et d'Auguste laure à droite .
Rv./ COL - NEM, crocodile enchaîné à un palmier qui est surmonté d’une couronne ; sous le crocodile, deux palmettes .
Réfs : LT.2837 ; RIC.160 ; RPC.525
2 commentsGabalor
026~4.JPG
NEMAUSUS - Dupondius (as) de Nîmes, -15/-10.23 viewsDupondius, bronze, 12, 78 g, 24 mm.
Av./ IMP// DIVI F, têtes adossées d'Agrippa coiffé de la couronne rostrale à gauche et d'Auguste tête nue à droite (cimier ?) .
Rv./ COL - NEM, crocodile avec corne frontale devant un palmier qui est surmonté d’une couronne, dentition assez effrayante !!
Réfs : LT.2878 var.
1 commentsGabalor
046~4.JPG
NEMAUSUS - Dupondius (as) de Nîmes, -15/-10.31 viewsDupondius, bronze, 10,90 g, 27 mm.
Av./ IMP// DIVI F, têtes adossées d'Agrippa coiffé de la couronne rostrale à gauche et d'Auguste tête nue à droite (cimier ?) .
Rv./ COL - NEM, crocodile avec corne frontale devant un palmier qui est surmonté d’une couronne.
Réfs : LT.2878 var.
Gabalor
002~8.JPG
NEMAUSUS - Dupondius (as) de Nîmes, -15/-10.13 viewsDupondius, bronze, 16,32 g, 27 mm.
Av./ IMP// DIVI F, têtes adossées d'Agrippa coiffé de la couronne rostrale à gauche et d'Auguste tête nue à droite avec cimier.
Rv./ COL - NEM, crocodile avec corne frontale devant un palmier qui est surmonté d’une couronne.
Réfs : LT.2878 var.
Gabalor
0140.JPG
NEMAUSUS - Dupondius (as) de Nîmes, -28/-27.18 viewsDupondius, bronze, 19,98 g, 29 mm.
Av./ IMP// DIVI F, têtes adossées d'Agrippa coiffé de la couronne rostrale à gauche et d'Auguste tête nue à droite.
Rv./ COL - NEM, crocodile devant un palmier.
Réfs : LT.2878
Gabalor
Nemausus dupondius of Augustus, after 10 AD.jpg
Nemausus dupondius of Augustus, after 10 AD49 viewsAugustus and Agrippa
AE provincial dupondius - 27mm, 12.3g
Nemausus, 10-14 AD
IMP DIVI F, P P
heads of Augustus and Agrippa facing away
COL NEM
alligator chained to palm tree
RPC 525
Ardatirion
0035-510.jpg
NEPTUNE252 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather Agrippa
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection
4 commentsPotator II
AgrippaAsNeptune_2.jpg
Neptune6 viewsAgrippa
As

Head left wearing rostral crownt, M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Neptune standing facing, head left, naked except for cloak draped behind him & over both arms, holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left, SC

RIC 58
Blindado
CGallus.jpg
Nero / Caius Cestius Gallus58 viewsSELEUCIS and PIERIA, Antioch. Nero. AD 54-68. Æ As (30.5mm, 15.36 g, 12h).
Caius Cestius Gallus, legatus Syriae. Dated year 115 of the Caesarean Era (AD 66/7).
O: Laureate head right; coiled serpent to right. IM • NER • CLAV • CAESAR
R: ЄΠI ΓAIOY KЄCTIO Y ΛNTIO ЄT • ЄIP in five lines within wreath (In the magistracy of Gaius Cestius, Antioch, year 115)
- McAlee 294 = Superior, (9 December 1989), lot 2827 (same dies); RPC I – Extremely rare, the second known.

Josephus lays much of the blame for the Jewish revolt at the feet of Florus, the Roman procurator of Judaea. Florus was notorious for his cruelty and greed. In 66 C.E. he demanded 17 talents from the temple treasury, using the pretense that it was needed by the Emperor. The Jews refused, ridiculing his request by taking up a mock collection for the “poor Florus.”

Florus responded by sending troops to loot and pillage the Upper-Marketplace in Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews were killed, including woman and children. Rather than bringing the city under control, Josephus reasons, “What more need be said? It was Florus who constrained us to take up war with the Romans, for we preferred to perish together rather than by degrees. The war in fact began in the second year of the procuratorship of Florus and in the twelfth of Nero's reign.”

The Sicarii, or “dagger-men,” took the fortress of Masada and killed the Roman garrison stationed there, establishing the first rebel stronghold. The fortress of Antonia was also captured and the Roman soldiers stationed there were slain. The remaining Roman holdouts surrendered under the agreement that their lives would be spared but they too were slaughtered. At the same time, the daily sacrifices for the Emperor were discontinued. A mixture of elation and fear gripped Jerusalem as they awaited the inevitable Roman response.

Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria in 66 C.E., was the response. On Nero’s order, he assembled a force at Antioch comprised of legio XII Fulminata, detachments from the three other legions based in Syria, six cohorts of auxiliary infantry and four alae of cavalry. He also had military support from the Jewish ruler Herod Agrippa II and two other client kings, Antiochus IV of Commagene and Sohaemus of Emesa.

Within three months Gallus, with his force of over 30,000 troops, began working their way down from Galilee to Jerusalem, attacking key cities such as Chabulon, Joppa and Antipatris. Although enduring successful raids from the rebels, the Romans finally enter and set fire to the suburbs of Jerusalem as the rebels retreated to the safety of the temple fortress.

After setting fire to Bezetha, north of the temple, Gallus encamped in front of the royal palace, southwest of the temple. At that time, Josephus says he could have easily taken the city since pro-Roman Jews were ready to open the gates of the city for him. A six day delay, however, strengthened the insurgents. The zealots attacked and killed the pro-peace faction in the city, murdering their leaders, then assaulted the Romans from the wall. The advance units of the Romans employ the Testudo, overlapping their shields over themselves like the back of a tortoise, and began undermining the walls. After five days they are on the verge of success when, for an undetermined cause, Gallus called off the attack. In History of the Jews, Professor Heinrich Graetz suggests: “[Cestius Gallus] did not deem it advisable to continue the combat against heroic enthusiasts and embark on a lengthy campaign at that season, when the autumn rains would soon commence . . . and might prevent the army from receiving provisions. On that account probably he thought it more prudent to retrace his steps.” Whatever the reason, Gallus decided to abruptly leave Jerusalem.

Gallus, with evidently little battlefield experience, suffered one humiliating defeat after another during the retreat. By the battles end the losses amounted to 5,300 infantry, 480 cavalry, all the pack animals, artillery and the eagle standard of the legio XII Fulminata. With the rebels emboldened by their shocking victory, the stage is set for the Romans to return in greater force. This time, however, Nero would send general Vespasian.

Cestius Gallus died a broken man in 67 C.E. Tacitus described the outbreak of the revolt to Gallus death as follows: “the endurance of the Jews lasted till Gessius Florus was procurator. In his time the war broke out. Cestius Gallus, legate of Syria, who attempted to crush it, had to fight several battles, generally with ill-success. Cestius dying, either in the course of nature, or from vexation.” - The Histories V
4 commentsNemonater
c15.jpg
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Diadumenian11 viewsNikopolis ad Istrum, Diadumenian, AD 217-218
struck under Marcus Claudius Agrippa
a) AMNG I/1, 1797 (3 ex., Löbbecke, Sofia, Wien)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3669
c) Hristova/Jekov No. 8.25.13.2
ecoli
Agrippa_RIC_I_160.jpg
Octavian & Agrippa, AE Dupondius, RIC I 16015 viewsOctavian & Agrippa
As joint Consuls, 28 - 27 B.C.

