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Search results - "366"
DenLepidusPaullus.jpg
34 viewsDenarius - 62 BC. - Mint of Rome
L. AEMILIVS LEPIDVS PAVLLVS - Gens Aemilia
Obv.: Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA around
Rev.:Aemilius Lepidus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left. TER above, PAVLVS in ex.
Gs. 3,8 mm. 18
Cr415/1, Sear RCV 366, Grueber 3373



Maxentius
26994378_523586884690828_3661574888219627162_n.jpg
7 viewsAntonivs Protti
27655012_527891867593663_6892989988932247293_n.jpg
7 viewsAntonivs Protti
Sear-366.jpg
6 viewsJustin II, with Sophia. 565-578. Æ Half Follis (20mm, 6.62 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 8 (572/3). Nimbate figures of Justin and Sophia seated facing on double throne, holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter, respectively / Large K; cross above, date across field; TЄS. DOC 73; MIBE 70a; SB 366. Quant.Geek
100_3660.jpg
35 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with brushed nickel finish hardware and locking doors. The collector specifically requested no felts in the trays, as he was going to look into a custom material for lining them.

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Hadrian_Dupon_RIC_974.jpg
15 Hadrian Dupondius22 viewsHADRIAN
AE Dupondius
HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, radiate head right / HILARITAS PR S-C, COS III in ex, Hilaritas standing left holding long palm and cornucopia, small boy and girl to sides.
Cohen 820, RIC 974, Sear 3664
RI0091
Sosius
2473d03d8982aed66455e7935ac366a0.jpeg
34 Balbinus89 viewsÆ Sestertius, 30mm, 22.61 g, 12h, Rome mint. 238 AD

O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

R: Liberalitas standing facing, head left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
RIC IV 15.

Good Fine, black patina with some earthen highlights

Ex CNG
2 commentsSosius
rjb_car_366-7cf_05_05.jpg
376-7cf29 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PROVIDEN AVG"
Providentia standing left holding baton and cornucopia, globe at feet
Camulodunum mint
S/C//C
RIC - (cf 376-7)
mauseus
Galba_RIC_366.jpg
6 Galba AE As19 viewsGALBA
AE As

O: IMP SER GALBA CAES AVG P M TR P, laureate head right

R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA S C, Libertas, draped, standing left with pileus and vertical rod.

RIC 366 F/VG, holed
RI0036
Sosius
valens-silique-restitvtor-reip-lyon.JPG
RIC.6f4 Valens (siliqua, Restitvtor Reip)11 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Siliqua : Restitvtor Reip (366, Lyon)

silver (900 ‰), 18 mm diameter, 1.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ RESTITV-TOR REIP / SLVG• à l'exergue ; emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe
Droger
hadrian_hilaritas.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN18 views117-138 AD
Struck ca 128 - 132 AD
AE Dupondius 25.5 mm; 9.55 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Hilaritas standing left, holding palm frond and cornucopia; small boy and girl standing to left and right, respectively
Rome mint; cf RIC II 974; Sear 3664
laney
phil_2_moes.jpg
(0247) PHILIP II24 views247-248 AD
AE Dupondius 22 mm 5.32 g
O: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG radiate bust right, from behind
R: P M S COL VIM, ANVIIII in exe (year 9) Moesia standing half left with bull and lion at feet
Moesia Superior, Viminacium Mint; c.f. SNG/H.366 AMNG. 1/121 Varbonov159 (R3)
laney
procopius_r.jpg
(0365) PROCOPIUS33 views365 - 366 AD
AE 16X17 mm 2.05 g
O: DN PROCOPIUS PF AVG diademed bust right
R: REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and resting left hand on shield
Rare
laney
half_follis_3_7.jpg
(0565) JUSTIN II43 views565-578 AD
AE HALF FOLLIS 20 mm 5.37 g
O: D N IVSTN-VS P P AVI, Justin and Sophia, side by side, facing
R: Large K with ANNO to left, cross above, DELTA TO R
TES IN EXE
THESSALONIKA
Sear Byz 366
laney
justin_ii_sophia_2_blk.jpg
(0565) JUSTIN II AND SOPHIA13 views565-578 AD
AE HALF FOLLIS 21.5 mm max, 5.70 g
O: D N IVSTN-VS P P AVI, Justin and Sophia, side by side, facing forward
R: Large K with ANNO to left, cross above, DELTA TO R
TES IN EXE
THESSALONIKA
Sear Byz 366
laney
procopius2.jpg
-Procopius AE3. Heraclea. AD 366.44 viewsD N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left / REPARTI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum & resting hand on shield; Chi-Rho in upper right field. SMHB. RIC IX Heraclea 7.6. Rare (R2)ancientone
coin366.JPG
001. Constantine I VLPP Siscia7 viewsRIC VII Siscia 61
ecoli
0015.jpg
0015 - Denarius Annia 82-1 BC59 viewsObv/C ANNI T F T N PRO COS EX S C, draped bust of Anna Perenna r., hair in a knot, winged caduceus behind, scale before, dot below.
Rev/Victory in galloping quadriga r., Q above, L FABI L F HISP in ex.

Ag, 19.2mm, 3.82g
Moneyer: Annius Luscus, L Fabius Hispaniensis.
Mint: Hispania.
RRC 366/1b [dies o/r: 18/(20)] - Syd.748a - BMCRR 352 - - Cohen Annia 1 - Calicó 116 - RCV 289 - RSC Annia 2a
ex-Kuenker, auction 124, lot 8326
1 commentsdafnis
VespasianRSC366RIC90~0.jpg
009. Vespasian, 69-79AD. AR Denarius.62 viewsVespasian 69-79. Rome mint, AR Denarius. Struck in 75A.D.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Rev. Pax seated left, holding branch PON MAX TRP COS VI

19.5mm, 2.84g. RSC 366, RIC 90.

A very craggy Vespasianic portrait. Pax appears to be bared to the waist, unusual.
1 commentsLordBest
Vespasian_AR-Den_IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG_PON-MAX-TR-P-COS-VI_RIC-(1962)-90_RIC-772_C-366_Rome_75-AD_Q-001_6h_18mm_3,11g-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0772, Rome, RIC (1962) 090, AR-Denarius, PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, #1203 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0772, Rome, RIC (1962) 090, AR-Denarius, PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, #1
avers:- IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- PON-MAX-TR-P-COS-VI, Pax seated left holding branch.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,11g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC 0772, Rome, RIC (1962) 090, RSC-366, BMC-161,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Vespasian_AR-Den_IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG_PON-MAX-TR-P-COS-VI_RIC-II-_RIC-new-_C-_Rome_-AD_Q-001_5h_19,5mm_3,23ga-s.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0772, Rome, RIC (1962) 090, AR-Denarius, PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, #2118 views020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC 0772, Rome, RIC (1962) 090, AR-Denarius, PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, #2
avers:- IMP-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS-AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- PON-MAX-TR-P-COS-VI, Pax seated left holding branch.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,23g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC 0772, Rome, RIC (1962) 090, RSC-366, BMC-161,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lodovicus-I_(1342-1382AD)_U-429-o_C2-94A_H-542_LODOVICCI_-R_-VnGARIE_S_LADIS-LAVS_R_Q-001_5h_13,8-14mm_0,55g-s.jpg
030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.o., #01133 views030 Lajos I. -Nagy Lajos-, (Lodovicus I. (the great) of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1342-1382 A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-542, C2-94A, U-429.o., #01
avers: ✠ LODOVICI•R•VnGARIЄ, Anjou-Hungarian shield in circle of dots, lily on each side and above, border of dots.
reverse: S•LADIS LAVS•R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on right side, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/IO(vertical)//-- were struck by Iohannes Mochel (by Pohl), diameter: 13,8-14,0mm, weight: 0,55g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica)(by Pohl), date: 1366 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-429-o., CNH-2-094A, Huszár-542, Pohl-79-10,
Q-001
quadrans
Medio Follis Justino II SB00366.jpg
04-15 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 24 mm 5.2 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " Ilegible " arriba, " ε " (Año reinal) a derecha y " TES " debajo.

Acuñada Año=5 - 569/70 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #366 Pag. 93 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #65-85 - B.M.C. #105/24 - Tolstoi M.B. #173-188 - Ratto M.B. #835-842 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #6-15 - Hahn M.I.B. #70a-f
mdelvalle
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_),_AE-23_IY-K_A_AYP-KOMMODOC_MAPKIANOPOLEITON_Markianopolis_Q-001_2h_22,5mm_6,87ga-s~0.jpg
041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Moushmov 366, AE-23, MAPKIANO ΠOΛEIΤΩΝ, Tyche standing left,66 views041bp Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), Moesia, Markianopolis, Moushmov 366, AE-23, MAPKIANO ΠOΛEIΤΩΝ, Tyche standing left,
avers:- AY-K•Λ•AYP-KOMOΔOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- MAPKIANO-ΠO-ΛEIΤΩΝ, Tyche Euposia standing left, holding a ship's rudder and a cornucopiae and infant in crook of left arm.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 6,87g, axis:2h,
mint: Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, date: A.D., ref: Moushmov 366, Pick (AMNG) 541, Varbanov (engl) I.-709, Hristova/Jekov (2011) No. ???,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
JustIISB366.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis62 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 569-570 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, cross; to left, A/N/N/O; to right, E
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
4.76g; 23.5mm; 150°
Pep
JustIISB366_2.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 2nd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 574-575 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, X
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.07g; 22.3mm; 165°
Pep
JustIISB366_3.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 3rd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 577-578 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, XI/II
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.05g; 22.1mm; 165°
Pep
RI_064ez_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36642 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev: – [BONA]E SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen 60. BMC W341. RIC 366 (Rated Scarce)

3.06g, 17.96mm, 180o

A nice portrait from the scarce "AVG II CO" obverse variety, but a shame about the off-centre reverse strike.
maridvnvm
RI_064oz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36627 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev: – BONAE SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen 60. BMC W341. RIC 366 (Rated Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_064gc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 366b26 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev: – BONAE SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 366b (Rated Scarce)
0 degrees. 3.46 gms.

E of BONAE missing the middle bar. Two pellets apparent at end of reverse legend.
maridvnvm
067_Maximus_AE-23_C-IVL-VER-MAXIMVS-CAES_COL-F-L-PAC-DE-VLT_Deultum-Thrace_Mushmov-3660_Jurukova-228_235-237-AD_Q-001_1h_23mm_6,79g-s~0.jpg
067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Mushmov-3660, AE-23, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,66 views067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Mushmov-3660, AE-23, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,
avers: C IVL VER MAXIMVS CAES, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: COL F L PAC DE VLT, River god reclining left, holding reed and cornucopia, resting on an urn from which waters flow.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 23 mm, weight:6,79g, axis:1h,
mint: Thrace, Deultum, date: 235-237 A.D., ref: Mushmov 3660, Jurukova 228,
Q-001
quadrans
IMG_3661.jpg
07 Constantius II29 viewsConstantius II
DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
FELTEMP-REPARATIO
soldier spearing fallen horseman, no beard, Phrygian helmet, reaching
SMK Gamma
Cyzikus 104/110
C2

ex DS
Randygeki(h2)
RI_071ah_img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus, Sestertius - RIC 36611 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv:- IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- PAX - AVGVSTI / S - C Pax advancing left, holding olive branch and scepter.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 219 - 220
Reference:- RIC 366 Thirion 298, C. 121
maridvnvm
IMG_3662~0.jpg
099. Philipp I Arabs (244-249 A.D.)25 viewsAv.: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG
Rv.: P M TR P V COS III P P
Left: A (first coins of rome with officine letter)

AE Antoninian Ø20-22 / 3.9g (248 A.D.)
RIC IV 7 Rome
2 commentsJuancho
029.JPG
100 Titus84 viewsF/Fair, 3.002g, 18.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, as Caesar, 71 - 72 A.D.; obverse T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head right; reverse NEP RED, Neptune standing left, foot on globe, acrostolium in right and scepter in left.

RIC II Vesp 155, Cohen 121, RIC 366 ex Forvm

"Titus was the very popular victor of the Judean rebellion. He ruled during the eruption of Vesuvius. Titus once complained he had lost a day because twenty-four hours passed without his bestowing a gift. He was, however, generous to a fault. Had he ruled longer, he might have brought bankruptcy and lost hist popularity."

This coin gives thanks to Neptune for the safe return of Titus after the Jewish War.
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG_ORIENS-AVG_XX-dot-I-S_RIC-V-255-p-RIC-T-2366_off-2_iss-9_Siscia_274-75-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_22-23mm_3,94g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2366v, RIC V-I 255, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ORIENS AVG, -/-//XX•IS, Sol walking left,82 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2366v, RIC V-I 255, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ORIENS AVG, -/-//XX•IS, Sol walking left,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- ORIENS AVG, Sol walking left, raising right hand and holding whip in left hand, at feet, on each side, a bound and std. captive in oriental dress, the captive on the right has his head turned left. (Sol 1b)
exerg: -/-//XX•IS, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 3,94g, axes: 11h,
mint: Siscia, iss-9, off-2, date: , ref: T-2366v (Estiot), RIC V-I 255,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-AVRELIANVS-AVG_ORIENS-AVG_XX-dot-I-S_RIC-V-255-p-RIC-T-2366_off-2_iss-9_Siscia_274-75-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2373, RIC V-I 255, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ORIENS AVG, -/-/XXIT, Sol walking left,85 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-2373, RIC V-I 255, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, ORIENS AVG, -/-/XXIT, Sol walking left,
avers:- IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated, cuirassed bust right. (B1)
revers:- ORIENS AVG, Sol walking left, raising right hand and holding whip in left hand, at feet, on each side, a bound and seated captive in oriental dress, the captive on the right has his head turned left. (Sol 1b)
exerg: -/-/XXIT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Siscia, iss-9, ph-1, off-3, date: 274-275 A.D., ref: T-2373 (Estiot), RIC V-I 255,
Q-001
quadrans
Aurelianus-AE-Antoninianus_IMP-AVRELIANVS-AVG_RESTITVT-OR-EX-ERCITI_B_XXI_RIC-V-I-366_T-3088_Cyzicus_iss-10_ph-2_off-2_275AD_Q-001_1h_21-22,5mm_3,79g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-3088, RIC V-I 366, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, B//XXI, Mars and Emperor, #168 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-3088, RIC V-I 366, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, B//XXI, Mars and Emperor, #1
avers: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
reverse: RESTITVT OR EX ERCITI, Mars in military dress standing right, holding the spear in left hand, giving globe to Emperor standing left, holding long scepter in left hand. (Mars and Emperor 1)
exergue: B//XXI, diameter: 21-22,5mm, weight: 3,79g, axes: 1h,
mint: Cyzicus, off-2, iss-10, phase-2, date: 275 A.D., ref: T-3088 (Estiot), RIC V-I 366,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
106_Aurelianus,_T-3099,_RIC_V-I_366,_Cyzicus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_AVRELIANVS_AVG(B1),_RESTITVT_OR_EX_ERCITI(M-E1)_E_XXI,_iss-10,_ph-2,_off-5,_275_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_21,5-22,5mm,_4,08g-s.jpg
106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-3099, RIC V-I 366, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Є//XXI, Mars and Emperor, #167 views106 Aurelianus (270-275 A.D.), T-3099, RIC V-I 366, Cyzicus, AE-Antoninianus, RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Є//XXI, Mars and Emperor, #1
avers: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right. (B1)
reverse: RESTITV TOR EX ERCITI, Mars in military dress standing right, holding the spear in left hand, giving globe to Emperor standing left, holding long scepter in left hand. (Mars and Emperor 1)
exergue: Є//XXI, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 4,08g, axes: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, off-5, iss-10, phase-2, date: 275 A.D., ref: T-3099 (Estiot), RIC V-I 366, LV 10761-73,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI 107e img.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus Gobl 366x49 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing front, head left, holding olive branch, and transverse sceptre
V in left field
Reference:– Gobl 366x

If anyone knows of any other information on this coin then it would be greatly appreciated.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
T-3366_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_MART-I-P-ACIF-(M1c)_S_RIC-145_T-3366_iss-1_off_2_Ticinum-275-AD_Q-001_6h_22mm_3,76g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #165 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #1
avers: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1).
reverse: MART I P ACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding an olive branch in right hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in left hand. (Mars 1c).
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,76g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, iss.-1., off.-2., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-145., T-(Estiot)-3366, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_V-II_366A_Numerianus,_Ticinum,_AE-Ant,_M_AVR_NVMERIANVS_NOB_C,_PRINCIPI_IVVE_NTVT,_VXXI,_2nd__em,_282_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_22,5-24mm,_3,96g-s.jpg
114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 366A, Ticinum, -/-//VXXI, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left, #165 views114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 366A, Ticinum, -/-//VXXI, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left, #1
avers: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PRINCIPI IVVE NTVT, Numerian standing left, holding wand and scepter.
exergue: -/-//VXXI, diameter: 22,5-24,0mm, weight: 3,96g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 2nd. emission, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 366A,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI 125b img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 366 Bust Type F40 viewsObv:– IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars and Aurelian together holding globe
Minted in Cyzicus, 10th emission (A in centre field, XXI in exe). Summer 275 A.D.
Reference:– Cohen 206. RIC 366 Bust Type F (Scarce)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_125ag_img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 366 Bust Type F16 viewsObv:– IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars in military dress standing right, holding spear in left hand, giving globe to Emperor standing left , holding long sceptre in left hand.
Minted in Cyzicus. (//XXI). early – summer A.D. 275
Reference:– Cohen 206. RIC 366 Bust Type F (Scarce). RIC temp #3080 (8 ex.).

3.75 gms. 25.15 mm.
maridvnvm
RI_125ai_img~0.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 366 Bust Type F11 viewsObv:– IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars in military dress standing right, holding spear in left hand, giving globe to Emperor standing left , holding long sceptre in left hand.
Minted in Cyzicus. (B//XXI). early – summer A.D. 275
Reference:– Cohen 206. RIC 366 Bust Type F (Scarce). RIC temp #3088 (45 ex.).
maridvnvm
RI_125aj_img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 366 Bust Type F11 viewsObv:– IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars in military dress standing right, holding spear in left hand, giving globe to Emperor standing left , holding long sceptre in left hand.
Minted in Cyzicus. (E//XXI). early – summer A.D. 275
Reference:– Cohen 206. RIC 366 Bust Type F (Scarce).
maridvnvm
RI_132de_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 091 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (IIII)12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII in exe) Emission 8 Officina 4. Autumn to Late A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen 401. Bastien 366. RIC 91 Bust type F

Weight 4.44g. 22.84mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132cc_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 091 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (IIII)8 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII in exe) Emission 8 Officina 4. Autumn to Late A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen 401. Bastien 366. RIC 91 Bust type F

Weight 3.76g. 21.86mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132ki_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 366 - Bust Type G (Ticinum) (VIXXT) 15 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (shield decorated with two rows of soldiers with shields)
Rev:– FIDES MILIT, Fides standing left, with two ensigns
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT) Emission 3 Officina 6. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 366 Bust Type G
Martin Griffiths
RI_132hv_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 366 - Bust type G (Ticinum) (VIXXT) - Shield decorated with florets and stars26 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (shield decorated with florets and stars)
Rev:– FIDES MILIT, Fides standing left, with two ensigns
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT) Emission 3 Officina 6. 277 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 366 Bust Type G

Weight 3.91g. 24.33mm.
maridvnvm
RI 132ez img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 366 var - Heroic Bust type (Ticinum) (VIXXT)82 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis, seen from back. ("Square shield" in RIC)
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, with two ensigns
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT)Reference:– RIC 366 var. Heroically nude bust type. (Unlisted with this bust type)
The bust on this one isnice and clear but the reverse seems to be toast!
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132hl img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 366 var - Heroic Bust type (Ticinum) (VIXXT)20 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis, seen from back. ("Square shield" in RIC)
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, with two ensigns
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT)Reference:– RIC 366 var. Heroically nude bust type. (Unlisted with this bust type)
The bust on this one isn't great but clear enough all-round.
maridvnvm
0010-069d.jpg
1332 - L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, Denarius68 viewsRome mint, 62 BC
PAVLLUS LEPIDVS [CONCORDIA] diademed and draped bust of concordia right
Trophy with Lepidus Paullus on the right and three captives on the left (king Perseus of Macedon and his sons). TER above and PAVLLVS at exergue
4.00 gr
Ref : RCV # 366, RSC, Aemilia # 10
4 commentsPotator II
RI 141bm img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 67 Bust Type C var29 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (// * crescent). Emission 9, Officina -. Start – 1st March A.D. 293
References:– Cohen 366. Bastien 460 (4 examples cited). RIC V Pt 2 67 Bust Type C var (Not listed with this bust or these marks in RIC)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 141au img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 67 Bust Type F20 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVGG, Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 7, Officina 2. Spring A.D. 290 to A.D. 291
References:– Cohen 366. RIC V Pt 2 67 Bust Type F. Bastien 365 (11 examples cited)
maridvnvm
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-B-C_GLOR-IA-EXERC-ITVS_S-CONST_RIC-182_2nd-off_-c2-7-B1_C-x_Constantinopolis_321-4-AD__Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 366, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SCONST, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers with two standards, R4 !!!62 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Arleate, RIC VII 366, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SCONST, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers with two standards, R4 !!!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-N-C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GLOR-IA-EXERC-ITVS, Two soldiers standing either side of two standards, beetween the standards palm branch.
exe: -/-//SCONST, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,41g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arleate, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VII-366-p-273, R4 !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-RPARATIO_-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-h_19-21mm_2,57g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232 var, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, legend error!!!155 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232 var, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, legend error!!!
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//BSIS•, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO_-A-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-h_17-19mm_2,37g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232, -/-//ΔSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO, Phoenix, C4!71 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232, -/-//ΔSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO, Phoenix, C4!
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//ΔSIS•, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366, C4!
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL•TEMP-REPARATIO_-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-h_18-20mm_2,48g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,104 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 232, -/-//BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, FEL•TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//BSIS•, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_A-SIS-sign-5_RIC-VIII-241-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_2,38g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 241, -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,92 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 241, -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-241-p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3_RIC-VIII-247_1h_18,5mm_2,25g-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 247, -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,136 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 247, -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,25g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-247-p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_symbol-1_A-SIS_RIC-VIII-248_p-366_Siscia_348-50-AD_Q-001_0h_17-18,5mm_1,71ga-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"1"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, 81 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"1"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , pearl diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. Symbol "1" in the left field.
exe: symbol"1"/-//ASIS, diameter:17-18,5mm, weight: 1,71g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-248 (err. in RIC right field instead of left field), p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_symbol-4_A-SIS_RIC-VIII-_p-364_Siscia_348-50-AD_Q-001_0h_17,5-18,5mm_2,68ga-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"4"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, 66 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), symbol"4"/-//ASIS, AE-3 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , pearl diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. Symbol "4" in the left field.
exe: symbol"4"/-//ASIS, diameter:17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-248 (err. in RIC right field instead of left field), p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
1920206_630623686974546_1449222028_n.jpg
150 Antoninus Pius20 viewsAntoninus Pius AE As.

ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, Laureate head right.
FELICITAS AVG S - C, Felicitas standing, head left, holding
short caduceus and branch.

RIC 679: Cohen 366.
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Procopius_5h_18-19mm_3,73g-s.jpg
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 017a.1, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, object down/-//CONSB, Procopius standing, R2!!, #1108 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 017a.1, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, object down/-//CONSB, Procopius standing, R2!!, #1
avers:- D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield. Small indeterminate object down in the left field and christogram up in right field.
exe: object down/-//CONSB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 5h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX-17a.1, p-215, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Procopius_11h_17,5mm_3,34g-s.jpg
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.7, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/•//SMH Γ, Procopius standing, R2!!109 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.7, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/•//SMH Γ, Procopius standing, R2!!
avers:- D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield. Dot down and christogram up in right field.
exe: -/•//SMH Γ, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,34g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea,, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX 7.7, p-193, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Procopius_AE-2_DN-PROCOPIVS-PF-AVG_REPARATI-O-FEL-TEMP_starSMHA_RIC-IX-7var_,p-193_Heracleia_364-67-AD_R2_Q-001_0h_17,9-19,5mm_2,35g-s.jpg
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.8var., AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/-//*SMHA, Procopius standing, R2!!105 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC IX 007.8var., AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, -/-//*SMHA, Procopius standing, R2!!
avers:- D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield, and christogram up in right field.
exe: -/-//*SMHA, diameter: 17,9-19,5mm, weight: 2,35g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea,, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX 7.8var!, p-193, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_8_Denario_Oton_1.jpg
16-01 - OTÓN (15/01/69 - 16/04/69 D.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 16/18 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P " - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECV-RI-TAS P R" - Securitas (La Seguridad) estante a izq. portando guirnalda/corona de laureles en mano der. y cetro vert. en izq.

Acuñada 69 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I #8 P.260, Sear RCTV I #2162 P.417, BMCRE I #17 P.366, Cohen I #17 P.353, DVM #8 Pag.45, CBN #10, RSC II #17 P.33
mdelvalle
1366_P_Hadrian_RPC1650.jpg
1650 MYSIA, Miletopolis Hadrian, Winged caduceus5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1650;

Magistrate Ti. Fla. (?) Asiaticus (first archon and epimeletes)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ
Laureate, bust right, baldric strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front.

Rev. ΜΕΙΛΗΤΟΠΟΛΕΙΤΩΝ ƐΠΙM ΑϹΙ ΑΤΙ (in field, l. and r.)
Winged caduceus

2.84 gr
16.73 mm
6h

Note.
ƐΠΙM stands for an Epimelete this was a Greek civil or religious official
okidoki
George-1_Farthing_1719.JPG
1719 GEORGE I AE Farthing8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS • REX •. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA •. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1719.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3662

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1724_George_I_Halfpenny.JPG
1724 GEORGE I AE Halfpenny8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1724.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 8.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3660

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
366_P_Hadrian.jpg
1733 MYSIA, Pergamum Hadrian, Telesphoros standing31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1733; SNG France 2093

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΝΕΡ ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. ΠEPΓAM KAKEΦ TOB on left in feild.
Telesphoros standing facing, wrapped in long garments.

3.26 gr
16 mm
1 commentsokidoki
1797_(Undated)_MAIL_COACH_HALFPENNY.JPG
1797 Undated AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex28 viewsObverse: Mail Coach, with GR cypher on it's door, drawn by four horses galloping right; above, HALFPENNY PAYA-BLE IN LONDON; below, TO TRADE EXPEDIN & TO PROPERTY PROTECTION.
Reverse: THIS IS INSCRIBED ✤ TO J. PALMER ESQ. around AFH cypher within palm branches.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter 28mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 366

There were several issues of Mail Coach halfpennies, the last dated issue being in 1797. This, the final token in the series is undated, its Mail Coach obverse is similar, but the inscription is different and the reverse has the cypher AFH which has been linked to Anthony Francis Holdinhand, a merchant of 51 St. Mary-Axe in London. St. Mary-Axe is now the site of the well-known "Gherkin" skyscraper which was opened there in 2004.

Though these “Mail Coach” tokens are associated with John Palmer, he did not issue them. Famous in his day the story goes that, on 2nd. August 1784 at 4.00 pm, Palmer began an experimental journey from the "Rummer" Tavern in Bristol. The coach reached the "Three Tuns" in Bath at 5.20 pm and, travelling overnight, arrived at "The Swan with Two Necks" Inn in London at 8.00 am. Palmer, who knew how to operate a fast system of chaises between Bath and Bristol in order to get a quick exchange of actors and properties, had predicted the sixteen hour journey which the Post Office surveyors had said was impossible. The Post Office's mounted 'Post Boys' were taking nearly two days to carry the mail from Bath to London at the time. Palmer's successful experiment led to his appointment as Comptroller-General of the Post Office and, helped by road improvements, a network of routes served by dedicated Mail Coaches spread rapidly.
1 comments*Alex
DSC06634-horz.jpg
18-01 - Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (62 A.C)37 viewsAR Denarius 19 mm 3.9 gr

Este Magistrado Monetario era el hermano mayor de M. Aemilius Lepidus, que con posterioridad se convertiría en uno de los tres triúnviros junto a Octavio y Marco Antonio.
Esta emisión conmemora las victorias de L. Aemilius Paullus, supuesto ancestro del Magistrado Monetario. La palabra TER en el reverso, significa "Tertia", lo que referiría a los tres triunfos; en España en 190 A.C., Liguria en 181 A.C. y la famosa batalla de de Pydna en 168 A.C., donde los romanos extinguieron el reino independiente de Macedonia..

Anv: "PAVLLVS LEPIDVS - CONCORDIA", Busto de Concordia a der., vistiendo velo y diadema.
Rev: "TER" sobre, "PAVLLVS" en exergo. El ancestro del Magistrado, L. Aemilius Lepidus, vistiendo toga y estante a la izquierda de un trofeo de armas, a la derecha del mismo el Rey Perseo de Macedonia y sus dos hijos.
Este Rey y sus hijos fueron llevados a Roma, luego de su derrota, para hacerlos participar del desfile de la victoria.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #366 Pag.141 - Craw RRC #415/1 - Syd CRR #926 -BMCRR #3373 pl.43/8 - Harlan RRM 1p 1-10 - RSC Vol.1 Aemilia 10 Pag.11 - Babelon MRR Vol.1 #10 (Aemilia) Pag.122 - CDMR #126 - Albert MRR #1332 - Catalli #591
mdelvalle
Denario VESPASIANO RIC 90.jpg
18-10 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)59 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PON MAX TR P COS VI" - Pax (Paz) (Emperador s/Cohen) sentada a izquierda, sosteniendo rama de olivo en mano der.

Acuñada 75 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #90 Pag.24 - RIC2 #772 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2301 Pag.436 - BMCRE #161/2/3/4 - Cohen Vol.1 #366 Pag.395 - DVM #43/1 Pag.101 - CBN #139/40 - RSC Vol. II #366 Pag.46
mdelvalle
RIC_90_Denario_Vespasiano.jpg
18-13 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)16 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PON MAX TR P COS VI" - Pax (Paz) (Emperador s/Cohen) sentada a izquierda, sosteniendo rama de olivo en mano der.

Acuñada 75 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #90 Pag.24 - RIC2 #772 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2301 Pag.436 - BMCRE #161-4 - Cohen Vol.1 #366 Pag.395 - DVM #43/1 Pag.101 - CBN #139/40 - RSC Vol. II #366 Pag.46
mdelvalle
IMG_4313~0.jpg
189. Procopius (365-366 A.D.)21 viewsAv.: DN PROCOPIVS PF AVG
Rv.: REPARATIO FEL TEMP
Left: dot / Right: chi-rho at top right
Ex.: SMN gamma

AE Follis Ø18 / 3.3g
RIC IX 10 Nicomedia
RIC Rarity rating R3!
Juancho
1096Hadrian_mule_ric276.jpg
198 Sabina Denarius Roma 128-136 AD Tellus eastern mint32 viewsReference.
unpublished strack--; RIC;

obverse of Sabina reverse Hadrian
Obv. RIC 390; Rev. RIC 276

Obv. SABINA AVGVSTA
Diademed and draped bust right

Rev. TELLVS STABIL
Tellus standing left, holding plough-handle and rake, two corn ears behind.

2.73 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 233, lot 2366 2015
1 commentsokidoki
ProcopiusAEChiRo.jpg
1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
Blindado
byzweight11_11_2_209g.jpg
2 Scripula weight13 viewsLarge B in Pellets
11 by 11 by 1.5mm
2.09g
H.366
wileyc
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201163 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
2014-061-6_ProbusFidesMilit-Forum.jpg
2014.061.615 viewsTicinum, 4.21 g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiated, helmet, cuirassed bust left; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: FIDES MILIT; VIXXT in exergue; Fides, standing left, with two ensigns.
Ref: RIC 366;
gordian_guy
Denario_Domit-Vesp-Tito_Fourree.jpg
21-01 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 50 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Híbrido realizado con cuños pertenecientes el anverso a Domiciano y el del reverso a su padre Vespasiano ó a su hermano Tito.
Denario Forrado 18x16 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII" Leyenda en sentido anti-horario - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
El cuño del anverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (COS VII – Cónsul por Séptima vez) ya avanzado el 80 D.C.
Rev: "PON MAX – TR P COS VI" – Pax (La Paz) sentada en un trono a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido.
El cuño del reverso puede pertenecer a monedas emitidas por Vespasiano en el 75 D.C. o por Tito en 77-78 D.C. años en los cuales los mencionados ostentaban el título de Cónsul por sexta vez respectivamente.

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 80 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Anverso copiado de los utilizados en las emisiones correspondientes al año 80 D.C., y el reverso imitando al RIC Vol.II #90 (Vespasianus) Pag.24, Cohen #366 ó al RIC Vol.II #200 (Titus) Pag.38, Cohen #154
mdelvalle
RIC_90-200_Denario_Forrado_Domiciano.jpg
21-01 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 18 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Híbrido realizado con cuños pertenecientes el anverso a Domiciano y el del reverso a su padre Vespasiano ó a su hermano Tito.
Denario Forrado 18x16 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII" Leyenda en sentido anti-horario - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
El cuño del anverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (COS VII – Cónsul por Séptima vez) ya avanzado el 80 D.C.
Rev: "PON MAX – TR P COS VI" – Pax (La Paz) sentada en un trono a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido.
El cuño del reverso puede pertenecer a monedas emitidas por Vespasiano en el 75 D.C. o por Tito en 77-78 D.C. años en los cuales los mencionados ostentaban el título de Cónsul por sexta vez respectivamente.

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 80 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Anverso copiado de los utilizados en las emisiones correspondientes al año 80 D.C., y el reverso imitando al RIC Vol.II #90 (Vespasianus) Pag.24, Cohen #366 ó al RIC Vol.II #200 (Titus) Pag.38, Cohen #154
mdelvalle
Craw_415_1_Denario_Aemilius_Lepidus_Paullus.jpg
21-01 - Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (62 A.C)21 viewsAR Denarius 19 mm 3.9 gr

Este Magistrado Monetario era el hermano mayor de M. Aemilius Lepidus, que con posterioridad se convertiría en uno de los tres triúnviros junto a Octavio y Marco Antonio.
Esta emisión conmemora las victorias de L. Aemilius Paullus, supuesto ancestro del Magistrado Monetario. La palabra TER en el reverso, significa "Tertia", lo que referiría a los tres triunfos; en España en 190 A.C., Liguria en 181 A.C. y la famosa batalla de de Pydna en 168 A.C., donde los romanos extinguieron el reino independiente de Macedonia..

Anv: "PAVLLVS LEPIDVS - CONCORDIA", Busto de Concordia a der., vistiendo velo y diadema.
Rev: "TER" sobre, "PAVLLVS" en exergo. El ancestro del Magistrado, L. Aemilius Lepidus, vistiendo toga y estante a la izquierda de un trofeo de armas, a la derecha del mismo el Rey Perseo de Macedonia y sus dos hijos.
Este Rey y sus hijos fueron llevados a Roma, luego de su derrota, para hacerlos participar del desfile de la victoria.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #366 Pag.141 - Craw RRC #415/1 - Syd CRR #926 -BMCRR #3373 pl.43/8 - Harlan RRM 1p 1-10 - RSC Vol.1 Aemilia 10 Pag.11 - Babelon MRR Vol.1 #10 (Aemilia) Pag.122 - CDMR #126 - Albert MRR #1332 - Catalli #591
mdelvalle
1039_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC2593.jpg
2593 PHRYGIA, Eucarpia, Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian Bucranium9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2593; BMC 4; SNG Copenhagen 366

Magistrate Pedia Secunda (epimelètheisa)

Obv. ΕΥΚΑΡΠΕΩΝ
Bare-headed draped bust of Hermes, r., caduceus behind neck

Rev. ΕΠΙ ΠΕΔΙΑС СΕΚΟΥΝΔΗС
Bucranium surmounted by crescent above which are two stars, one other the other

20.3 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
NumV366.jpg
282-283 AD - Numerian as Caesar - RIC V 366 - PRINCIPI IVVENTVT29 viewsCaesar: Numerian (Caes. 282-283 AD)
Date: 282-283 AD
Condition: EF
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C
Marcus Aurelius Numerian Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVT
First among the Young Men.
Numerian standing left, holding baton and scepter.
Exergue: VXXI (Ticinum mint, fifth officina)

RIC V Carus And His Family 366; VM 15
3.31g; 24.2mm; 180°
Pep
299_P_Hadrian_BMC_.jpg
4101 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4101; Spijkerman 7; Rosenberger 7; Sofaer 7; SNG ANS 1366

Obv. AYTOKPATωP KAICAP TPAIANOC AΔPIANOC CEBACTOC,
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev. ΠETPA MHTPOΠOΛIC
Turreted, veiled, and draped bust of Tyche right

7.71 gr
21 mm
6h
okidoki
postume-vberitas.JPG
4e Emission - 2e Phase - (267) - Trèves - VBERITAS AVG7 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
VBERITAS AVG
variante Uberitas avec un I
EG 84
CUNETIO 2439
RIC 330
ELMER 394
AGK 94
de Witte 300
Cohen 366
PYL
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I56 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
030437LG.jpg
512. Procopius151 viewsProcopius (326 - May 27, 366), was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty.

According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Procopius was a native of Cilicia. On his mother's side, Procopius was cousin of Emperor Julian.

Procopius took part in the emperor Julian's campaign against the Persian Empire in 363. He was entrusted of leading 30,000 men towards Armenia, joining King Arsaces, and later return to Julian camp. At the time of Julian's death, there were rumors that he had intended Procopius to be his successor, but when Jovian was elected emperor by the Roman army, Procopius went into hiding to preserve his life. The ancient historians differ on the exact details of Procopius' life in hiding, but agree that he returned to public knowledge at Chalcedon before the house of the senator Strategius suffering from starvation and ignorant of current affairs.

By that time, Jovianus was dead, and Valentinian I shared the purple with his brother Valens. Procopius immediately moved to declare himself emperor. He bribed two legions that were resting at Constantinople to support his efforts, and took control of the imperial city. Shortly after this he proclaimed himself Emperor on September 28, 365, and quickly took control of the provinces of Thrace, and later Bithynia.

Valens was left with the task of dealing with this rebel, and over the next months struggled with both cities and units that wavered in their allegiance. Eventually their armies met at the Battle of Thyatira, and Procopius' forces were defeated. He fled the battlefield, but was betrayed to Valens by two of his remaining followers. Valens had all three executed May 27, 366.


Procopius - Usurper in the east, 365-6 , AE-3, Nicomedia mint


2.90g

Obv: Bust of Procopius, beared left "DN PROCOPIVS PF AVG"

Rev: Procopius standing head right, foot resting on a prow and leaning on a shield. "REPARATIO FEL TEMP" "SMNG" in the exergue.

RIC 10
ecoli73
50Hadrian__RIC557~0.jpg
557 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 118 AD Fortuna37 viewsReference.
RIC. 557; Spink 3663 var; Co. 757 var

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Radiate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / FORT RED / S - C
Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopiae

13.13 gr
27 mm
6h

Aureo & Calicó S.L.
Auction 258 Lot 3218 in 2014
okidoki
1157Hadrian_RIC557.jpg
557 Hadrian Dupondius Roma 118 AD Fortuna12 viewsReference.
RIC 557 var. (no balteus);Spink 3663; C. 757

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG.
Radiate bust right, heroically nude bust right, baldric (sword) strap around neck and across chest, loop on shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / S - C / FORT RED.
Fortuna seated left on throne, holding cornucopia and rudder.

12.39 gr
26 mm
6h
okidoki
2-2014-11-12_coinsnov20143.JPG
565-578 AD, Justin II and Sophia13 viewsAe half follis; 20mm; 5.16g

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Justin on left, Sophia on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross
on globe, Sophia holding scepter

ANNO in left field, cross/Large K, II/III
TES in exergue

SB366, MIB 70
Robin Ayers
Lepidus.jpg
62 BC L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus 57 viewsPAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA

Veiled and diad. head of Concordia right

Rev. Togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus standing left touching trophy to left of which stand King Perseus of Macedon and his two sons as captives
TER above, PAVLLVS in ex.

Rome 62 BC

Sear 366

This moneyer was the elder brother of the triumvir M. Aemillius Lepidus

Sold!
Titus Pullo
Lepidus~0.jpg
62 BC L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus99 viewsPAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA

Veiled and diad. head of Concordia right

Rev. Togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus standing left touching trophy to left of which stand King Perseus of Macedon and his two sons as captives
TER above, PAVLLVS in ex.

Rome 62 BC

Sear 366

3.80g

Holed in antiquity

Ex-Canada Coins


This moneyer was the elder brother of the triumvir M. Aemillius Lepidus
2 commentsJay GT4
vespasian denar.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AR denarius - struck 75 AD45 viewsobv: IMP.CAESAR.VESPASIANVS.AVG (laureate head right)
rev: PON.MAX.TR.P.COS.VI (Pax seated left holding branch)
ref: RIC II 90, RSC 366 (2frcs), BMC 161
mint: Rome
2.70gms, 19mm
berserker
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.138 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes17 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ . “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Head of Isis right, wearing tainia / Eagle with closed wings standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1414; HGC 9, 644.1 commentsecoli
Göbl_366x_Antoniniano_Galieno.jpg
82-19a - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)10 viewsAE Antoniniano 18 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Busto radiado y vistiendo coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PAX AVG" - Pax estante a izq. portando rama de olivo en der. y cetro transverso en izq.. "V" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 260 - 268 D.C.
Ceca: 5to. Taller de Roma

Referencias: Göbl #366x - RIC Va #256 var. (Ubicación nº de taller) Pag.153 - Sear RCTV III #10299 var. (Leyenda anv.) Pag.297 - Cohen Vol.V #728 Pag.413 - DVM #193 Pag.247 - RSC Vol.IV #728 Pag.86
mdelvalle
0.25 Maiorina Constante RIC VIII Siscia 244E.jpg
A129-60 - Constante (337 - 350 D.C.)32 viewsAE3 1/4 Maiorina ó 1/2 Centenional 17 mm 1.8 gr.

Anv: "DN CONSTA-NS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FEL TEMP - REPARATIO" - El Emperador con vestimentas militares de pié a izquierda en la proa de una galera, portando fenix en globo en mano derecha y Labarum (estandarte militar) con "CHI RO" en la bandera, en mano izquierda. La galera es timoneada por la Victoria sentada a popa. "εSIS (simbolo 1)" en exergo.

