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Search results - "AELIA"
Aelia_Eudoxia_RIC-93.jpg
9 viewsQuant.Geek
aeeu.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia, RIC X 104 Antioch16 viewsAelia Eudoxia, AE3, 400-404 CE
Obverse: AEL EVDO_XIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing pearl necklace and earrings, hair elaborately weaved with long plait up the back of head and tucked under diadem, hand of God holding wreath above head.
Reverse: SALVS REI_PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, inscribing Christogram on shield set on a column
ANTG in exergue Antioch, Officina 3. 17.05mm., 1.4 g.
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
AELIA_FLAC_.jpg
(0383) AELIA FLACCILLA66 views(wife of Theodosius I)
383 - 388 AD
AE 2, 5.45 g
O: AEL FLACCILLA, DIAD DR BUST R, SEEN FROM FRONT
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, VICTORY SEATED R INSCRIBING CHI RHO ON SHIELD SUPPORTED BY COLUMN, "T" IN RIGHT FIELD
ANTE IN EXE
ANTIOCH RIC 61
(OFFICINA E = 5)
(ex HJBerk)
laney
AELIA_EUDOXIA.jpg
(0401) AELIA EUDOXIA66 views(wife of Arcadius)
401 - 404 AD
STRUCK 401-4-3
AE 16X17.5 mm 2.96 g
O: AEL EVD[OXIA AVG], DRAPED BUST R, HAND OF GOD HOLDING WREATH ABOVE HEAD
R: VICTORY SEATED R INSCRIBING CHRISTOGRAM ON SHIELD SET ON COLUMN
ART GAMMA IN EXE
ANTIOCH, OFFICINA 3 RIC X 104
laney
0096.jpg
0096 - Denarius Aelia 138 AC27 viewsObv/ Head of Roma r. in winged helmet, X behind.
Rev/ Dioscuri galloping r., two stars above, P PAETVS below, ROMA in ex.

Ag, 21.0 mm, 3.84 g
Moneyer: P. Aelius Paetus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 233/1 [dies o/r: 73/91] - Syd. 455 - RSC Aelia 3
ex-AENP Coin Convention Valencia, feb 2012
dafnis
Personajes_Imperiales_7.jpg
07 - Personalities of the Empire50 viewsVolusian, Corn. Supera, Valerian I, Mariniana, Gallienus, Salonina, Valerian II, Saloninus, Regalianus, Dryantilla, Macrianus, Quietus, Postumus and Laelianus.mdelvalle
89.jpg
089 Laelianus. AE antoninianus28 viewsobv: IMP C LAELIANVS PF AVG rad. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIA AVG victory running r. holding wreath and palm
1 commentshill132
trajse23-2.jpg
109 AD: Improvement of the water supply of Rome under Trajan204 viewsOricalchum sestertius (24.4g, 33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 110.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan right
AQVA / TRAIANA [in ex.] SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around edge] S C [left and right in ex.] River god reclining l. in arched grotto supported by two columns; left arm resting on urn; reed in right hand.
RIC 463 [S]; Cohen 20; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 103:53

This type celebrates the construction of the Aqua Traiana which was dedicated on 20 June 109 constructed to improve the water supply of Rome. A branch of the Anio Novus was carried over the valley between the Caelian and the Aventine.
A lofty arcade was built upon the 'agger' of Servilius Tullius and passing over the Via Appia and the Porta Capena to the Piscina Publica. Terra-cotta water pipes with the name of Trajan and a leaden pipe inscribed AQVA TRAIANA have been found in excavations.
Charles S
Personajes_Imperiales_11.jpg
11 - Personalities of the Empire50 views
Magnentius, Decentius, Vetranius, Constantius Gallo, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinianus I, Valens, Procopius, Gratianus, Valentinianus II, Theodosius I, Aelia Flacilla and Magnus Maximus
mdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_12.jpg
12 - Personalities of the Empire48 viewsFlavius Victor, Arcadius, Eudoxia, Honorius, Gala Placidia, Johannes, Theodosius II, Aelia Pulcheria, Valentinianus III, Marcian, Leon I, Severus III, Zenon I and Anastasius I (pre-reform)mdelvalle
149.jpg
149 Aelia Eudoxia. AE3/4 2.4gm16 viewsobv: AEL EXDO_XIA AVG dia. drp. bust r. being crownd by manus Dei above
rev: GLORIA RO_MANORVM Eudoxia enthroned facing,arms folded over breast, manus Dia above, cross to r.
ex: SMNA
hill132
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Flaccilla_AE-2_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_CON-Gamma_RIC-IX-55-p229_Constantinopolis_378-88-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1286 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 055-3, -/-//CONΓ, AE-1, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//CONΓ, diameter: 22mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 55, p-229,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Flaccilla_AE-4_AEL-FLACILLA-AVG_SALVS-REIPVBLICAE_CON_RIC-IX-61-p229_Constantinopolis_379-88-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_10-10,5mm_0,80g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 061-3, -/-//CONE, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #196 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 061-3, -/-//CONE, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLACILLA AVG, Diademed, draped bust bust right.
revers:- SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing Chi-Rho on shield.
exe: -/-//CONE, diameter: 10-10,5mm, weight: 0,80g, axis: 6h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 61-3, p-229,
Q-001
quadrans
Flaccilla_AE-4_AEL-FLAC-CILLA-AVG_SALVS-REI-PVBLICAE_SMHA_RIC-IX-17-1_p-196_Heraclea_378-83-AD_Q-001_11h_14-14,5mm_1,18g-s.jpg
161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #191 views161 Aelia Flaccilla (???- 386 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 017-1, -/-//SMHA, AE-4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, R!, #1
Wife of Theodosius I and mother of Honorius and Arcadius.
avers:- AEL FLAC CILLA AVG, Draped bust right, wearing elaborate headdress, necklace, and mantle.
revers:- SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column.
exe: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 14-14,5mm, weight: 1,18g, axis: 11h, R!
mint: Heraclea, date: 379-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 17-1, p-196,
Q-001
quadrans
166_Aelia_Eudoxia,_Antioch,_RIC_X_104,_AE-3,_AEL_EVDO_XIA_AVG,_SALVS_REI-PVBLICAE,_ANTGamma,_Sear_20895,_400-4_AD,_Q-001,_5h,_15-15,5mm,_2,85g-s.jpg
166 Aelia Eudoxia (?-404 A.D.), Antioch, RIC X 104, -/-//ANTΓ, AE-3, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, Scarce! #1141 views166 Aelia Eudoxia (?-404 A.D.), Antioch, RIC X 104, -/-//ANTΓ, AE-3, SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, Scarce! #1
avers: AEL EVDOXIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing necklace and earrings, crowned by the hand of God. (Ex1/Fh3)
reverse: SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, pointing to a shield inscribed Chi-Rho which rests on a low column.
exergue: -/-//ANTΓ, diameter: 15,0-15,5mm, weight: 2,85g, axis:5h,
mint: Antioch, date: 400-404 A.D., ref: RIC X 104, Sear 20895, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Eudoxia_AE-3_AEL-EVDOXIA-AVG_GLORIA-ROMANORVM_Cross_CONA_RIC-X-79_Constantinopolis-_Q-001_axis-11h_14,5mm_2,28g-s.jpg
166 Aelia Eudoxia (?-404 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC X 079, -/†//CONA, AE-3, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, Scarce! #1103 views166 Aelia Eudoxia (?-404 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC X 079, -/†//CONA, AE-3, GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, Scarce! #1
avers: AEL EVDOXIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing necklace and earrings, crowned by the hand of God. (Ex1/Fh3)
reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM, Empress enthroned facing, arms crossed over the breast, crowned by the hand of god., † in the right field.
exergue: -/†//CONA, diameter: 14,5mm, weight: 2,28g, axis:11h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 395-401 A.D., ref: RIC X 079, p-247, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
IMG_4541.JPG
193. Aelia Flaccilla (Wife of Theodosius I)18 viewsAv.: AEL FLACCILLA AVG
Rv.: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Ex.: CON ?

AE Maiorina Ø23 / 4.2g
RIC IX 55 Constantinople
Scarce!
Juancho
IMG_8237.JPG
198. Aelia Eudoxia (Wife of Arcadius)23 viewsAv.: AEL EVDOXIA AVG
Rv.: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Ex.: SMKA

AE Follis Ø16-18 / 2.8g
RIC X 103 Cyzicus
1 commentsJuancho
ClaudiusMessalinaAE20.jpg
1ap_2 Messalina36 viewsThird wife of Claudius, married in 38 (?)

AE 20, Knossos mint

Bare head of Claudius left, CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS

Draped bust of Messalina right, VALERIA MESSALINA [CAPITONE CYTHERONTE IIVIR] or [CYTHERO CAPITONE] (end of legend off flan)

According to Suetonius: [Claudius] was betrothed twice at an early age: to Aemilia Lepida, great-granddaughter of Augustus, and to Livia Medullina, who also had the surname of Camilla and was descended from the ancient family of Camillus the dictator. He put away the former before their marriage, because her parents had offended Augustus; the latter was taken ill and died on the very day which had been set for the wedding. He then married Plautia Urgulanilla, whose father had been honoured with a triumph, and later Aelia Paetina, daughter of an ex-consul. He divorced both these, Paetina for trivial offences, but Urgulanilla because of scandalous lewdness and the suspicion of murder. Then he married Valeria Messalina, daughter of his cousin Messala Barbatus. But when he learned that besides other shameful and wicked deeds she had actually married Gaius Silius, and that a formal contract had been signed in the presence of witnesses, he put her to death and declared before the assembled praetorian guard that inasmuch as his marriages did not turn out well, he would remain a widower, and if he did not keep his word, he would not refuse death at their hands. . . . [He later married Agrippina Jr.]

He had children by three of his wives: by Urgulanilla, Drusus and Claudia; by Paetina, Antonia; by Messalina, Octavia and a son, at first called Germanicus and later Britannicus. . . .

But it is beyond all belief, that at the marriage which Messalina had contracted with her paramour Silius he signed the contract for the dowry with his own hand, being induced to do so on the ground that the marriage was a feigned one, designed to avert and turn upon another a danger which was inferred from certain portents to threaten the emperor himself. . . .

He was so terror-stricken by unfounded reports of conspiracies that he had tried to abdicate. When, as I have mentioned before, a man with a dagger was caught near him as he was sacrificing, he summoned the senate in haste by criers and loudly and tearfully bewailed his lot, saying that there was no safety for him anywhere; and for a long time he would not appear in public. His ardent love for Messalina too was cooled, not so much by her unseemly and insulting conduct, as through fear of danger, since he believed that her paramour Silius aspired to the throne. . . .

Appius Silanus met his downfall. When Messalina and Narcissus had put their heads together to destroy him, they agreed on their parts and the latter rushed into his patron's bed-chamber before daybreak in pretended consternation, declaring that he had dreamed that Appius had made an attack on the emperor. Then Messalina, with assumed surprise, declared that she had had the same dream for several successive nights. A little later, as had been arranged, Appius, who had received orders the day before to come at that time, was reported to be forcing his way in, and as if were proof positive of the truth of the dream, his immediate accusation and death were ordered. . . .


1 commentsBlindado
PostumusAntVirtus.jpg
1de Postumus31 views259-268

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C POTVMVS PF AVG
Virtus standing right, holding spear & shield, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 93

Postumus rebelled against Gallienus and ruled Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Eutropius wrote: When affairs were in this desperate condition, and the Roman empire almost ruined, POSTUMUS, a man of very obscure birth, assumed the purple in Gaul, and held the government with such ability for ten years, that he recruited the provinces, which had been almost ruined, by his great energy and judgment; but he was killed in a mutiny of the army, because he would not deliver up Moguntiacum, which had rebelled against him, to be plundered by the soldiers, at the time when Lucius Aelianus was endeavouring to effect a change of government.

According to the Historia Augusta: This man, most valiant in war and most steadfast in peace, was so highly respected for his whole manner of life that he was even entrusted by Gallienus with the care of his son Saloninus (whom he had placed in command of Gaul), as the guardian of his life and conduct and his instructor in the duties of a ruler.- Nevertheless, as some writers assert though it does not accord with his character he afterwards broke faith and after slaying Saloninus seized the imperial power. As others, however, have related with greater truth, the Gauls themselves, hating Gallienus most bitterly and being unwilling to endure a boy as their emperor, hailed as their ruler the man who was holding the rule in trust for another, and despatching soldiers they slew the boy. When he was slain, Postumus was gladly accepted by the entire army and by all the Gauls, and for seven years he performed such exploits that he completely restored the provinces of Gaul. . . . Great, indeed, was the love felt for Postumus in the hearts of all the people of Gaul because he had thrust back all the German tribes and had restored the Roman Empire to its former security. But when he began to conduct himself with the greatest sternness, the Gauls, following their custom of always desiring a change of government, at the instigation of Lollianus put him to death.

Zonaras adds: Galienus, when he had learned of [his son's death], proceeded against Postumus, and, when he had engaged him, was initially beaten and then prevailed, with the result that Postumus fled. Then Auriolus was sent to chase him down. Though able to capture him, he was unwilling to pursue him for long, but, coming back, he said that he was unable to capture him. Thus Postumus, having escaped, next organized an army. Galienus again marched upon him and, after he had penned him in a certain city of Gaul, besieged the usurper. In the siege, the sovereign was struck in the back by an arrow and, having become ill as a result, broke off the siege.
Blindado
DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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1ev Aelia Flaccila13 viewsAE4, small module

Diademed, draped bust right t, AEL FLACCILLA AVG
Victory seated right, inscribing chi-rho on shield set on cippus, SALVS REIPVBLICAE

RIC 35
First wife of Theodisius
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311. Postumus28 viewsPostumus was recognized as emperor in Gaul, Spain, Germany, and Britain. He set up the capital of his renegade empire at Cologne, complete with its own senate, consuls and praetorian guard. He represented himself as the restorer of Gaul on some of his coins, a title he earned after successfully defending Gaul against the Germans. The coins issued by Postumus were of better workmanship and higher precious metal content than coins issued by Gallienus.