Coin: AE Dupondius, commemorating the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.

Obverse: IMP / P - P / DIVI F, busts of Agrippa, left, wearing the Rostral crown with Laural Wreath and Octavian, right, wearing a Laural Wreath, back to back.
Reverse: COL - NEM, a Crocodile, chained to a Palm Tree. A Wreath in the upper left field, its ribbons trailing into the upper right.

Weight: 12.11 g, Diameter: 26.8 x 26.8 x 2.5 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: Nemausus (Nimes), Gallia Narbonensis, 10 - 14 A.D. Reference: RIC I 160

Veterans from the battle of Actium were retired there.
The Crocodile chained to a Palm Tree symbolizes the defeat and control of Egypt by Rome.
2 commentsMasis
0081.jpg
Octavian & Agrippa, Denarius24 viewsRRC 534/3
38 bc

Av: Bare head of Octavian r.(bearded). Around: IMP CAESAR DIVI IVLI F
Rv: M•AGRIPPA COS/ DESIG in two lines across field

Ex LAC Auction 45, lot 213; 08. Sept 2015
1 commentsNorbert
Octavian_denarius_prow.jpg
Octavian AR Denarius Prow & Quadriga, circa 30BCE50 viewsAR Denarius
Octavian, 27BCE - 14CE
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 3.52 grams, Die axis: 8h

Obverse: Anepigraphic, Victory standing on prow to right, holding palm branch over her left shoulder and extends laurel wreath in right hand.

Reverse: IMP. CAESAR
Octavian standing in triumphal quadriga to right, holds reigns in left hand and extends (olive or laurel) branch in right hand.

Mint: Either Brundisium or Rome.

Notes:
- This historically fascinating denarius celebrates the Battle of Actium in which Agrippa and Octavian triumphed over Antony and Kleopatra. The obverse die is the first of the entire IMP CAESAR series of Octavian; the die is shared with the last of the CAESAR DIVI F denarii of the same design. The reverse may refer to Octavian’s entry into Alexandria following the battle of Actium (31/30 BCE), or the triple triumph subsequently awarded to him in Rome (29BCE) – the dating of the type is still not precisely known.
- After the great struggles between the triumvirs, many soldiers from the vast standing armies needed to be de-commissioned and paid. It is possible that this early type was minted using silver from the Ptolemaic treasury seized by Octavian following the Battle of Actium.
- Brundisium (modern day Brindisi) in southern Italy was Octavian’s naval base, which is where this type may have been minted to pay the soldiers. Alternatively the mint may have been Rome.
- Obverse and reverse die match to LHS Numismatik Auction 103, lot 333, 2008.

Ex Praefectus Coins 2015, Ex Nomos Obolos 2 lot 204, 2015

Thank you to Mr Curtis Clay for confirming the die link and providing the published reference to this fact: C.H.V. Sutherland, 1976, Octavian’s Gold and Silver Coinage from c. 32 to 27 B.C.
3 commentsPharsalos
778_Augustus_Nemausus.jpg
Octavianus Augustus - Nemausus14 viewsAE dupondius
9-3 BC
Head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown, and head of Augustus right, wearing oak wreath
IMP / DIVI F
Chained crocodile standing right; palm and filleted wreath behind
COL_NEM
RIC I 158, RPC I 524, SNG Cop 699, SNG Tübingen 152, SRCV I 1730
13,1g 26mm
ex Aurea numismatika
Johny SYSEL
Pantheon~1.jpg
Pantheon 54 viewsM AGRIPPA COS TERTIVM FECIT

Originally built by Marcus Agrippa and later completely restored by Hadrian, who eventually added and engineered the largest unsupported concrete domed roof. A marvel of engineering and a sight to see.
Titus Pullo
PolemoII.jpg
Polemo II-Mark Antony's great grandson478 views Silver drachm

BACΙΛΕΩC ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝΟC
diademed head of Polemo right

ETOYC - K (year 20)
laureate head of Nero right;

57 - 58 A.D.
3.645g

18.1mm, die axis 180o

RPC I 3832, SNG Cop 242, BMC Pontus 7 - 8, SNG von Aulock 6691

Ex-Forum

Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontos and Polemon of Cilicia is the only known direct descendant of Mark Antony who bares his name. Through his maternal grandmother he was a direct descendant of Mark Antony and his second wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. Antony and Antonia Hybrida were first paternal cousins. He was Antony’s second born great grandson. Through Antony, he was a distant cousin to Roman Client King Ptolemy of Mauretania and Drusilla of Mauretania. He was also a distant cousin to Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero and Roman Empresses Valeria Messalina, Agrippina the Younger and Claudia Octavia.

Polemon II’s father Polemon Pythodoros King of Pontos died in 8 BC. His mother then married King Archelaus of Cappadocia, and the family moved to the court of his stepfather. In 17 AD Archelaus died and Polemon II and his mother moved back to Pontus. From 17 until 38, Polemon II assisted his mother in the administration of Pontos. When his mother died in 38, Polemon II succeeded her as the sole ruler of Pontus, Colchis and Cilicia.

Around 50 AD, Polemon II met the Judean princess Julia Berenice in Tiberias during a visit to King Agrippa I. Berenice was widowed in 48 AD when her second husband and paternal uncle Herod of Chalcis, died. She had two sons by him, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Berenice set the condition that Polemon II had to convert to Judaism before marriage, which included undergoing the rite of circumcision. Polemon II complied, and the marriage went ahead but it did not last long. Berenice left Pontus with her sons and returned to the court of her brother. Polemon II abandoned Judaism and, according to the legend of Bartholomew the Apostle, accepted Christianity, only to become a pagan again.

In 62, Nero compelled Polemon II to abdicate the Pontian throne. Pontos and Colchis became a Roman province. From then until his death, Polemon II only ruled Cilicia. He never remarried and had no children that are known.

Polemon's sister Antonia Tryphaena's Royal lineage goes all the way down to Nana Queen of Iberia, who died in 363 AD. Truly Antony may have lost the battle of Actium but won the war of genetics!
8 commentsJay GT4
Marcus_Agrippa_2.jpg
RIC 5825 viewsMAGRIPPA LF COS III

SC
Neptune standing holding a trident and w/ dolphin
Tacitus
Marcus_Agrippa_1.jpg
RIC 58, BMC 16122 viewsMAGRIPPA LF COS III

SC
Neptune standing holding a trident and w/ dolphin
Tacitus
IMG-20161218-WA0003.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion VI Denarius38 viewsRome, The Imperators
Mint traveling with Antony, ca. 31 BC
AR Denarius

Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; Galley right.

Rev: LEG VI; Aquilia between two standards.

Reference: Crawford 544/19; HCRI 356

Provenance: ex CNG 103 (Sep 2016) Lot 664; ex Kirk Davis FPL 37 (Jan 2002), No. 45.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding.

2 commentsCarausius
Agrippa.jpg
Roman Agrippa AE As24 viewsAE As ; 37 AD; struck under Caligula, Rome
Obv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C - Neptune standing left, holding small dolphin and trident.