Acuñada 348 - 350 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.5ta.)
Rareza: C3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Siscia) #244 Pag.366 - Cohen Vol.VII #10 Pag.406 - DVM #67 Pag.297 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8600.b. Pag.207 - LRBC #1136
mdelvalle
0.25 Maiorina Constante RIC VIII Siscia 241E.jpg
A129-65 - Constante (337 - 350 D.C.)31 viewsAE3 1/4 Maiorina ó 1/2 Centenional 18 mm 2.3 gr.

Anv: "DN CONSTA-NS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FEL TEMP REPARATIO" - Fenix con corona radiada parado a derecha sobre una gran pira o montaña de rocas. "εSIS (simbolo 4 ó 5)" en exergo.

Acuñada 348 - 350 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.5ta.)
Rareza: C3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Siscia) #241 Pag.366 - Cohen Vol.VII #22 Pag.408 - DVM #69 Pag.297 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8598.e. Pag.207 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3975 - LRBC #1134
mdelvalle
Maiorina Magnencio RIC VIII Aquileia 170.jpg
A131-05 - Magnencio (350 - 353 D.C.)43 viewsAE2 Maiorina ó Centenional 18 x 20 mm 5.6 gr.

Anv: "DN MAGNEN-[TIVS P F AVG]" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha. "A"= Marca de valor = 1 Centenionalis, en campo izquierdo detrás del busto.
Rev: "[VICTORIA]E DD NN AVG ET CAES" - Dos Victorias de pié enfrentadas, sosteniendo una corona de laureles en la que se inscribe "VOT V MVLT X" en cuatro líneas. "Palma AQ[P ó S ó T Palma]" en exergo.

Acuñada 351/2 D.C.
Ceca: Aquileia (Off.Incierta)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Aquileia) #170 Pag.331 - Cohen Vol.VIII #68 Pag.19 - DVM #29 Pag.301 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8724 Pag.220 - Bastien #366 - LRBC #909
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Centenional Procopio Reparatio Fel Temp.jpg
A139-02 - Procopio (365 - 366 D.C.)44 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 x 16 mm 1.9 gr.
Pariente de Juliano II y General de su ejército en la campaña contra los persas. Usurpador en Tracia y Asia Menor

Anv: "DN PROCO-PIVS P F AVG" - Busto Tipo A, con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "REPARATI-[O FEL TEMP]" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié a izquierda, portando labarum (estandarte militar) con signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en mano derecha y descansando la izquierda en un escudo que descansa a sus pies. "SMHA" en exergo.

Acuñada 364 - 367 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Heraclea) #8 var. (Busto NO LISTADO) Pag.193 - Cohen Vol.VIII #10 Pag.122 - DVM #6 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9085.a. Pag.275
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366.jpg
adraaspijk0133 viewsElagabalus
Adraa

Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: Herakles nude, seated left on rocks.
16 mm, 4.08 gms

Spijkerman 13
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AE As, Papirius Turdus39 viewsÆ as, 169-158 BC, Laureate head of Janus, I above / Prow right, TVRD monogm above, I before, ROMA below. Syd.366, C193/1, BMC796(?)Molinari
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AE Decanummium Justin II SB 36726 viewsObverse: Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large I, cross above, ANNO to l., regnal yr to r. (YI III) yr 9
Date: 573/74 CE
Mint: Thesslonica
Sear: 367, DO 86-90
wileyc
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AE follis Justin II SB 369, regnal yr 5 (H)21 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 5 (delta) TES below, above cross
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 4.88 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 36628 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr (E or U for 5) TES below
Date: 569/70 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
23mm 5.93 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 36630 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr (X) TES below, above theta, cross, C
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
23mm 5.93 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 36620 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 5 (E or U) TES below, above theta, cross, C
Date: 569/7 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
17mm 5.23 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 366 yr1013 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 10 (X) TES below, above theta, cross, C
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 5.91 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 366 yr1117 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 11 (XI) TES below, above theta, cross, C
Date: 575/6 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 4.66 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 366 yr1114 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 10 (X) TES below, above theta, cross, C
Date: 575/6 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
21mm 5.49 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 366 yr1320 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 13 (X,III) TES below, above theta, cross, C
Date: 577/8 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 5.14 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 366 yr514 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 5 (U) TES below, above cross.
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
18mm 5.36 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 366 yr520 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 5 (delta) TES below, above cross
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 5.73 gm
wileyc
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AE half follis Justin II SB 366 yr721 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 7 (U,II) TES below, above cross.
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
21mm 5.64 gm
wileyc
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AE Half-follis Justin II SB 36617 viewsObverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr (H) *, TES below, above M, cross, C unlisted sear
Date: 586/7 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
22mm 5.17 gm
ex allen Berman
wileyc
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AE Half-follis Justin II SB 36616 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr (delta) 5, TES below, above cross
Date: 586/7 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
23mm 5.93 gm
wileyc
sb366,yr1220mm506g.jpg
AE Half-follis Justin II SB 36617 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr (XII) 12, TES below, above cross
Date: 576,7 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 5.06 gm
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AE3 Crispus22 viewsCrispus
rispus IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C , L ,
CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT X, ASIS sunburst in ex.
Siscia RIC VII Siscia 181 c1 321-324 AD
Sebastiaan v
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Aegyptus_Alexandria_Philippus_Arabs_Milne 3663 var.7 viewsPhilippus Arabs
BI-Tetradrachm, Aegyptus, Alexandria
Struck: 246/47 (Year 4) / 24 mm / 12,21 g

Av: A K M IOY ΦIΛIΠΠOC EYCE
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: Nike advancing right, holding wreath in both hands

In field: L Δ (Year 4)

Reference: Milne 3663 var.
Andicz
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Aemilius Lepidus Paullus - Aemilia-10153 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. 62 BC. AR Denarius (18mm - 4.38 g). Rome mint. Diademed and veiled head of Concordia right / L. Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left. Unusually heavy flan. Crawford 415/1; Sydenham 926; Aemilia 10. RSC 366 Bud Stewart
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anazsnglevante14312 viewsElagabalus
Anazarbos, Cilicia

Obv: ΑΥΤ Κ [Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝƐΙΝΟ]Ϲ ϹƐ-Β. radiate head right.
Rev: ΑΝΑΖΑΡ (ΜΗ)ΤΡΟ, Γ/Β in left field, A/Μ/Κ in right field. Dionysos standing left, kantharos in right hand, thrysos in left, panther at feet left.
23 mm, 6.04 gms

SNG Levante 1431, Ziegler 366, RPC VI online 7314
Charles M
Antiochus_II~2.jpg
Antiochus II Theos. 261-246 B.C.13 viewsAntiochus II Theos. 261-246 B.C. Ae 12.9~13.3mm. 1.90g. Sardes mint. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Kithara; anchor below, monogram to outer right. SC 528 var.; SNG Spaer 365-366; Houghton 603; Hoover 146. 1 commentsddwau
0365_0366.jpg
Antiochus III, AE13, ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ6 viewsAE13
Antiochus III
223 - 187BC
13.0mm ~2.00gr
O: NO LEGEND; Laureate head of Apollo right, long hair in curls.
R: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ (right side); ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ (left side); Elephant advancing left, legends on either side, vertically.
Monogram above?
Antioch ad Orontes Mint
BMC 56; Houghton SC 977; Hoover 517.
drgb333 330943977765
6/26/13 1/22/17
Nicholas Z
422_(700x366).jpg
Antoninus Pius 4 viewsDivus Antoninus Pius AE Sestertius Funeral Pyre. struck under Marcus Aurelius, 158 AD, RIC 1266, 24.7gm.Ancient Aussie
antoas24-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 679, As of AD 140-144 (Felicitas)60 viewsÆ As (10.9g, Ø28mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: FELICITAS AVG (around), S C (in field), Felicitas standing front, head turned left, holding a caduceus and a laurel branch.
RIC 679; BMC 1362-64; Cohen 366; Strack 829
Charles S
ANTOAS12-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 679, As of AD 140-144 (Felicitas)19 viewsÆ As (10.6g, Ø29mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TRP COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: FELICITAS (around), S C (in field), Felicitas standing front, head turned left, holding a caduceus and a laurel branch.
RIC 679; BMC 1362-64; Cohen 366
Charles S
ANTOAS12-2~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 679, As of AD 140-144 (Felicitas) 9 viewsÆ As (10.6g, Ø29mm, 6h). Rome, AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: FELICITAS AVG (around), S | C, Felicitas standing front, head turned left, holding a caduceus and a laurel branch.
RIC 679; BMC 1362; Cohen 366; Strack 829.
Ex Henzen, 1997
Charles S
76001039.jpg
Antoninus Pius, Topirus, Hercules seated, AE24157 viewsSale: CNG 76, Lot: 1039. Closing Date: Wednesday, 12 September 2007.
THRACE, Topirus. Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161. Æ 24mm (5.71 g, 6h). Faba Grippinus, consularis. Bare head right / Hercules seated left on rock outcropping, holding club set on ground. SNG Copenhagen 806; Varbanov 511. VF, green and brown patina, rough areas, especially around the perimeter.

From the James E. Cain Collection via CNG
also sold by Peus, auction 366, lot 426 (Marcel Burstein) on 25.10.2000 for 160 DM + fees

dealer's picture
1 commentsareich
manbull.jpg
AR Nomos of Neapolis, Campania c340-241 BC68 viewsOBV: Head of nymph facing right, bunch of grapes(?) to left
REV: Man-faced Bull walking right, Victory overhead crowning with wreath.

Sambon 436, SNG ANS 366, weight 7.3 gms; 18 mm

A coin which has all the things that I like about the ancient Greeks - beautiful sense of natural form, balanced design, and whimsical imagination. The small flan cuts off some elements of the overall design and put it in range of my budget.
4 commentsdaverino
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-B-C_GLOR-IA-EXERC-ITVS_S-CONST_RIC-182_2nd-off_-c2-7-B1_C-x_Arleate_321-4-AD__Q-001_h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Arleate, RIC VII 366, 145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//SCONST, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers with two standards, R4!!!66 viewsArleate, RIC VII 366, 145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//SCONST, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers with two standards, R4 !!!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-N-C, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GLOR-IA-EXERC-ITVS, Two soldiers standing either side of two standards, beetween the standards palm branch.
exe: -/-//SCONST, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,41g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arleate, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VII-366-p-273, R4 !!!
Q-001
quadrans
G_366_Dardanos.jpg
Asia Minor, Troas, Dardanos, Obol, Horseman, Cock11 viewsDardanos
Asia Minor, Troas
late 5th Century BC
Obol
Obv.: Horseman riding left
Rev.: Cock standing left within incuse square.
Ag, 0.56g, 8.75mm
Ref.: SNG Copenhagen 282, SNG ANS Berry #985.
Ex Numismatik Naumann, Auction 80, Lot 871 (part of)
2 commentsshanxi
combine_images~8.jpg
Augustus, AE of Gabala, Syria. AD 1-14. 27 viewsObv. Bare head of Augustus right, countermark.
Rev. GABALEWN, Astarte seated left, holding poppy and sceptre, sphinx at foot. LM in left field, ZH in exergue.
Countermark: Howgego 366. Bee. Gabala
References: RPC 4452; BMC 70; Mionnet V, 627.
21mm, 6.3 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
Aurelian_Mars_Presentation.jpg
Aurelian * Emperor and Mars, 270-275 AD. Æ Antoninianus.81 views
Aurelian * Emperor and Mars * Bronze Antoninianus.

Obv: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG * radiate, cuirassed bust right facing.
Rev: RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars the aggressor on the left facing right, presents Aurelian the globe (..the world) with his right hand; Aurelian standing opposite on his right, left-facing * Mars holding a spear in left hand, Emperor receiving the globe with his right hand, holding scepter in his left hand.
Officina letter Γ below globe, between the warriors.

Exergue: XXI

Mint: Cyzicus
Struck: 274-275 AD.

Size: 24 mm.
Weight: 4.64 grams
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Quite superb, although with some effacing of the Legends on both sides.
Letter A effaced from [A]VRELIANVS, on the Obv.
Rev. shows – EX[ERC]ITI
In all, beautiful condition; superb, well-centered strike. Lovely universal bronze-gold patina, and excellent details.

Refs:*
Cohen 206
RIC Vi, 366F (s) Scarce, page 306
(Rated Scarce by RIC).

Tiathena
785_Aurelian_Restitutor.jpg
Aurelian - silvered antoninianus5 viewsCyzicus
early – summer 275 AD
Issue 10, Phase 2
radiate, cuirassed bust right
IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Mars in military dress standing right, holding spear in left hand, giving globe to Emperor standing left, holding long sceptre in left hand
RESTITVTOR EXERCITI
B
XXI
LV 10733-47; RIC1st 366
http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/3088
Johny SYSEL
1005_Aurelian_Restitutor.jpg
Aurelian - silvered antoninianus8 viewsCyzicus
early - summer 275 AD
Issue 10, Phase 2
radiate and cuirassed bust right
IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Mars standing right, holding spear, giving globe to Aurelian standing left, holding long scepter, receiving globe
RESTITVTOR EX_ERCITI
A
XXI
LV 10728-32; RIC1st 366
http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/3085
Johny SYSEL
Aurelian_Mars_and_Emporer.JPG
Aurelian Mars and Emperor33 viewsAurelian Antoninians, 22.56mm, 4.2g, Cyzicus, RIC 366, Cohen 206
OBV: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REV: RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars and the emperor holding globe between them, officina letter below, XXI in ex.

Romanorvm
aur_1a-horz.jpg
Aurelian. Aurelianus, minted in Cyzicus in spring 274 AD.10 viewsIMP AVRELIANVS AVG Radiate and cuirassed bust right.
RESTITVTOR EXERCITI, Mars and the emperor holding globe between them, gama, XXI in ex.

RIC Va 366, Scarce.
Pedja R
Procopius_37.jpg
B41 viewsProcopius AE 20

Attribution: RIC 17a, LRBC 2082, Constantinople
Date: AD 365-366
Obverse: DN PROCO-PIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius stg. facing, head r., holding labarum in r. hand, l. resting on shield set on ground, Chi-rho in upper r. field & unidentified object at l. foot, CONSA in exergue
Size: 21 mm
Weight: 2.66 grams

A native of Cilicia, Procopius was the first cousin of emperor Julian II. He was placed in charge of 30,000 troops to lead towards Armenia during the conflict with the Persians in AD 363. At the time of Julian II’s death, Jovian was elected emperor by the troops. Procopius, fearing for his life since he was a possible candidate to succeed Julian II, went into hiding. Historians agree that Procopius was suffering from starvation and completely ignorant of the current affairs of the empire when he resurfaced from hiding. By this time, Jovian was dead and Valentinian I and his brother Valens were co-emperors. Procopius quickly made his bid for the purple by bribing two legions at Constantinople and subsequently seizing the imperial capital. He declared himself emperor on September 28, AD 365, and went on to take control of the provinces of Thrace and Bithynia. Valens met the usurper at the Battle of Thyatira and defeated him. Procopius fled the battle and was later betrayed by two of his own followers. Although these two men aided Valens in capturing Procopius, he had all three executed May 27, AD 366.
1 commentsNoah
AlexiosJohnAsen.jpg
Bulgaria: Alexios and John Asen (ca. 1356-1366) Æ Trachy (CNG E-288, lot 599; Numismatik Naumann Auction 75, Lot 872)11 viewsObv: Two crowned figures standing facing, holding scepters; clouds above, three stars between
Rev: Brockage
Dim: 18mm, 2.01 g

Alexios and John Asen were scions of the Bulgarian royal house, who held a section of the Thracian coast as an independent fief during the turbulent reign of the Byzantine emperor John V. Site finds indicate these coins were struck in that area, and are not imperial Byzantine issues. Tentatively Attributed based on the following references:

Georganteli, E., A Palaiologan Trachion from the Dioikitiriou Square Excavation, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 20
Bendall, S., The Dioikitirion Square Trachion Reconsidered, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 21
Bendall, S., A Further Note on the ‘Dioikitirion Square’ Trachy, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 23

Note that Dumbarton Oaks considers this "token" uncertain: https://www.doaks.org/resources/coins/catalogue/BZC.1960.88.4989
Quant.Geek
AlexiosJohnAsen(1).jpg
Bulgaria: Alexios and John Asen (ca. 1356-1366) Æ Trachy (CNG E-288, lot 599; Numismatik Naumann Auction 75, Lot 872)10 viewsObv: St. Demetrios, orans, standing between two short columns topped by stars
Rev: Two crowned figures standing facing, holding scepters; clouds above, three stars between
Dim: 19mm, 1.40 g

Alexios and John Asen were scions of the Bulgarian royal house, who held a section of the Thracian coast as an independent fief during the turbulent reign of the Byzantine emperor John V. Site finds indicate these coins were struck in that area, and are not imperial Byzantine issues. Tentatively Attributed based on the following references:

Georganteli, E., A Palaiologan Trachion from the Dioikitiriou Square Excavation, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 20
Bendall, S., The Dioikitirion Square Trachion Reconsidered, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 21
Bendall, S., A Further Note on the ‘Dioikitirion Square’ Trachy, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 23

Note that Dumbarton Oaks considers this "token" uncertain: https://www.doaks.org/resources/coins/catalogue/BZC.1960.88.4989
Quant.Geek
Bulgaria_YP-143.jpg
Bulgaria: Dobrotitsa (1366–1386) Æ Trachy (Raduchev & Zhekov Type 1.16.3-4; Youroukova & Penchev 143)36 viewsObv: Inscription placed horizontally in three lines: ДЄС / : T : / ПОС
Rev: Inscription placed horizontally in three lines: I ω ✴; T; — and pellets above ω and ✴; pellets flanking T
SpongeBob
JUSTIN_II___SOFIA_HALF-FOLLIS.jpg
BYZANTINE - Justin II & Sophia178 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Justin II & Sophia (565-578 AD). AE half-follis, 567-575. Thessalonica mint. Obv.: Justin & Sophia, nimbate, seated on double throne. Rev.: Large K; regnal year; mintmark (TES). Sear #366dpaul7
R-14 Byzantine.jpg
Byzantine AE HALF-FOLLIS of Emperor Justin II and Sophia, (565 – 578)27 viewsByzantine AE HALF-FOLLIS of Emperor Justin II and Sophia, November 15, 565 – October 5, 578, 6.3 grams, 21x18mm.

Obverse: Justin on l., Empress Sophia or r. both nimbate, on double throne, Empress holds cruciform scepter, Justin holds globus cruciger, D N IVSTINO ET SOFIA AC (Justin & Sophia).
Reverse: Large K (representing the denomination of half follis - K = 20 nummi), cross above, ANNO to l., TES (Thessalonika mint) below, Regnal year XI (year-11-576/577) to r.
Reference: Sear Byzantine 366.
Daniel Friedman
Sear-2366.JPG
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2366; Grierson 1433; LPC 208.8)13 viewsObv: Long cross with wing to left
Rev: Three-quarter length figures of Andronicus left, and St. Demetrius right with large cross between them
Quant.Geek
Sear-2366(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Andronicus II Palaeologus (1282-1328) Æ Trachy, Thessalonica (Sear 2366; Grierson 1433; LPC 208.8)3 viewsObv: Long cross with wing to left
Rev: Three-quarter length figures of Andronicus left, and St. Demetrius right with large cross between them
Dim: 21mm, 1.04 g
Quant.Geek
Sear-1366.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Tiberius III Apsimar (698-705) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1366; DOC II.8; MIB 73)5 viewsObv: DTibЄRI-ЧƧPЄ-AV or similar; Bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown with cross on circlet and cuirass, and holding spear diagonally, across his body and shield with horseman device
Rev: Large M; cross above, to left, A/N/N/O, to right, regal year; Γ below; CON in exergue
Quant.Geek
DHbyzantineweight9mm9mm5mm366gm.jpg
Byzantine weight one Nomisma15 viewsplain with scored circle both sides
9mm by 9mm by 5mm, 3.66g

wileyc
annius_Crawford366.1a.jpg
C. Annius Luscus, Crawford 366/1a163 viewsC. Annius Luscus, gens Annia, and L. Fabius Hispaniensis
AR - denarius, 3.76g
mint in Northern Italy or Spain, 82-81 BC
obv. C.ANNI.T.F.T.N.PRO.COS.EX.S.[C.]
Bust of Anna Perenna(?), draped, wearing frontale, ear-rings and necklace, r.
caduceus behind, scales before, beneath T
rev. Victory, in long clothes, stg. in quadriga r., holding reigns in l. and long palmbranch in
r. hand
above Q
in ex. L.FABI.L.HIS[P]
Crawford 366/1a; Sydenham 748; Annia 2a; BMC Spain 1-12
nice VF

An imperatorial issue for the campaign against Sertorius in Spain. The questor Fabius, named on the reverse, later passed over to Sertorius and then perished with him.
For more information about Anna Perenna look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'
Jochen
sexropub.jpg
C. Annius T.f. T.n and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis. (82 - 81 B.C.)47 viewsAR Denarius
O: C ANNI T F T N PRO COS EX S C, Draped bust of Anna Perenna right, wearing stephane; S • below neck; all within bead and reel border.
R: L·FABI·L·F·HISP Victory driving galloping quadriga right, holding palm frond and reins; Q above horses.
20mm
3.6g
Crawford 366/2a; Sydenham 748c; Annia 3

3 commentsMat
803_Annius_Luscus_and_Fabius_Hispaniensis.jpg
C. Annius T.f. T.n. Luscus and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis - AR denarius8 views²Transalpine Gaul
¹north Italy
¹²82-81 BC
diademed draped bust of Anna Parenna right; caduceus left, scales right, dagger below
C·ANNI·T·F·T·N_·_PRO·COS·EX·S·C·
Victory in quadriga right, holding palm branch and reins
Q .
L·FABI·L·F·HISP
¹Crawford 366/1a, SRCV I 289, Sydenham 748, RSC I Annia 2
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Moneyer apparently used Anna Parenna as a pun to his name Annius. It is the only known depiction of Anna Parenna whose identity is very complicated.