In 263, Gallienus launched a campaign to defeat Postumus. After initial success against Postumus, Gallienus was seriously wounded and needed to return home. After his failed attempt at defeating Postumus, Gallienus was occupied with crises in the rest of his empire and never challenged Postumus again.

Aureolus, a general of Gallienus who was in command of Milan, openly changed sides and allied himself with Postumus. The city of Milan would have been critical to Postumus if he planned to march on Rome. For whatever reason, Postumus failed to support Aureolus, who was besieged by Gallienus.

Postumus, one of Gallienus usurpers, was himself challenged by a usurper in 268. Laelianus, one of Postumus' top military leaders, was declared emperor in Mainz by the local garrison and surrounding troops (Legio XXII Primigenia). Although Postumus was able to quickly capture Mainz and kill Laelianus, he was unable to control his own troops and they turned on him and killed him, since they were dissatisfied with him for not allowing them to sack the city of Mainz (Aur. Vict. 33.8; Eutrop. 9.9.1).

Following the death of Postumus, his empire lost control of Britain and Spain, and the shrunken remains of the Gallic Empire were inherited by Marius.

Postumus AR Antoninianus. IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left with scales & cornucopiae. RIC 75. RSC 199.
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4) Antony: Sosius49 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
RM0002
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4.1 Aelia Capitolina (Roman Jerusalem)49 viewsAntoninus Pius
Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) city coin
Sear 1526, Meshorer 12

obv. IMP CAE ANTONINVS AVG P PP
laureate Antoninus Pius
Zam
ag_1.jpg
4.2 Aelia Capitolina (Roman Jerusalem)68 viewsAntoninus Pius
Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) city coin

rev. M AVRELIVS CAESAR C A C
young Marcus Aurelius, bare head, Caesar
Zam
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515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ælia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallæcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menæa and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
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516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
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517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
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601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
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602. Theodosius II30 viewsFlavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East.

He was heavily influenced by his eldest sister Pulcheria who pushed him towards Eastern Christianity. Pulcheria was the primary driving power behind the emperor and many of her views became official policy. These included her anti-Semitic view which resulted in the destruction of synagogues.

On the death of his father Arcadius in 408, he became Emperor. In June 421 Theodosius married the poet Aelia Eudocia. They had a daughter, Licinia Eudoxia, whose marriage with the Western Roman Emperor Valentinian III marked the re-unification of the two halves of the Empire, even if for a short time. Theodosius created the University of Constantinople, and died in 450 as the result of a riding accident.

Bronze AE4, S 4297, VG, .96g, 12.3mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 408-450 A.D.; obverse D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse no legend, cross in wreath, obscure mintmark in exergue; ex Forum
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604a. Leo I and Verina326 viewsAelia Verina (died 484) was the wife of Byzantine emperor Leo I, and the mother-in-law of Zeno, who was married to her daughter Ariadne.

Her origins are unknown. She originally supported Zeno while the young emperor Leo II was still alive, but after Leo II's death in 474 she turned against her son-in-law. She conspired against him with her lover Patricius, her brother Basiliscus, the Isaurian general Illus, and general Theodoric Strabo, forcing Zeno to flee Constantinople in 475. Basiliscus then briefly became the rival emperor, until 476 when Verina reconciled with Zeno.

Verina then conspired against Illus, who discovered the plot, and with Zeno's consent had her imprisoned. This led to another conspiracy led by Verina's son Marcian (a grandson of the emperor Marcian), but Marcian was defeated and exiled.

In 483 Zeno asked Illus to release Verina, but by now Illus was opposed to Zeno's Monophysite sympathies. Illus allied with Verina and declared a general named Leontius emperor, but Zeno defeated them as well. Illus and Verina fled to Isauria, where Verina died in 484.

Bronze AE4, RIC 713-718, obverse D N LE-O (or similar), Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse Empress Verina standing facing holding cross on globe and transverse scepter, b - E across fields, From uncleaned pile

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71. Aelia Flaccilla.46 viewsAE 2, 383 - 386, Antioch mint.
Obverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG / Diademed bust of Aelia Flaccilla.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE / Empress standing, arms folded on breast.
Mint mark: ANTE
4.80 gm., 21.5 mm.
RIC #62; LRBC #2760; Sear #20621.
1 commentsCallimachus
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
Medio Centenional Aelia Flacila RIC IX Heraclea 17.jpg
A143-02 - Aelia Flaccilla (383 - 386 D.C.)33 viewsAE4 Medio Centenional 13 x 12 mm 0.9 gr.
Esposa de Teodosio I y madre de Arcadio y Honorio.

Anv: "[AEL FL]AC-CILLA AVG" - Busto con elaborado peinado con varias diademas de perlas, Collar de 1 hilo de perlas y manto sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-[PVB]LICAE" - Victoria sentada a derecha, dibujando el signo Chi-Ro en un escudo apoyado en una pequeña columna. "SMHA" en exergo.

Acuñada 383 - 386 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Heraclea) #17 Pag.196 - Cohen Vol.VIII #5 Pag.165 - DVM #6 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9245.c. Pag.290
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A143-03 - Aelia Flaccilla (383 - 386 D.C.)39 viewsAE4 Medio Centenional 14 mm 1.3 gr.
Esposa de Teodosio I y madre de Arcadio y Honorio.

Anv: "AEL FLAC-CILLA[ AVG]" - Busto con elaborado peinado con varias diademas de perlas, Collar de 1 hilo de perlas y manto sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-[PVBLI]CAE" - Victoria sentada a derecha, dibujando el signo Chi-Ro en un escudo apoyado en una pequeña columna. "•SMHA" en exergo.

Acuñada 383 - 386 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Heraclea) #17 Pag.196 - Cohen Vol.VIII #5 Pag.165 - DVM #6 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9245.c. Pag.290
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A143-06 - Aelia Flaccilla (383 - 386 D.C.)46 viewsAE4 Medio Centenional 14x13 mm 1.3 gr.
Esposa de Teodosio I y madre de Arcadio y Honorio.

Anv: "AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG" - Busto con elaborado peinado con varias diademas de perlas, Collar de 1 hilo de perlas y manto sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-PVBLICAE" - Victoria sentada a derecha, dibujando el signo Chi-Ro en un escudo apoyado en una pequeña columna. "CONΕ" en exergo.

Acuñada 383 - 386 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.5ta.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinopolis) #61 Pag.229 - Cohen Vol.VIII #5 Pag.165 - DVM #6 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9245.d. Pag.290
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A143-15 - Aelia Flaccilla (383 - 386 D.C.)49 viewsAE2 Maiorina 23 mm 4.3 gr.
Esposa de Teodosio I y madre de Arcadio y Honorio.

Anv: "AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG" - Busto con elaborado peinado con varias diademas de perlas, Collar de 1 hilo de perlas y manto sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-PVBLICAE" – Emperatriz de pié de frente, viendo a su izquierda, sus brazos cruzados sobre su pecho. "CONSΕ" en exergo y ”+” en el campo derecho.

Acuñada: Probablemente Emisión póstuma 386 - 388 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.5ta.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinopolis) #82 Pag.233 tipo 2 - Cohen Vol.VIII #6 Pag.165 (6f) - DVM #5 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9246.b. Pag.290 – Sear RCTV (1988) #4193
mdelvalle
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A147-02 - Arcadio (383 - 408 D.C.)35 viewsAE3 Centenional ó Decárgiro 16 x 17 mm 2.2 gr.
Hijo mayor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias orientales.

Anv: "DN ARCADI - VS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[VIRTVS] EXERCITI" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a derecha, portando lanza en mano derecha y descansando la izquierda en un escudo. La victoria, de pié a su lado lo corona con una corona que ella sostiene con su mano derecha, en la izquierda porta una hoja de palma. "ALEA ó B" en exergo.

Acuñada 395 - 401 D.C.
Ceca: Alejandría (Off.Incierta)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.X (Alexandria) #75 Pag.247 - DVM #35 Pag.325 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9331.f. Pag.297 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4233 - Carson #2917
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A147-10 - Arcadio (383 - 408 D.C.)39 viewsAE4 Medio Centenional 14 mm 1.4 gr.
Hijo mayor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias orientales.

Anv: "DN ARCADIVS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VOT V" - Leyenda en dos líneas dentro de una corona de laureles. "SMKA" en exergo.

Acuñada 383 D.C.
Ceca: Cízico (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Cyzicus) #20d Pag.244 - DVM #35 Pag.325 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9316.d. Pag.296 - Sabatier #47
mdelvalle
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A147-15 - Arcadio (383 - 408 D.C.)54 viewsAE2 Maiorina 23 x 22 mm 5.1 gr.
Hijo mayor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias orientales.

Anv: "DN ARCADI - VS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, portando lanza y escudo, viendo a derecha. Sobre su cabeza una mano sostiene una corona de laureles.
Rev: "GLORIA RO - MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando labarum (estandarte militar con signo Chi-Ro en su bandera) en mano derecha y descansando la izquierda en su escudo. A su izquierda un prisionero sentado a izquierda viendo a derecha. "SMHA" en exergo.

Acuñada 383 - 387 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.X (Heraclea) #12 Pag.195 - DVM #24 Pag.325 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9313.c. Pag.295 - Sabatier #29
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A147-17 - Arcadio (383 - 408 D.C.)67 viewsAE2 Maiorina pecunia 19 x 20 mm 5.6 gr.
Hijo mayor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias orientales.

Anv: "[DN ARCADI] - VS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de rosetones y perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella.
Rev: "GLORIA RO - MANORVM" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a derecha, portando labarum (estandarte militar) en mano derecha y globo en izquierda. "ANTB" en exergo.

Acuñada 392 – 395 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía (Off. 2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Antiochia) 68d Pag.294 - DVM #25 Pag.325 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9323.e. Pag.297
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Hijo mayor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias orientales.

Anv: "DN ARCADI-VS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONCOR-DIA AVGGG" – Cruz rodeada por la leyenda. "SMHA" en exergo.

Acuñada 404 - 406 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.X #123A Pag.250 - DVM #385 Pag.326 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9334.a. Pag.298 – Carson #1996
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A148-02 - Aelia Eudoxia (383 - 408 D.C.)28 viewsAE3/4 Decárgiro/centenional 16,7 mm 2,42 gr.
Esposa de Arcadio.

Anv: "AEL EVDOXIA AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas y vestida, viendo a derecha. Sobre ella "La Mano de Dios" coronándola.
Rev: "SALVS REIPVBLICAE" – Victoria sedente en una coraza, inscribiendo un crismón en un escudo, apoyado sobre un cippo. "ANTΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada: 401 - 403 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía (Off.3ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.X #104 Pag.249 - DVM #6 Pag.326 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9357.d Pag.300 – LRBC II #2800 - DOCLR #288 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4241
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A149-02 - Honorio (393 - 423 D.C.)58 viewsAE3 Centenional ó Decárgiro 16 x 17 mm 2.2 gr.
Hijo menor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias occidentales.

Anv: "DN HONORI - VS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS EXERCITI" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a derecha, portando lanza en mano derecha y descansando la izquierda en un escudo. La victoria, de pié a su lado lo corona con una corona que ella sostiene con su mano derecha, en la izquierda porta una hoja de palma. "SMKB" en exergo.

Acuñada 395 - 401 D.C.
Ceca: Cízico (Off.2da.) Acuñación Oriental de su hermano Arcadio en su nombre.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.X (Cyzicus) #68 Pag.247 - DVM #44 Pag.318 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9433.d. Pag.304 - Cohen Vol.VIII #56 Pag.186 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4256 - Carson #2581
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A149-12 - Honorio (393 - 423 D.C.)65 viewsAE3 Doble Nummi 14 mm 2.3 gr.
Hijo menor de Teodosio I y Aelia Flaccila, Co-augusto de su padre y su sucesor al mando de las provincias occidentales.

Anv: "DN H[ONORI - VS] PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha. " * " detrás del busto.
Rev: "GLORIA - ROMA - NORUM" Leyenda tipo A - Los dos emperador vestidos militarmente de pié de frente, viendo cada uno al otro, el derecho (Teodosio II) es mas pequeño, ambos portando lanza y descansando sobre su escudo. "TESA ó B ó Γ" en exergo. Estimo la ceca en función de la división en la leyenda del reverso Tipo A, única Tessalonica con esta leyenda.

Acuñada 408 - 423 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.Incierta) Acuñación Oriental de su Sobrino Teodosio II en su nombre.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.X (Thessalonica) #395 Pag.271 - DVM #39 Pag.318 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9436.a. Pag.305 - Cohen Vol.VIII #26 Pag.181 - Carson #1876
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R: turreted and draped bust of Tyche right.
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Aelia Eudocia AE3. Constantinople mint 63 viewsO: AEL EVDOCIA AVG, head right
R: CONCORDIA AVG, empress enthroned, facing, arms crossed over breast, star in l. field (var. B)
13mm 1.79g RIC X 428
casata137ec
Eudoxia-Salvs-SMKA.jpg
AELIA EUDOXIA228 viewsEudoxia AE3 20mm

Attribution-RIC X Cyzicus 103

OBV-AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, diademed draped bust right

REV-SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, pointing one hand at a shield inscribed with the Chi-Rho as she balances it atop a column with her other hand.

Ex- SMKA

3 commentsblack-prophet
00510-AeliaEudoxia.JPG
Aelia Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia AE3
16 mm 2.83 gm
O: AEL EVDOXIA AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing pearl necklace and earrings, hair elaborately weaved with
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory seated right on cuirass, inscribing Christogram on shield set on a column
John Campbell
Eudoxia_101.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia - AE 422 viewsCyzicus
401-403 AD
diademed, draped bust right, being crowned by Hand of God
AEL EVDO_XIA AVG
Victory seated right, holding shield with (XP) inside on column
SALVS REI_PVBLICAE
SMKA?
RIC X 103, SRCV 4241?
1,78 g 15-14 mm
Johny SYSEL
aelia-eudoxia-hh-photo.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia - Victory Seated18 viewsRoman Imperial, Aelia Eudoxia AE3, Antioch, (383-408 AD), 2.3g, 17mm

Obverse: AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing necklace and earrings, crowned by hand of God.