Ref: Cohen 3, RIC 58
Tanit
Nemausus%20dupondius%20of%20Augustus,%20after%2010%20AD.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Augustus & Agrippa35 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Augustus & Agrippa. Bronze dupondius. 27mm, 12.3g, die axis 30o, Nemausus mint, obverse IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa and Augustus back-to-back; reverse COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below. Reference: RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731.
Ex-Ardatirion Collection.
dpaul7
Roman_Empire_Augustus___Agrippa_AE_Dupondius.jpg
Roman Empire / Augustus and Agrippa AE Dupondius38 viewsAugustus & Agrippa AE Dupondius. Nemausus Mint, 20-10 BC. IMP DIVI F, back-to-back heads of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown, & Augustus, bare / COL NEM, crocodile chained to palm, wreath with long ties trailing above.. Ref: RIC 155, Cohen 7, RPC 523 Sear Roman Coins and their Values (RCV 2000 Edition) Number 1729.

From the Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
254_nemausus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Augustus & Agrippa, Nemausus 20 viewsavers: Agrippa Augustus IMP DIVI
revers: crocodile with palm - legend COL NEM - revers nearly unvisible
mint: Nemausus (today Nimes France)
Franz-Josef M
Agrippa2_.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Domitian. Herodian Kings. Agrippa II, with Domitian. 56-95 CE.26 viewsHerodian Kings. Agrippa II, with Domitian. 56-95 CE.
Æ 20mm (6.49 g).
Caesaraea Panias mint.
Dated Year 19 (79/80 CE).
Obv:Laureate head of Domitian as Caesar right.
Rev: Nike standing right, left foot on helmet, inscribing shield set on left knee.
Ref: RPC II 2259; Meshorer 147a; Hendin 600.
Fine, dark brown patina.

Jorge C
bpJ1B1Agrippa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippa50 viewsObv: M AGRIPPA L F COS III
Head, left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev: S C
Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident.
As 11.1 gm 29 mm Mint: Rome RIC 58
Comment: Issued by Caligula
Massanutten
Agrippa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, AGRIPPA AS1465 viewsObverse: M AGRIPPA L F COS III - Head left. Reverse: SC - Neptune standing, holding trident and dolphin. Rome Mint: AD 37-41. RIC I Caligula 58, Cohen 313 commentspostumus
04816q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippa, Copper as, RIC I Caligula 58451 viewsAgrippa, Military commander, friend of Augustus, grandfather of Caligula, great-grandfather of Nero

Copper as, RIC I Caligula 58, SRCV I 556, superb EF, weight 10.34 g, maximum diameter 27.5 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, 38 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing a rostral crown; reverse Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields; bold high relief strike on a large flan with no wear, beautiful green patina, extraordinary portrait, spectacular!

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was a boyhood friend of Augustus and a renowned military commander on land and sea, winning the famous battle of Actium against the forces of Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra. Declared Augustus' successor, Agrippa's brilliant career ended when he predeceased Augustus in 12 B.C. He was married to Augustus' daughter Julia; father of Gaius and Lucius Caesars, Agrippa Postumus, Julia and Agrippina Senior; grandfather of Caligula, and great-grandfather of Nero.

7 commentsJoe Sermarini
IMG_0984_Agrippa_800_400.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippa, Rome mint, struck 37 AD, AE As40 viewsM AGRIPPA L F COS III bust left wearing rostral crown
S-C Neptune standing left
RIC Gaius 58; Cohen 3
very fine, thick olive green patina
dupondius
ag.jpg
Roman Empire, Agrippa, Struck c.A.D.38 under Caligula.225 viewsAgrippa, 43–12 BC.
AE as, Roma mint, Struck c.A.D 38.
Obv. M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown.
Rev. SC, Neptune standing half-left, arms draped, holding small dolphin and grounded trident.
RIC I : 58.
21,14g, 28mm.

Provenance: Numismatik Lanz, Auction 147, lot 254.
3 commentsapyatygin
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)191 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen orriginally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv.Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
3 commentsPetitioncrown
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-&-Rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1785 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen orriginally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv. Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
25 commentsPetitioncrown
coin05c.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, AUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA, AE (brass) Dupondius - Nemausus 15-7 BC.137 viewsObv "IMP/DIVI F" head of Agrippa wearing rostral crown, and laurel wreath, to l., and Augustus, bare headed, to r. back to back.
Rev "COL-NEM" to l. and r. of palm shoot, it's tip to r., behind chained crocodile; above palm tip, wreath with long ties.
14.73g - 26mm
s.1729 - RIC 154

The edges of the coin appear filed/rasped/ground, with parallel scour marks, flat fields, and usually a prominent ridge all around the circumference of the coin. To me it would suggest "filing" after manufacture.
The coin has virtually no wear, and a dark, almost black patina.
3 commentsjerseyjohnjames
AugustusAgrippaAsCroc.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Augustus & Agrippa, AE As, COL NEM2627 viewsAugustus & Agrippa, AE As, 28mm (12.83 gm). Addorsed heads of Agrippa on left, wearing combined rostral crown and laurel wreath, and Augustus on right, wearing oak wreath, IMP above and DIVI F below / Crocodile chained to palm tip, wreath in upper left and COL - NEM above. Nemausus, c. 10 BC - AD 10. RIC I 158 (pg. 51).
29 commentssocalcoins
4__As_de_Nîmes2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Augustus & Agrippa, AE As, RIC 15994 viewsAugustus & Agrippa, AE As, Nîmes, 10-14 type 4 (bronze)
Obverse IMP/DIVI F. Back to back heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown and laurel wreath, facing left, and Augustus, laureate, facing right; P - P either side.
Reverse COL-NEM either side of palm, it's tip to left, above chained crocodile to the left of palm tip, wreath with long ties.
RIC I:159
bgaut
coin03a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, AUGUSTUS - copper as - moneyers' series - Rome 7BC55 viewsObv: "CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT" bare hd. of Augustus r.
Rev: " P LVRIVS AGRIPPA III VIR AAA FF" around large SC.
7.71g - 27mm - s.1686 - RIC 428
Comment
Weak below bust, otherwise very fine. Bought Glendining 12.3.75 - £32.
I had just bought an LED spotlight bulb, and had not yet explored [SET WHITEBALANCE] on my digital camera. So it makes an interesting study in the use of blue light in coin photography.
jerseyjohnjames
coin04bb.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, AUGUSTUS and AGRIPPA - brass dupondius - Nemausus 15-7 BC.99 viewsObv "IMP/DIVI F" head of Agrippa wearing rostral crown, and laurel wreath, to l., and Augustus, bare headed, to r. back to back.
Rev "COL-NEM" to l. and r. of palm shoot, it's tip to r., behind chained crocodile; above palm tip, wreath with long ties.
12.73g - 26mm - s.1729 - RIC 154
Comment
The edges of the coin appear filed/rasped/ground, with parallel scour marks, flat fields, and usually a prominent ridge all around the circumference of the coin. To me it would suggest "filing" after manafacture.
The coin has been depatinated/cleaned many years ago. I personally find this more pleasing and interesting than it's sister black coin (05).
jerseyjohnjames
augage2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Augustus and Agrippa, Dupondius26 viewsType: Dupondius
Date: -10 – +10
Metal: Bronze
Mint: Nemausus (Nimes)
Weight: 12,86g
Diameter: 28 mm
RIC 158
Obverse: IMP DIVI F /
Laureate head of Agrippa left and laureate head of Augustus right
Reverse:
COL NEM
crocodile chained to palm tree top bent to right, wreath at top
Hadrian63
bpJ1A1AugustusMon.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Augustus, Moneyer Series, Common, 7 BC.62 viewsObv: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT
Bare head, right.
Rev: P LVRIVS AGRIPPA IIIVIR A A A F F
Legend surrounding large S C
As 9.2 gm 27 mm Mint: Rome RIC 427
Massanutten
AUG-3-MOY.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Augustus.47 viewsDenom: AE As
Obv: IMP DIVI F
Laureate head of Agrippa left and laureate head of Augustus right
Rev: COL NEM
Chained crocodile standing right; palm branch behind; wreath with long ties above
Mint: Nemausus
RIC-I-158
Dia. 27 mm
12.6 gm
Augustus
MYoung
AntonyLeg2.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion II Denarius19 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.64g; 17mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG II; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/14; Sydenham 1216; HCRI 349; BMCRR East 190-92; Antonia 105.