"An older myth tells that Anna Perenna was an old woman from the city of Bollivae in Latium. The myth tells that Anna Perenna brought bread and cakes to the Plebeians who wanted to separate from Rome because of their unequal status as Plebeians in 494 BC and so she saved them from starving. This is why she was popular on the common people and considered as goddes after her death.

A later tradition from the time of the myth of Aeneas made Anna the sister of Dido. After Dido has committed suicide and Carthage was conquered she had to fly. A heavy storm throw her to the coast of Latium at Laurentum where Aeneas was the ruler. Aeneas and his companion went to the beach and he recognized her and took her to his palace. In a dream Anna was warned to be alarmed at the traps that Lavinia, Aeneas' wife, would set for her so she fled from the palace. While she was wandering she met Numicius, the god of a nearby stream who carried her off to his bed. The servants of Aeneas searched for Anna and followed her tracks to the river bank a shape rose from the water and revealed to them that Anna had become a water nymph, whose new name, Perenna, signified eternity. Aeneas' servants in their joy scattered among the fields and passed the day in feasting and festivities, which became established as an annual celebration of the festival of Anna Perenna. There is another opinion too that she committed suicide by drowning in the river Numicius because of her desperation.

In another myth she was an old woman again. Mars was fallen in love to Minerva, sworn virgin. Mars asked Anna Perenna for interceding on his behalf. But instead of this - knowing about the impossibility of his wishes - she dressed herself like Minerva and came to Mars veiled. When he tried to kiss her she lifted her veil, break out in laughter and mocked Mars. Minerva's main festival, the Quinquatrus, was celebrated 4 days after the festival of Anna Perenna so this could be reason of this story." from Jochen's coins of mythological interest.
Johny SYSEL
94.JPG
CAMPANIA, Neapolis5 viewsCAMPANIA, Neapolis, Apollo left, laurel wreath with leaves in opposing pairs, NEOΠOΛITΩN before, Ξin field, dotted border/ Achelous Sebethos as a man-faced bull right, standing on single line with head facing, above, Nike crowns him, IΣ in ex.; Sambon 675; Taliercio IIIa, 37, MSP I, 366.Molinari
Caria_Satraps_Hidreos_SNGvAulock8046.jpg
Caria, Satraps. Hidreos10 viewsHidreos, Satraps. 351-344 BC. AR Tetradrachm (15.12 gm). Facing head of Apollo Helios. / Zeus Laubraundos stdg. r. holding labrys (double axe) & scepter, E by feet. ΙΔΡIEΩΣ EF.  Pegasi Auct. 12 #175. SNG Cop Supp. 340; SNG v Aulock 8046, 2366v; SNG Kayhan 880; Traite 100 plate XC #8; BMC1. Christian T
00366q00.jpg
Carinus8 viewsAE-Quinarius
M AVR CARINVS C; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust to left, holding victory on globe.
MARTI VICTORI; Mars advancing right, holdign shield, spear and trophy.
Ex: -
Rome
RIC 166var; King 1A
Julianus of Pannonia
CarthagoNova_Hannibal_SNG-Cop296(Zeugitania).jpg
Carthage, Hispano-Carthaginian 19 viewsCarthage, Hispano-Carthaginian. 218-209 BC. AR 1/2 Sheckel (3.63 gm) of Carthagoa Nova, Iberia. Beardless head of Hannibal (or Eshman-Apollo) l. / Horse stdg r. aVF. SNG Cop. 8 #296 (Zeugitania); ACIP 604; CNH 17; De Navasques 75; Robinson Essays Mattingly 7(j); MHC 166-78; SNG BM Spain 104; Villaronga Benages 615. cf CNG 366 #2.Christian T
4884_4885.jpg
Carus, Antoninianus, AETERNIT IMPERI7 viewsAE Antoninianus
Carus
Augustus: 282 - 283AD
Issued: 282 - 283AD
23.5 x 20.5mm
O: IMP CM AVR CARVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: AETERNIT IMPERI; Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip.
Exergue: AKA
Rome Mint
Aorta: 78: B17 O11, R5, T39, M5.
RIC 35; Cohen 11; Sear 5, 12167.
okta2000-2013 281707366845
6/10/15 2/16/17
Nicholas Z
Biddulph-21.jpg
Chola: Raja Raja I (ca. 1007) AE Kasu (Biddulph-21)36 viewsObv: King half seated, with raised arm on right; Devanagari legend beneath raised arm; श्री राजा राजा (Sri Raja Raja)
Rev: Standing man, with lamp on left and fish on right, representing the the Pandya conquest
SpongeBob
4140368_(1).jpg
CILICIA, Anazarbus; Germanicus10 viewsCILICIA, Anazarbus. Germanicus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ Diassarion (29mm, 16.81 g, 12h). Dated CY 67 (AD 48/9). Bare head right / Laureate head of Zeus Olybris right before mountain with acropolis; ETOYΣ [ZΞ] (date) in exergue. Ziegler 35 (O1/R1); SNG BN –; SNG Levante 1366; RPC II 4060 (same obv. die as illustration). VF, green and red-brown patina, surfaces a little rough. Good portrait and interesting reverse design.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 269 (30 November 2011), lot 257; Hirsch 251 (9 May 2007), lot 861.

RPC gives three possible identifications for the figure on the obverse: Claudius, Britannicus, or Germanicus. Britannicus is the most easily dismissable attribution; as RPC notes (p. 595) the nomenclature would be unlikely for such a date. Levante and Ziegler describe the figure as Claudius (the latter with a question mark), but the varying portrait style and the obverse legend “TIBERIOC KΛAΔIOC KAICAP” on a parellel issue of the same year casts serious doubt. Germanicus then seems the most likely of the three. Ex - CNG
ecoli
00792q00.jpg
CILICIA. Anazarbus. Trajan,13 viewsCILICIA. Anazarbus. Trajan (98-117). Ae Assarion. Dated CY 126 (107/8).

Obv: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΝΕΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС СΕ ΓΕΡ ΔΑ.
Laureate head of Trajan right.
Rev: KAICAPEΩN ΠP ANAZAPBΩ / ET ςKP.
Laureate and draped bust of Zeus right; in background, rocky crag surmounted by Acropolis.

RPC III 3366.12 = Ziegler, Anazarbos, 97.13 [dies Vs1/Rs1] (this coin cited); Ziegler 967-70; SNG BN -; SNG Levante 1377.

Ex Dr. P. Vogl Collection; ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser (sold 20 October 1987; with dealer's ticket).

Condition: Very fine.

Weight: 6.41 g.
Diameter: 23 mm.
Ancient Aussie
13661q00.jpg
City of Constantinople Commemorative, 334 -335 A.D.46 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 92, VF, 2.60g, 17.8mm, 0o, Cyzicus mint, 331 - 334 A.D.; obverse CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis' helmeted bust left in imperial cloak and holding scepter across left shoulder; reverse Victory standing left, foot on prow, holding spear and shield, SMKA in ex; cwonsidler
Claude Sesterce SPES Aug.jpg
Claudius Sestertius21 viewsAE 35 mm, Rome, 41 A.D.
Obv: Ti Claudius Caesar Aug Pm Tr P Imp PP
Rev: SPES Augusta, S.C.
Ref: Roman coins ATV, David R. Sear, Vol I, p. 366/367 #1853
from an uncleaned coins lot!!!
Jean Paul D
Commodus,_Coela.jpg
Coela, Thrace10 viewsObv.: COMMODOS AVG
laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, r.
Rev: AIL MONVCIP CVILA (?)
prow, r., above, two ears of corn; before, dolphin
3.49g, 17mm
RPC IV 8366
klausklage
1365_1366.jpg
Constantine II, AE3, CAESARVM NOSTORVM, Wreath, VOT/X, within1 viewsAE3
Constantine II
Caesar: 317 - 337AD
Augustus: 337 - 340AD
Issued: 320 - 321AD
18.0mm
O: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C; Laureate head, right.
R: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM; Wreath, VOT/X, within.
Exergue: (dot)BSIS(star)
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 437: B21, O7, R5, T106, M13.
RIC VII Siscia, 166, B; Sear 17193.
numis_kimel 272351572972
9/9/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
36616_Constantine_VII___romanus_II_follis,_SBCV_1761.jpg
Constantine VII and Romanus II, follis, Constantinople, Sear 176112 viewsByzantine Empire, Constantine VII and Romanus II, 6 Apr 945 - 9 Nov 959 A.D. Bronze follis, SBCV 1761; DOC II, part 2, 26, F, Constantinople mint, 6.271g, 25.7mm, 180o, 945 - c. 950 A.D.; obverse + COnST bASIL ROM, Constantine VII facing, bearded, wearing modified loros and crown with cross, globus cruciger in left, akakia in right; reverse , + COnSt/En“Q”EO bA/SILEVS R/OmEOn (Constantine King of the Romans). Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Constantius I (16) 1 D.jpg
Constantius I86 viewsConstantius I Chlorus, as Caesar, AE Antoninianus. FL VAL CONSTIVS NOB CAES, radiate bust right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, Contantius receiving Victory from Jupiter.

Sear 3665
Tanit
1ConstantiusI.JPG
Constantius I 'Chlorus' (as Caesar)50 views293-305 AD
AE Antoninianus (pre-reform) (21mm, 2.74g)
O: Radiate and draped bust right; FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES.
R: Constantius standing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left; HA in field beneath, CONCORDIA MILITVM.
RIC 672 / Cohen 20 / Sear 3665
ex Jack H. Beymer
Enodia
phoenix.jpg
Constantius II, 317-361 AD16 viewsAE3; Siscia mint:
Obv.: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG; diademed, draped bust right.
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPARATIO; Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound // epsilon SIS symbol 1
Reference: RIC VIII, Siscia 240 (p. 366)
John Anthony
614NN366.jpg
Cr 185/3 Æ Triens Terentius Varo8 viewscirca 169-158 b.c.e., 22 mm, 6.88 gm.
o: Helmeted head of Minerva r.; above, four pellets
r: Prow r.; above, VARO and before, four pellets. Below, ROMA.
Terentia 6.
ex RBW Collection
Hard to get excited about this particular coin, but the type is relatively rare.
PMah
Naville540.jpg
Cr 366/4 AR Denarius C. Annius 10 viewsNorth-Italy and Spain 82-81 BCE
(18mm., 3.63g.)
o: C·ANNIVS·T·F·T·N· PRO·COS·EX·S·C Diademed and draped female bust
r: Victory in quadriga r., holding reins and palm branch; above horses, XXXXVI and below, Q. In exergue, C·TARQVITI·P·F.
Annia 1; Crawford 366/4
An unusual issue as proconsul; also, bankers seemed to be somewhat dubious of this coin given all the marks.

Banker's marks on obv. and rev.,
PMah
image00015_Annia.jpg
Cr 366/4 AR Denarius C. Annius Cr 366/414 viewsC. Annius. Denarius North-Italy and Spain 82-81, AR 18mm., 3.63g.
C·ANNIVS·T·F·T·N· PRO·COS·EX·S·C Diademed and draped female bust r.
Rev. Victory in quadriga r., holding reins and palm branch; above horses, XXXXVI and below, Q. In exergue, C·TARQVITI·P·F. Babelon Annia 1. Sydenham 749. Crawford 366/4.
Banker's marks on obv. and rev.,
PMah
s42.JPG
Crispus ALAMANNIA DEVICTA Sirmium39 viewsThe Alamanni were continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire. They launched a major invasion of Gaul and northern Italy in 268, when the Romans were forced to denude much of their German frontier of troops in response to a massive invasion of the Goths. Their depredations in the three parts of Gaul remained traumatic: Gregory of Tours (died ca 594) mentions their destructive force at the time of Valerian and Gallienus (253–260), when the Alemanni assembled under their "king", whom he calls Chrocus, "by the advice, it is said, of his wicked mother, and overran the whole of the Gauls, and destroyed from their foundations all the temples which had been built in ancient times. And coming to Clermont he set on fire, overthrew and destroyed that shrine which they call Vasso Galatae in the Gallic tongue," martyring many Christians (Historia Francorum Book I.32–34). Thus 6th century Gallo-Romans of Gregory's class, surrounded by the ruins of Roman temples and public buildings, attributed the destruction they saw to the plundering raids of the Alemanni.

In the early summer of 268, the Emperor Gallienus halted their advance in Italy, but then had to deal with the Goths. When the Gothic campaign ended in Roman victory at the Battle of Naissus in September, Gallienus' successor Claudius II Gothicus turned north to deal with the Alamanni, who were swarming over all Italy north of the Po River.

After efforts to secure a peaceful withdrawal failed, Claudius forced the Alamanni to battle at the Battle of Lake Benacus in November. The Alamanni were routed, forced back into Germany, and did not threaten Roman territory for many years afterwards.

Their most famous battle against Rome took place in Argentoratum (Strasbourg), in 357, where they were defeated by Julian, later Emperor of Rome, and their king Chnodomar ("Chonodomarius") was taken prisoner.

On January 2, 366 the Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine in large numbers, to invade the Gallic provinces.

In the great mixed invasion of 406, the Alamanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river, conquered and then settled what is today Alsace and a large part of Switzerland. Fredegar's Chronicle gives an account. At Alba Augusta (Aps) the devastation was so complete, that the Christian bishopric was removed to Viviers, but Gregory's account that at Mende in Lozère, also deep in the heart of Gaul, bishop Privatus was forced to sacrifice to idols in the very cave where he was later venerated may be a generic literary trope epitomizing the horrors of barbarian violence.

Sirmium RIC 49

Crispus AE3. 324-325 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / ALAMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy & palm, treading upon bound captive on right, .SIRM. in ex.

need new pic
ecoli
68395q00.jpg
crw 479/1 Roman Republic . Sextus Pompey, Younger Son of Pompey the Great, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet . Æ As. 43 - 36 B.C.21 viewsRoman Republic . Sextus Pompey, Younger Son of Pompey the Great, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet . Æ As. 43 - 36 B.C.
18.242g, 31.2mm . Sicilian or Spanish mint . 43 - 36 B.C.
Obverse : MAGN (above, MA ligate), laureate head of Janus with the features of Cn. Pompeius Magnus .
Reverse : Prow of galley right, PIVS above, IMP below .
Crawford 479/1, Sydenham 1044, RPC I 671, Sear CRI 366
Ex Forum .
Vladislav D
Decius_11b.jpg
Decius - AR antoninianus49 viewsRome
250 AD
3rd emission
radiate, cuirassed bust right from behind
IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG
Trajan Decius horse riding left, raising hand and holding scepter
ADVENTVS AVG
SRCV III 9366, RIC IV 11b, RSC IV 4
2,92 g 23-21 mm
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
EB0366_scaled.JPG
EB0366 Julius Caesar, AR Denarius, 49-48 BC.24 viewsJulius Caesar, AR Denarius, 49-48 BC.
Obv: CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent. Unknown symbol (banker's mark) left of center.
Rev: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat
References: BMCRR, Gaul, 27, Syd. 1006.
Diameter: 18.5mm, Weight: 3.892 grams.
Note: No longer in the EB collection.
EB
R664_Faustina_II_Alexandria_fac.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 149/150, Faustina II, Dikaiosyne12 viewsFaustina II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΦAYCTIN CEBACTH, draped bust right
Rev.: L ΙΓ (year 13), Dikaiosyne seated left, holding scales and cornucopia
Billon, 13.46g
Ref.: RPC online 13660, D 3239, Geissen 1949, M 2040
Ex Kölner Münzkabinett
1 commentsshanxi
Julia_Paula_1.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 220/221, Julia Paula, Serapis 31 viewsJulia Paula
Tetradrachm, Egypt, Alexandria
Obv.: IOYΛIA ΠAYΛA CEB, bust right
Rev.: L - Δ, bust of Serapis right, year 4 (=220/221)
Billon, 12.85g, 23.3mm
Ref.: Kampmann/Ganschow 57.15, Geissen 2366
1 commentsshanxi
Album-703.jpg
Fatimid: al-'Aziz (365-386AH/975-996AD) AV Dinar, Misr, 366AH (Walker-826; Album-703)12 viewsQuant.Geek
FH-G-030_(0s).jpg
FH-G-0307 viewsCilicia, Tarsos; 164-0 BC; AE17

- ΤΑΠΣΕΩΝ
- TARSEWN
- Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre, star in lower left field.

- Μ-Η-ΤΡ-Ο
- M-H-TR-O (TR ligate) - Clockwise from lower left
- Solid, wide club, bound with filet; all within wreath.

4.21gm / 17.97mm / Axis: 0

References:
SNG France 1366
SNG Levante 974
Waddington 4613
SNG Pfalz 1327

Notes: Dec 2, 15 - Although faint, minor details of this coin are visible, including star on obverse and legend on reverse, making this coin nicely attributable.
- The club on the obverse is distinctly wider than others of this type, almost trumpet shape. I have not yet found a comparable example.
- This coin is noticably heavy compared to the other three of the same type in this collection.
Jonathan P
coins366.JPG
Gallienus9 viewsGALLIENVS AVG
LIBERTAS AVG

RIC V-1 (S), Rome 233
ecoli
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10300_var_pax_avg_V_left.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)6 viewsSRCV 10300 var. (field mark), RIC V S-256F var. (field mark), Göbl 366x, Van Meter 193

BI Antoninianus, 3.27 g., 20.50 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch in right hand and transverse scepter in left. V in left field.

RIC rarity S, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
GALLIEN-60-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-641.C Asian (Antioch)16 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Antioch mint, 260-268 A.D.
21mm, 3.68g
RIC V(1)-641, RSCv.4-366

Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
IOVI CONSERVATORI
Jupiter standing left, holding globe and sceptre.
rubadub
17799228_10155174509902232_7352427280188836653_n.jpg
Gordian III, Caesarea-Eusebia, CAPPADOCIA9 viewsCAPPADOCIA, Caesarea-Eusebia. Gordian III. AD 238-244. Æ . Dated RY 7 (AD 243/4). Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Six grain ears tied together. Bland, Bronze 193; Sydenham, Caesarea 616 var.. ecoli
IMGP3915Got2combo.jpg
Gotarzes II., 40 - 51 AD40 viewsAR dr., 3,71gr, 19.1mm; Sellwood 66.4, Shore 366, Sunrise -;
mint: Ekbatana ; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/ broad 3-strand diadem, 2 loops and 3 ribbons; medium-long almost straight hair, medium-long straight beard of 6 lines and squared at the end; line on forehead; earring; 3 turn necklace; dotted border 8 to 15h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one outstretched hand (vise grip) and monogram below bow; 7 lines of legend visible: OΛCΛI(EΩC) OΛCΛIEΩN ΛPCΛNO(V) VΛCNOEΛ HUOCKEV.ΛΛ(the last 2 lines to be read from the inside) ΓΩTERZH(Σ) PTΛOΛNOV;
Schatz
Babylon_ATG_Price_3665~0.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III The Great, Babylon, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Price 3664526 viewsHead of young Herakles right in lion-skin headdress, paws tied at neck. / ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡ[OΥ] Zeus enthroned left, confronting eagle held in right hand and grasping scepter with left, sea monster in left field, ΦIΛI monogram above thin strut between legs of throne, M thereunder.
Price 3664.
Babylon Royal Mint ca. 325-323 BC.
(24 mm, 17.18 gm, 6h)
Freeman & Sear Manhattan 2 Sale (4 January 2011) Lot 133
8 commentsLloyd T
FotorCreated~21.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian kingdom, Lysimachos, AR Tetradrachm circa 305-281 BC 29mm 17.15g 9h66 viewsPella mint struck 286/5-282/1 BC. Diademed head of the deified Alexander right with horn of Ammon. Rev Athena Nikephoros seated left,left arm resting on shield with lions head in center,spear in background with point facing down,to inner left monogram in circle above arm,monogram below.Nike crowning Kings name with wreath left.
ex CNG esale 366 lot 407,ex Bowers & Ruddy 6-9-80 lot 99,ex A.Hess Nachf {157} 18 March 1918,ex Joseph Hamburger {7} 17 June 1908 lot 414, ex Hirsch {14} 1905 lot 270.
Grant H
Hadrian_Salus_dupondius.jpg
Hadrian - AE dupondius4 viewsRome
119-121 AD
radiate bust right, draped shoulder, bare chest
IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Salus-Fortuna standing left, stepping on globe, holding patera and rudder
SALVS P_VBLICA
S C
RIC II 604a, BMCRE III 1237, Cohen 1358, SRCV II 3668
14,78 g 26-25 mm
Johny SYSEL
Hadrian_RIC_604a.JPG
Hadrian, 117 - 138 AD50 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG PM TRP COS III, radiate, bare-chested bust of Hadrian facing right, drapery on far shoulder.