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirasse, pointing to a shield inscribed chi-rho which rests on a low column, Mintmark ANTΓ. "Health of the Republic"

Reference: RIC X 104

Ex: Holding History +photo
Gil-galad
Eudoxia_GLORIA_ROMANORVM_b.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia AE3 follis52 viewswife of Arcadius
GLORIA ROMANORVM
scarce
Tibsi
eudoxia lg.JPG
AELIA EUDOXIA wife of Arcadius. Circa 400 AD AE/R57135 viewsEudoxia wife of Arcadius AE15 -- draped bust right, crowned by hand of God / Empress enthroned facing, arms crossed over breast, crowned by hand of god. right field: +. .RIC 83Marjan E
eudoxia_104.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia, RIC X, (Arcadius) 104194 viewsAelia Eudoxia, wife of Arcadius, Augusta AD 400-401
AE 3, 17mm
struck in Antiochia, 3rd officina, AD 401-403
obv. AEL EVDO - XIA AVG
Bust, draped and diademed, wearing neck-lace and ear-ring; above hand of
god crowning her with wreath
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Victory std. r. on cuirass, supporting shield on small column which is inscribed
with christogramm, with r. hand pointing to it.
in ex. ANT Gamma
RIX X, Antiochia 104
Scarce, about VF, with reddish sandpatina

Eudoxia was the daughter of the Frank Bauto and in fact the ruler until her death AD 404.
Jochen
109- Aeliea Flaccilla.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla65 viewsAE4, 378-383 AD, Constantinople mint.
Obv-AEL FLACCILLA AVG, Diademmed , draped bust right.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated inscribing shield with Chi-Rho.
CONE in exergue
13mm.
RIC 61 , C
3 commentsjdholds
2540368.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla43 viewsAelia Flaccilla. Augusta, AD 379-386/8. Æ (22mm, 4.40 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Diademed and draped bust right / Victory seated right, inscribing Christogram on shield set on column; CONЄ. RIC IX 55.5; LRBC 2149.4 commentsTLP
00501-AeliaFlaccilla.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla18 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE4
13 mm 1.04 gm
O: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG
Pearl-diademed and draped bust right
R: SALVS REIP-VBLICAE
Victory seated right, inscribing Christogram on shield;
Koffy
AEL_FLA-1-ROMAN.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla67 viewsAE4
Uncertain mint, 378-388 A.D.
13mm, 1.20g

Obverse:
AEL FLACCILLA AVG
Draped with elaborate head-dress, necklace, and mantle, bust right.

Reverse:
SALVS REIPVBLCAE
Victory seated right, writing Chi-Rho on shield resting on small column.
rubadub
aeliia_ae2.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla12 viewsRIC 62 (Antiochia), LRBC 2760 AE2 Obv: AELFLACCILLAAVG - Diademed, draped bust right.
Rev: SALVSREIPVBLICAE Exe: ANTE - Aelia Flaccilla standing facing, holding scroll with both hands. 383-388 (Antioch).
James b4
Aelia_Flaccilla.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla810 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE4.
SMHA Mint, 13mm, 1.04g
Obv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust right with elaborate headdress,
necklace and mantle
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, writing chi-rho on shield
resting on small column.
RIC IX Heraclea 17

RARE
Romanorvm
Aelia_Flaccilla~0.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla 225 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE2. Struck 383 AD, Constantinople mint.

AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield resting on small column. T in right field, mintmark CON Epsilon. RIC 81 var (RIC lists T in left field only).

FLACILLA (Aelia), the first wife of Theodosius the Great; born in Spain, daughter of Antonius, prefect of Gaul, she was celebrated for her piety, and for her benevolence to the poor. Arcadius and Honorius were her sons by the above named emperor, who married her before his accession to the imperial throne.

She died in Thrace, A. D. 388. Her brass coins are of the lowest degree of rarity, her gold and silver most rare.

A half aureus of this empress's, on which she is styled AEL FLACILLA AVG, bears her head crowned with a diadem enriched with precious stones. - SALVS REIPVBLICAE is the legend, and a victory inscribing on a shield the monogram of Christ, is the type of the reverse.
2 commentssuperflex
118~1.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla AD 379-386 Antioch (ANTE)159 viewsObv: AELFLAC-CILLAAVG
Rev: Empress Standing, Holding Scroll
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
RIC IX 62
Laetvs
flac~0.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla (379 - 386 A.D.)58 viewsÆ2
O: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Empress standing with hands folded on her chest. SMKr" in exergue.
Cyzicus mint
5.5g
RIC IX 24; LRBC 2567
4 commentsMat
00579.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla (RIC 61, Coin #579)16 viewsAelia Flaccilla, RIC 61, AE4, Constantinople, 378 - 383 AD.
Obv: AEL FLACCILLA AVG Draped bust right with elaborate head-dress, necklace and mantle.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE (CONЄ) Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus.
Size: 13.3mm 1.40g
MaynardGee
00715.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla (RIC 62, Coin #715)24 viewsRIC 62 (Scarce), AE Maiorina, Antioch, 383-386 AD.
OBV: AEL FLACCILLA AVG; Draped bust right with an elaborate head dress, necklace and mantle.
REV: SALVS REIPVBLICAE (ANTE); Aelia Flaccilla standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast.
SIZE: 23.9mm, 5.68g
1 commentsMaynardGee
W3.png
Aelia Flaccilla (wife of Theodosius I) Æ Centenionalis. 9 viewsAntioch, AD 383-388. AEL FLACCILLA AVG, draped bust right, with elaborate head-dress, necklace and mantle / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Empress standing facing, head right, with arms folded; ANTЄ in exergue. RIC 62. 5.56g, 22mm, 11h. Very Fine.Chris C2
1298_Aelia_Flaccilla_SMKG.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla - AE 25 viewsCyzicus
25 Aug 383 - 386 AD
diademed and draped bust right
AEL FLAC_CILLA AVG
Aelia Fllaccila facing, head right, draped, arms folded on breast
SALVS REI_PVBLICAE
SMKΓ
RIC IX Cyzicus 24 (R), LRBC II 2567, SRCV V 20620, Cohen VIII 6
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Aelia Flacilla1.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla - AE 2 of Constantinople16 viewsAEL. FLACCILLA AVG.
SALVS REIPVBLICAE , victory seated right inscribing christogram on a shield ; exergue CONA (Constantinople)
Ginolerhino
1299_Aelia_Flaccilla_CONG.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla - AE 43 viewsConstantinople
25 Aug 383 - 386 AD
diademed and draped bust right
AEL FLAC_CILLA AVG
Victory seated right, inscribing christogram on shield set on cippus
SALVS REI_PVBLICAE
CONΓ
RIC IX Constantinople 61.2, LRBC II 2162, SRCV V 20626, Cohen VIII 5
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Aelia Flacilla 2.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla - AE215 viewsAEL. FLACCILLA AVG.
SALVS REIPVBLICAE , Aelia Flaccilla standing facing ; exergue ANTE (Antioch)
Ginolerhino
Aelia_Flaccila.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla 383-388 A.D. 9 viewsAelia Flaccilla 383-388 A.D. Ae 15.6~16.8mm. 1.72g. Obv: AEL FLAC-CILLA, draped bust with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle. Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a chi-rho on shield set on narrow column.ddwau
Aelia_Flaccilla_1_opt.jpg
AELIA FLACCILLA AE2, RIC 62, SALVS REIPVBLICAE46 viewsOBV: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
REV: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Empress standing left, holding scroll, ANTЄ in ex.


Minted at Antiochia, 379-385 AD
Legatus
Aelia_Flaccilla_b.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE445 viewsfirst wife of Theodosius I.
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Tibsi
afae4.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE4 383 CE.17 viewsObverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing chi-rho symbol on shield resting on a small column.
Uncertain mint. 12.43 mm., 1.2 g.
NORMAN K
Aelia-Flaccilla.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE4, Antioch. Victory26 viewsRoman Imperial, Aelia Flaccilla AE4, Antioch, AD 383-388, 1.7g, 12mm

Obverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing Chi-Rho onto shield set on column. Mintmark ANƐ. "Health of the Republic"

Reference: RIC IX Antioch 64

Ex: Aegean Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
a1_(2).jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE4.21 views AEL FLAC-CILLA, draped bust with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle / SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a chi-rho on shield set on narrow column.ancientone
Aelia_Faccilla.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE4. Constantinopla.8 views13 mm., 1.06g _2200E

Aelia Flacilla AE 22mm. 378-388 AD. Draped bust right, in elaborate headdress, necklace, & mantle / Victory seated right on throne, inscribing a Christogram on a shield set on a column. Mintmark CONA. RIC IX Constantinople 55; Sear 20611.
Antonivs Protti
salvsreipvblicaeORweb.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla Æ, Constantinople mint21 viewsO: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield resting on small column
CONSE in ex.
15mm .83g
casata137ec
Aelia Flaccilla Heraclea RIC 17.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla Heraclea RIC 1713 viewsAE4, Heracle mint, 383-388 AD
Obverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, Diademed and mantled bust right
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing shield on her knee
.SMHA in exergue, Heraclea mint, RIC 17
13mm, 1.6gm
Jerome Holderman
Aelia Flaccilla RIC 61.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla RIC 6117 viewsAE4, Constantinople mint, 383-388 AD
Obverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, Diademed, draped bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE: Victory seated right inscribing Chi Rho on shield which rests in her lap.
CONE in exergue
13mm , 0.9gm
Jerome Holderman
0751-310np_noir.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla, AE2 - *144 viewsConstantinople mint, 5th officina
AEL FLAC CILLA, diademed and draped bust right
SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing ChiRo on a shield. CON epsilon at exergue
4.75 gr
Ref : Cohen # 4, LRBC # 2167
1 commentsPotator II
Aelia Flaccilla- Antioch.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla, AE2, Antioch19 viewsAE2, 379-395 AD, Antioch mint
Obverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated inscribing Christogram on shield which sits on a low column. Hammer? in field.
ANT(Gamma) in exergue
21mm , 5.1gms
Jerome Holderman
aelia43.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla, Antioch92 viewsAEL FLAC-CILLA,
draped bust with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE,
Victory seated right, inscribing a chi-rho on shield resting on small column.

ANT(gamma)
Antioch Mint

Ae 21mm
2 commentsarizonarobin
AELIA FLACILLA.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla, Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 or 388 A.D., wife of Theodosius I36 views11099. Bronze AE 2, S 4193, VF, 4.764g, 23.22mm, 0o, uncertain mint, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; obverse AEL FLACCILLA AVG, diademed and draped bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, empress standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast; partially uncleaned1 commentsMarjan E
AeliaFlaccilla2.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla, Constantinople249 viewsAEL FLAC-CILLA AVG
Bust draped with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle
SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress standing, facing, head right, arms folded at breast
CONSΕ Large Chi-rho in right field
Constantinopolis year 383-388

RIC IX Constantinopolis 82; Cohen 6
Ae2; 21-22mm; 3.88g


One of my favorite examples of desert pantina
7 commentsarizonarobin
collage~11.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla, Constantinople51 viewsAEL FLAC-CILLA AVG
Diademed & draped bust right

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Victory seated right, inscribing Chi-Rho onto shield

CONS
Constantinople Mint

Ae;1.29g;13-14mm
1 commentsarizonarobin
collage3~0.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla, Cyzicus44 viewsAEL FLAC-CILLA AVG
Bust draped with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress standing facing, head right, hands folded at breast

E: SMKΓ
Cyzicus Mint

RIC 24
Ae2; 22mm; 5.17g
arizonarobin
Aelia_Flaccilla_RIC_28.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla, RIC 289 viewsAEL FLACCILLA AVG
SALUS REIPVBLICAE
AE4, 10mm, 1.15g
Diademed, draped bust right
Victory seated right on cuirass, pointing one hand at shield inscribed with Chi-Rho, balanced atop a column
SMNΓ in ex.
Nicomedia mint
novacystis
aelia_flaccilla_Heraclea_25.2.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla, RIC IX, Heraclea 2581 viewsAelia Flaccilla AD 379-388, 1st wife of Theodosius I
AE- AE 2, 4.73g
Heraclea 1st officina, 25 Aug. 383 - 28 Aug. 388
obv. AEL FLAC - CILLA AVG
Bust, draped with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle, r.
rev. SALVS REI - PVBLICAE
Empress standing frontal, head r., with arms crossed before breast
in ex. dot SMHA
star in l. field, cross in r. field
RIC IX, Heraclea 25 type 2; C.6
scarce, good VF, green patina

Usually all coins of Aelia Flaccilla are not common
4 commentsJochen
Aelia Flaccilla- Antioch-2.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla- Antioch-224 viewsAE2, 383-388 AD Antioch mint
Obverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, Diademmed and draped bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscriping Chi Rho on a shield she holds in her lap. T in right field
ANT(Gamma) in exergue
21mm, 4.09gm
RIC 61.2
Jerome Holderman
flacillaex.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla-Salvs Reipvblicae AE2153 views Attribution-RIC IX Constantinople 55.5 LRBC 2149

Obv. AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG
Rev. SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Rf. T
Ex. CON epsilon
black-prophet
flaccillaNicoB.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla-Salvs Reipvblicae AE2-Not in RIC142 viewsAttribution-Aelia Flaccilla 378-388 AD. Van Meter 5

Obv.AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG- Draped bust right, in elaborate headdress, necklace,
& mantle
REV. SALVS REI-PVBLICAE- Empress standing facing, arms folded over chest
LF. Branch
EX. SMNB
black-prophet
coin280.JPG
Aelia Flacilla7 viewsecoli
Aelia Flacilla~0.jpg
Aelia Flacilla16 viewsObverse: AELIA FLACILLA, bust facing right diademed

Reverse: Victory seated, inscribing Chi-Ro on shield.