Provenance: Ex Pat Coyle Coll. [Goldberg Auction 69 (29 May 2012) Lot 3471]; NAC 40 (16 May 2007), Lot 624.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Forty examples of the LEG II variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series.

The Legio II was likely a legion that was disbanded after Actium.
2 commentsCarausius
463910.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion III Denarius27 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Mark Antony, 31 BCE.
Mint travelling with Antony.
AR Denarius (3.69g; 18mm).

Obv: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; Galley right.

Rev: LEG III; Aquilia between two standards.

Reference: Crawford 544/15; HCRI 350; Syd 1217; Viereck, Die Römische Flotte (1975), p. 292 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Jul 2017); ex Triton IV (5 Dec 2000), Lot 432; ex Sternberg XII (18 Nov 1982), Lot 512; ex H.D.L. Viereck Collection (bef. 1975).

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding.
2 commentsCarausius
AntonyLegV.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion V Denarius27 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.79g; 19mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG III VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG V; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/18; HCRI 354; Sydenham 1221; BMCRR (East) 196; Banti 75 (this coin); Antonia 110.

Provenance: Ex Kress 109 (24-25 Oct 1958), Lot 749.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Thirty-seven examples of the LEG V variety appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii, making it one of the most common varieties of the series. However, an example with a verifiable old provenance, such as this coin, is quite rare.
2 commentsCarausius
AntonyXVIIClassicaeCombined.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Antony Legion XVII Classicae Denarius18 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Marcus Antonius, 44-31 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.41g; 20mm).
Military Mint traveling with Antony, 32-1 BCE.

Obverse: ANT AVG LLL VIR R P C; galley facing right.

Reverse: LEG XVII CLASSICAE; Aquilia between two standards.

References: Crawford 544/10; Sydenham 1238; HCRI 373; BMCRR East 223; Antonia 128

Provenance: Ex Nomisma 58 (6 Nov 2018) Lot 214.

Produced by Antony in the lead-up to his final defeat at Actium by Octavian’s navy (commanded by Agrippa), the legionary series was a huge issue that recognized 23 legions under Antony’s command. These coins would continue to circulate throughout the Empire for several centuries after Antony’s loss, partly because their notoriously debased silver discouraged hoarding. Only 8 examples of the LEG XVII Classicae type appeared in the 1905 Delos hoard of 604 Antony Legionary denarii.

The Legio XVII Classicae was likely a legion of marines formed by Antony and disbanded after Actium. They were not the Legio XVII destroyed at Tuetoburg Forest under Varus in 9 CE.
2 commentsCarausius
Screenshot_2019-05-19_13_16_00.png
Roman Imperial, Augustus and Agrippa, AE Cut Half Dupondius = 1 As.13 viewsNemausus 10 B.C - 14 A.D. 6.60g - 29.2mm, Axis 8h.

Obv: IM[P] DIV[I F] - Head of Agrippa, wearing rostral crown and wreath, to left, and head of [Augustus, laureate, to right], back to back.

Rev: COL [NEM] - Crocodile right chained to palm tree with long vertical fronds; wreath with long ties above, palm fronds below.

RPC 525; RIC I 160.
scarli
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~2.jpg
Roman, Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1336 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen originally from the Morreti Collection.

Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile.

Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
9 commentsPetitioncrown
IMG_4139.JPG
SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Claudius. 41-54 CE. Æ 23mm 57 viewsSAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima. Claudius. 41-54 CE. Æ 23mm
OBV:Laureate head right
REV:Inverted anchor in wreath.
Kadman -; Rosenberger 1; SNG ANS 744; Meshorer 356 (Agrippa II); RPC I 4848.
Maritima
Augustus_and_Agrippa_tree_Croc.JPG
SCARCE AUGUSTUS & AGRIPPA AS DE NIMES 12.3 gr, 26 mm34 viewsGAUL, Nemausus. Augustus, with Agrippa. 27 BC-AD 14. Æ As Struck AD 10-14. IMP above, DIVI • head of Agrippa left, wearing rostral crown, and head of Augustus right, wearing oak wreath, back to back; all within pelleted border / COL NEM, chained crocodile standing right; palm and filleted wreath behind, palm fronds on either side of stem base.
Ref :BAS249
Antonio Protti
Sextus.jpg
Sextus Pompey75 viewsMAG PIVS IMP ITER
Bare head of Pompey Magnus right; capis behind, lituus before

Neptune standing left, holding aplustre in right hand, resting right foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, carrying their parents on their shoulders, PRAEF above, CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C in two lines in exergue.

Uncertain mint in Sicily, (Catania?)

37-36 BC

3.25g

Rare

Crawford 511/3a; Sydenham 1344; Sear 334; RRC 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; Pompeia 27; Catalli 2001, 824

Ex-Londinium

Numiswiki:
Struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the Son of Neptune. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was, however, defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.). He was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C
1 commentsJay GT4
Battle_of_Actium.jpg
The Battle of Actium, by Lorenzo A. Castro, 1672.29 viewsThe Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between Mark Antony and Octavian (Caesar Augustus). It was fought on September 2, 31 BC, near the Roman colony of Actium in Greece (near the modern-day city of Preveza), on the Ionian Sea. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Antony's fleet was supported by the fleet of his lover, Cleopatra, queen of Ptolemaic Egypt. The battle was won by the forces of Octavian, whose victory led him to be titled the Princeps Augustus, and eventually to be considered the first Roman Emperor; for this reason the date of the battle is often used to mark the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.

Cleisthenes
Titus Judaea Capta-Tiberias Mint.JPG
Titus Judaea Capta-Tiberias Mint43 viewsAE 26, Tiberias mint under Agrippa II 55-95 AD
Obverse: KAICAP CEBAC AVTOKP TITOC, Laureate head of Titus right
Reverse: ETO-KS BA / A (Gamma)PI-(Pi Pi)A, Nike standing right with wreath and palm.
26 mm, 13.2 gm.
Jerome Holderman
Agrip2.jpg
[18H553] Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37-44 A.D.23 viewsJUDAEA, AGRIPPA II, Æ PRUTAH, circa 41-42 A.D., Hendin 553, aF, Jerusalem mint, 17.30 mm.2.5 gm. Obverse: AGPIRA BACILEWC Umbrella-like canopy with fringes; Reverse: Three ears of barley, L-S (year 6) at sides. A historic coin of the grandson of Herod the Great, who had the Apostle James killed.
Nice desert red and black patina.
Cleisthenes
HerAg1.jpg
[18H553] Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.29 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D., Bronze prutah, Hendin 553, F, Jerusalem mint, 2.360g, 16.3mm, 0o, 41 - 42 A.D. Obverse: AGRIPA BACILEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes. Reverse: three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - V (year 6), nice green patina.

Herod Agrippa I was the son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. Agrippa spent much of his boyhood at the imperial court in Rome. His friend the emperor Caligula bestowed the former territories of his uncle Philip and Herod Antipas. Claudius later bestowed Judaea. It was this Herod that had James, the brother of John, executed (Acts 12:1-2) and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:3-5). He was a very popular ruler (See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/index.asp?vpar=928&pos=0).
1 commentsCleisthenes
HerAgrip1.jpeg
[18H553] Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.19 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 553, Fair, Jerusalem, 2.366g, 18.2mm, 0o, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AGRIPA BACILEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes; reverse three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - V (year 6).