Rev: SALVS PVBLICA around, S - C divided by Salus standing left, right foot on a globe, holding a patera in her right hand and a rudder in her left.

Orichalcum Dupondius, Rome mint, 119 AD

11.2 grams, 27mm, 180°

RIC II 604a, S3668, VM 110
1 commentsSPQR Coins
36626_Heraclius___Heraclius_C_follis,_SBCV_808,_F.jpg
Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, Follis, Constantinople, Sear 8085 viewsByzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D. Bronze follis, SBCV 808, F, 1st officina, Constantinople mint, 4.010g, 19.4mm, 225o, 624 - 629 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (center), Heraclius Constantine (right), Martina (left), all stand facing wearing crown and chlamys with globus cruciger in right, no legend, crosses between heads; reverse , large M (40 nummi), monogram left, ANNO over cross above, uncertain regnal year date right, A below (1st officina), CON in exergue. This reverse with ANNO above M is unique to Heraclius. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
1366.jpg
hhj8.26.53.04_23 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AV K M AVPH ANTΩNINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPOC ICT →TPON, lion walking right
16 mm, 1.99 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.53.4
Charles M
1765.jpg
Hungary. Maria Theresa of Austria 1740 - 1780. .583 Silver 20 Krajczar 1765-KB.89 viewsHungary. Maria Theresa of Austria 1740 - 1780. .583 Silver 20 Krajczar 1765-KB. M. THERESA. D: GR. IMP. GH. HU. BO. REG, bust right within wreath / PATRONA REGNI HUNGARIA 1765, Madonna seated on thrown facing, infant Jesus in her left arm, throne flanked by branches, value on mantle below.

KM 366.1
oneill6217
HUN_Lajos_I_Huszar_547_Pohl_89-1_no_pellets.jpg
Huszár 547 var., Pohl 89-1 var., Unger 432a, var., Réthy II 89A var., Frynas H.25.32 var.17 viewsLajos/Louis I (Lajos I (1342-1382)

AR denar, .64 g., 13.88 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: + mOnETA LODOVICI, Saracen head left.

Rev: + REGIS hVnGARIE, Patriarchal cross without random pellets.

The type was struck 1373-1382 per Huszár, who later wrote that the coinage incepted in 1372, and per Pohl and Unger; in 1358-1371 per Frynas, apparently based on Tóth, Csaba, Der "Sarachen-Denar," Folia Archaeologica 49/50 (2001-2002), pp. 349-366; and in 1358-1366 per Gyöngyössy. Those without a privy mark were struck in Pécs by Johannes Saracenus (per Pohl), or at an unknown mint (per Gyöngyössy).

The Saracen's head is a pun on the surname of Jacobus Szerechen/Saracenus and his brother, Johannes, courtiers of Italian descent who were ennobled by Louis. The image of a Saracen's head appeared on their coat of arms. Jacobus became the kammergraf at the Pécs mint in 1352, and the Comes Camerarum Regalium in 1369. He died in the early 1370s, at which time Johannes succeeded him as kammergraf.

Huszár/Pohl rarity3, Unger value 8 DM, Frynas rarity C. Ratings pertain to the usual variety, in which there are random pellets around the cross.
Stkp
HUN_Lajos_I_Huszar_547_Pohl_89-1_star_overstrike.jpg
Huszár 547 var., Pohl 89-1 var., Unger 432a, var., Réthy II 89A var., Frynas H.25.32 var.17 viewsLajos/Louis I (Lajos I (1342-1382)

AR denar, .62 g., 14.07 mm. max., 180° over 0°.

Obv: + mOn[ETA LODO]VICI, Saracen head left.

Rev: [+ R]EGIS ⁎ hV[nGARIE], Patriarchal cross with random pellets, struck over + mO[nETA LODOVICI], Saracen head left.

The type was struck 1373-1382 per Huszár, Pohl and Unger (although Huszár later wrote that the coinage incepted in 1372); in 1358-1371 per Frynas; and in 1358-1366 per Gyöngyössy. Those without a privy mark were struck in Pécs by Johannes Saracenus (per Pohl), or at an unknown mint (per Gyöngyössy).

The Saracen's head is a pun on the surname of Jacobus Szerechen/Saracenus and his brother, Johannes, courtiers of Italian descent who were ennobled by Louis. The image of a Saracen's head appeared on their coat of arms. Jacobus became the kammergraf at the Pécs mint in 1352, and the Comes Camerarum Regalium in 1369. He died in the early 1370s, at which time Johannes succeeded him as kammergraf.

Huszár/Pohl rarity3, Unger value 8 DM, Frynas rarity C. Ratings pertain to the usual variety, in which there is no star stop between words on the reverse. This coin is a flip-over overstrike, on which the reverse is struck over an obverse.
Stkp
1.JPG
Imitation de Philippe II de Macedoine, -200/-15025 viewsQuart de statère
Or, 1,99 g, 12 mm
A/ Tête à droite, globules sur le cou
R/ bige à gauche
réfs : Dicomon : ARV-3663 var. ; Mirmand 2006, p. 7 ; BnF 3663 var.
Gabalor
sri_gohaji_k.jpg
INDIA, Kutch State, Sri Gohadaji II7 viewsAR Kori, 15mm, 4.6g, 6h; AD 1761-1778
Obv.: Legend in Urdu: "As-sultan, Muzaffar Shah" with frozen date ٩٧٨ (AH 978); राउ श्री गोहाधजी “Rao Sri Gohadji” in Devnagari at the bottom.
Rev.: Legend in Urdu: "Ar-reman betaid al-muwid shams ad-duniya waud-din abu-Al-nasir" (Son of the world and defender of the Religion by the help and strength of the merciful). Dagger in lower right.
Reference: C#22
John Anthony
G029LG.jpg
ISLANDS OF THRACE, THASOS. Ca. 480-463 BC.47 viewsSilver Stater (8.52 gm; 21 mm). Satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph / Quadripartite incuse square. Le Rider, Thasiennes 5; SNG Ashmolean 3661-2; SNG Cop. 1010-1. Well struck on a nice broad flan. Choice EF. Toned. 6 commentsMark R1
MISC_Italy_Genoa_Republic_denaro.JPG
Italian States. Genoa. Republic.38 viewsBiaggi 835, MIR II Varesi 16, CNI III p3, 1 et seq.;

AR denaro; 81 g., 16.43 mm. max., 180°

The type struck from 1139-1339 in the name of Conrad III (1138-1152). The silver content ranged from a fineness of up to 0.366 gr. in 1441 to up to 0.176 gr. in 1335. This coins is a Baldassarri Group IIIa (=Metcalf IIIc) and was struck ca. 1210-1240.

Obv: + • I A • N V • A •, central castle.

Rev: CVNRADI REX, central cross pattée.

"The symbol in the obverse field of Genoa’s denaro is referred to variously as a castle or gateway, but it was almost certainly a gate rather than a castle . . . In Latin, the term ‘Ianua’ simply means ‘gate’ or ‘gateway,’ and the image was no doubt intended as a symbolic representation of the city’s name." Day, William R. Jr. "The Petty Coinage Of Genoa Under The Early Doges, 1339-1396," XIII Congreso internacional de numismática (Madrid, 15-19 septiembre 2003): Actas – Proceedings – Actes, eds C. Alfaro, C. Marcos & P. Otero, 2 vols (Madrid: Ministerio de cultura, 2005), 1295-1304, at 1296 n.3.

Conrad III, founder of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was never crowned Holy Roman Emperor, and styled himself “King of the Romans.” In 1139 he granted Genoa the right to mint coins.
Stkp
LarryW2366.jpg
Italy, Calabria, Taras, 272-235 BC19 viewsAR didrachm, 6.48g, VF
Naked horseman trotting left, crowning horse with right hand; ΣY behind, ΛYKI - NOΣ below horse / TA PAΣ, Taras, naked, seated on dolphin left; right arm raised and hurling trident, chlamys hanging from extended left arm; behind, owl left.
Sear 374v; BMC Italy, p. 181, #161; HN Italy 1025
Consigned to Forvm
Lawrence Woolslayer
JUSTIN2-1-BYZANT.jpg
Justin II8 viewsAE Half-Follis
Thessalonica mint, 571-572 A.D.
20mm, 5.53g
BCV- 366

Obverse:
DN IVSTINVS P PAV
Justin II seated on left and Sophia seated on right facing on double throne, both are nimbate, he holds a globus cruciger, she holds a cruciform scepter.

Reverse:
+
Large K
ANNO
Z (7th year)
TES
rubadub
justin-11-sophia.jpg
Justin II & Sophia AE Half Follis, 565-578 AD, Thessalonica mint30 viewsByzantine Empire, Justin II & Sophia AE Half Follis, (565-578 AD), Thessalonica mint

Obverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, Justin on left, Sophia on right, seated facing on double-throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross on globe, Sophia holding sceptre.

Reverse: Large K, ANNO to left, cross above, Δ officina letter to right, mintmark TƐS.

Reference: SB 366, MIB 70.

Ex: Holding History Coins +photo
Gil-galad
lg_ByxK_01.jpg
Justin II AE Half Follis27 viewsJustin II
AE Half follis 5.16g / 20.5mm / -
- Justin on l., Empress Sophia or r. on double throne, Empress holds cruciform scepter
- Large K, cross above, A/N/N/O to l., TES (Thessalonika mint) below, (epsilon) to right (year 5 , 570/571
Mint: Thessalonica (570-571 AD)
References: Sear 366
Scotvs Capitis
Screenshot_2019-05-21_13_21_01.png
Justin II and Sophia, AE Half Follis. UK Metal Detecting find from Devon.55 viewsThessalonica 573-574 A.D. 4.50g - 21.5mm, Axis 9h.

Obv: [D N IVSTI]NVS P P A - Justin on left, Sophia on right, seated facing on double-throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross on globe, Sophia holding sceptre.

Rev: Large K, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year Z to right, mintmark TES.

SB 366; MIB 70.
scarli
Justin_II_and_Sophia,_SBCV_366(X_Theta).JPG
Justin II and Sophia, SBCV 36612 viewsDN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Seated, facing figures of Justin and Sophia
Large K, Θ+C above, ANNO left, XI right, TES below
Minted Thessalonica, 575-576
AE half follis, 23mm, 5.42g
novacystis
Justin_II_and_Sophia,_SBCV_366(E_K).JPG
Justin II and Sophia, SBCV 36610 viewsDN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Seated, facing figures of Justin and Sophia
Large K, Cross above, ANNO left, E right, TES below
Minted Thessalonica, 569-570
AE half follis, 23mm, 6.39g
novacystis
Justin_II_and_Sophia,_SBCV_366(E_Cross).JPG
Justin II and Sophia, SBCV 3668 viewsDN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Seated, facing figures of Justin and Sophia
Large K, ΘKC above, ANNO left, E right, TES below
Minted Thessalonica, 569-570
AE half follis, 22.5mm, 5.50g
novacystis
Justin_II_and_Sophia,_SBCV_366(Xi_Theta).JPG
Justin II and Sophia, SBCV 36612 viewsDN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Seated, facing figures of Justin and Sophia
Large K, Θ+C above, ANNO left, X right, TES below
Minted Thessalonica, 574-575
AE half follis, 23mm, 6.14g
novacystis
JustinII-SBCV366E2.jpg
Justin II and Sophia, SBCV 3669 viewsDN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Seated, facing figures of Justin and Sophia
Large K, ΘKC above, ANNO left, E right, TES below
Minted Thessalonica, 569-570
AE half follis, 22.5mm, 5.50g
novacystis
Justin2_Sear366D.jpg
Justin II and Sophia, SBCV 36614 viewsDN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Seated, facing figures of Justin and Sophia
Large K, Cross above, ANNO left, Δ right, TES below
Minted Thessalonica, 568-569
AE half follis, 23mm, 5.51g
novacystis
sb366,20mm523gpir.jpg
Justin II, AE follis, SB 3669 viewserse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr (Delta) %, TES below, above cross
Date: 569/7 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 5.23 gm
wileyc
justin_II_s366.jpg
Justin II, Thessalonica, half follis, SBCV 3666 viewsByzantine Empire, Justin II, 15 November 565 - 5 October 578 A.D. Bronze half-follis, SBCV 366, aF, rough, Thessalonika mint, 5.550g, 20.0mm, 180o, c. 574 - 575 A.D.; obverse D N IVSTINVS P P AV (or similar), Justin (left) and Sophia seated facing on double throne, both nimbate, he holds globus cruciger, she a cruciform scepter; reverse , Large K, cross above, ANNO left, XI (year 11) right, TES below. Ex FORVMPodiceps
sb163lgmod39mm2366pir.jpg
Justinian I AE follis, SB 163 large module.8 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG (or similar) Helmeted and cuir, bust facing holding gl. cr. and sheild; to r. cross
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal year XIII (13), cross above, CON in ex, and officina letter "B"
Date: 539/40 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 163 DO 37-61
39mm 23.66gm
wileyc
kamarina_horse.jpg
Kamarina; AE17, Head of Athena left/ Horse left4 viewsSicily, Kamarina. 420-410 B.C. Bronze AE 17, Calciati III, p. 69, 42, F, green patina, Kamarina mint mint, weight 3.366g, maximum diameter 16.9mm, die axis 270o, 420 - 410 B.C.; obverse ΚΑΜΑΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ, head of Athena left, in crested Corinthian helmet; reverse horse prancing left, grain ear in ex, linear border; Ex FORVMPodiceps
Rama 9_comm.jpg
King Rama 9 of Thailand, 60th Anniversary30 viewsKing Rama 9 of Thailand, 60 th Anniversary Celebrations of His Majesty's Accession to the Throne. These coins were issued on 9 June 2006.

His Majesty, King Bhumibol Adulyadej was born December 5, 1927; he is officially styled "the Great" (Thai: มหาราช, Maharaja) and also known as Rama IX. His name, Bhumibol Adulyadej, means "Strength of the Land, Incomparable Power". Having reigned since June 9, 1946, Bhumibol is the world's longest-serving current Head of State and the longest-serving monarch in Thai history.

Although Bhumibol is a constitutional monarch, he has several times made decisive interventions in Thai politics, including the political crisis of 2005-2006. Bhumibol has been widely credited with facilitating Thailand's transition to democracy in the 1990s.

Bhumibol uses his great wealth to fund numerous development projects, particularly in rural areas. He is immensely popular in Thailand, and is revered by all Thais.

In May 2006, UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, presented the United Nations' first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award to Bhumibol.

Bhumibol is an accomplished jazz musician and composer. He was awarded honorary membership of the Vienna Institute of Music and Arts at the age of 32. He used to play jazz music on air on the Or Sor radio station. In his travels, he has played with such jazz legends as Benny Goodman, Jack Teagarden, Lionel Hampton and Maynard Ferguson. His songs can often be heard at social gatherings and are performed in concerts.

Bhumibol is also a painter, photographer, author and translator. His book Phra Mahachanok is based on a traditional Jataka story of Buddhist scripture. The Story of Thong Daeng is the story of his dog Thong Daeng. He is also the only Thai monarch—and possibly the only monarch in the world, to hold a patent; holding one in 1993 for a waste water aerator named "Chai Pattana" and several patents on rainmaking since 1955: the "sandwich" rainmaking patent in 1999 and lately the "supersandwich" patent in 2003.

Bhumibol is an accomplished sailor and sailboat designer. He won a gold medal for sailing in the Fourth Southeast Asian Peninsular (SEAP) Games in 1967, together with HRH Princess Ubol Ratana who he tied for points. This accomplishment is all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. Bhumibol has also sailed the Gulf of Thailand from Hua Hin to Toey Harbour in Sattahip, covering 60 nautical miles in a 14-hour journey on the "Vega 1", an OK Class dinghy he built.

Like his father, a former naval engineer, Bhumibol was an avid boat designer and builder. He produced several small sail-boat designs in the International Enterprise, OK, and Moth Classes. His designs in the Moth class include the “Mod”, “Super Mod”, and “Micro Mod”.

Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on May 5, 1950 at the Royal Palace in Bangkok where he pronounced his Oath of Succession "I will reign with righteousness for the benefit and happiness of the Siamese people" ("เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม").


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhumibol_Adulyadej




Cleisthenes
kreusssss.jpg
KM 190 German States, Hesse Darmstadt. Ludwig III AR Kreuzer 187130 viewsKM 190 German States, Hesse Darmstadt. Ludwig III 1848 - 1877 AR Kreuzer 1871. GR.HESSISCHE SHEIDE MUNZE, Crowned Arms / 1 KREUZER within wreath.

KM # 339, 1871
366,000 minted
oneill6217
Kolophon_AE.jpg
Kolophon - AE 186 views330-285 BC
laureate head of Apollo right
rider holding spear pointed forwards & with chlamys flying behind, on horseback prancing right
KOΛ / APIΣTOΦANHΣ
Milne 129; Vienna 36616
4,31g
Johny SYSEL
Korinthos.jpg
Korinthos - AR drachm97 views350-300 BC
Pegasus left
qoppa
head of Aphrodite or nymph Peirene left
K
SNG Vol: III 2129 Lockett Collection (2,28g)
SNG Vol: VIII 879 Blackburn Museum
SNG Cop - (cf 148), BMC - (cf 366), BCD - (cf 179)
1,83g 16-14mm

A very rare variant with only K in left field and no additional letter or monogramm in right field.
Typical weight for this type is around 2,5 g.

ex Divus Numismatik
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
49199p00.jpg
Krannon, Thessaly, Greece, c. 350 - 300 B.C.8 viewsBronze dichalkon, VF, 4.366g, 17.1mm, 315o, Krannon mint, c. 350 - 300 B.C.
Obv: Horseman galloping right, wearing petasos and chlamys.
Rev: [K]-PA/NNO, hydria (water carrying vessel) mounted on cart, crow standing on right wheel.
Ref: Rogers 193; BMC Thessaly p. 16, 4 var (KP-A); BCD Thessaly 1085 var (obv K); SNG Cop 44 var (P above); SGCV I 2073.
ex BCD collection with his handwritten round tag. Found at Cholorema (near Halmyros) in Thessaly.
VF
mjabrial
Kutch.jpg
Kutch (1778-1814) 31 viewsIndia-Princely State Kutch, 1 Dokdo, C26 - Raydhanji II (1778-1814)
Copper – 7.92 g – ø 15.5 mm
Obverse: Modeled after coin of Mahmud III bin Latif of Gujarat with Katar (dagger). Legend in Persian ' Al wasiq billah al-minnan, Nasir-ud-duniya waud-din Abdul-fateh'. Translation: Trusting in bountiful God, defender of the world and the religion, Father of Victory
Reverse: Modeled after coin of Mahmud III, Rao's name below. Legend in Persian 'As-sultan Mahmud Shah bin Latif Shah'
Larger Devanagari characters
Lettering: राउ श्री रायधानजी
Translation: The Sultan Mahmud Shah son of Latif Shah Rao Shree Rayadhanji
Daniel F
s-l500_(1).png
KUTCH STATE - SHREE DESHALJI - ONE KORI 15 viewsKUTCH STATE - SHREE DESHALJI - ONE KORI - RARE SILVER COIN #HK82

WEIGHT - 4.44 gm.DIAMETER - 15 mm
_8Rayadhanji I S/o Tamachiji (1666 - 1698) coinage issue:
The first series of coins were introduced in 1586, and consisted of copper trambiyo and dhinglo coins, and silver ½ and 1 kori coins. The 1 dokdo coin was introduced in 1632, followed by the ½ trambiyo and ¼ kori coins in 1645, the 25 kori coin in 1854, 5 kori in 1863, 50 and 100 kori in 1866, 3 dokda in 1868, 1½ dokda in 1869, 2½ kori in 1875, and 1 dhabu, 1 payalo, 1 adhio, and 10 kori coins in 1943. Kutch currency was replaced by the Indian rupee in 1947 at a rate of 1 rupee = 3½ Kori.
Currency: Kori = 2 Adlinao = 4 Payalo = 8 Dhabu = 16 Dhinglo = 24 Dokda = 48 Trambiyo = 96 Babukiya.



KM#36 Kori. Year: ND (1666-1698). Weight: 4.46g [4.50g]. Metal: 0.800 Silver. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Bhuj.
Note: A close imitation of the coin of Gujarat's ruler Muzaffar Shah III with a dagger to bottom right.