Size: AE4
Mint: Heraclea mint.
Marjan E
1606_1607.jpg
Aelia Flacilla, AE4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE3 viewsAE4
Aelia Flacilla
died 386AD
Issued: 379 - 383AD
13mm 0.73gr
O: AEL FLACILLA AVG; Diademed, draped bust, right.
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE; Victory seated right, holding shield with CHI-RHO on column.
Exergue: ANTε
Antioch Mint
Aorta: 36: B1, O1, R1, T3, M2.
Zurqieh Coins
10/1/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
elia_eudoxia_salrep_cizico.jpg
Aelia Flacilla, Salvs Reipvblicae, Costantinopoli44 viewsantvwala
elia_flacilla,_salreip,_cost.jpg
Aelia Flacilla, Salvs Reipvblicae, Costantinopoli (PBQ)21 viewsantvwala
PULCHER-1.jpg
Aelia Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II. Augusta, 414-453 CE.321 viewsÆ 4 (14 mm, 0.82 gm). Constantinople mint, 414-423 CE.
Obv: AEL PVLCH-ERIA AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, wearing necklace and earring.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated r., inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus; CON? in exergue.
Sear 4309; Goodacre 9; Tolstoi 43; LRBC 2226.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
00615-AeliaVerina.JPG
Aelia Verina20 viewsAelia Verina AE2
13 mm 1.04 gm
O: AEL FLACCILLA AVG
Pearl-diademed and draped bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory seated right, inscribing Christogram on shield; CONE
Koffy
LEO1-1.jpg
Aelia Verina, wife of Leo I. Augusta, 457-484 CE.283 viewsÆ 4 (10 mm, 0.82 gm). Constantinople mint, 457-484 CE.
Obv: D N LEO Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Leo I right.
Rev: Verina standing holding transverse scepter and globus cruciger, B E at sides.
RIC 714; Vagi 3798.
2 commentsEmpressCollector
00720-AeliaZenonis_.JPG
Aelia Zenonis29 viewsAelia Zenonis AE4
10 mm 1.2 gm
O: Pearl-diademed and draped bust right
R: Large Zenonis monogram
Koffy
479c.jpg
aelia106-14 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS. Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: COL AEL C COM, → P F. She-wolf standing right, head forward, suckling Romulus and Remus.
24 mm, 10.00 gms

Sofaer 106
Charles M
1263.jpg
aelia111-14 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: COL AEL CAP COMM, → P F. Tyche within tetrastyle temple with central arch, holding bust and scepter, right foot on uncertain object. Nikes between outer columns.
26 mm, 10.71 gms

Sofaer 111
Charles M
1290.jpg
aelia116-18 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: IMP C M AV ANTONINVS. Laureate bust right.
Rev: Tyche standing left, resting on scepter and holding small bust over altar in front of her; in left field legionary standard with eagle; in exergue, wine cup.
23 mm, 9.37 gms

Sofaer 116
Charles M
1305.jpg
aelia116-25 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: [IMP C M AV ANTONINVS]. Laureate bust right.
Rev: [COL A C C] CPF. Tyche standing left, resting on scepter and holding small bust over altar in front of her; in left field legionary standard with eagle; in exergue, wine cup.
23 mm, 7.50 gms

Sofaer 116
Charles M
1546c.jpg
aelia120-117 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: ...AELIA..., The stone of Emesa, surmounted by eagle, carried on quadriga facing.
23 mm, 11.04 gms

Sofaer 120
Charles M
1545c.jpg
aelia120-214 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: The stone of Emesa, surmounted by eagle, carried on quadriga facing.
24 mm, 8.96 gms

Sofaer 120
Charles M
lg_capitolina.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)20 viewsAntoninus Pius (Augustus)
Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
AE - / 22mm / -
(IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP) - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
C Α C - tetrastyle arched temple; inside Tyche-Astarte stands half left in chiton, parazonium at side, foot raised (on globe), small bust in right, scepter in left
Mint: (138-161 AD)
Ref: SNG 594; Y. Meshorer, The Coinage of Aelia Capitolina (1989), 72, 70; BMC p. 84, 12; L. Kadman, The Coins of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem 1956), 12
Scotvs Capitis
capitolina.jpg
Antoninus Pius Aelia Capitolina41 viewsAntoninus Pius (Augustus)
Judea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
AE22
Ob: (IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP) - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv: C Α C beneath tetrastyle arched temple; inside Tyche-Astarte stands half left in chiton, parazonium at side, foot raised (on globe), small bust in right, scepter in left
Ref: SNG 594; Y. Meshorer, The Coinage of Aelia Capitolina (1989), 72, 70; BMC p. 84, 12; L. Kadman, The Coins of Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem 1956), 12

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/6397/
Scotvs Capitis
Aelia Capitolina-Antonius Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius, (138-161 CE), Æ, city coin of Aelia Capitolina69 viewsBronze of Antoninus Pius. 138-161 CE. 7.44 g, 23mm, minted in Jerusalem (Aelia Capitolina) in Judea.

Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS AVG PPP; Laureate draped bust right
Reverse: CO(olony) AE(lia) CA(pitolina);Turreted bust of Tyche right, wearing calathus.

Reference: Meshorer, Aelia 21; Rosenberger 11, SNG ANS 600.

Added to collection: July 29, 2006
Daniel Friedman
Arcadius.jpg
Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.10 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 65(c), Fair, Thessalonica, 1.301g, 13.9mm, 180o, 28 Aug 388 - spring 393 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left carrying trophy and dragging captive, P in left field, TESG in exergue; scarce;

Flavius Arcadius was the son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla. Born in 377 A.D., Arcadius was raised to the rank of Augustus by his father at the age of six. Upon the death of Theodosius in 395 A.D., Arcadius was given the Eastern half of the Roman empire while his brother Honorius received the Western half. Arcadius inherited none of his great father's skills and was under the influence of variously Rufinus the Praetorian prefect, Eutropius a courtier eunuch, the Goth Gainas, Empress Eudoxia and another Praetorian prefect Anthemius. His greatest personal accomplishment in life was his beautiful handwriting. Arcadius died in 408 A.D. and was succeeded by his young son Theodosius II.
b70
aelia_decius_tyche.png
BCC rgp20 (10)34 viewsRoman Provincial
Aelia Capitolina
Trajan Decius 249-251C.E.
OBV:IMP C C MES Q TRA
DECIVS [AVG] ]luar. bust rt.
REV: COL AEL KAP CON
P F Tyche std left holding
human bust, eagle above,
victory behind. Axis:0
AE 26mm approx.11.25g
Meshorer 153, scarce type

v-drome
decius_aelia_serapis.jpg
BCC rgp21x49 viewsRoman Provincial
Aelia Capitolina
Trajan Decius 249-251C.E.
Obv:IMP C C MES Q TRA DECIVS AVG
Laureate bust right.
Rev:[COL] AEL KAP CON P F
Serapis wearing modius, seated left on throne,
holding staff, Cerberus at feet.
AE 26mm. 13.14gm. Axis:0
Ref: Sofaer 141, pl. 80, different dies, citing Meshorer 154
v-drome
anton_aurelius_jerusalem.png
BCC rgp30 (BCC 19)32 viewsRoman Provincial
Aelia Capitolina-Jerusalem
Antoninus Pius - Marcus Aurelius
Obv:IMP ANTONIN[VS] AVG [P]PP
Luar, draped bust rt.
Rev:AVRELIO CAES A[ ] CAC
Bareheaded, draped, bust rt.
Axis:180 AE22x20mm. approx. 9.0g.
Meshorer 38
v-drome
Hadrian_Aelia_Boar.jpg
BCC rgp5x41 viewsRoman Provincial
Aelia Capitolina-Jerusalem
Hadrian 117-138 C.E.
Obv:[IMP HADRIANO
AVG?] laur. bust rt.
Rev: COL AEL boar std. rt.
AE 12mm 2.25 gm. Axis:180
Poss. reference: Meshorer 4?
v-drome
Caelia.jpg
Caelia - AE sextans8 views220-150 BC
head of Athena right wearing crested helmet
●●
trophy of captured arms, helmet spear, palm branch and shield decoraded with Medusa head; club left
KAIΛIN_ΩN
HNItaly 762; Weber 439; SNG ANS 670-671; BMC Italy pg. 133, 3; SNG Copenhagen 632; SNG Morcom 201 var.; Laffaille -
Johny SYSEL
djertetORweb.jpg
Diadumenian Tetradrachm, Prieur 1645 50 viewsJudaea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) mint, Diadumenian Tetradrachm, 217-218 A.D. AR 25mm 11.46g, Prieur 1645 per Michel Prieur (*second known example)
O: (…) ,bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: DHMARX EX UPATOC (or similar),eagle standing, looking left, wreath in beak
1 commentscasata137ec
EB0813_scaled.JPG
EB0813 Aelia Flaccilla / SALVS REIPVBLICAE11 viewsAelia Flaccilla (wife of Theodosius I died 386), AE 2, Heraclea 383-388 AD.
Obverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust right wearing headdress, necklace and mantle.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Empress standing facing, head right, hands crossed on breast. Star in left field, Cross in right field. Mintmark dot SMHA.
References: RIC IX Heraclea 25.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 4.195g.
EB
EB0814_scaled.JPG
EB0814 Aelia Flaccilla / Victory7 viewsAelia Flaccilla (wife of Theodosius I died 386), AE 4.
Obverse: Diademed head of Aelia Flaccilla right.
Reverse: Victory seated right inscribing a Christogram on a shield.
References: -.
Diameter: 16.5mm, Weight: 2.157g.
EB
EB0815_scaled.JPG
EB0815 Aelia Flaccilla / SALVS REIPVBLICAE9 viewsAelia Flaccilla, AE 2, Antioch.
Obverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, diademed & draped bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Empress standing left, holding scroll. Mintmark ANT [?].
References: RIC IX Antioch 62.
Diameter: 21.5mm, Weight: 4.903g.
EB
equadaelcapORweb.jpg
Elagabalus, BMC Palestine 89, Hendin 81625 viewsAelia Capitolina mint, Elagabalus, 218-222 A.D. AE, 24mm 8.82g, BMC Palestine 89, Hendin 816
O: IMP C MA ANTON-IN AVG, Laur., dr., and cuir., bust r., wearing paludamentum
R: COL A C C P F, Quadriga draws cart carrying Stone of Elagabal, eagle in relief on stone, wavy (ivy) branch in ex.
casata137ec
jugateres.jpg
ELAGABALUS--AELIA CAPITOLINA18 views218 - 222 AD
struck 222 AD
AE 22.5 mm 7.54 g
O: Jugate busts of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander (as Caesar) right, both laureate, draped, and cuirassed right
R: Tyche standing left, right foot on helmet, right hand over horned altar (to left), left hand holding scepter (to right); aquila to left, cup in exergue.
JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
Meshorer, Aelia 142; Rosenberger 82 Very rare.
laney
Eudoxia_Victory~0.JPG
Eudoxia Victory13 viewsAttribution: Eudoxia
Obv: AELEVDOXIAAVG- Diademed, draped bust right, being crowned by Hand of God
Rev: SALVSREIPVBLICAE- Victory seated right, holding shield with Chi-Rho design on column

Forvm:
Yes and could be either Nicomedia (SMNA) RIC Nicomedia 102 (S) or Cyzicus(SMKA) RIC Cyzicus 103 (R). It depends on the third letter from
the mintmark which is not clear from my desktop
Wildwinds:
Aelia Eudoxia, AE3, 400-404, Cyzicus, Officina 1

RARE
Romanorvm
Eudoxia.JPG
Eudoxia Wife of Arcadius42 views
Reverse: Victory inscribing chi-rho on shield. Constantinople mint. Aelia Eudoxia was the daughter of a Frankish officer serving in the Roman army. In 395, through the efforts of a palace eunuch, she was married to emperor Arcadius (r. 383-408). She exerted a strong influence over her husband and also bore 5 children, including future emperor Theodosius II. Eudoxia died from a miscarriage in 404.

17mm and weighs 2.4g,
Marjan E
Eudoxia,_GLORIA_ROMANORVM,_empress_enthroned,_400-404_AD,_scarce.jpg
Eudoxia, GLORIA ROMANORVM, empress enthroned, 400-404 AD, scarce 14 viewsAelia Eudoxia AE3. Alexandria mint. AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing pearl necklace and earrings, hair elaborately weaved with long plait up the back of head and tucked under diadem, hand of God holding wreath above head GLORIA RO_MANORVM Empress seated facing, head right, arms folded with hands on breast, hand of God crowning from above; Cross in right field, mintmark ALEA. RIC X 84
2.8g / 15mm _674
Antonivs Protti
fgbdfb_042.JPG
Eudoxia, GLORIA ROMANORVM, empress enthroned, 400-404 AD, scarce11 viewsAelia Eudoxia AE3. Alexandria mint. AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing pearl necklace and earrings, hair elaborately weaved with long plait up the back of head and tucked under diadem, hand of God holding wreath above head GLORIA RO_MANORVM Empress seated facing, head right, arms folded with hands on breast, hand of God crowning from above; Cross in right field, mintmark ALEA. RIC X 84
2.8g / 15mm
Antonivs Protti
HadrianDecapolis.jpg
Hadrian, head right187 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Gadara, Decapolis
9266. Bronze AE 23, Spijkerman 26; SNG ANS 6, 1300, F, Decapolis, Gadara mint, 11.04g, 22.8mm, 0o, 71/72 A.D.; obverse OYECPACIANOC KAICAP, laureate head right, countermarked with "Hadrian's head"; reverse GADARA, Tyche standing left holding wreath and cornucopia, date LELP left ( = 71/72 A.D. ); interesting coin that relates to both the first and second jewish revolts; $160.00
The `Hadrian's head` countermark was struck during the Second Jewish Revolt (`Bar Kochbah` uprising) led by Simon Bar Kochba against Rome, 133 - 135 A.D. In 135 A.D., Hadrian destroyed Jerusalem and founded `Aelia Capitolina` on the site. The Jews were dispersed throughout the Roman Empire.