Herod Agrippa I was the son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. Agrippa spent much of his boyhood at the imperial court in Rome. His friend the emperor Caligula bestowed the former territories of his uncle Philip and Herod Antipas. Claudius later bestowed Judaea. It was this Herod that had James, the brother of John, executed (Acts 12:1-2) and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:3-5). He was a very popular ruler.
Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC48 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC70 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC68 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
DomJudCap~0.jpg
[18H749] Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea, Samaria28 viewsDomitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D., Judaea Capta, Caesarea, Samaria. Bronze AE 23, Hendin 749, BMC 42-52, SNG ANS 492- 494, F, Caesarea, 9.012g, 21.9mm, 0o, obverse IMP DOMITIANVS CAES AVG GERMANICVS, laureate head left; reverse no legend, helmeted figure of Athena standing left, holding shield and spear, placing helmet on trophy, consisting of cuirass, two shields and spears, two crossed greaves at bottom.

Flavius Domitianus was an effective emperor who spent much of his time in the provinces preserving order. Despite his effectiveness, he was extremely unpopular with the senatorial class at Rome. He appointed persons from the lower classes to positions of authority. When asked to prohibit execution of senators without a trial by peers he declined, thus dispelling the old illusions of republican government and exposing the true autocracy of his rule. Domitian's reign was marred by paranoia and cruelty in his latter years and he executed many Senators. In 96 A.D. he was stabbed to death in a plot, allegedly involving his own wife.

After Herod's death, Caesaria was the seat of the Roman procurator and capital of Roman Palestine for about 500 years. A riot in 66 A.D. between Syrians and Jews in the city led to the First Jewish revolt and the Judaea Capta of Titus. Paul was delivered to Caesaria when his life was threatened in Jerusalem (Acts 9:30). From Caesaria, Paul departed to Tarsus, his birthplace. Paul met the church in Caesarea (Acts 18:22; 21:8,16). Finally, Paul was taken prisoner (Acts 23:23,33) and returned to Caesaria where he was tried before Festus and King Agrippa (Acts 25:1-4; 24:6-13).

See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/index.asp?vpar=135&pos=0
Cleisthenes
TrajSepphorisGalilee.jpg
[18H907] Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Sepphoris, Galilee220 viewsBronze AE 23, Hendin 907, BMC 5, Fair, 7.41g, 23.1mm, 0o, Sepphoris mint, 98 - 117 A.D.; obverse TPAIANOS AYTO]-KPA[TWP EDWKEN, laureate head right; reverse SEPFW/RHNWN, eight-branched palm bearing two bunches of dates.

At the crossroads of the Via Maris and the Acre-Tiberias roads, Sepphoris was the capital of Galilee and Herod Antipas' first capital. Damaged by a riot, Antipas ordered Sepphoris be rebuilt. Flavius Josephus described the rebuilt Sepphoris as the "ornament of all Galilee." Since Sepphoris was only five miles north of Nazareth, Jesus and Joseph may have found work in Antipas' rebuilding projects. Sepphoris was built on a hill and visible for miles. This may be the city that Jesus spoke of when He said, "A city set on a hill cannot be hidden."

Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a brilliant general and administrator was adopted and proclaimed emperor by the aging Nerva in 98 A.D. Regarded as one of Rome's greatest emperors, Trajan was responsible for the annexation of Dacia, the invasion of Arabia and an extensive and lavish building program across the empire. Under Trajan, Rome reached its greatest extent. Shortly after the annexation of Mesopotamia and Armenia, Trajan was forced to withdraw from most of the new Arabian provinces. While returning to Rome to direct operations against the new threats, Trajan died at Selinus in Cilicia.
See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Trajan (A.D. 98-117)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"During a happy period of more than fourscore years, the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this and of the two succeeding chapters to describe the prosperous condition of their empire, and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important circumstances of its decline and fall, a revolution which will ever be remembered and is still felt by the nations of the earth."

This is perhaps the most important and best known of all Edward Gibbon's famous dicta about his vast subject, and particularly that period which he admired the most. It was a concatenation of chance and events which brought to the first position of the principate five men, each very different from the others, who each, in his own way, brought integrity and a sense of public duty to his tasks. Nerva's tenure was brief, as many no doubt had expected and hoped it would be, and perhaps his greatest achievement was to choose Trajan as his adoptive son and intended successor. It was a splendid choice. Trajan was one of Rome's most admirable figures, a man who merited the renown which he enjoyed in his lifetime and in subsequent generations.

The sources for the man and his principate are disappointingly skimpy. There is no contemporaneous historian who can illuminate the period. Tacitus speaks only occasionally of Trajan, there is no biography by Suetonius, nor even one by the author of the late and largely fraudulent Historia Augusta. (However, a modern version of what such a life might have been like has been composed by A. Birley, entirely based upon ancient evidence. It is very useful.) Pliny the Younger tells us the most, in his Panegyricus, his long address of thanks to the emperor upon assuming the consulship in late 100, and in his letters. Pliny was a wordy and congenial man, who reveals a great deal about his senatorial peers and their relations with the emperor, above all, of course, his own. The most important part is the tenth book of his Epistulae, which contains the correspondence between him, while serving in Bithynia, and the emperor, to whom he referred all manner of problems, important as well as trivial. Best known are the pair (96,97) dealing with the Christians and what was to be done with them. These would be extraordinarily valuable if we could be sure that the imperial replies stemmed directly from Trajan, but that is more than one can claim. The imperial chancellery had developed greatly in previous decades and might pen these communications after only the most general directions from the emperor. The letters are nonetheless unique in the insight they offer into the emperor's mind.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, wrote a long imperial history which has survived only in abbreviated form in book LXVIII for the Trajanic period. The rhetorician Dio of Prusa, a contemporary of the emperor, offers little of value. Fourth-century epitomators, Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, offer some useful material. Inscriptions, coins, papyri, and legal texts are of major importance. Since Trajan was a builder of many significant projects, archaeology contributes mightily to our understanding of the man.

Early Life and Career
The patria of the Ulpii was Italica, in Spanish Baetica , where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B.C. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family's ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. Trajan's father was the first member of the family to pursue a senatorial career; it proved to be a very successful one. Born probably about the year 30, he perhaps commanded a legion under Corbulo in the early sixties and then was legate of legio X Fretensis under Vespasian, governor of Judaea. Success in the Jewish War was rewarded by the governorship of an unknown province and then a consulate in 70. He was thereafter adlected by the emperor in patricios and sent to govern Baetica. Then followed the governorship of one of the major military provinces, Syria, where he prevented a Parthian threat of invasion, and in 79/80 he was proconsul of Asia, one of the two provinces (the other was Africa) which capped a senatorial career. His public service now effectively over, he lived on in honor and distinction, in all likelihood seeing his son emperor. He probably died before 100. He was deified in 113 and his titulature read divus Traianus pater. Since his son was also the adoptive son of Nerva, the emperor had officially two fathers, a unique circumstance.