Obverse legend in Urdu: "As-sultan, Muzaffar Shah" with frozen date "٩٧٨" (AH 978). Rao's name: राउ श्री ऱायधणजी (Rao Shree Rayadhanji) in Devnagari at the bottom. Reverse legend in Urdu: "Ar-reman betaid al-muwid shams ad-duniya waud-din abu-Al-nasir" (Son of the world and defender of the Religion by the help and strength of the merciful). Dagger mint mark at the right bottom side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type with AH 978 frozen date. Ruler: Rayadhanji I.
Antonivs Protti
s-l500_(1).jpg
KUTCH STATE - SHREE RAIDHANJI - ONE KORI - 13 viewsKUTCH STATE - SHREE RAIDHANJI - ONE KORI - RARE SILVER COIN #HK79
WEIGHT - 4.40 gm.
DIAMETER - 14 mm
_8Rayadhanji I S/o Tamachiji (1666 - 1698) coinage issue:
The first series of coins were introduced in 1586, and consisted of copper trambiyo and dhinglo coins, and silver ½ and 1 kori coins. The 1 dokdo coin was introduced in 1632, followed by the ½ trambiyo and ¼ kori coins in 1645, the 25 kori coin in 1854, 5 kori in 1863, 50 and 100 kori in 1866, 3 dokda in 1868, 1½ dokda in 1869, 2½ kori in 1875, and 1 dhabu, 1 payalo, 1 adhio, and 10 kori coins in 1943. Kutch currency was replaced by the Indian rupee in 1947 at a rate of 1 rupee = 3½ Kori.
Currency: Kori = 2 Adlinao = 4 Payalo = 8 Dhabu = 16 Dhinglo = 24 Dokda = 48 Trambiyo = 96 Babukiya.



KM#36 Kori. Year: ND (1666-1698). Weight: 4.46g [4.50g]. Metal: 0.800 Silver. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Bhuj.
Note: A close imitation of the coin of Gujarat's ruler Muzaffar Shah III with a dagger to bottom right.

Obverse legend in Urdu: "As-sultan, Muzaffar Shah" with frozen date "٩٧٨" (AH 978). Rao's name: राउ श्री ऱायधणजी (Rao Shree Rayadhanji) in Devnagari at the bottom. Reverse legend in Urdu: "Ar-reman betaid al-muwid shams ad-duniya waud-din abu-Al-nasir" (Son of the world and defender of the Religion by the help and strength of the merciful). Dagger mint mark at the right bottom side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type with AH 978 frozen date. Ruler: Rayadhanji I.
Antonivs Protti
Paulus_Lepidus.jpg
L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus - AR denarius13 viewsRome
²67 BC
¹62 BC
Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right
PAVLLVS LEPIDVS_CONCORDIA
L Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left
TER
PAVLLVS
¹Crawford 415/1, SRCV I 366, RSC I Aemilia 10, Sydenham 926
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,84g 20-19,5mm

On reverse scene moneyer commemorates his ancestor L. Aemilius Paullus who had defeated Macedonian king Perseus in the battle of Pydna. TER stands for tertius since it was his third triumph.
Moneyer was elected consul in 50 BC and was bribed by Julius Caesar who need his support. Paullus had used money to reconstruction of basilica Aemilia on Roman Forum. Paullus opposed the second triumvirate and his brother Marcus Aemilius Lepidus order his death but he managed to escape and join Brutus. After Brutus' defeat he was pardoned and spend his remaining years at Miletus.
Johny SYSEL
0045.jpg
L. Marcius Philippus, Denarius15 viewsrrc 425/1
56 b.c.

ex NAC Auct 44, lot 366

Described as:
Denario 56 a.C. AR 4,21 g. Testa diademata di Anco Marcio, a d.; dietro, [ANCVS]. Rv. Statua equestre su di un acquedotto, a d.; nel giro, a s., PHILIPPVS e sotto, negli archi dell’acquedotto, AQVA MAR. B. Marcia 28. Syd. 919. Cr. 425/1.
Graffito nel campo del dr., Spl
1 commentsNorbert
611DBCF8-4366-423C-85B9-727A9AA23F58.jpeg
LARISSA (Thessaly) AR Drachm. EF-/VF+. c. 450/440-420 BC. Thessalos.4 viewsObverse: Thessalos, nude but for petasos and cloak tied at neck, holding band across horns of bull leaping left.

Reverse: Bridled horse leaping right; ΛAPI-ΣAIA above and below.

SNG München 49. Larissa mint, c. 450/440-420 BC. 5,6 g - 18 mm
Mark R1
5365_5366.jpg
Licinius I, Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI6 viewsAE Follis
Licinius I
Augustus: 308 - 324AD
Issued: 315 - 316AD
22.0mm 3.30gr
O: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI: Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter, eagle to left, wreath in beak.
Exergue: A, right field; (Dot)SIS(Dot), below line.
Siscia Mint
Aorta: 515: B8, O14, R28, T36, M13.
zurqieh_dubai 391120205806
9/2/15 1/31/17
Nicholas Z
Aemilia_10.JPG
Lucius Aemilius Lepidus Paullus 24 viewsObv: PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, veiled and diademed head of Concordia facing right.

Rev: TER, Lucius Aemilius Paullus, wearing a toga, on the right assembling a trophy, to the left are three captives, King Perseus of Macedon and his two sons; PAVLLVS in exergue.

Weight adjustment mark on face of Concordia

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 62 BC

3.9 grams, 19 x 17 mm, 90°

RSC Aemilia 10, S366
SPQR Coins
Apoloniakon_Q-001_axis-0h_15,0mm_3,01g-s.jpg
Lydia, Appolonis, Anonymous Issue, (Flavian times ???, Second Century A.D.) AE-15, RPC 952v, Lindgren 712, Apollonis, 129 viewsLydia, Appolonis, Anonymous Issue, (Flavian times ???, Second Century A.D.) AE-15, RPC 952v, Lindgren 712, Apollonis,
avers:- ΑΠΟΛΛΩ ΝΙΔΕΩΝ, Draped bust of Apollo right.
revers:- ΙΕΡΑ CΥΝΚΛΗΤΟC, Bust of youthful senate to right.
exerg: -/-/--, diameter: 15mm, weight: 3,01g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lydia, Apollonis, date: Second Century, Flavian times. A.D., ref: RPC 952v, SNG Tuebingen 3661; Lindgren 712; SNG Cop 22-23; SNG von Aulock 2901; SNG Munich 34.
Q-001
quadrans
marcus_aurelius_maeonia_vonaulock3018.jpg.jpg
Lydia, Maionia, Marcus Aurelius SNG v. Aulock 301842 viewsMarcus Aurelius AD 161-180
AE 35, 24.70g
obv. AVT KAIC - ANTWNEINOC AVR
laureate bust r.
rev. EPI KVEINTOV B ARX A MAIONIWN
Hades with blowing clothes in galloping quadriga r., holding sceptre and reins,
head l., clasping the struggling Persephone waving arms in distress;
below the horses her withdrawn flower basket, above flying Eros.
SNG von Aulock 3018; ex coll. Burnstein, ex Auktion Peus #366, 2000
Rare, VF, two flan cracks

Hades fell in love with Persephone, the daughter of Demeter, and asked Zeus for permission to marry her. Zeus feared to offend his eldest brother by a downright refusal, but knew also that Demeter would not forgive him if Persephone were committed to the underworld. Zeus "therefore answered politically that he could neither give nor withhold his consent." This emboldened Hades to abduct Persephone, as she was picking flowers in a meadow, and carry her away in his horse-drawn chariot to the underworld.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
0080.jpg
M. Aburius M.f. Geminus, Denarius12 viewsRRC 250/1
132 bc

Av: He1meted head of Roma r. behind, GEM, before *
Rv: Sol in quadriga r., holding reins and whip below, M ABVRI in ex. ROMA

Ex ACR auction 16, lot 366; 17. June 2015
Norbert
Gordian.jpg
Macedon, Edessa. Gordian III29 viewsAE25 of Edessa, Macedonia. AVT K M AN GORDIANOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / EDECCAIWN, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Nike and parazonium, crowned by Tyche standing left behind her and holding cornucopiae.

Varbanov 3662; SNG ANS 265.
SkySoldier
Varbanov_3662_238-244_Gordianus_III.jpg
Macedonia_Edessa_Gordianus_III_Varbanov 36625 viewsGordianus III.
AE, Macedonia, Edessa
Struck: 238-244 / 22,5-24 mm / 9,31 g

Av: AY K M AN ΓOPΔIANOC
Laureate, cuirassed and draped bust right seen from behind

Rv: EΔECCE-ΩN
Roma throning left on shield, holding Nike, being crowned by behind standing turetted Tyche of Edessa, holding sceptre

Reference: Varbanov 3662
Andicz
Macrinus_AE29_of_Nikopolis.jpg
Macrinus 217-218 AD., AE26 of Nikopolisad Istrum30 viewsMacrinus AE26 of Nikopolis ad Istrum. Magistrate Agrippa. AV K OPPEL CEVH MAKRINOC, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / UP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT, river-god reclining left, holding reed and resting left elbow on shield; galley to left. Varbanov 3366 (this coin): AMNG 1698. . 26mm.,9,81g,
Antonivs Protti
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_480_al-Ashraf_N_#257;sir_al-D_#299;n_Sha__b_#257;n_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)8 viewsBalog 480 Plate XVIII 480; Album 958

AE fals, Trablus/Tripoli (Lebanon), undated: 2.51 g., 18.15 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Circular line with border of dots. Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots into three segments: ضرب طر (duriba/struck) / الملك الاشرف (al-Malik al-Ashraf) / ا طرابلس [?] (Trablus)

Rev.: Circular line with border of dots. Lion passant to left, with tail curled back. The lion's body is adapted to the circular field.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluks_Balog_461_al-Ashraf_N_#257;s_#803;ir_al-D_#299;n_Sha__ban_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)8 viewsBalog 461, Plate XVII, No. 461; SNAT Hamah 581-584; Album 958

AE fals; Ḥamāh mint, undated; 2.67 g., 19.69 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Circular line in border of dots. In it, oblong cartouche, lateral ends pointed inwards, on upper and lower sides, convexity; الملك (= al-Malik) / الاشرف (= al-Ashraf) in two rows in center.

Rev.: No border. Double circular line, connected with 12 spokes; on the external circle, 24 short radiating rods, crowned with a pellet; بحماة (= Hamah) in center.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluk_Balog_467_Sha__b_#257;n_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)7 viewsBalog 467 Plate XVII 467; SNAT Hamah 605-607; Album 958

AE fals, Hamah mint, dated (7)75 A.H. = 1373/74 A.D.: 2.16 g., 18.71 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Circular line with border of dots. Field divided by two horizontal lines into three segments: بحماة / الملك الاشرف / ضرب (= Hamah / al-Malik al-Ashraf / duriba = struck)

Rev.: Circular line with border of dots. Field divided by a triple horizontal lines into two segments: و ستين / سنة خمس (= and seventy / five years).

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_MAMLUK_Balog_462_v_al-Ashraf_N_#257;s_#803;ir_al-D_#299;n_Sha__ban_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)21 viewsBalog 462 Plate XVII 462 var. (orientation of bendy); SNAT Hamah 615-616; Album 958

AE fals; Hamah mint, undated 776-778 A.H. = 1374-1377 A.D.; 1.62 g., 17.81 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Solid border, circular border within; الملك الاشرف (= al-Malik al-Ashraf) between arabesque ornaments in center.

Rev.: Field divided into three horizontal segments, the central fesse segment bendy with seven pieces to left; بحما (= bi-Hamah) in upper segment, ضرب (= duriba/struck) in lower.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
1 commentsStkp
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_464_Al_Ashraf_Sha__ban.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)6 viewsBalog 464 Plate XVII 464a-b; SNAT Hamah 595-604; SICA v. VI 1319; Album 958

AE fals, Hamah mint, struck 773 A.H. = 1371/2 A.D.: 1.40 g., 18.28 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Circular line in border of dots. In it, linear square. الملك (= al-Malik) / الاشرف (= al-Ashraf) in two rows in center; بحماة (= bi Hamah) in upper segment, ضرب (= duriba/struck) in lower segments.

Rev.: Border comprised of circular rigid cable to left between two linear circles. Lion passant to left, with tail curled back, knot in the middle of the tail.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluks_Balog_466.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)22 viewsBalog 466 Plate XVII 466; SNAT Hamah 574-580; Album 958

AE fals, Hamah mint, dated (76)4 A.H. = 1363 A.D.: 2.58 g., 20.55 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Rigid cable to left border between two circular lines. In center: الاشرف (al-Ashraf) / سنة بحماة (sanat bi-Hamah) / ضرب (duriba) / أربعة (arbe/four)

Rev.: Fleur-de-lis with wide basis, between two small rings. Top flanked by two pellets.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
1 commentsStkp
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_471_Sha__ban_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)8 viewsBalog 471 Plate XVIII 471; Album 958

AE fals, Halab/Aleppo mint, undated: 1.96 g., 19.26 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: Circular line border. Field divided by two horizontal lines into three segments: ضرب / الملك الاشرف / بحلب (= duriba = struck / al-Malik al-Ashraf = the King al-Ashraf / bi-Halab = in Halab)

Rev.: Circular line border. Linear dodekalobe with flowerets looking inwards. In it, linear hexagram with central crescent.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluk_Balog_458_Shaban.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)21 viewsBalog 458, Plate XVII, Nos. 458a-458b; Album 958

AE fals; Dimashq/Damascus mint, undated; 2.89 g., 19.43 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Circular line border. Clockwise circular legend, السلطان الملك الا شرف شعبان (= al-Sultan al-Malik al-Ashraf Sha`ban), in the center, spindle-shaped cartouche with fleur-de-lis edges; in it حسن بن (= bin Hasayn).

Rev.: Circular line border. Concave-sided linear octolobe with floweret on the edges. Pellets between the flowerets. In the center: ضرب / مشق بد (= darab=struck / in Dimashq).

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
1 commentsStkp
IMG_0366.JPG
Marcus Aurelius.8 viewsMarcus Aurelius. AD 161-180. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.16 g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 164. Laureate head right / Armenia seated left in attitude of mourning, resting hand on bow to right; to left vexillum and shield. RIC III 81; MIR 18, 90-4/30; RSC 7.ecoli
Diadumenian_V_3669.JPG
Marcus Opelius Diadumenian (as Caesar), 217 - 218 AD25 viewsObv: K M OΠΠEΛ ANTΩNI ΔIAΔOYMAIAN[OC], bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Diadumenian facing right.

Rev: YΠ AГPΠΠA NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPO-C ICTPΩ, Artemis running right, holding a bow and drawing an arrow from a quiver, a hound at her side.

Legate: Marcus Claudius Agrippa

Æ 28, Nikopolis, Moesia Inferior, c. 217 - 218 AD

15.5 grams, 28.02 mm, 180°

Varbanov I 3669 (variety, bust type)
SPQR Coins
40366_Maximian_tetradrachm,_Milne_4855_Homonoia_year_3.jpg
Maximianus, Homonoia, year 3, Milne 485518 viewsMaximianus, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Roman Provincial Egypt. Billon tetradrachm, Milne 4855, BMC Alexandria 2563, Curtis 2091, Geissen 3292, aVF, Alexandria mint, 7.576g, 18.5mm, 0o, 29 Aug 287 - 28 Aug 288 A.D.; obverse “Α Κ Μ Α ΟΥΑ ΜΑΞΙΜΙΑΝΟ”C C“ΕΒ”, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse , Homonoia standing left, raising right, double cornucopia in left, L -“Γ” (year 3) across fields. Homonoia was the goddess (or spirit or personification) of harmony, concord, unanimity, and oneness of mind. She is usually depicted either seated or standing with a cornucopia. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Msssimino_unita.jpg
Maximinus II Daia, follis (Boyd collection)29 viewsMaximinus II Daia augusto (209-313 d.C.), follis, zecca di Antiochia, 312 d.C.
AE, 21 mm , 5.1 gr, 360° , nVF
D/ IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG; testa laureata a dx
R/ GENIO AVGVSTI; Genius stante a sinistra regge la testa di Serapis a dx e cornucopia a six
RIC164b, Sear 3664v
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (14 marzo 2009, numero catalogo 16), ex Joseph Mastrario collection (Imperator coins), Byron GA, Usa (2009), ex Baldwin's auction 42 2005 (parte del lotto 688), ex W,C. Boyd collection, London Uk (gennaio 1890), ex rev. dr. Simpson collection, London Uk (1889).
paolo
nikopolis_sept_severus_AMNG1368cf(rev).JPG
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.16.12 #1 (plate coin)17 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 16, 2.68g, 15.96mm, 225°
obv. AV KAI - [CE]VHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICT
Eros, wingend, nude, with crossed legs stg. facing, resting with both hands on inverted burning´torch,
set on small altar decorated with ribbons
ref. a) not in AMNG:
rev. cf. AMNG I/1, 1368, pl.XVI, 6 (has stone heap instead of altar!)
obv. f.e. AMNG I/1, 1366
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.16.12 (plate coin)
very rare, F+/about VF, dark green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrJ8_14_16_8.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.16.12 #219 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE - AE 17, 2.76g, 17.03mm, 45°
obv. AV KAI. - CEVHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN PROC IC[T?]
Eros, winged, nude, with crossed legs stg. facing, resting on a reversed flaming torch, set on a small altar
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1366
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2543
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.16.12
about VF/F+, green patina, sligth roughness
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_Pick1799.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.15.01 corr. #178 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 29, 10.59g, 28.97mm, 225°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
bare head, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC / TIW(sic!)
Aphrodite standing facing, head r., hair in bun, draped and with cloak,
holding puff of drapery in r. arm and l. hand before belly, flaming altar r.,
dolphin, standing vertical with head down, l.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1799 corr., pl. XV, 34, same rev. die (3 ex., Bukarest, Turin, trade)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3667
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.15.1 corr. (writes in ex. TRW)
rare, about VF, various patinas

Pick has written: in ex. TRW. But here as well on his pic it is clearly TIW. Directly at the right side of I a vertical die break, seen on Pick's specimen too.
3 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadum_AMNG1799corr_#2.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.15.01 corr. #240 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.53g, 27.38mm, 210°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
bare head, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKO - POLITWN PROC IC / TIW(sic!)
Aphrodite in attitude of Venus Medici standing facing, head r., hair in bun, wearing palla,
holding puff of drapery in r. arm and l. hand before belly; r. flaming
altar, l. dolphin, standing vertical with head down
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1799 corr., pl. XV, 34 (3 ex., Bukarest, Turin, traded), same rev. die
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3667 corr. (cites AMNG 1799)
d) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.15.1 corr. (writes in ex. TRW)
rare, about VF, as found

Pick has written: in ex. TRW. But here as well on his pic it is clearly TIW. Directly at the right side of the I a vertical die break, seen on Pick's specimen too.
Jochen
diadumenian_nikopolis_pick1823.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.22.02 (plate coin)99 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 10.25g, 26.18mm, 15°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. KM OPPEL ANTONIN DIADOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped, seen from behind, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA - NIKOPOLITW[N PR] / OC ICTR
Snake, decorated with knobs, erected in two elaborate coils, head, radiate and with
nimbus, r., with dots aound
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1823 (3 ex., Berlin, Wien, Mous. Theup. 1909)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3660 var. (different bust!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.22.2 (plate coin)
very rare, about VF, interesting style of the snake!
added to www.wildwinds.com

The snake will be Glykon.
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_Varbanov3666var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.32.01 (plate coin)48 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 11.3g, 26.12mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. KM O[PPEL AN]TWNI DIADOVMENIANOC
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NIKOPOLITWN / PROC ICT
Youthful mountain god, garment over l. shoulder, otherwise nude to hips, std. l. on rocks, resting l. ellbow on rock with cave entry(?), holding in r. hand water plant.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1809 var. (3 ex.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3644 var. (different rev. legend)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.32.1 (plate coin)
F+/about VF, deep olive-green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1810cf(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.43.05 (plate coin)78 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 29, 12.45g, 28.76mm, 45°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNIN - DIADOVMENIANOC
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP AGRIPP - A NIKOPOLITWN P / ROC ICT (PP ligate)
Youth, nude to hips, std. l. on rocks, looking r., holding reed in raised r. hand
and resting with l. hand on rock.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1810 (2 ex., Paris, trade)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3663
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.43.5 (plate coin)
very rare, VF, deep green patina

Because there is now urn with flowing water, Pick thinks that the youth is a mountain-god.
1 commentsJochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_HrHJ(2018)8_25_47_3.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.47.034 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 26, 10.22g, 26.33mm, 180°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. K M OPPEL ANTWNI - DIA[DOVMENIAN - OC]
Bare head r.
rev. VP AGRIPPA NI - KOPOLITWN P / ROC ICTR
Tripod with snake coiling around central foot upwards, head r.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1825 (like ex. #1. Haag)
b) Varbanov 3662 (AMNG not mentioned)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.47.3 (same dies)
F/F+, brown patina
Jochen
041_Commodus_(177-192_A_D_),_AE-23_IY-K_A_AYP-KOMMODOC_MAPKIANOPOLEITON_Markianopolis_Q-001_2h_22,5mm_6,87ga-s.jpg
Moesia, Markianopolis, 041 Commodus (177-192 A.D.), Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.10.38.02., AE-23, MAPKIANO ΠOΛЄIΤΩΝ, Tyche standing left,111 viewsMoesia, Markianopolis, 041 Commodus (177-192 A.D.), Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.10.38.02., AE-23, MAPKIANO ΠOΛЄIΤΩΝ, Tyche standing left,
avers: AY K•Λ•AYP KOMOΔOC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: MAPKIANO ΠO ΛЄIΤΩΝ, Tyche Euposia standing left, holding a ship's rudder and a cornucopiae and infant in crook of left arm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 6,87g, axis:2h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: A.D., ref: Moushmov 366, Pick (AMNG) 541, Varbanov (engl) I.-709, Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.10.38.2, p-21,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
BILD1366_.JPG
Morocco, Volubilis Maroc animal mosaic48 viewsFranz-Josef M
150.jpg
MPR 36611 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS AVG
BUST TYPE: E1 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//Rᴗ•Γ
WEIGHT 3.39g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 21-23mm
RIC: 157
J.GUILLEMAIN, MONETAZIONE DI PROBO A ROMA (276-282 d.C.), 2009: 366 (18 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 548
Barnaba6
imgonline-com-ua-2to1-sqF3ovNJ7WyjLp.jpg
MYSIA, Kyzikos. Circa 450-400 BC. AR Diobol9 views(11mm, 1.35 g.) Forepart of boar left; behind, tunny upward / Head of roaring lion left within incuse square. Von Fritze II 9; SNG France 361-366. Ruslan K
c15.jpg
Nikopolis ad Istrum, Diadumenian11 viewsNikopolis ad Istrum, Diadumenian, AD 217-218
struck under Marcus Claudius Agrippa
a) AMNG I/1, 1797 (3 ex., Löbbecke, Sofia, Wien)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3669
c) Hristova/Jekov No. 8.25.13.2
ecoli
00numerianoprinc.jpg
NUMERIAN12 viewsBI antoninianus. Ticinum 282-283 AD. 3,87 grs. Radiate and draped bust right. M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C. / Numerian,in military attire,standing left holding transverse sceptre. PRINCIPI IVVENTVT. In exergue V XXI.
RIC 366 . C 76.
benito
00numerianoII.jpg
NUMERIAN26 viewsBI antoninianus. Ticinum 282-283 AD. 3,87 grs. Radiate and draped bust right. M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C. / Numerian,in military attire,standing left holding transverse sceptre. PRINCIPI IVVENTVT. In exergue V XXI.
RIC 366 . C 76.
benito
artikel_pic391.JPG
Numerian Ticinum5 viewsM AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate and draped bust right.
PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left, holding wand and scepter.
RIC366A

Ex. VIXXI.