whitetd49
HadrQu01.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 1012, Quadrans, undated (extremely rare coin of the mines)14 viewsÆ quadrans (3,4g, Ø 17mm, 6h). PINCVM mint, AD 119-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: AELIANA / PINCEN/ SIA, in three lines within oak wreath.
RIC 1012 (R2); Cohen 120; Strack 455a
Ex D. Ruskin, Oxford, March, 2003
Charles S
samos_geta_SNGcop1744.jpg
Ionia, Samos, Geta, SNG Copenhagen 174441 viewsGeta as Caesar, AD 198-209
AE 16, 3.18g
obv. AV K - AI GETAC
Head, r.
rev. CAM, and in ex. IWN
Rivergod Imbrasos, wearing himation, nude to hips, leaning l., holding in r. hand
reed and resting with l. elbow on cornucopiae and vase from which water flows l.
SNG Copenhagen 1744
about VF

In the marshes at the mouth of the river Imbrasos the Ionian colonists under Proklos are said to have found a wooden image of Hera which was caught in a willow brushwood. Therefore they built an altar beside this tree. From this altar the famous temple of Hera, the Heraion, originated. Imbrasos himself has a daughter Okyrrhoe by the Samian nymph Chesias (a hypostasis of the goddess Artemis). Okyrrhoe later was seduced by Apollo (Aelian, Hist.animal. 15.23).
For more informations please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.
Jochen
MarcusAureliusCapitolina.jpg
Judaea, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Marcus Aurelius AE2495 viewsObv: Laureate bust of Aurelius right,
Rev: Commodus on horseback right, raising right hand.
161-180 CE. Æ25, 10.4g.
Meshorer, Aelia Capitolina 60, BMC 57
ancientone
Clipboard4~4.jpg
Judaea, Aelia Capitolina(Jerusalem), Diadumenian AE2455 viewsObv: M OPEL DIADV-MENIANVS C. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right – seen from behind.
Rev: COL AEL CAP COMM / PF. Tetrastyle temple with Tyche-Astarte standing left, right foot on uncertain object, holding sceptre with left hand, uncertain object in r., statues of Nike on either side.
24mm, 7.97g.
1 commentsancientone
aelia_capitolina_ant_pius_Meshorer21.jpg
Judaea, Aelia Capitolina, Antoninus Pius, Meshorer 2137 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE 22
obv. ANTONI - NVS AVG P PP
bust, draped, laureate, r.
rev. .CA - P - CO.AE.
Tyche, draped, wearing mural crown, hairs in chignon behind, r.
Meshorer 21; Rosenberger 11
F/about VF, green-brown patina

Aelia Capitolina, under Hadrian for Jerusalem (gr. Hierosolyma)
Jochen
jugateres~0.jpg
JUDAEA, AELIA CAPITOLINA--ELAGABALUS20 views218 - 222 AD
struck 222 AD
AE 22.5 mm 7.54 g
O: Jugate busts of Elagabalus and Severus Alexander (as Caesar) right, both laureate, draped, and cuirassed right
R: Tyche standing left, right foot on helmet, right hand over horned altar (to left), left hand holding scepter (to right); aquila to left, cup in exergue.
JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)
Meshorer, Aelia 142; Rosenberger 82 Very rare.
laney
coins21.JPG
Judaea; Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), Hardian50 viewsAelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) in Judaea.

In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem, in Judaea, left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus, the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple, which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision, which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence "barbaric". These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian's report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation "I and the legions are well". However, Hadrian's army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar, a fortified city 10 km. southwest of Jerusalem. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian did not allow the Jews to bury their dead. According to the Babylonian Talmud, after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph "may his bones be crushed" (שחיק עצמות), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple.

JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Hadrian. 117-138 CE. Æ 22mm (11.03 gm, 11h). Struck 136 CE. IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG P P, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust / COL AEL KAPIT, COND in exergue, Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen right; vexillum behind. Meshorer, Aelia 2; Hendin 810; SNG ANS -.
ecoli
rjb_lael_09_07.jpg
Laelian: Mint 256 viewsIMP C LAELIANVS PF AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG
Victory walking right holding wreath and palm branch
Mint 2
RIC 9
mauseus
00267-Laelianus.JPG
Laelianus65 viewsLaelianus Antoninians
20 mm 3.43 gm
O: IMP C LAELIANVS P F AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust right
R: VICTORIA AVG
Victory advancing right, holding palm frond and wreath
5 commentsKoffy
054.jpg
Laelianus Antoninianus55 viewsRIC Vb 9 Mainz, C4
3.23 g, 19 mm x 20 mm
IMP C LAELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath & palm
Rare
Mark Z2
laelian_9.jpg
Laelianus, RIC V, 210 viewsLaelianus, March or April - May 269
AR - Antoninianus, 3.21g, 19.04mm, 180°
Mainz, 269
obv. [I]MP C LAELIANVS PF [AVG]
Bust, cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. VICTO - [R - I] - A AV - G
Victoria advancing r., holding palm branch over l. shoulder and wreath in raised r. hand
ref. RIC V/2, 9; C.4
rare, about VF
Jochen
fullsizeoutput_d9.jpeg
LUCANIA. Sybaris. AR Stater50 viewsCirca 550-510 B.C. (28mm, 8.43 g, 12h). Obverse: bull standing left, head reverted; VM in exergue. Reverse: incuse bull standing right, head reverted. S & S Class B, pl. XLVIII, 4-8 Gorini 2; HN Italy 1729. VF, toned.

Ex. Volteia Collection

This coin was minted before the destruction of Sybaris by its neighboring city state Kroton in 510 B.C. We do not know the exact nature why Kroton destroyed this prosperous city. Ancient sources provided us several accounts of Sybaris being a place of hedonism and excess to the point that the very name Sybaris became a byword for opulent luxury, and its destruction was a result of some divine punishment (Diodorus Siculus, Strabo, Aelianus, Athenaeus). Modern revisionist view of the possible demise of Sybaris might be the result of its vast natural wealth and successful trade with its neighbors, which gave Kroton the economic reason to subjugate it. The Sybarites established a new city called Thourioi (Thurii/Thurium) with the help of Athenian settlers. However, the Sybarites were again expelled by the Athenians in 445 B.C. and founded another city for the last time called Sybaris on the Traeis.
Sybaris might be the first to mint coins with an incuse reverse and this practice spread to other Greek city states like Kroton, Metapontion, and Poseidonia. The similar weight and technique in producing these incuse-type coins facilitated trade between the cities mentioned. The bull might represent the river god Crathis or Sybaris, or both: each deity could represent either the obverse or reverse of the coin. The ethnic VM (or YM) in exergue are the first two Greek letters of Sybaris spelled retrogradely. A curious placement of the letter sigma sideways made it appear as letter M on most coins of Sybaris.
5 commentsJason T
1479_Macrinus_Aelia_Capitolina.jpg
Macrinus - Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem)5 viewsAR tetradrachm
217-218 AD
laureate head right
AVT K M OΠEΛ CE_MAKPINOC C
eagle facing, head left, wreath in beak, jug between legs, thyrsos and ivy leaf below
ΔHMAPX EΞ YΠA TOC Π Π
Prieur 1642
ex Dionysos
ex Emporium Hamburg
Johny SYSEL
05475q00.jpg
MARKET, NERO, (Macellum Magnum)2624 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, RIC 400, S 1963 variety, VF, 13.65g, 28.9mm, 180o, Lugdunum mint, 64 A.D.; obverse NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P, laureate head left; reverse MAC AVG S C, front view of the Macellum Magnum (great market), two-story domed section with porticoes approached by steps with a dolphin on each side and containing statue of Neptune holding a long scepter on pedestal, wings of two stories of unequal height.

The Macellum Magnum was a shopping mall located on the Caelian Hill in Rome, dedicated by Nero in 59 A.D. It had flanking wings of slightly different construction and a central dome possibly 120 feet (36 meters) in diameter. Records indicate it was still open in the 4th century. Part of it may be incorporated into the church of S. Stefano Rotundo which stands today. It was the model for many medieval government buildings in Europe, all U.S. state capitols and the U.S. national capitol building.
5 commentsJoe Sermarini
76.jpg
Nerva Denarius - Concordia Exercitum (RIC II 3)155 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 97 AD
3.42g

Obv: Laureate bust of Nerva (R)
IMP NERVA CAES AUG PM TRP COS II PP

Rev: CLASPED HANDS holding legionary Eagle placed upon prow. CONCORDIA EXERCITUM (Harmony with the Army) in exergue.

On the same day as Domitian's assassination, the Senate declared the elderly Nerva emperor. He vowed to restore liberties which had been curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian. However, Nerva who was 66 years old and childless, struggled in his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army.

In October 97 these tensions came to a head when the Praetorian Guard, led by Casperius Aelianus, laid siege to the Imperial Palace and took Nerva hostage. He was forced to submit to their demands, agreeing to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death and even giving a speech thanking the rebellious Praetorians! Nerva was unharmed in this assault, but his authority was damaged beyond repair. He realized that his position was no longer tenable and shortly thereafter, he announced the adoption of Trajan as his successor, and with this decision all but abdicated.

This wonderfully ironic issue was no doubt minted in the wake of the Praetorian revolt in an effort to assure the masses that the emperor was still in control.

RIC II 3 RSC 25
1 commentsKained but Able
[901a]_NervaAntiochAE26.jpg
Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D., Antioch, Syria195 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Syria, p. 182, 261, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.524g, maximum diameter 25.0mm, die axis 0o, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; Obverse: IMP CAESAR NERVA AVG III COS, laureate head right; Reverse: large S C in wreath, D below; unbelievable portrait. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)

David Wend

Introduction
Although short, the reign of Marcus Cocceius Nerva (A.D. 96-98) is pivotal. The first of Edward Gibbon's so-called "Five Good Emperors," Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Claimed as an ancestor by all the emperors down to Severus Alexander, he has traditionally been regarded with much good will at the expense of his predecessor, Domitian.

Ancestry
Nerva could claim eminent ancestry on both sides of his family. On the paternal side, his great-grandfather, M. Cocceius Nerva, was consul in 36 B.C.; his grandfather, a distinguished jurist of the same name, accompanied Tiberius on his retirement to Capri in 26 A.D. On his mother's side an aunt, Rubellia Bassa, was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. In addition, a great-uncle, L. Cocceius Nerva, played a part in the negotiations that secured a treaty between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C

Early Career and Life under Domitian
Nerva was born on 8 November, 30 A.D. Little is known of his upbringing beyond the fact that he belonged to a senatorial family and pursued neither a military nor a public speaking career. On the other hand, he did hold various priesthoods and was a praetor-designate. More importantly, as praetor designate in 65, Nerva was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor Nero.

As a result, he received triumphal ornaments and his statue was placed in the palace. Following Nero's fall in 68, Nerva must have realized that support of Vespasian and the Flavian cause was in his best interests. In 71 his loyalty was rewarded with a joint consulship with the emperor, the only time that Vespasian ever held the office without his son Titus. It was under the reign of Vespasian's other son, Domitian, that Nerva's political fortunes were ultimately determined, however. He shared the ordinary consulship with Domitian in 90, an honor that was perhaps the result of his alerting the emperor about the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the governor of Upper Germany, in 89. Even so, like so many others of the senatorial class, Nerva came under scrutiny in the final years of Domitian's reign, when the emperor was unwilling to tolerate any criticism.

Whether or not Nerva was forced to withdraw from public life during Domitian's final years remains an open question. What is not in dispute is that he was named emperor on the same day that Domitian was assassinated in September, 96. Indeed, in some respects the accession was improbable, since it placed the Empire under the control of a feeble sexagenarian and long-time Flavian supporter with close ties to the unpopular Domitian. On the other hand, Nerva had proven to be a capable senator, one with political connections and an ability to negotiate. Moreover, he had no children, thereby ensuring that the state would not become his hereditary possession.

Imperial Initiatives
Upon taking office, Nerva made immediate changes. He ordered the palace of Domitian to be renamed the House of the People, while he himself resided at the Horti Sallustiani, the favorite residence of Vespasian. More significantly, he took an oath before the senate that he would refrain from executing its members. He also released those who had been imprisoned by Domitian and recalled exiles not found guilty of serious crimes. Nevertheless, Nerva still allowed the prosecution of informers by the senate, a measure that led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

In the area of economic administration Nerva, like Domitian, was keen on maintaining a balanced budget. In early 97, after appointing a commission of five consular senators to give advice on reducing expenditures, he proceeded to abolish many sacrifices, races, and games. Similarly, he allowed no gold or silver statues to be made of himself. Even so, there was some room for municipal expenditure. For the urban poor of Italy he granted allotments of land worth 60 million sesterces, and he exempted parents and their children from a 5% inheritance tax. He also made loans to Italian landowners on the condition that they pay interest of 5% to their municipality to support the children of needy families. These alimentary schemes were later extended by Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few. By early 98 he dedicated the forum that Domitian had built to connect the Forum of Augustus with the Forum of Peace. It became known as the Forum of Nerva, or the Forum Transitorium. Nerva also built granaries, made repairs to the Colosseum when the Tiber flooded, and continued the program of road building and repairs inaugurated under the Flavians. In addition, pantomime performances, supressed by Domitian, were restored.

In the military realm, Nerva established veterans' colonies in Africa, a practice that was continued by the emperor Trajan. Normal military privileges were continued and some auxiliary units assumed the epithet Nervia or Nerviana. We are not well informed beyond these details, and any military action that may have occurred while Nerva was emperor is known sketchy at best.

Nature of Nerva's Government
Nerva's major appointments favored men whom he knew and trusted, and who had long served and been rewarded by the Flavians. Typical was Sextus Julius Frontinus. A consul under Vespasian and governor of Britain twenty years earlier, Frontinus came out of retirement to become curator of the water supply, an office that had long been subject to abuse and mismanagement. He helped to put an end to the abuses and published a significant work on Rome's water supply, De aquis urbis Romae. As a reward for his service, Frontinus was named consul for the second time in 98. Similarly, the emperor's own amici were often senators with Flavian ties, men who, by virtue of their links to the previous regime, were valuable to Nerva for what they knew. Thus do we find the likes of A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiiento, one of Domitian's ill-reputed counselors, seated next to Nerva at an imperial dinner. Nerva was less willing to consult the Senate as a whole. In many cases he preferred the opinions of his own consilium, and was less submissive than many senators would have liked. This attitude may have been responsible for hostile discontent among several senators.