The son was born in Italica on September 18, 53; his mother was Marcia, who had given birth to a daughter, Ulpia Marciana, five years before the birth of the son. In the mid seventies, he was a legionary legate under his father in Syria. He then married a lady from Nemausus (Nimes) in Gallia Narbonensis, Pompeia Plotina, was quaestor about 78 and praetor about 84. In 86, he became one of the child Hadrian's guardians. He was then appointed legate of legio VII Gemina in Hispania Tarraconensis, from which he marched at Domitian's orders in 89 to crush the uprising of Antonius Saturninus along the Rhine. He next fought in Domitian's war against the Germans along Rhine and Danube and was rewarded with an ordinary consulship in 91. Soon followed the governorship of Moesia inferior and then that of Germania superior, with his headquarters at Moguntiacum (Mainz), whither Hadrian brought him the news in autumn 97 that he had been adopted by the emperor Nerva, as co-ruler and intended successor. Already recipient of the title imperator and possessor of the tribunician power, when Nerva died on January 27, 98, Trajan became emperor in a smooth transition of power which marked the next three quarters of a century.

Early Years through the Dacian Wars
Trajan did not return immediately to Rome. He chose to stay in his German province and settle affairs on that frontier. He showed that he approved Domitian's arrangements, with the establishment of two provinces, their large military garrisons, and the beginnings of the limes. Those who might have wished for a renewed war of conquest against the Germans were disappointed. The historian Tacitus may well have been one of these.

Trajan then visited the crucial Danube provinces of Pannonia and Moesia, where the Dacian king Decebalus had caused much difficulty for the Romans and had inflicted a heavy defeat upon a Roman army about a decade before. Domitian had established a modus vivendi with Decebalus, essentially buying his good behavior, but the latter had then continued his activities hostile to Rome. Trajan clearly thought that this corner of empire would require his personal attention and a lasting and satisfactory solution.

Trajan spent the year 100 in Rome, seeing to the honors and deification of his predecessor, establishing good and sensitive relations with the senate, in sharp contrast with Domitian's "war against the senate." Yet his policies essentially continued Domitian's; he was no less master of the state and the ultimate authority over individuals, but his good nature and respect for those who had until recently been his peers if not his superiors won him great favor. He was called optimus by the people and that word began to appear among his titulature, although it had not been decreed by the senate. Yet his thoughts were ever on the Danube. Preparations for a great campaign were under way, particularly with transfers of legions and their attendant auxiliaries from Germany and Britain and other provinces and the establishment of two new ones, II Traiana and XXX Ulpia, which brought the total muster to 30, the highest number yet reached in the empire's history.

In 101 the emperor took the field. The war was one which required all his military abilities and all the engineering and discipline for which the Roman army was renowned. Trajan was fortunate to have Apollodorus of Damascus in his service, who built a roadway through the Iron Gates by cantilevering it from the sheer face of the rock so that the army seemingly marched on water. He was also to build a great bridge across the Danube, with 60 stone piers (traces of this bridge still survive). When Trajan was ready to move he moved with great speed, probably driving into the heart of Dacian territory with two columns, until, in 102, Decebalus chose to capitulate. He prostrated himself before Trajan and swore obedience; he was to become a client king. Trajan returned to Rome and added the title Dacicus to his titulature.

Decebalus, however, once left to his own devices, undertook to challenge Rome again, by raids across the Danube into Roman territory and by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took the field again in 106, intending this time to finish the job of Decebalus' subjugation. It was a brutal struggle, with some of the characteristics of a war of extirpation, until the Dacian king, driven from his capital of Sarmizegethusa and hunted like an animal, chose to commit suicide rather than to be paraded in a Roman triumph and then be put to death.

The war was over. It had taxed Roman resources, with 11 legions involved, but the rewards were great. Trajan celebrated a great triumph, which lasted 123 days and entertained the populace with a vast display of gladiators and animals. The land was established as a province, the first on the north side of the Danube. Much of the native population which had survived warfare was killed or enslaved, their place taken by immigrants from other parts of the empire. The vast wealth of Dacian mines came to Rome as war booty, enabling Trajan to support an extensive building program almost everywhere, but above all in Italy and in Rome. In the capital, Apollodorus designed and built in the huge forum already under construction a sculpted column, precisely 100 Roman feet high, with 23 spiral bands filled with 2500 figures, which depicted, like a scroll being unwound, the history of both Dacian wars. It was, and still is, one of the great achievements of imperial "propaganda." In southern Dacia, at Adamklissi, a large tropaeum was built on a hill, visible from a great distance, as a tangible statement of Rome's domination. Its effect was similar to that of Augustus' monument at La Turbie above Monaco; both were constant reminders for the inhabitants who gazed at it that they had once been free and were now subjects of a greater power.

Administration and Social Policy
The chief feature of Trajan's administration was his good relations with the senate, which allowed him to accomplish whatever he wished without general opposition. His auctoritas was more important than his imperium. At the very beginning of Trajan's reign, the historian Tacitus, in the biography of his father-in-law Agricola, spoke of the newly won compatibility of one-man rule and individual liberty established by Nerva and expanded by Trajan (Agr. 3.1, primo statim beatissimi saeculi ortu Nerva Caesar res olim dissociabiles miscuerit, principatum ac libertatem, augeatque cotidie felicitatem temporum Nerva Traianus,….) [13] At the end of the work, Tacitus comments, when speaking of Agricola's death, that he had forecast the principate of Trajan but had died too soon to see it (Agr. 44.5, ei non licuit durare in hanc beatissimi saeculi lucem ac principem Traianum videre, quod augurio votisque apud nostras aures ominabatur,….) Whether one believes that principate and liberty had truly been made compatible or not, this evidently was the belief of the aristocracy of Rome. Trajan, by character and actions, contributed to this belief, and he undertook to reward his associates with high office and significant promotions. During his principate, he himself held only 6 consulates, while arranging for third consulates for several of his friends. Vespasian had been consul 9 times, Titus 8, Domitian 17! In the history of the empire there were only 12 or 13 private who reached the eminence of third consulates. Agrippa had been the first, L. Vitellius the second. Under Trajan there were 3: Sex. Iulius Frontinus (100), T. Vestricius Spurinna (100), and L. Licinius Sura (107). There were also 10 who held second consulships: L. Iulius Ursus Servianus (102), M.' Laberius Maximus (103), Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola (103), P. Metilius Sabinus Nepos (103?), Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus (104), Ti. Iulius Candidus Marius Celsus (105), C. Antius A. Iulius Quadratus (105), Q. Sosius Senecio (107), A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus (109), and L. Publilius Celsus (113). These men were essentially his close associates from pre-imperial days and his prime military commanders in the Dacian wars.

One major administrative innovation can be credited to Trajan. This was the introduction of curators who, as representatives of the central government, assumed financial control of local communities, both in Italy and the provinces. Pliny in Bithynia is the best known of these imperial officials. The inexorable shift from freedmen to equestrians in the imperial ministries continued, to culminate under Hadrian, and he devoted much attention and considerable state resources to the expansion of the alimentary system, which purposed to support orphans throughout Italy. The splendid arch at Beneventum represents Trajan as a civilian emperor, with scenes of ordinary life and numerous children depicted, which underscored the prosperity of Italy.

The satirist Juvenal, a contemporary of the emperor, in one of his best known judgments, laments that the citizen of Rome, once master of the world, is now content only with "bread and circuses."

Nam qui dabat olim / imperium, fasces, legiones, omnia, nunc se / continet, atque duas tantum res anxius optat, / panem et circenses. (X 78-81)

Trajan certainly took advantage of that mood, indeed exacerbated it, by improving the reliabilty of the grain supply (the harbor at Ostia and the distribution system as exemplified in the Mercati in Rome). Fronto did not entirely approve, if indeed he approved at all. The plebs esteemed the emperor for the glory he had brought Rome, for the great wealth he had won which he turned to public uses, and for his personality and manner. Though emperor, he prided himself upon being civilis, a term which indicated comportment suitable for a Roman citizen.