23mm, 3.2gr, Die 180.

2nd emission Dec.282
Ed D
0540-305np_noir.jpg
Numerianus, Antoninianus - *55 viewsTicinium mint, 5th officina, 2nd emission, Dec 282 AD
M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Numerianus, seen from behind
PRINCIPI IVVENTUT, Prince of youth standing left, holding baton and sceptre. VXXI at exergue
3,35 gr, 23 mm
Ref : RCV #12219, Cohen #76, RIC vol V #366
Ex. Pscipio
Potator II
366_Augustus_Amphipolis_.jpg
Octavianus Augustus - Amphipolis7 views31-27 BC
bare head right
ΚΑΙΣΑΡ / ΘΕΟΥ ΥΙΟΣ
Artemis Tauropulos riding bull right
AMΦΙΠOΛEΙΤΩΝ
RPC I 1626; SNG ANS 164 - 165; SNG Cop 89 - 91; SNG Tübingen 994; BMC Macedonia p. 52, 73
10,38g 19mm
Johny SYSEL
1890__Hirsch_Auction_352_lot_3068.jpg
orthosiabmcxxx3 viewsElagabalus
Orthosia, Phoenicia

Obv: [AV K] MAV ANTΩNIN[OC], laureate draped bust right.
Rev: In exergue, OPΘΩCЄΩN, Temple with four columns, and three porticoes. Under the middle one, Astarte standing frontal leaning on cruciform stylus, and being crowned by a small Nike. Under the portico on the left, Cybele, head tilted, between two small figures; under the portico on the right, another deity standing frontal; in left field, the date [BAΦ].
26 mm, 9.60 gms

BMC---; Rouvier 878; Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger Auction 350-353, lot 3068 (this coin)

Ex Sammlung M. Burstein (Peus 366, 2000, Los Nr. 1149. Ex Sammlung R.P.
Charles M
IMGP1366Pak2combo.jpg
Pakoros II., 77/78 - 105 AD21 viewsAR tdr., 8,94gr, 26,8mm; Sellwood 73.10, Shore 394var., Sunrise 430var. (Pakoros I, 78-120 AD), Sinisi Type I d, p. 84;
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/4-layer broad diadem, 1 loop and 2 broad ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 waves, beardless; 3-layer necklace; in upper right field E; dotted border 8 to 13h;
rev.: king, left, on throne, facing goddess w/staff or sceptre offering diadem in right hand; dagger on the left side(?); 4 lines of legend readable: (BACIΛEΩC) (B)ACIΛE(ΩN) (APCAKOY) (Π)AKOP(OV) EΠIΦANOV(C) (ΦIΛ)EΛΛH(NOC); exergual line; between the heads the year AΦT (79 AD);

ex: Zuzim Judea, Isr.
Schatz
Orodes_II_(2).jpg
Parthia - Orodes II (57-38 BCE)14 viewsMetal/Size: AR20; Weight: 3.97 grams; Mint: Ecbatana; Denomination: Drachm; Date: 57-38 BCE; Obverse: Diademed bust of king left, wearing torque with no upper end, short beard, hair in five waves, diadem-beads around upper perimeter. Reverse: Beardless archer (Arsaces) wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; Ecbatana monogram below; seven-line Greek inscription References: Sellwood #45.10; Sunrise #366v.museumguy
Orodes_II.jpg
Parthia - Orodes II (57-38 BCE)7 viewsMetal/Size: AR22; Weight: 3.98 grams; Mint: Margiane; Denomination: Drachm; Date: 57-38 BCE; Obverse: Diademed bust of Orodes left, wearing torque with no upper end, moustache, short beard, diadem joined at the ends, hair falls in four waves. Reverse: Archer (Arsaces) seated right on throne, holding bow - monogram of Margiana below bow. References: Sellwood #46.13; Sunrise #361-366v.museumguy
VardanesII-moeda1.jpg
PARTHIA/PERSIA, Vardanes II (c. 58-55 BC), AR Tetradrachm57 viewsWeight: 14.17 g
Size: 26 mm
Condition: EF/EF
Minted at Seleucia between 56/55 BC (Year 367 of Seleucian Era).
Obv: bust left with very short beard wearing diadem and spiral torque; four waves in hair cover ear, hair
above
diadem as ringlets; wart on forehead is visible; circular border of dots
Rev: male wearing diadem seated left on throne, extending right hand, grasping hilt of sword in left; to
his left,
Tyche stands right presenting diadem in right hand, and holding scepter in left; above diadem, Greek
letters
tr_sqStigma-X-T.gif (44x15 -- 949 bytes); in exergue, Greek letters ΥΠΕΡΒ; seven-line Greek inscription
[ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΥ]ΕΡΓΕΤ[ΟΥ] ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟ[ΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ] , year = 366
Seleucid
era
Ref: Sellwood 69.1-6 ; Shore 382
Rarity: Scarce
Jorge C
RI 030a img~0.jpg
Pax (seated)230 viewsVespasian Denarius
Obv:– IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, Laureate Head Right
Rev:– PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, holding olive branch, left hand at side
References:– RIC 90, RSC 366

Another example of Pax but this time seated rather than standing.
maridvnvm
Silver_1_of_16_shekel_(Abd__astart,_Straton_I)_Phoenicia.jpg
Persian Empire, Sidon, Phoenicia, Ba'Alshillem II, c. 401 - 366 B.C.62 viewsSilver 1/16 shekel, Elayi 2004 851 ff.; Hoover 10 240; Betlyon 27 (Abd'astart, Straton I); BMC Phoenicia p 146, 36 (same); SNG Cop 197 ff. (same), gVF, well struck on a crowded flan, toned, 0.843g, 9.5mm, 0o, Phoenicia, Sidon mint, c. 371 - 370 B.C.; obverse : war galley left, Phoenician letter beth above; reverse : King of Persia (to left) standing right, slaying erect lion to right, Phoenician letter ayin between them.





Sidon, named for the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, 19), is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, 4, 12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). The Sidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12) but Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with them, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). Jesus visited the "coasts" of Tyre and Sidon (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24) where many came to hear him preach (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). After leaving Caesarea, Paul's ship put in at Sidon, before finally sailing for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).

FORVM Ancient Coins / The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
pharnakia_pontos.jpg
Pharnakia, AE20, Zeus/ Eagle on thunderbolt30 viewsPontos, Pharnakia, c. 85-65 B.C. Bronze AE 20, SNG BM Black Sea 1282 (same dies); BMC Pontus, p. 36, 2; SGCV II 3663, VF, Pharnakia mint, weight 7.761g, maximum diameter 22.8mm, die axis 0o, c. 85-65 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, reverse FARNAKXIAS, eagle standing on thunderbolt, wings open, monogram left; Ex FORVMPodiceps
Philip-Alexandria-1.JPG
Philip I, Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria13 viewsPotin Tetradrachm, Alexandria Egypt
Year 4, 247-248 AD
Obverse: A K M IOV FIL-IPPOC EV CE, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Reverse: LD, Nike advancing right with wreath and palm
22mm, 14.2 gm
Geissen 2729 (var.) (end with EVCE) ; Dattari 4895 ; BMC 1966 , Hunter 830 (var.) (end with EVCEB) ; Milne 3663 (var.) (end with EVCE) ; Curtis 1349 (var.) (end with EVCE) ; Kop 717 (var.) (end with EVCE)
Jerome Holderman
PhilippII1.jpg
Philip II - AE 1825 views359-336 BC
head of Apollo right
naked youth on horse right
ΦIΛIΠΠOY
?(trident)
SNG Cop - (cf 148), BMC - (cf 366), SNG Lockett - (cf 2129), BCD - (cf 179)
6,27g 18,5-17,5mm
Johny SYSEL
Phoenicia-Sidon-Ba__alshillem-16th-shekel.jpg
Phoenicia Sidon Ba'alshillem II 401-366 BC, 1/32 AR Shekel24 viewsAncient Greek, Phoenicia Sidon Ba'alshillem II (401-366 BC), 1/32 AR Shekel, .46g, 9mm

Obverse: Galley left above waves "𐤁‬"=B above, Phoenician script.

Reverse: Persian king standing right slaying a lion standing left "𐤏" between, Phoenician script.

Reference: -

Ex: Aegean Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
Phrygia_Eukarpeia_Hermes_StarCrescent_AE15_2_59g.jpg
Phrygia, Eukarpeia, Hermes / stars above crescent, AE1558 views15mm, 2.59
obv: EVKAPΠEΩN; draped bust of Hermes right, caduceus behind
rev: EΠI KΛ ΦΛAKKOV, small bucranium supporting crescent, two stars above (one obliterated by the hole), connected by a vertical line
BMC p205, 9-10; SNG Cop 366, Weber 7087
ex FORVM
1 commentsareich
rome_14.jpg
Plautilla Denarius - Rome - Diana Lucifera - No.1425 viewsPlautilla
Denarius
205 A.D.
Rome
Av.: PLAVTILLA - AVGVSTA / draped bust right (Hill: Lii)
Rev.: DIANA - LVCIFERA / Diana standing left, bow on back, holding torch with both hand
3,55 Gr., 12 h die axis
RIC 366, Coh. 13, Hill 702

The last and rarest denarii issue for Plautilla in early 205, before she was exiled.
nummis durensis
0191-7070.jpg
Plautilla, Denarius - bE7129 viewsRome mint, AD 205
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved & drawn down on neck
DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands.
3.3 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 366, Cohen # 13, RCV #7070
See G&M auction # 170/2507, same dies
Ex. arizonarobin collection
4 commentsPotator II
plautilladiana.jpg
Plautilla, Diana69 viewsPlautilla
Ar Denarius Rome

PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA,
draped bust right, hair waved & drawn down on neck

DIANA LVCIFERA,
Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands.

RIC 366
5 commentsarizonarobin
Price_3609.jpg
Price 360946 viewsRake to the left. Monogram under the throne. M under the monogram. Was incorrectly attributed as a 3666, But the rake is rare.
Chance Vandal
price_3666.jpg
Price 366640 viewsHoe to the left. M to the left. Monogram under the throne. A real good strike under the uneven toning.1 commentsChance Vandal
00459q00.jpg
Probus18 viewsAE-Antoninianus
VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and decorated buckler.
FIDES MILIT; Fides standing left, with two ensigns.
Ex: VIXXT
Ticinum
RIC 366
Julianus of Pannonia
215.jpg
PROBUS BASTIEN 36610 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: PAX AVG
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//IIII
WEIGHT 3.69g / AXIS 6h / WIDTH: 21,5-23mm
RIC: 91
BASTIEN: 366 (57 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 215
Barnaba6
274~0.jpg
PROBUS BASTIEN 36611 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: PAX AVG
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//IIII
WEIGHT 3.90g / AXIS 12h
RIC: 91
BASTIEN: 366 (57 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 274
NOTE: DIVERGENT WREATH TIES / EX S.L. COLLECTION
Barnaba6
90~2.jpg
PROBUS RIC 3669 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILIT
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 3.86g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22-24mm
RIC: 366
COLLECTION NO. 612
Barnaba6
4~4.jpg
PROBUS RIC 366 E1 BUST FLORET ON SHIELD54 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILIT
BUST TYPE: E1 = radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT: 4.73g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-23mm
RIC: 366
COLLECTION NO. 1116
Ex Gianni collection
NOTE: Shield decorated with floret (a scarce and desirable shield decoration)
Rare
2 commentsBarnaba6
38~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 366 E2 BUST RARE11 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILIT
BUST TYPE: E2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT: / AXIS: / DIAMETER: mm
RIC: 366
COLLECTION NO. 978
RARE BUST TYPE
Barnaba6
1269~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 366 VAR. F19 BUST FIDES TO LEF11 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILIT
BUST TYPE: F19 = Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding aegis and spear, seen from rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 4.10g / DIAMETER: 20mm
RIC: 366 VAR. (F19 BUST UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 1269

NOTE: Scarce and desirable bust type.

REVERSE VARIANT WITH FIDES STANDING LEFT; SEE ALSO MY SPECIMEN NO. 948 WITH MUCH RARER VARIANT OF FIDES STANDING RIGHT (ONLY ONE REVERSE DIE OF THE FIDES STANDING TO RIGHT VARIANT EXISTS).
Barnaba6
39~3.jpg
PROBUS RIC 366 VAR. F19 BUST FIDES TO RIGHT 15 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILIT
BUST TYPE: F19
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 3.88g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 22-2Emm
RIC: 366 VAR. (F19 BUST UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 948
NOTE: EXTREMELY RARE VARIANT WHERE FIDES IS STANDING RIGHT INSTEAD OF LEFT. APPARENTLY ONLY ONE REVERSE DIE EXISTS OF THIS VARIANT. THIS IS ONLY THE THIRD SPECIMEN OF THIS TYPE IN THE WORLD KNOWN TO ME.
EX M.VOSPER'S COLLECTION
Barnaba6
91~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 366 VAR. F5 BUST 15 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILIT
BUST TYPE: F5
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 3.84g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 23mm
RIC: 366 VAR. (F5 BUST UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 348
EX S.L. COLLECTION
7TH KNOWN SPECIMEN (INFORMATION FROM S.ESTIOT + MY OWN DATABASE)
Barnaba6
433~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 366 VAR. F8 BUST 10 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: FIDES MILIT
BUST TYPE: F8
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 3.87g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 23-24mm
RIC: 366 VAR. (F8 BUST UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 433
NOTE: 7TH KNOWN SPECIMEN IN THE WORLD (INFORMATION FROM S.ESTIOT)
Barnaba6
PROCOPE-RIC13e3.jpg
PROCOPE - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 13e(03)15 viewsSilique, 365-366, R1
A/D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Procopius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre maître Procope Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste barbu à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V//C•Γ
Votis quinquennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne
Légende en 2 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.58 gr - 17.6 mm - 6h
RIC IX 13e(03), RSC 14
Siliquae
procopius.JPG
Procopius13 viewsAD 365-366JRoME
Procopius_1.jpg
Procopius16 viewsProcopius (365-366)
Maiorina ou nummus
Heraclea
Obv: D N PROCOPI[VS P F AVG] Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust l.
Rev: [REPARATI]O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, head l., holding labarum, SMHA.
Ref.: RIC 7. 2
AE, 2.75g, 20.5mm
shanxi
00440.jpg
Procopius (RIC 7, Coin #440)10 viewsRIC 7 (R2), AE3, Heraclea, 365 - 366 AD.
OBV: D N PROCOPIVS AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left.
REV: REPARATIO FEL TEMP (SMH gamma); Procopius holding labarum in right hand and resting left hand on shield, Chi-Rho Christogram above right, • right.
SIZE: 18.1mm 2.82g
MaynardGee
Procopio_AE_Centenional_-_RIC_IX_17a_(R2)_Constantinopla.jpg
Procopius - RIC IX 17a7 viewsConstantinopla 365-366 AD.
19 mm, 3.8 g.
DN PROCOPIVS PF AVG
REPARATIO FEL TEMP
CONS E in ex.
xokleng
procopius.jpg
Procopius AE3, 365-366 AD16 viewsRoman Imperial, Procopius AE3, (365-366 AD), 3.3g, 16mm

Obverse: DN PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped bust right.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Emperor standing left, head right, holding labarum & shield on ground. Mintmark off flan. "Security of the Republic"

Reference: Waage 1764cf, Not in RIC.
Gil-galad
Clipboarde.jpg
Procopius AE3. AD 366. 38 viewsObv: D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left.
Rev: REPARTI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum & resting hand on shield; Chi-Rho in upper right field, dot in right field.
ancientone
Wzb5Gy2S6JAzjK8XB42mja3DPqs7e9.jpg
PROCOPIUS AE3. Reparatio Fel Temp. Cho-Rho in field, and on shield. Rare.15 viewsPROCOPIUS, Usurper in the East, 365-366 AD. Heraclea mint. D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left. Reverse - REPARATIO FEL TEMP, Procopius standing right, holding labarum and shield set on ground; Christogram in upper right field, • in lower right field; SMHG in exergue. RIC IX 7.5; LRBC 1930. 18mm, 3.0g.Antonivs Protti
Procopius_wLabarum_and_Shield.jpg
Procopius wLabarum and Shield28 viewsROMAN EMPIRE: BRONZE AE3/CENTENIONALIS of PROCOPIUS (365-366 AD).
A usurper against Valentinian I. 18mm, 2.6g, RIC IX 17a, LRBC 2081
OBV: D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left.
REV: REPARATIO FEL TEMP, emperor standing, holding labarum and shield.
Ex-Nemesis Ancients & Antiquities, 07/2008. As is the case with many usurpers, the coins of Procopius are relatively scarce and usually fairly crude. Fine+ to aVery Fine.

RARE
Romanorvm
procopius.jpg
Procopius, AE3 of Cyzicus, AD. 365-366.9 viewsProcopius, AE3 of Cyzicus, AD. 365-366. DN PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left / REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and resting left hand on shield. Mintmark star SMKГ. Britanikus
PROCOP-2-ROMAN.jpg
Procopius, Constantinople RIC IX-17a11 viewsAE3
Constantinople mint, 365-366A.D.
19mm, 2.51g
RIC IX-17a

Obverse:
D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse:
REPARATIO FEL TEMP
CONS Γ .
Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand and resting left on shield. At foot, left, a small indeterminate object. Above in field right, Chi-Rho.
rubadub
PROCOP-1-ROMAN.jpg
Procopius, Heraclea RIC IX-0715 viewsAE3
Heraclea mint, 365-366A.D.
19mm, 2.68g
RIC IX-7

Obverse:
D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse:
REPARATIO FEL TEMP
. in right field
SM H B
Emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right
hand and resting left on shield. Above in right field, Chi-Rho.
rubadub
procopius_Constantinopolis_17bvar.jpg
Procopius, RIC IX, Constantinopolis 17b var., unpublished63 viewsProcopius, AD 365-366
AE - AE 3, 3.93g
Constantinopolis, 4th officina
obv. DN PROCO - PIVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, l.
rev. REPARATI - O FEL TEMP
Emperor in military cloak, stg. half-left, head r., holding labarum in in r. hand
and resting with l. hand on shield;
palmbranch in l. field, Chi-Rho in r. field
in ex. CONS Delta
Ref.: RIC IX 17b var.; C.7 var.;
(in RIC only officina Gamma and Epsilon but Delta expexted)
very rare, EF, sharp, nice green patina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The variant with the palmbranch is much rarer than the usual 'unknown object' or the empty field. And there is no officina Delta listet nor yet found in any reference!
4 commentsJochen
6824_6825.jpg
Provincial, Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior, AE26, νI φΑνCTINIANOY MAPKIANOΠΟΛ8 viewsAE26
Roman Provincial: Markianopolis, Moesia Inferior
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Consular Legate: Julius Faustinianus
Issued: 207 - 210AD
26.0mm 9.40gr 7h
O: AνK Λ CεΠT CενΗΡΟC; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: νI φΑνCTINIANOY MAPKIANOΠΟΛ; Apollo standing facing, head right, holding a bow in left hand, right hand on head, snake coiled around tree before.
Hristov & Jekov 6.14.7.11.var. (obv. legend); SNG Munchen 265; Moushmov 368; AMNG I 562 var. (obv. legend).
dragons.treasure_88 253664751925
6/12/18 8/8/18
Nicholas Z
7528_7529.jpg
Provincial, Serdica, Thrace, AE18, CεΡΔΩΝ12 viewsAE18
Roman Provincial: Serdica, Thrace
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
18.5mm 4.03gr 7h
O: AV K Λ CενΗΡΟC; Laureate head, right.
R: CεΡΔΩΝ; Eagle standing left on a thunderbolt, head right.
Ruzicka 52; Varbanov 1924; Minnet I 366, corre. (obv. description)
cody111111/Joseph Sinski 302796683529
7/13/18 8/6/18
Nicholas Z
PtolmyX_SNGcop367_gf.jpg
Ptolemy X Alexander22 viewsPtolemy X Alexander. 116/115-80 BC AR Tetradrachm (13.70 gm) of Alexandria, 97/6 BC. Diademed head of Ptolemy I r. / Eagle standing l. on thunderbolt. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ | ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ, LIH (RY 18) to l., ΠΑ to r. VF. SNG Cop 8 #367 w/ obv. die link to #366; Svornos 1678 pl. 57 #23; DCA 68. cf Heritage A231829 #63060 (same dies). Alt. attribution: Paphos mint. Svoronos 1689 pl. 59b #22-23; DCA 62; SNG Cop 8 #633 (Ptolemy IX).
1 commentsAnaximander
8365_8366.jpg
Ptolemy, AE12, ΠΤΟΛΕΜΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ1 viewsAE12
Ptolemy (?)
King:
Issued:
12.0mm 1.40gr 0h
O: NO LEGEND; Head of Zeus, right.
R: ΠΤΟΛΕΜΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ; Eagle, standing left, wings spread.
Richard Sheryka, Christmas
12/25/18 2/12/19
Nicholas Z
Rama_V_1907_AR_Baht_rare.jpg
Rama V, King Chulalongkorn the Great (1853- 1910 AD), Thailand40 viewsKing Rama V, AR, 1 baht, R.S. 126, 1907 AD, 31m, 14.9 g, Royal Mint: Bangkok. Obverse: head of Rama V facing L, King's "first" name (สมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์) above, his "last" name (พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) below . Reverse: The Coat of Arms of Chulalongkorn--On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha. The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords). The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao. The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness." Khrueng Thep (กรุงสยาม--Bangkok) left, Rama V (รัชกาลที่) right, one baht (บาทหนึ่ง) below. RS 126 has the regnal date 40 over the 127; EF, Rare.