Mutiny of the Praetorians and the Adoption of Trajan
It was not long before the assassination of Domitian came to work against the new emperor. Dissatisfied that Domitian had not been deified after his death, the praetorian guards mutinied under Casperius Aelianus in October 97. Taking the emperor as hostage, they demanded that Nerva hand over Domitian's murderers. The emperor not only relented, but was forced to give a public speech of thanks to the mutineers for their actions. His authority compomised, Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 to announce the adoption of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, governor of Upper Germany, as his successor. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed imperator and granted the tribunicia potestas. Nerva's public announcement of the adoption settled succession as fact; he allowed no time to oppose his decision. From the German victory, Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus and conferred the title on Trajan as well. He also made Trajan his consular colleague in 98.

Death and Deification
On January 1, 98, the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Three weeks later he died at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. From his headquarters at Cologne, Trajan insisted that Nerva's ashes be placed in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the senate to vote on his deification. We are further told that he dedicated a temple to Nerva, yet no trace of it has ever been found. Nor was a commemorative series of coins issued for the Deified Nerva in the wake of his death, but only ten years later.

Conclusion
Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Copyright (C) 1998, David Wend.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
P_Paetus.jpg
P. Aelius Paetus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
²143 BC
¹138 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
X
Dioscuri riding on horses right holding spears and reins; stars over their heads
P·PAETVS
ROMA
¹SRCV I 110, Crawford 233/1, Sydenham 455, RSC I Aelia 3
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Sol

Unusual full nominative form of monetal's name. Moneyer was grandson of Q. Aelius Paetus, consul 167 BC.
Johny SYSEL
AR 46 D.jpg
P. Aelius Paetus Roman Republic Denarius31 viewsDenarius. P. Aelius Paetus, 138 BC. Helmeted hd. of Roma r., X behind. Rev. Dioscuri galloping r., P PAETVS below, ROMA in ex. RRC 233/1. CRR 455. RSC Aelia 3.Tanit
Aelia_Flacilla_1.jpg
RIC 9, p.291, 62 - Aelia Flacilla Antiochia29 viewsAelia Flacilla
Syria, Antiochia
Obv.: AEL FLACCILLA AVG , Draped bust right
Rev.: SALVS REI PVBLICAE Aelia Flacilla standing facing head right, ANTE
Ae, 5.55g, 21.7mm
Ref.: RIC.62 pl. 14/17
1 commentsshanxi
aelia flacilla.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - AELIA FLACILLA29 viewsBronze AE 4, S 4194, aVF, uncertain mint, 1.43g, 13.4mm, 0o, 19 Jan 383 - 386 A.D.; obverse AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust right with elaborate head-dress, necklace and mantle; reverse SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on throne writing Chi Rho monogram on shield atop a small column; dpaul7
ROMAN_EMPIRE_-_Aellia_Flacilla.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE -- AELIA FLACCILLA, AUGUSTA 91 viewsROMAN EMPIRE -- AELIA FLACCILLA, AUGUSTA (379-386 AD) AE2. Made 383-388 AD. Obv.: Bust draped with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle faces right; AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG Rev.: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE with CON epsilon in exergue, Empress standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast. T in right field. Constantinople mint. Reference: RIC IX Constantinople 82.dpaul7
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ROMAN EMPIRE / Hadrian Sestertius with Galley 53 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, references: BMCRE III 1409, RIC II 706, SRCV II 3596; condition: aVF, nice bust and galley, artificial patina probably covering epoxy filled pits or other damage, mint: Rome, weight: 23.649g, maximum diameter: 33.0mm, die axis: 0o, date struck: 132 - 135 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITATI AVG, galley rowed left over waves, five oarsmen, steersman under an arched shelter at the stern, vexillum on prow, S - C flanking ship, COS III P P in ex; additional comments: ex Morton & Eden auction 59 (13 - 14 Nov 2012), part of lot 957; ex Kenneth Edwin Day Collection.

In 132, a messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba started the Bar Kokhba revolt, a war of liberation for Judea against Rome. At first the rebellion was a success. The legion X Fretensis was forced to retreat from Jerusalem to Caesarea. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, was destroyed. The Jews re-established their sacrifices and struck coins to celebrate their independence. The rebellion would last for only 30 months. By 135, the Romans had recaptured Jerusalem, Simon bar Kokhba was dead, and the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. Jerusalem was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina and an altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple. The Jews remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

EX FORVM Auction.

My additional comments : Coin in hand under sun light is a piece of Art.
2 commentsSam
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Eudoxia, Nummus_SALVS_REIPVBLICAE13 viewsNumis-Student
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla - AE4 - RIC 35 (Siscia)320 viewsAE 4 of Aelia Flaccilla, 1.05g, minted in Siscia, 383-392 A.D.; obverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle; reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a chi-rho on shield resting on small column; mintmark ASIS.3 commentsPriscian
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla AE2. Constantinopolis. RIC IX : 551427 viewsObv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG. Diademed and draped bust right.
Obv: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE. Victory seated right on throne, writing Christogram on shield held on small column. In exergue, CON Epsilon (fifth officina).
11 commentsthe_Apostate
Aelia_Flaccilla.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla AE48 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE4. Augusta 19 January 379 - 386 or 388 A.D., wife of Theodosius I
Obv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust right with elaborate headdress, necklace and mantle
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, writing chi-rho on shield resting on small column; in ex. 'dot' SMHA.
RIC IX Heraclea 17,
Rare
George
Aelia_Flaccilla_Heraclea_mint.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla Augusta, 379 - 386 or 388. Heraclea mint36 viewsAE 4, 1.180 g, 14.0 mm. gVF. Obv: diademed and draped bust right; AEL FLACCILLA AVG. Rev: Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Ex: •SMH[A]. Ref: RIC 17, S 4194. RAREBard Gram O
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla, AE252 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE2. Struck 383 AD, Constantinople mint. AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace / SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield resting on small column. T in right field, mintmark CON Epsilon. RIC 81 var (RIC lists T in left field only).
1 commentssuperflex
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla, Ae4, Nicomedia, RIC 36 (R), LRBC 2386, 383-86 AD49 viewsObv: AEL FLACCILA AVG
Draped bust, right, with elaborate head-dress, wearing necklace and mantle.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Victory seated, right, inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus.
1.1 gm 12 mm Exergue: SMNЄ
Comment: First wife of Theodosius I and mother of Arcadius and Honorius.
Massanutten
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla, Heraclea207 viewsAelia Flaccilla AE4
obv: AEL FLACCILLA AVG. Diademed and draped bust right, wearing knecklace
rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory seated right, inscribing a chi-rho on shield resting on small column
exergue: dot S (?)
Struck at 383-386 A.D. at Heraclea
Van Meter 6
Note: Wife of Theodosius I, mother of Arcadius and Honorius
Jericho
Ael-Flaccilla-Salvs-Antioch.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla-Salvs Reipvblicae AE2-Not in RIC?35 viewsAelia Flaccilla Æ2 22mm.
OBV- AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, diademed & draped bust right
REV- SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Empress standing left, holding scroll
EX- ANT?-not sure on officina,although it does not appear to be epsilon.

If officina is epsilon than it will be attributed as RIC IX Antioch 62
black-prophet
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Aelia Flaccilla. wife of Theodosius I. Augusta, 379-386/8 CE.153 viewsÆ 2 (4.74 grams, 23.4mm). Constantinople mint, 383-386 CE.
Obv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, Draped bust right with elaborate head-dress and necklace.
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Flaccilla standing facing, head right, arms folded on breast. Christogram in right field, CONSE in exergue.
RIC IX 82; Sear 4193 (var); Cohen 6.
EmpressCollector
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Eudoxia, wife of Arcadius. Augusta, 400-404 CE.181 viewsÆ 3 (15 mm, 1.94 gm). Cyzicus mint, ca A.D.402.
Obv: AEL EVDOXIA AVG; diademed and draped bust right, hand holding wreath above.
Rev: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus; SMKA in exergue.
RIC 103; LRBC 2589.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
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ROMAN EMPIRE, POSTUMUS. AR ANTONINIANUS of Treveri. Struck A.D.265 - 268.74 viewsObverse: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Postumus facing right.
Reverse: IOVI STATORI. Jupiter standing facing left, head turned to right, holding thunderbolt in his left hand and sceptre in his right.
RIC V : 309 | RSC IV : 159a.

M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus was appointed commander of the Rhine legion by Valerian I. In AD 259 he rebelled against Gallienus and ruled Gaul, Spain and Britain for almost a decade. He was assassinated by his own troops in AD 268 for refusing to allow them to sack Moguntiacum which had supported Laelianus.
1 comments*Alex
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Roman Empire, VICTORINUS. Commemorative AE antoninianus of Cologne. Struck A.D.271 under Tetricus I.48 viewsObverse: DIVO VICTORINO PIO. Radiate head of Victorinus facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Eagle facing right, head turned left, standing on globe and holding wreath in beak.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC Vii : 85 | AGK 1 | Elmer 785 | Cunetio 2633
VERY RARE

A.D.271
Early in this year Victorinus was assassinated by Attitianus, an actuarius (regimental quartermaster), reportedly for reasons of personal revenge but more likely part of an officer coup. The most likely interpretation of the evidence is that Domitianus II was involved in this officer coup and, having presumably been hailed as Emperor by some of the troops, managed to secure temporary control of one of the 'Gallic' mints. However, those forces favouring Tetricus I as the new Emperor were able to assert themselves so swiftly and decisively that Domitianus’s elevation was unlikely to have lasted more than a few days. This coin, deifying Victorinus, was struck by Tetricus I towards the end of the year.
This year too, Aurelian, the central emperor, pushed the Vandals back from Pannonia and forced them to withdraw over the Danube. He also pursued the Alamanni who had entered Lombardy, closed the passes in the Alps and encircled the invaders near Pavia. The Alamanni were destroyed and Aurelian received the title Germanicus Maximus.
Also this year, Felicissimus, financial minister of the state treasury, led an uprising of mint workers in Rome against Aurelian but he was defeated and killed on the Caelian Hill.
3 comments*Alex
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Roman Imperial, Aelia Flaccilla as Augusta, AE2. Provenance: Ex Derek Aldred collection 1993, coin came with old collection ticket. Added to the Wildwinds site.9 viewsAntioch 383-388 A.D. 4.52g - 23.3mm, Axis 11h.

Obv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG - Diademed and draped bust right.

Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE - Victory seated right, inscribing a Chi-rho on a shield set on a short column, T in right field. Mintmark ANTΓ.

RIC IX 61; Γ.
scarli
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Roman Imperial: Aelia Flaccilla (378-383 CE) AE Follis, Antioch (Sear 20616; RIC IX 61)34 viewsObv: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG; diademed & draped bust right
Rev: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE; Victory seated right, inscribing Chi-Rho onto shield set on column, T in right field, ANTB in exergue
2 commentsQuant.Geek
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Roman, Aelia Flaccilla1039 viewsex FORVM - 2243. Bronze AE2, RIC 43, gVF, 3.1g, 20.8mm, 180o, Nicomedia mint, 25 Aug 383 - 386 A.D.; obverse AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, draped bust right with an elaborate head dress, necklace and mantle; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Aelia Flacilla standing facing head right, arms folded on breast, SMN[ in ex; irregular flan, excellent portrait, black patina beautifully highlighted by read earthen fill, this is the most elaborate hairstyle we have seen on this type; very rare7 commentscscoppa
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SALVS REIPVBLICAE, CONE10 viewsAELIA FLACCILLA (wife of Theodosius I, mother of Arcadius and Honorius) Æ 4. Rev. SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus, CONE in exergue, mint of Constantinople. 1.2g 14mm RIC 61(3). Podiceps
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SBCV 605 - Follis de Tibere II Constantin et Ino Anastasia émis à Cherson (578-582)6 viewsA l'avers XЄP-CONOC l'empereur Tibère et l'impératrice Ino Anastasia (aussi appelée Aelia Anastasia) debout de face, tous deux nimbés, l'empereur tenant un globe crucigère et l'impératrice un long sceptre crucigère. Une croix entre eux.
Au revers Maurice, debout de face, tenant un long chrisme. A droite, la valeur H.
Remarque : Selon la classification moderne des chercheurs Russes, il est établit que le groupe II des folles émises à Cherson couvrent les règnes de Justin II et de Tibère II. Quant à lui, W. Hahn propose un classement entre les folles avec une croix entre l'empereur et l'impératrice, ceux sans croix précéderaient ceux avec la croix, les premiers seraient donc attribuables au règne de Justin II et les seconds à Tibère II Constantin. Cette attribution de ces folles à Tibère II n'est pas certaine, nous pouvons espérer que les études des liaisons de coins permettront d'en savoir plus. A noter que l'illustration sur le MIBEC est erronée car W. Hahn présente un follis trop proche du Groupe IV, l'exemplaire présenté ici est indiscutablement un exemplaire du groupe II.
Atelier : Cherson (Crimée)
Ref : MIBEC 158b (Tibere II), Sear 605 (Maurice) - Sommer 5.71 (Justin II), DOC 299 (Maurice), Anokhin 317 (Justin II), Esty E15 (Maurice), Groupe II
13,68 g / 29-30 mm
Eric
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Selinus in Cilicia, Philippus I., AE 29, Apollo136 viewsSelinus in Cilicia, Philippus I., AE 29, 244-249 AD
Obv.: AY K M IOYΛ [ΦI]ΛΠΠOC CE , Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right (seen from behind
Rev.: TPAIANO[Π CEΛINO]YCI ΘHC [IEPAC] , Apollo standing front, patera in his right hand, rod/staff in left hand, on right side: bird (raven?) beneath
SNG France 2,686; SNG Levante 467; Lindgren I,1595; SNG Pfalz 6,1105 , (thanks to Markus for ID)

Selinus: City in Cilicia Aspera, among the principal ones on this coast and mentioned by most of the ancient geographers from Pseudo-Skylax on. It was one of the towns taken by Antiochos III in 197 B.C. (Livy 33.20), but is best known as the place where Trajan died in A.D. 117 on his way back from the East. Then it took the name of Trajanopolis (as on this), but the old one prevailed (as on this), shown by coins and other documents.