There was only one major addition to the Rome's empire other than Dacia in the first decade and a half of Trajan's reign. This was the province of Arabia, which followed upon the absorption of the Nabataean kingdom (105-106).

Building Projects
Trajan had significant effect upon the infrastructure of both Rome and Italy. His greatest monument in the city, if the single word "monument" can effectively describe the complex, was the forum which bore his name, much the largest, and the last, of the series known as the "imperial fora." Excavation for a new forum had already begun under Domitian, but it was Apollodorus who designed and built the whole. Enormous in its extent, the Basilica Ulpia was the centerpiece, the largest wood roofed building in the Roman world. In the open courtyard before it was an equestrian statue of Trajan, behind it was the column; there were libraries, one for Latin scrolls, the other for Greek, on each side. A significant omission was a temple; this circumstance was later rectified by Hadrian, who built a large temple to the deified Trajan and Plotina.

The column was both a history in stone and the intended mausoleum for the emperor, whose ashes were indeed placed in the column base. An inscription over the doorway, somewhat cryptic because part of the text has disappeared, reads as follows:

Senatus populusque Romanus imp. Caesari divi Nervae f. Nervae Traiano Aug. Germ. Dacico pontif. Maximo trib. pot. XVII imp. VI p.p. ad declarandum quantae altitudinis mons et locus tant[is oper]ibus sit egestus (Smallwood 378)

On the north side of the forum, built into the slopes of the Quirinal hill, were the Markets of Trajan, which served as a shopping mall and the headquarters of the annona, the agency responsible for the receipt and distribution of grain.

On the Esquiline hill was constructed the first of the huge imperial baths, using a large part of Nero's Domus Aurea as its foundations. On the other side of the river a new aqueduct was constructed, which drew its water from Lake Bracciano and ran some 60 kilometers to the heights of the Janiculum Hill. It was dedicated in 109. A section of its channel survives in the basement of the American Academy in Rome.

The arch in Beneventum is the most significant monument elsewhere in Italy. It was dedicated in 114, to mark the beginning of the new Via Traiana, which offered an easier route to Brundisium than that of the ancient Via Appia.

Trajan devoted much attention to the construction and improvement of harbors. His new hexagonal harbor at Ostia at last made that port the most significant in Italy, supplanting Puteoli, so that henceforth the grain ships docked there and their cargo was shipped by barge up the Tiber to Rome. Terracina benefited as well from harbor improvements, and the Via Appia now ran directly through the city along a new route, with some 130 Roman feet of sheer cliff being cut away so that the highway could bend along the coast. Ancona on the Adriatic Sea became the major harbor on that coast for central Italy in 114-115, and Trajan's activity was commemorated by an arch. The inscription reports that the senate and people dedicated it to the []iprovidentissimo principi quod accessum Italiae hoc etiam addito ex pecunia sua portu tutiorem navigantibus reddiderit (Smallwood 387). Centumcellae, the modern Civitavecchia, also profited from a new harbor. The emperor enjoyed staying there, and on at least one occasion summoned his consilium there.

Elsewhere in the empire the great bridge at Alcantara in Spain, spanning the Tagus River, still in use, testifies to the significant attention the emperor gave to the improvement of communication throughout his entire domain.

Family Relations; the Women
After the death of his father, Trajan had no close male relatives. His life was as closely linked with his wife and female relations as that of any of his predecessors; these women played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. His wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

His sister Marciana, five years his elder, and he shared a close affection. She received the title Augusta, along with Plotina, in 105 and was deified in 112 upon her death. Her daughter Matidia became Augusta upon her mother's death, and in her turn was deified in 119. Both women received substantial monuments in the Campus Martius, there being basilicas of each and a temple of divae Matidiae. Hadrian was responsible for these buildings, which were located near the later temple of the deified Hadrian, not far from the column of Marcus Aurelius.

Matidia's daughter, Sabina, was married to Hadrian in the year 100. The union survived almost to the end of Hadrian's subsequent principate, in spite of the mutual loathing that they had for each other. Sabina was Trajan's great niece, and thereby furnished Hadrian a crucial link to Trajan.

The women played public roles as significant as any of their predecessors. They traveled with the emperor on public business and were involved in major decisions. They were honored throughout the empire, on monuments as well as in inscriptions. Plotina, Marciana, and Matidia, for example, were all honored on the arch at Ancona along with Trajan.

The Parthian War
In 113, Trajan began preparations for a decisive war against Parthia. He had been a "civilian" emperor for seven years, since his victory over the Dacians, and may well have yearned for a last, great military achievement, which would rival that of Alexander the Great. Yet there was a significant cause for war in the Realpolitik of Roman-Parthian relations, since the Parthians had placed a candidate of their choice upon the throne of Armenia without consultation and approval of Rome. When Trajan departed Rome for Antioch, in a leisurely tour of the eastern empire while his army was being mustered, he probably intended to destroy at last Parthia's capabilities to rival Rome's power and to reduce her to the status of a province (or provinces). It was a great enterprise, marked by initial success but ultimate disappointment and failure.

In 114 he attacked the enemy through Armenia and then, over three more years, turned east and south, passing through Mesopotamia and taking Babylon and the capital of Ctesiphon. He then is said to have reached the Persian Gulf and to have lamented that he was too old to go further in Alexander's footsteps. In early 116 he received the title Parthicus.

The territories, however, which had been handily won, were much more difficult to hold. Uprisings among the conquered peoples, and particularly among the Jews in Palestine and the Diaspora, caused him to gradually resign Roman rule over these newly-established provinces as he returned westward. The revolts were brutally suppressed. In mid 117, Trajan, now a sick man, was slowly returning to Italy, having left Hadrian in command in the east, when he died in Selinus of Cilicia on August 9, having designated Hadrian as his successor while on his death bed. Rumor had it that Plotina and Matidia were responsible for the choice, made when the emperor was already dead. Be that as it may, there was no realistic rival to Hadrian, linked by blood and marriage to Trajan and now in command of the empire's largest military forces. Hadrian received notification of his designation on August 11, and that day marked his dies imperii. Among Hadrian's first acts was to give up all of Trajan's eastern conquests.

Trajan's honors and reputation
Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age." At the onset of his principate, Tacitus called Trajan's accession the beginning of a beatissimum saeculum, and so it remained in the public mind. Admired by the people, respected by the senatorial aristocracy, he faced no internal difficulties, with no rival nor opposition. His powers were as extensive as Domitian's had been, but his use and display of these powers were very different from those of his predecessor, who had claimed to be deus et dominus. Not claiming to be a god, he was recognized in the official iconography of sculpture as Jupiter's viceregent on earth, so depicted on the attic reliefs of the Beneventan arch. The passage of time increased Trajan's aura rather than diminished it. In the late fourth century, when the Roman Empire had dramatically changed in character from what it had been in Trajan's time, each new emperor was hailed with the prayer, felicior Augusto, melior Traiano, "may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan." That reputation has essentially survived into the present day.

Copyright (C) 2000, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
HadrianAequitasAR_denarius.jpg
[903a] Hadrian, 11 August 117 - 10 July 138 A.D.93 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II 228 var (bust type), gVF, Rome, 2.849g, 17.8mm, 180o, 134 A.D.; Obverse: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, head right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, scepter in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy of FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Hadrian (A.D. 117-138)
Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"During a happy period of more than fourscore years, the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this and of the two succeeding chapters to describe the prosperous condition of their empire, and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important circumstances of its decline and fall, a revolution which will ever be remembered and is still felt by the nations of the earth."