In mid-summer 117, when Trajan was returning from his Parthian campaigns, he fell ill while at Selinus in Cilicia and died on August 8. The following day his adoption of Hadrian was announced by Plotina and Attianus, the praetorian prefect who had earlier been Hadrian's guardian, with some question whether Trajan had indeed performed the act or whether it was posthumous, thanks to his widow. On August 11, which he considered his dies imperii, the army of Syria hailed its legate, Hadrian, as emperor, which made the senate's formal acceptance an almost meaningless event. This was an example of the historian Tacitus' famous dictum that an emperor could be made elsewhere than at Rome. Hadrian must then have proceeded to Selinus at once from Antioch, to catch up with Attianus, Plotina, and Matidia. He then returned to his province no later than September and stayed there at least into the new year, consolidating his administration.

Basil,of Seleucia (Vita S. Theclae, II, 17) said that the city cof Selinus, which was formerly of much importance, lost it from his time to the fifth century. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the tenth century, called it a small town. Today it is the little village of Selinti (near the city Gazipaşa) in the vilayet of Adana; there are ruins of a theatre, aqueduct, market-place, bath, etc. .
The coinage begins under the kingdom of Antiochos IV of Kommagene, and continues later from Trajan to Philip. A bishop of Selinos is recorded, under the metropolitan of Seleukeia. . Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 1019) names four bishops: Neon, present at the council of Constantinople, 381; Alypius, at Ephesus, 431; AElianus, at Chalcedon, 451; Gheon, signer of the letter of the bishops of the province to Emperor Leo, 458. The see is in the Greek "Notitiae Episcopatuum" of the Patriarchate of Antioch from the fifth to the tenth century (Vailhé in "Echos d'Orient", X, 95, 145). It was also perhaps an Armenian bishopric until the tenth century. (Alishan, Sissouan, Venice, 1899, p. 60). Eubel (Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, I, 468) names a Latin bishop in 1345.

my ancient coin database
Arminius
Aelia_Flaccilla_Salus-R_ANTE.JPG
Struck A.D.383 - 386. AELIA FLACCILLA (Wife of Theodosius I). AE2 of Antioch29 viewsObverse: AEL FLACCILLA AVG. Pearl-diademed and draped bust of Aelia Flaccilla, wearing pearl necklace and earring, facing right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory seated on cippus facing right and inscribing Christogram (Chi-Rho) on shield which is also set on a short column (cippus). In right field, T; in exergue, ANTE.
RIC IX : 61
RARE

Aelia Flaccilla was the wife of Theodosius I, and the mother of Arcadius and Honorius. She died in A.D.386.
4 comments*Alex
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Struck A.D.401 - 403. EUDOXIA. Wife of Arcadius. AE3 of Antioch4 viewsObverse: AEL EVDOXIA AVG. Diademed and draped bust of Eudoxia facing right; above, hand holding wreath.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory seated facing right, inscribing Christogram on shield set on cippus; in exergue, ANT followed by A or Δ, the exact officina is uncertain.
RIC X : 104
*Alex
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The Ladies of Rome51 viewsFaustina I
Faustina II
Lucilla
Julia Soaemias
Julia Domna
Julia Maesa
Helena
Herennia Etruscilla
Salonina
Severina
Fausta
Aelia Flaccilla
Legatus
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Trajan, RIC 607, Sestertius of AD 112-114 (Aqua Traiana)70 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.4g, Ø33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 112-114.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P laureate bust of Trajan right, light drapery on left shoulder.
Rev.: AQVA TRAIANA [in ex.] SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around] S C [left and right in ex.] Genius of the Aqua Traiana reclining left in arched shrine supported by two columns; holding reed and resting left arm on urn from which water flows.
RIC 607 [S]; Cohen 23; Strack 421; MIR 448b and pl. 89 (citing 19 examples of this variety); BMC 975; RCV 3179 var. (COS V); RHC 103:53

This type celebrates the construction of the Aqua Traiana which was dedicated on 20 June 109 constructed to improve the water supply of Rome. A branch of the Anio Novus was carried over the valley between the Caelian and the Aventine. The aqueduct terminated in the Transtiberim region of ancient Rome, the present-day Trastevere.
A lofty arcade was built upon the 'agger' of Servilius Tullius and passing over the Via Appia and the Porta Capena to the Piscina Publica. Terra-cotta water pipes with the name of Trajan and a leaden pipe inscribed AQVA TRAIANA have been found in excavations.

Certificate of Authenticity by David R. Sear / A.C.C.S., Ref. 102CR/RI/C/V, January 8, 2015
1 commentsCharles S
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Vespasian, Gardara, Tyche, AE2259 viewsBronze AE 23, Spijkerman 26; SNG ANS 6, 1300, aVF, 9.368g, 22.4mm, 0o, Decapolis, Gadara mint, 71 - 72 A.D.; obverse OYECPACIANOC KAICAP, laureate head right; reverse GADARA, Tyche standing left holding wreath and cornucopia, date LELP left ( = 71 - 72 A.D.

Obverse countermarked with female? bust right, cf. Howgego 207 (Tyche). Another option could also be the head of Hadrian and applied during the Second Jewish Revolt ("Bar Kochba" uprising) led by Simon Bar Kochba against Rome, 133 - 135 A.D. In 135 A.D., Hadrian destroyed Jerusalem and founded "Aelia Capitolina" on the site. The Jews were dispersed throughout the Roman Empire.

ex Automan collection, ex FORVM
areich
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Western Roman Empire , Honorius, AD 393-423 18 viewsAR Siliqua, Milan Mint, RIC X 1228

Grade: Ch AU: Strike 5/5: Surface 4/5

Obv. :D N HONORIVS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right.

Rev.: VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma seated left holding Victory & inverted spear, Mintmark MDPS

Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 393 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408.
Richard M10
PostumusRIC93.jpg
[1200] Postumus, Summer 260--Spring 269 A.D.43 viewsBillon Antoninianus, RIC 93 Bust Type A. RSC 419. Weight, Size; VF; Obverse:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars/Virtus, standing right, holding spear and resting on shield. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Postumus (A.D. 260-269)

Michel Polfer
Centre Universitaire de Luxembourg

Postumus is the first emperor of the so-called "Gallic Empire", which lasted from his rebellion against Gallienus in 260 AD to the surrender of Tetricus I to the central emperor Aurelian in 274 AD.

In 260 AD, the general situation of the Empire was favorable to usurpations: Valerian I, father of and co-emperor with Gallienus, had been made prisoner by the Persian king Shapur I. The news shook the Empire and in the following months, the position of his heir Gallienus became very difficult, as he had to face rebellions in several parts of the Empire. While the inner situation was thus more than unstable, the barbarians, sensing the opportunity, poured across the northern frontier. The Franks entered into Gaul, devastating Germania Inferior and Belgica. Some Frankish warrior groups pressed on as far as Spain, where they destroyed Tarragona. The Alamanni broke through the lines in Germania superior and Raetia, overran the Agri Decumates, sacked the city of Aventicum and begun to extend their destructions to the interior of Gaul. Italy itself was exposed to them, as Gallienus had withdrawn most of the troops to fight the usurper Ingenuus on the Danube. After his victory over Ingenuus, Gallienus returned to Italy and was able to defeat the Germanic invaders at Milan in midsummer 260 AD. The resulting peace was short-lived, as a new rebellion on the Danube, led by Regalianus, and the great Sarmatic invasions of 260 exposed the northern frontier. Moreover, Gallienus had to face the revolt of Macrianus and Quietus in Egypt, which removed this important province from his control.

Thus, it is not surprising that Gallienus was unable to take swift and effective military actions, when - probably in the summer of 260 AD- an other usurper, M. Cassianius Latinius Postumus, rebelled on the Rhine frontier. The exact position of Postumus on the moment of the revolt is not known, but the context makes it clear that he was commanding troops on the Rhine frontier. The direct reason for his rebellion seems to have been a quarrel about booty taken from a barbarian raiding-party destroyed on its way home by Postumus and his soldiers. While Postumus had distributed the booty to his men, the praetorian prefect Silvanus ordered him to surrender the booty to himself and the Caesar Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, whom his father had left behind as his representative in the town of Cologne, under the guardianship of Silvanus. Postumus troops rebelled and proclaimed their commander imperator. They marched against and laid siege to Cologne. The garrison in the town was compelled to hand over Saloninus and Silvanus, both were put to death.

The area controlled by Postumus after his rebellion in 260 AD consisted of Germania Inferior and Germania Superior as well as of Raetia and the whole of Gaul (except for the southern parts of Lugdunensis and perhaps also Narbonensis). From 261 AD on, it also included Britain and the Spain. Neither he nor his successors made any attempt to extend the Gallic Empire further to the south or the east.

According to the literary sources at our disposal, the first "Gallic" emperor Postumus reigned well. They praise him for his military success against the Germanic invaders, thus crediting him with the restoration of the western provinces which had been on the verge of collapse. That Postumus undertook heavy fighting against Germanic tribes is also confirmed by his coinage and by the fact that he assumed -before the 10th of December 261 AD - the title of Germanicus maximus.

In 265 AD, the central emperor Gallienus tempted to crush the usurper, but twice failed to do so. On the first occasion, the fugitive Postumus owed his life only to the carelessness of Gallienus' cavalry commander Aureolus, on the second occasion, the emperor, besieging the usurper in a Gallic town, was wounded by an arrow and had to break of the assault. It seems that thereafter Gallienus made no other serious attempt to overcome this usurpation, devoting his attention to the political and military problems in the eastern part of the Roman empire.

He could do so, because Postumus took no actions at all to march on Rome. Right from the beginning of his usurpation, Postumus thus had made it clear that he had no intentions to make a bid for Rome, that his thoughts were only for Gaul. Even when in 268 AD Aureolus, the cavalry commander of Gallienus stationed in Milan - who had succeeded to recover Raetia for the central empire- entered into rebellion and declared himself for Postumus. Postumus did not take up the implied invitation to invade Italy, finally abandoning Aureolus to his fate.

But on the other hand there is no evidence at all to support the theory that he had the intention to create a separate "Galliarum Imperium." On the contrary: Postumus - ass well as his successors - avoided in his propaganda every hint to the limited extension of his reign. He put himself clearly in the tradition of the central Roman emperors, clearly underlining the universal claim of his rule, taking all the traditional titles of the Roman emperors, including those of pontifex maximus and pater patriae, proclaiming senators and nominating his own consuls. His coins show the same universal claims, giving preference to types like Roma aeterna or pacator orbis, to salus and fides.

By the end of 265 AD, Postumus' coins joyfully proclaimed his victory, the festivities celebrating his quinquennalia continued into the following year. But while the coinage of Postumus of the years 267-268 underlined the peace and prosperity brought to his reign by the guiding hand of the emperor, the sudden deterioration of his billon coinage in 268 AD shows that Postumus was facing more and more difficulties. It is very likely that his repeated refusal to march on Rome had disturbed many of his soldiers, since only his recognition of sole ruler of the Empire might have legitimized their rebellion of 260 AD and provided them with adequate reward for their support. So the debasement of 268 was probably occasioned by Postumus' need to buy the loyalty of his men, thus forcing him to mint beyond the silver supplies which the area under his control could provide. Nevertheless, he was able to celebrate in late 268 AD the commencement of his tenth year in power as well as his entry into his fifth consulship on 1st of January 269.

These festivities were cut short early in 269 AD by the rebellion of Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus at Moguntiacum (Mainz). There is no direct written or epigraphic evidence for the office Laelianus held at the time of his revolt against Postumus, but it seems most likely that he held an office in Germania Superior, either as legatus legionis XXII Primigenie or as governor of Germania Superior. His rebellion can be explained only on the grounds of a growing dissatisfaction of the troops of the Rhine-army with their commander in chief and emperor Postumus. How deep these tensions had become became apparent after the successful action against the usurper: no sooner had Postumus taken Moguntiacum and thus ended the ephemerous rebellion of Laelianus than he was murdered by his own troops for refusing them to sack the city. In his place, the troops raised to the purple a simple soldier, Marcus Arelius Marius, shortly afterwards killed and replaced by Marcus Piavonius Victorinus.

Copyright (C) 2000, Michel Polfer. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/postumus.htm


Postumus was an incredibly skilled general and administrator. Rebelling against Gallienus, Postumus succeeded in uniting Gaul, Spain and Britain into what was essentially an empire within an empire. Enjoying tremendous military success against the Germans, he kept his Gallic Empire secure and prosperous. In 268 A.D. he quickly destroyed the forces of the usurper Laelianus, but his refusal to allow his forces to sack Moguntiacum (Mainz, Germany) led to his assassination by disgruntled troops (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TheodosiusRIC83b.jpg
[1601a] Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. 67 viewsBronze AE 2, RIC 83(b), EF, Constantinople mint, 4.389g, 22.1mm, 180o, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Emperor standing right holding standard and globe, foot on captive, cross in left field, CONSA in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ArcadiusManusDei.jpg
[1601b] Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.63 viewsARCADIUS AE2. Struck at Constantinople, 378-383 AD. Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, Hand of God above holding wreath; Reverse - GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, holding standard & resting shield at side, bound captive seated on ground to left, head right, CONG in exergue. RIC 53b. Scarce. Extremely Fine, some roughness and corrosion.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families


Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)

Geoffrey S. Nathan
University of California at Los Angeles

Introduction and Early Life
The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395.

Shortly after his birth, his father was raised to the imperial purple in 379. Events in Illyricum with the massive influx of Ostrogothic and Visigothic peoples had resulted in the defeat of the Roman army and the death of the emperor, Valens. Theodosius' first task was to confront the Visigoths who had been ravaging the Balkans. Perhaps in the wake of this difficult and almost insurmountable task, the emperor wanted to insure that his infant son would bear some legitimacy should he die on campaign. Whatever the reason, Arcadius was proclaimed Augustus in January of 383 at the age of five or six. In the following year, his younger brother was born and it seems as if Theodosius initially had been interested in preserving the theoretical position of his elder son. While Arcadius enjoyed the status of Augustus, Honorius only achieved the office of consul posterior in 386. Perhaps the eastern emperor had wanted to avoid the possible conflicts that arose earlier in the century with the family of Constantine. Recent events in the west with the assassination of Gratian by Magnus Maximus may have also played a part: Theodosius initially had to leave the murder of his imperial colleague unavenged and leave the boy- emperor, Valentinian II, largely undefended. The profusion of emperors may well have been seen by Theodosius as kindling for civil war. His own autocratic tendencies may have also meant that he saw only one possible successor for himself.