So Edward Gibbon concluded the first paragraph of his massive The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, referring to a period which he also styled the happiest of mankind's history. Hadrian was the central figure of these "five good emperors," the one most responsible for changing the character and nature of the empire. He was also one of the most remarkable and talented individuals Rome ever produced.

The sources for a study of Hadrian are varied. There is no major historian for his reign, such as Tacitus or Livy. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, the first surviving life in a series intended to continue Suetonius' Lives of the Caesars. Debate about this collection of imperial biographies has been heated and contentious for more than a century. The most convincing view is that which sees the whole as the work of a single author writing in the last years of the fourth century. The information offered ranges from the precisely accurate to the most wildly imaginative.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, produced a long history of the empire which has survived, for the Hadrianic period, only in an abbreviated version. Fourth century historians, such as Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, occasionally furnish bits of information. Contemporaries or near-contemporaries of Hadrian, such as Arrian, Fronto, Pausanias, and Plutarch, are also useful. Papyri, inscriptions, coins, and legal writings are extremely important. Archaeology in all its aspects contributes mightily to any attempt to probe the character of a man and emperor whose personality and thoughts defy close analysis and understanding.

Early Life and Career
Hadrian was born on January 24, 76. Where he saw the light of day was, even in antiquity, matter for debate. Italica, in Hispania Baetica, was the birthplace of Trajan and was also considered that of Hadrian. But the HA reports that he was born in Rome, and that seems the more likely choice, since it is the more unexpected. The actual place of one's birth was, however, unimportant, since it was one's patria which was crucial. Hadrian's ancestors had come to Spain generations before, from the town of Hadria in Picenum, at the end of the Second Punic War. Italica's tribus, to which Hadrian belonged, was the Sergia. His father, P. Aelius Afer, had reached the praetorship by the time of his death in 85/86, his mother, Domitia Paulina, came from a distinguished family of Gades, one of the wealthiest cities in the empire. His sister Paulina married Servianus, who played a significant role in Hadrian's career. Trajan was the father's cousin; when Afer died, Trajan and P. Acilius Attianus, likewise of Italica, became Hadrian's guardians.

At the age of about ten, Hadrian went to Italica for the first time (or returned, if he had been there earlier in his childhood), where he remained for only a brief time. He then returned to the capital and soon began a rapid rise through the cursus honorum; he was a military tribune of three different legions in consecutive years, a series of appointments which clearly marked him for a military career, and reached the consulate as a suffect at the age of 32, the earliest possible under the principate. At Trajan's death, he was legate of the province of Syria, with responsibility for the security of the east in the aftermath of Trajan's Parthian War.

(For a detailed and interesting discussion of Hadrian's reign please see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/hadrian.htm])

Literary and artistic achievements
Hadrian was a man of extraordinary talents, certainly one of the most gifted that Rome ever produced. He became a fine public speaker, he was a student of philosophy and other subjects, who could hold his own with the luminaries in their fields, he wrote both an autobiography and poetry, and he was a superb architect. It was in this last area that he left his greatest mark, with several of the empire's most extraordinary buildings and complexes stemming from his fertile mind. The anonymous author of the Historia Augusta described Hadrian as Fuit enim poematum et litterarum nimium studiosissimus. Arithmeticae, geometriae, picturae peritissimus.

He rebuilt Agrippa's Pantheon into the remarkable building that survives today, reconstructing the accustomed temple facade, with columns and pediment, but attaching it to a drum which was surmounted by a coffered dome. The latter was pierced by an oculus nine meters in diameter, which was the main source of illumination. Height and diameter were identical, 43.3 meters. The dome remained the largest in the world until the twentieth century. As was his custom, he replaced the original inscription of Agrippa on the architrave; seldom did he put his own name on a monument.

He also left his mark on almost every city and province to which he came. He paid particular attention to Athens, where he completed the great temple of Olympian Zeus, some six centuries after construction had begun, and made it the centerpiece of a new district of the city.

Hadrian's relationship with philosophers and other scholars was generally fractious. He often scorned their achievements while showing his own superiority. An anecdote about an argument which he had with the eminent philosopher and sophist Favorinus revealed the inequity of such disagreement. Although Favorinus was correct, he gave way to Hadrian, and when rebuked by friends, replied, "You advise me badly, friends, since you do not permit me to believe that he who commands thirty legions is the most learned of all."

Hadrian's literary taste inclined toward the archaic and the odd. He preferred Cato to Cicero, Ennius to Vergil, Coelius Antipater to Sallust, and disapproved of Homer and Plato as well. Indeed, the epic writer Antimachus of Colophon supplanted Homer in Hadrian's estimation. The biographer Suetonius held office under Hadrian but was discharged in 122 for disrespect to the empress. The historian Tacitus, who may have lived into Hadrian's reign, seems to have found no favor with the emperor.

His best known literary work is the short poem which he is said to have composed shortly before his death. These five lines have caused commentators much interpretative woe.

animula vagula blandula
hospes comesque corporis
quae nunc abibis in loca
pallidula rigida nudula
nec ut soles dabis iocos! (25.9)

"Little soul, wandering and pale, guest and companion of my body, you who will now go off to places pale, stiff, and barren, nor will you make jokes as has been your wont."
. . .

Reputation
Hadrian died invisus omnibus, according to the author of the Vita. But his deification placed him in the list of "good" emperors, a worthy successor to the optimus princes Trajan. Hadrian played a significant role both in developing the foreign policies of the empire and in its continuing centralization in administration. Few would disagree that he was one of the most remarkable men Rome ever produced, and that the empire was fortunate to have him as its head. When Aelius Aristides delivered his oration To Rome in 143, he had Hadrian's empire in mind when he said,

"But there is that which very decidedly deserves as much attention and admiration now as all the rest together. I mean your magnificent citizenship with its grand conception, because there is nothing like it in the records of all mankind. Dividing into two groups all those in your empire - and with this word I have indicated the entire civilized world - you have everywhere appointed to your citizenship, or even to kinship with you, the better part of the world's talent, courage, and leadership, while the rest you recognized as a league under your hegemony. Neither sea nor intervening continent are bars to citizenship, nor are Asia and Europe divided in their treatment here. In your empire all paths are open to all. No one worthy of rule or trust remains an alien, but a civil community of the World has been established as a Free Republic under one, the best, ruler and teacher of order; and all come together as into a common civic center, in order to receive each man his due.”

Scholarly work on the emperor, above all biographies, has been varied in quality. Much the best, as the most recent, is by A.R. Birley, who presents all that is known but underscores how much is conjecture, nay even guesswork. We still do not really know the man. An enigma he was to many while alive, and so he remains for us. Semper in omnibus varius; omnium curiositatum explorator; varius multiplex multiformis: these are descriptions of him from antiquity. They are still valid more than 1900 years after the emperor's death.

Copyright (C) 2000, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
AntoninusPiusAequitasSear4053.jpg
[904a] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.127 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138 to 161. Silver denarius. Sear-4053; gVF; Rome;16.4 x 17.9 mm, 3.61 g; issue of AD 138; Obverse : Head of Antoninus Pius right, with IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS around; Reverse : Aequitas standing left, holding scales and a cornucopiae, with AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II around. This is an interesting part of the Antoninus Pius series, struck in the first year of his reign, using his adoptive name of Hadrianus, and with the reverse inscription a continuation from the obverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
AntoPiusDenar.jpg
[904z] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.143 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC 232, RSC 271, F, Rome, 1.699g, 17.3mm, 0o, 153 - 154 A.D. Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right; Reverse: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, cornucopia in left, long rudder on globe in right.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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