Nevertheless, Theodosius gave Arcadius very little independence in early life. When he went to campaign against Magnus in the late 380's, he placed his son under the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Tatian, who was the de facto emperor in Theodosius' absence. This began a long series of regencies for Arcadius. The strength of Tatian's position with the eastern governing class made the office of Praetorian Prefect all the more powerful in Constantinople, which in turn made it easier to dominate future emperors. When Theodosius replaced Tatian with the more malleable and more ambitious Rufinus in 392, he had appointed a minister who would centralize even greater authority under the prefecture.

By 393, the emperor's situation had changed radically. When events in the west demanded his attention again, Theodosius was in a much stronger position. The ascendancy of the general, Arbogast, and his own puppet emperor, Eugenius, in the west provided Theodosius an opportunity and, indeed, the obligation to take full control of the Empire. The chance for having his own two sons ruling both halves of Rome not only seemed practical and feasible, but such an arrangement would establish himself as the head of a new dynasty. With thoughts in that direction, Honorius was made Augustus in 393 and accompanied his father west in the summer of 394. Arcadius, although near his majority, was nevertheless placed again under the guardianship (epitropos) of the Prefect of the East. In January of 395, Theodosius the Great died and his two sons took theoretical control of the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Early Reign and the Dominance of Rufinus and Eutropius (395-399)
Arcadius was eighteen when he assumed the throne in the east. We do not know whether or not he was ready for the responsibilities. During the mid-380's, the young emperor had been educated in part by Themistius, a famous pagan statesman, philosopher, and speaker. In what way he affected Arcadius is impossible to say, but surely his teachings must have included statecraft. Perhaps because of this influence, the new emperor's attempt to establish himself as an independent force can be seen in a series of laws passed at his accession. In contrast to trying to create a military image for himself, which would not be allowed either by Rufinus or by the eastern court, he attempted to portray himself as a pious Christian emperor. He enacted several comprehensive laws against heresy and paganism.

This was not necessarily an ineffectual strategy. By celebrating his religious piety, he expressed his power in the only way available to an emperor largely controlled by his ministers. He also perhaps sought to gain support and power from the local governing and religious hierarchies in Constantinople. Arcadius also perhaps thought that he was carrying on in the tradition of his father and so, by extension, might share in some of his glory. Rufinus in contrast wanted to tie himself to the emperor through a marriage connection to his daughter. But in April of 395, Arcadius had taken advantage of the Prefect's temporary absence to marry Aelia Eudoxia, whose guardian, the general, Promotus, had been a bitter enemy of Rufinus. Arcadius had been aided in this move by his own grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eutropius, and it perhaps indicated the degree to which he wanted to be free of any regent.

But in reality, Arcadius gained little if any power. Rufinus assumed full control of the east, and the Vandal Stilicho, Theodosius' closest advisor and general, took control of Honorius in the west. The tension between east and west quickly grew when Stilicho, in command of all the eastern and western armies, tried to press his guardianship over Arcadius as well. Moreover, there was considerable resentment against Rufinus in the east for using his office to greatly enrich himself and perhaps, too, because he was a westerner. Rufinus, understanding the perils around him, acted quickly. He had Arcadius demand the return of the eastern armies at once. Stilicho acquiesced, perhaps because the general was basing his claim of guardianship on his own legitimacy: to have taken control of the east and Arcadius by force would have undermined his position there and perhaps in the west. The soldiers returned under the command of the Gothic general, Gainas. With the control of the field army, it seemed as if Rufinus was going to be more thoroughly in control of the east and over Arcadius.

He did not long enjoy his victory. When Arcadius and Rufinus came to greet the armies at Hebdoman near Constantinople in November of 395, the soldiers turned on the Praetorian Prefect and cut him down in front of the emperor. Whether Stilicho instigated the assassination is a matter of some debate, but if he did, he received no benefit from it. The armies remained and Arcadius soon fell under the sway of other ministers. Nevertheless, despite the shock and fear Arcadius may have felt at witnessing such a brutal murder, he probably missed Rufinus' presence not at all and even thought it might provide an opportunity to assert his own authority. For the bureaucracy, the death meant that maintaining civilian control over the army was paramount to their own survival.

Soon thereafter, Eutropius assumed Rufinus' place in dominating Arcadius. Since the grand chamberlain could control access to the emperor and commanded the powerful palace bureaucracy, he was well-placed to dictate what and whom the emperor saw and heard. Military officers--frequently Germanic--who dominated the western government, were held suspect by fearful and jealous civil administrators in Constantinople. Eutropius used that fear to his advantage and froze out any access they may have had to the circles of power. His decision to effectively eliminate the military's input in decision-making would eventually lead to his demise.

It is difficult to determine how popular Eutropius was either with Arcadius or with the wider population. As a eunuch and a former slave, the sources generally portray him very negatively. He nevertheless seems to have enjoyed some support from the emperor, likely aided by Eudoxia with whom the grand chamberlain had close ties. The emperor happily took annual vacations in Galatia, apparently upon the Eutropius' suggestion. Moreover, the chamberlain showed great personal courage and talent in leading a campaign against invading Huns in 397/8, for which he won the consulship and the rank of patrician in the following year of 399. He also seems to have gained considerable support from the local clergy by procuring the patriarchate of Constantinople in 398 for John Chrysostom.

Despite Eutropius' rise to power, however, eastern policy changed little. The religious policies of Theodosius and Arcadius continued, including the forced closure of pagan temples in Gaza. More significantly, tension between the two halves of the empire persisted as Stilicho continued to press for his position as guardian. Although Stilicho led periodic raids into Greece and Thrace to attack the new Visigothic king, Alaric, his victories were incomplete and were more likely meant to keep the Germanic people out of western territory. This meant, among other things, that the Visigoths were an enduring problem for the east. Eutropius in turn supported the revolt of the Count Gildo in Africa, which was under western control, in an attempt to destabilize Stilicho's control and further eastern domains.

The failure of the revolt in 398 was the first step in Eutropius' downfall. The decision to exclude the military men of the period, particularly among the growing importance of Germanic officers, created a dangerous situation. By 399, the dissatisfaction with east-west affairs and the Gildo fiasco resulted in a revolt by the Gothic count, Tribigild. He was apparently in collusion with Gainas, who had taken advantage of the crisis to be named chief general in the east (magister utriusque militiae). Gainas quickly reached an agreement with the rebel and part of the settlement was the dismissal of Eutropius, to which Arcadius--at Eudoxia's urging--agreed. The chamberlain took refuge in the Hagia Sophia, and was exiled to Cyprus. But shortly thereafter, in the autumn of 399, Eutropius was recalled, tried and executed in Chalcedon.

The Age of Eudoxia (400-404)
The death of Eutropius precipitated a serious crisis. Gainas, who had wanted high office for years, now tried to force the hand of Arcadius. Having come to a quick resolution with Tribigild, he moved from Thrace towards Constantinople in 400. With the Germanic troops supporting him, Gainas tried for six months to initiate his own primacy-- including seizing the imperial palace--but which failed. He was forced to withdraw personally from the city to regroup and planned to use his troops remaining there to seize the entire city. But they were slaughtered by the inhabitiants and he fled first to Thrace and then to Asia. Eventually Gainas was killed by the Huns later in that year. His attempted coup ensured that Germanic officers would never again be trusted by the eastern government and would forever be kept out of any important decision-making roles.

The likely successor to Eutropius had been the anti-Germanic leader, Aurelianus, who had succeeded to the Prefecture of the East in 399. But Gainas had exiled him, having forced Arcadius to hand him over, and although Aurelianus returned triumphantly after Gainas' departure, he appears to have lost his hold over the emperor. In the meantime, Aelia Eudoxia had done much to forward her own place in the government. In January of 400, she had been named Augusta, a singular distinction offered to only three other women in the previous century. Her position thus gained a semi-official legitimacy afforded to very few Roman empresses. It has been assumed that because of her beauty, her intelligence, and her fecundity (she bore Arcadius five children), she was able to assert her influence to a point where she was the new power behind the throne.

That assessment, while held by many scholars, is not entirely accurate. While there were several events in which she played a crucial part, they were not terribly important moments during Arcadius' reign. But because Eudoxia was enormously wealthy, because she delivered a male heir in 401, and because she was involved in a highly publicized and drawn out political fight with John Chrysostom, this belief that there was an assumption of power is based more on the notoriety of her acts than on actual control. The fact that there was no one clearly dominating the government nor the emperor during this time implies perhaps that Arcadius had more power during these five years of his reign than at any other time.

There are several indications that he did try to improve and assert his own position. The emperor and his court immediately came to some understanding with the west. The east at the very least gave Honorius and Stilicho moral support in their increasing problems with Alaric. In 402, the feeling of goodwill was sealed by a joint consulship between Arcadius and his brother. The emperor also sought to establish his own military prowess and Christian piety with the erection of a column set up in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 402/3. The column depicted his military victory over Gainas, crowned with a capital emblazoned with the Greek letters chi-rho, symbolizing his devotion to Christ. Arcadius' son, Theodosius II, was born in 401, and was quickly made Augustus at the age of eight months. The eastern ruler was thus interested in assuring his own dynasty.

In all these things, the emperor was largely successful, but they were largely overshadowed by the feud between his empress and the bishop of Constantinople. Eudoxia had already shown herself able in pushing her interests during the baptism of her son. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, was a much tougher opponent than her husband. John Chrysostom, a strong believer in social justice, had boorishly attacked Eudoxia and many of her friends for the conspicuous luxury in which they lived and displayed themselves. At the height of these attacks, John compared the empress to Jezebel. Eudoxia in turn used her considerable influence to inflame hostility among the clergy against the bishop. Working through Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, in 403 Chrysostom was deposed and forced into exile at a Church council convened by the emperor (the Synod of the Oak at Chalcedon). However, there was soon such turmoil and uproar in the imperial city that the bishop was recalled a few days later. But the public feuding between Eudoxia and Chrysostom continued until at last she had him banished again in 404, this time permanently. Among other things, it caused a breach between Arcadius and his brother, who had, with Pope Innocent I, tried to support Chrysostom.

Eudoxia's victory was short-lived, however. In October of 404, the Augusta died of a miscarriage. Her death was seen by some as retribution for dismissing John. Whatever the reason, her end also signaled a complete retreat into the background by the emperor and no further initiatives seem to have been pushed by the 27-year-old Augustus.

The Final Years: Anthemius and Death (404-408)
The last years of Arcadius' reign were completely dominated by his Praetorian Prefect of the East, Anthemius. It was perhaps fitting that when the emperor seems to have been most retiring, the most able and energetic of his high ministers came to power. Anthemius worked hard to solve a series of governmental abuses, continue to push for Christianization, and secure the east from attack.

Anthemius first seems to have tried to reconcile with the west, so much so that there was a joint consulship between Anthemius and Stilicho in 405. This might have also been meant to symbolize the Prefect's new dominance, however. Additionally, a number of new laws were passed, curtailing paganism, Judaism and heresy. He tried to make use of the continuing problem of incoming Germanic peoples to combat the Isaurian tribes which had been plaguing Asia Minor since 403. While it failed to halt either group's incursions, it was nevertheless a practical and intelligent strategy. As a means of protecting the imperial capital, Anthemius also strengthened the walls around Constantinople. Our records for the last years of Arcadius' rule are quite spotty, but the emperor himself seems to have completely vanished, even symbolically, from the political scene.

In May of 408, Flavius Arcadius died at the age of 31 of unknown causes. Our only physical description of Arcadius is heavily influenced by the generally low regard in which he was held. The emperor was supposedly short, thin and dark-complected. A more kindly correspondent described him as good-natured and temperate. His son succeeded him without any controversy and the government remained unchanged. Arcadius thus left the world much as he entered it: without much significance and overshadowed by more powerful forces.

Assessment
Despite the ineffectual nature of Arcadius and his rule, a number of significant changes occurred during his stewardship of the eastern empire. His inability to forcefully or at least effectively govern meant that there were few consistent or long-range goals of his administration. With the exception of trying to emphasize the emperor's piety, an important development in the history of the Byzantine monarchy, Arcadius and his ministers were for the most part simply reacting to events.

The emperor became an even more remote figure to the general public. Even in the capital city itself, he was rarely seen: we read in one account that people came running to see the emperor for the first time when he happened to be praying in a local church. A series of "orientalizing" court practices no doubt continued in order to emphasize the symbolic separation of the emperor from the rest of society. The hieratic, almost semi- divine nature of the imperial person, also became a feature of the eastern ruler.

Perhaps of greatest importance was the political and cultural split between east and west. With the death of Theodosius, the two halves of the Roman Empire increasingly went their separate ways. For the most part, the west was thrown back upon its own resources, unable to deal with the problems of the fifth century. The east proved more compact and more resilient: it largely weathered the political storms from without and within.

Moreover, Constantinople fully became the imperial capital of the east, a Roma nova. The emperor rarely left the city and the palace officials became more influential than many of the more theoretically important ministers outside the city. Constantinople was also made an archepiscopate and Chrysostom and others started to push strongly for its primacy in the east. Both public and private building projects beautified and enlarged the city. Under Arcadius' reign, it truly became the second city of the Roman Empire.
Finally, the hard stance against Germanic officers in Roman government became a central feature in the east. While the reasons for this development were inspired largely out of fear and perhaps racism, the eastern Roman Empire did manage to avoid the largely detrimental succession of Germanic generalissimos who controlled the west in the fifth century. It also encouraged the eastern rulers in the following century to take hard lines against other peoples, including the Isaurians, the Huns and the Persians. Taken in all, the era of Arcadius was far more important than Arcadius himself. He perhaps had his father's pretensions, but none of the skills or powers necessary to leave his mark on the Empire.

By Geoffrey S. Nathan, University of California at Los Angeles
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue130 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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