Rama V, King Chulalongkorn the Great (1853- 1910 AD); during his 42-year reign, King Chulalongkorn (the fifth king of the Chakri Dynasty) succeeded in establishing a government based on the western system, which ultimately paved the way for the present democracy. He reformed the rule of law, established a proper judicial system and introduced compulsory military service, improving the country's national defense. He introduced the Baht (still in use today) as the official currency and made taxes directly payable to the government, cutting out the corrupt middlemen. King Chulalongkorn also set up Siam's first hospital based on western medical practices, the first medical school and a nationwide education system.

The Thai Nation rightly reveres King Chulalongkorn. The preservation of Thailand's sovereignty and independence, in contrast to other Asian countries that capitulated to colonialism, was a direct result of his efforts. His skills of diplomacy abroad and ability to form a central government at home endeared him to the people. His reign was one of the most successful of any monarch in any country in the world and through his vision and leadership; a small, traditional Kingdom was transformed into a modern Nation at the heart of Asian affairs.
(http://www.chiangmai-chiangrai.com/chulalongkorn_rama_5.html)

On his first enthronement, King Chulalongkorn issued a royal decree that all the people born during his reign would be born free; he had determined that slavery should eventually disappear from his realm. In order not to create a social upheaval suddenly, King Rama V took gradual measures to release slaves to freedom, and in 1905 he issued a law for the abolition of slavery. Thus the Thai people won freedom without any struggle.

The first public museum was established by King Rama V in 1880 at the Concordia Building inside the Grand Palace compound. Later, when the viceroy or Uparat position was replaced by the crown Prince position, the Palace of the Uparat or the Front Palace was vacant. In 1887 the museum was moved to the Front Palace and developed to be the National Museum.


In 1917, Siam (Thailand) opened its first university. It was named after this beloved King: Chulalongkorn University was referred to as "the Harvard of Asia" by President Bill Clinton of the United States.

Cleisthenes
freeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee2_169.JPG
Rayadhanji I S/o Tamachiji (1666 - 1698) coinage issue:110 viewsRayadhanji I S/o Tamachiji (1666 - 1698) coinage issue:
The first series of coins were introduced in 1586, and consisted of copper trambiyo and dhinglo coins, and silver ½ and 1 kori coins. The 1 dokdo coin was introduced in 1632, followed by the ½ trambiyo and ¼ kori coins in 1645, the 25 kori coin in 1854, 5 kori in 1863, 50 and 100 kori in 1866, 3 dokda in 1868, 1½ dokda in 1869, 2½ kori in 1875, and 1 dhabu, 1 payalo, 1 adhio, and 10 kori coins in 1943. Kutch currency was replaced by the Indian rupee in 1947 at a rate of 1 rupee = 3½ Kori.
Currency: Kori = 2 Adlinao = 4 Payalo = 8 Dhabu = 16 Dhinglo = 24 Dokda = 48 Trambiyo = 96 Babukiya.



KM#36 Kori. Year: ND (1666-1698). Weight: 4.46g [4.50g]. Metal: 0.800 Silver. Diameter: 15.00 mm. Edge: Plain. Alignment: Rotated. Mint: Bhuj.
Note: A close imitation of the coin of Gujarat's ruler Muzaffar Shah III with a dagger to bottom right.

Obverse legend in Urdu: "As-sultan, Muzaffar Shah" with frozen date "٩٧٨" (AH 978). Rao's name: राउ श्री ऱायधणजी (Rao Shree Rayadhanji) in Devnagari at the bottom. Reverse legend in Urdu: "Ar-reman betaid al-muwid shams ad-duniya waud-din abu-Al-nasir" (Son of the world and defender of the Religion by the help and strength of the merciful). Dagger mint mark at the right bottom side. Mintage: N/A. Minted Years: One year type with AH 978 frozen date. Ruler: Rayadhanji I.
Antonio Protti
RIC_23_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0023 Domitianus59 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PONT, Laureate head right
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P, Curule chair; above, wreath
AR/Denarius (18.58 mm 3.366 g 6h) Struck in 81 A.D. (3rd Group)
RIC 23 (R3), RSC-BMCRE-BNF unlisted
ex Bertolami Fine Arts E-Live Auction 36 lot 544
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_418_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0418 Domitianus35 viewsObv : IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS PER P P, Laureate head right, with aegis
Rev : SALVTI AVGVSTI / S-C in field; Altar
AE/As (26.84 mm 10.66 g 6h) Struck in Rome 85 A.D. (3rd issue)
RIC 418 (R2), BMCRE 366A, BNF unlisted
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_421_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0421 Domitianus51 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS PER P P, Laureate head right, with aegis
Rev: S-C (in field); Victory flying left, with shield inscribed SPQR
AE/As (28.33 mm 10.667 g 6h) Struck in Rome 85 A.D. (3rd issue)
RIC 421 (R2), BMCRE 366
ex Aureo & Calicò (Auction 282-1 lot 1028
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_479A_Titus.jpg
RIC 0479A Titus83 viewsObv: T CAESAR VESPASIAN IMP III PON TR POT II COS II, Laureate head right
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVSTI / S C (in exergue); Victory standing right, foot on helmet, inscribing shield hung on palm tree
AE/Sestertius (34.03 mm 24.74 g 6h) Struck in Rome 72 A D (4th issue)
RIC, BMCRE, BNF unlisted
Same dies as Gemini, LLC, Auction IX, Lot 366 ex Harry Sneh coll.
ex H.D. Rauch eAuktion 15 Lot 167
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
new_vesp_combined.jpg
RIC 068551 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. AR Denarius Rome mint. Struck AD 74.
(18.47 mm, 3.39 g, 6h).
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESP AUG Laureate head right
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM Vespasian seated right, holding scepter and branch.
RIC II 685; BMCRE pg. 27 ; RSC 386.
Ex: J. Eric Engstrom Collection
Ex: CNG E-auction 373, Lot 366 April 20, 2016




I like collecting interesting coins of Vespasian. While not as rare as my examples already posted, this one is certainly not all that easy to find either. What attracted me to this coin was the dark toning. I really like the way the highlights on the portrait and the figure on the reverse seem to come to life against the darker background.

This coin is an example where the emperor is featured on both sides of the coin. His portrait is on the obverse, but he is pictured seated on the reverse. This coin has plenty of detail left on both sides. I also really like that the full legend on both the obverse and reverse are preserved. The legend "Maxim Pontiff" refers to Vespasian's role as chief priest of the empire.
1 commentsorfew
RIC_772_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 0772 Vespasianus25 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VI, Peace seated left, holding branch
AR/Denarius (20.32 mm 3.32 g 6h)
RIC 772 (C3), BMCRE 161-164, RSC 366
FlaviusDomitianus
gallienus.jpg
RIC 256v17 viewsRIC 256v
Goebl 366e Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, Rome mint, 260-268 AD. Sole Reign. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right / PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and sceptre. Left field: V. Goebl 0366e, Rome; RIC 256 var (officina).
Patrick O3
R366_012402_GK.JPG
RIC 36625 viewsRIC 366, Ticinum. Bust type G, (E1). Denomination: Antoninianus.

OBV.: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield..
Shield decorated with two rows of soldiers bearing shields.
REV.: FIDES MILIT
Fides standing left, with two ensigns.

Mintmark: // VIXXT

Weight: ?
1 commentsvrtsprb
Constans_2.jpg
Ric 8, p.366, 238 - Constans, emperor on galley23 viewsCONSTANS,
337-350 AD.
Æ-3
Obv.: DN CONSTANS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, emperor standing left on galley, holding phoenix on globe, and standard with Chi-Rho on banner; Victory sits in stern, steering the ship. ΓSIS . (mint of Siscia). 3rd officina.
AE, 19mm, 2.57g
Ref.: RIC VIII, pg. 366, 238
Ex Vauction 298, Lot 154
Ex Roy Flora
shanxi
901.jpg
ric3667 viewsElagabalus
Orichalcum Sestertius

Obv: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax advancing left, raising olive branch in right hand, scepter in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking near her waist.
32 mm, 21.56 gms

RIC 366
Charles M
rjb_la_tene_2.jpg
Roman brooch20 viewsRoman P shaped brooch; 2nd-3rd cent AD, 65mm long. Hattat p.366mauseus
rjb_la_tene_1.jpg
Roman brooch22 viewsRoman P shaped brooch; 2nd-3rd cent AD, 75mm long. Hattat p.366mauseus
14622q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS135 viewsCopper post-reform radiate, RIC 19a, S 3665, VF, 3.611g, 21.2mm, 180o, Cyzicus mint, 295 - 299 A.D.; obverse FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse CONCORDIA MILITVM, Constantius standing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, KB in centerdpaul7
nero.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - NERO - ALEXANDRIA20 viewsBillon tetradrachm, S 2006, RIC 366 RPC 5293, BMC 162, Milne 248, gF, 12.670g, 23.6mm, 0o, Alexandria mint, 66 - 67 A.D.; obverse legend to read NERW KLAU KAIS SEB GER, radiate head right; reverse AUT[OKRA], helmeted bust of Roma right, LIG right ( = Year 13 )dpaul7
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Roman Empire, Augustus, 27 BC to AD 14, Denarius41 viewsAR Denarius, Roma mint, 13 BC, coinage of C.Antistius Reginus.
Obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right.
Rev. C ANTISTIVS REGINVS, simpulum (to right) on left and lituus (to left) on right above, respectively, tripod and patera, in ex. IIIVIR.
RIC 410 (I, 73); RSC 347 (I, 149).
3,84g, 18mm.
Extremely Fine / Extremely Fine.
Provenance: H.D.Rauch Auktionshaus, Auction 85, lot 366.
apyatygin
moneta 212r.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian, unknown mint31 viewsAurelian antoninianus
obv: imp avrelianvs avg. Radiate and cuirassed bust right.
rev: restitvtor exerciti. Mars holding spear, and the emperor holding scepter, holding a globe between them.
Delta in center field, XXI in exergue
Struck 270-274 A.D. at ?
RIC-366?
Jericho
0191-bE7.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PLAUTILLA Denarius RIC 36655 viewsRome mint, AD 205
PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair waved & drawn down on neck
DIANA LVCIFERA, Diana standing left, holding torch in both hands.
3.3 gr
Ref : RIC IV # 366, Cohen # 13, RCV #7070
See G&M auction # 170/2507, same dies
Ex. arizonarobin collection
Potator II
Procop3.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Procopius43 viewsProcopius AE3. AD 366. D N PROCO-PIVS P F AVG, Diademed bust left, draped & cuirassed / REPARTI-O (Chi-Rho) FEL TEMP, Procopius in military attire, standing front, head turned right, holding spear & shield behind left leg & Labarum in right hand, SMHB. in ex.
Heraclea R2
RIC 7
ex-ruttencoins.de
sseverus
procopius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Procopius, AE 362 viewsProcopius. Usurper, AD 365-366. Æ 19mm (2.56 g). Constantinople mint. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left / Procopius standing front, head right, holding labarum and shield set on the ground; Chi-Rho in upper right field and unidentified object by left foot; CONSD•. RIC IX 17(a).6; LRBC 2082. VF, dark green patina, ragged around the edge, reverse strike a touch soft.1 commentsW. Kutschenko
Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_MART-I-P-ACIF-(M1c)_S_RIC-145_T-3366_iss-1_off_2_Ticinum-275-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_22mm_3,76g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #1336 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1).
revers:- MART-I-P-ACIF, Mars in military dress walking l., holding olive branch in r. hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in l. hand. (Mars 1c).
exerg: -/-//S, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,76g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, iss.-1., off.-2., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-145., T-(Estiot)-3366, C-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
37524120_284322522156167_6109636651242225664_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Crispus as Caesar AE Follis, (323 AD), Trier mint21 viewsRoman Imperial, Crispus as Caesar AE Follis, (323 AD), Trier mint

IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C, Bust laureate r. in consular robes and holding eagle-tipped sceptre.

BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar inscribed VOTIS XX, globe on altar, three stars above. Mintmark dot STR crescent.

RIC VII Trier 405
1 commentsGil-galad
hadrian-pietas-bronze.jpg
Roman Imperial, Hadrian (117-138 AD) AE Dupondius, Rome mint10 viewsRoman Imperial, Hadrian (117-138 AD) AE Dupondius, Rome mint

Obverse: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: PIETAS AVGVSTI S-C, Pietas standing right, dropping incense into lighted altar.

Reference: RIC 601c, Cohen 1044, BMC 1233, Sear RCV 3665
Gil-galad
40369458_293001358163669_2114294193730879488_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Septimius Severus AR Denarius. (196-197 AD)5 viewsRoman Imperial, Septimius Severus AR Denarius. (196-197 AD)

L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right.

SECVRITAS PVBLICA, Securitas seated left, holding globe.

RIC 93, RSC 647, BMC 174
Gil-galad
40374884_257316528447540_4116693661788405760_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Septimius Severus Denarius. (196 AD) 4 viewsRoman Imperial, Septimius Severus Denarius. (196 AD)

L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VII, Laureate head right.

P M TR P IIII COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

RIC 71a, RSC 423.
Gil-galad
10313529_660746583962256_5928221178724547366_n.jpg
Roman Republic27 viewsAE AS1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
15232280_220972304994522_5874890648111366370_n.jpg
Roman Republic Cn. Plancius moneyer19 viewsSilver Denarius (20mm, 3.95 gm.) Struck 55 B.C.
Head of Macedonia right, wearing causia. CN PLANCIVS before, AED CVR S C behind.
Cretan goat standing right, bow and quiver behind.
Reference: RRC 432/1. CRR 933. RSC Plancia 1. RRM 17.1-2.
Antonivs Protti
3854366_m.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Appuleius Saturninus, AR Denarius - Crawford 317/3a9 viewsRome. The Repubic.
L. Appuleius Saturninus, 101 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, facing left.

Reverse: Saturn holding harpa in fast quadriga galloping right; pellet and sideways E, above; L·SATVRN below.

References: Crawford 317/3a; Sydenham 578; BMCRR 1533 var (dot to left of control letter); Appuleia 1.

Provenance: Ex Stöcklin Family Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 229].

The moneyer was L. Appuleius Saturninus, who was Quaestor and twice Tribune near the close of the second century BCE. Crawford attributed the coinage to 104 BCE; but H.B. Mattingly, in Essays Hersh (1998), argues for a slightly later date based on a consensus that Saturninus was Quaestor in 104 BCE. This was a large issue with Crawford estimating 370 obverse dies and 462 reverse dies. No reverse control mark has more than one die. Given the large number of reverse dies, the control marks get somewhat convoluted, with letters in various orientations and combined with one or more pellets. The type, bearing Saturn, is certainly a pun on the moneyer’s name (Saturninus); a common practice among both Greek and Roman coin producers (see, e.g., Greek coins of Selinos bearing celery plants and Roman coins of Q. Pomponius Musa bearing the Muses).
Carausius
m36659.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Procilius, AR Denarius11 viewsL. Procilius. 80 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.98 g, 2h). Rome mint. Laureate head of Jupiter right / Juno Sospita advancing right, hurling spear and holding shield; serpent to right. Crawford 379/1; Sydenham 771; Procilia 1. Superb EF, fine old cabinet toning.FabiusMaximus
Sydenham-366.jpg
Roman Republic: C. Papirius Turdus (169-158 BCE) Æ As, Rome (Crawford 193/1; Sydenham 366)16 viewsObv: Laureate head of bearded Janus; I above
Rev: Prow of galley right; I to right, TVRD above, ROMA below
Quant.Geek
R664_Faustina_II_Alexandria_fac~0.jpg
RPC - Egypt, Alexandria, AD 149/150, Faustina II, Dikaiosyne16 viewsFaustina II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΦAYCTIN CEBACTH, draped bust right
Rev.: L ΙΓ (year 13), Dikaiosyne seated left, holding scales and cornucopia
Billon, 13.46g
Ref.: RPC online 13660, D 3239, Geissen 1949, M 2040
Ex Kölner Münzkabinett
2 commentsshanxi
RPC5366b.jpg
RPC536615 viewsDiobol, bust of Serapis, long obverse legend. 9.09 gr, max 26.5 mm, die-axis 12.jmuona
RRC415-1.jpg
RRC415/1 (L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus) 93 viewsObv. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled head of Concordia facing right, graffito.
Rev. TER above trophy with togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus on right, three captives on left, PAVLLVS in exergue.
18-19 mm, 3,94 gr.
Rome, ca. 63/2 B.C.
References: RRC415/1, RSC Aemilia 10, Syd. 926, Sear 366

Motif: It has been suggested that L. Aemilius Paullus took up the watchword of Cicero's consulate during and after the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 B.C.): Concordia Ordinum. The reverse shows the general L. Aemilius Paullus (no direct relation to the moneyer), who defeated King Perseus in the Third Macedonian War, at the Batle of Pydna. Here, the Macedonian phalanx originally had the upper hand, but broke apart over rough ground, allowing the Romans to enter the gaps between the huge sarissas and cut the phalangites down with their Spanish swords. Paullus took Perseus and his sons, Philip and Alexander, prisoner, as well as their daughter (unnamed and unrepresented on the coin). They were paraded in his triumph. The people reacted badly to this, feeling sympathetic towards the children, but by 63 B.C., this does not seem to have mattered anymore. Paullus triumphed three times in his life, hence the "TER" above the trophy.

Moneyer: The moneyer was the brother of the later triumvir M. Lepidus, and would himself rise through the cursus honorum. Paullus would become quaestor (59 B.C.), praetor (53 B.C.) and reach the consulship (50 B.C.), before siding with Brutus and Cassius and ending up on the proscription list. He was pardonned after Philippi, but exiled himself to Miletus.
1 commentsSyltorian
RRC415-1_-_Graffito.jpg
RRC415/1 (L. Aemilius Paullus Lepidus), Graffito85 viewsObv. PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, diademed and veiled head of Concordia facing right, graffito.
Rev. TER above trophy with togate figure of L. Aemilius Paullus on right, three captives on left, PAVLLVS in exergue.
17 mm, 3,79 gr.
Rome, ca. 63/2 B.C.
References: RRC415/1, RSC Aemilia 10, Syd. 926, Sear 366

It has been suggested that the moneyer, L. Aemilius Paullus, took up the watchword of Cicero's consulate during and after the Catilinarian conspiracy (63 B.C.): Concordia Ordinum. The reverse shows the general L. Aemilius Paullus (no direct relation to the moneyer), who defeated King Perseus in the Third Macedonian War, took him and his sons Philip and Aexander prisoner (what happened to the daughter is not recorded), and led them in his triumph. The people themselves did not apparently appreciate the introduction of children into the triumph, but by 63 B.C., this does not seem to have mattered anymore.

The moneyer was the brother of the later triumvir M. Lepidus, and would himself rise through the cursus honorum, to quaestor (59 B.C.), Praetor (53 B.C.) and Consul (50 B.C.), before siding with Brutus and Cassius and ending up on the proscription list. He was pardonned after Philippi, but exiled himself to Miletus.

This coin also bears graffito, spelling out HAEMI. The significance is unknown, and may indicate the owner; if the last latter is to be read as an O, it might be a dedication or a receiver.
Syltorian
Sear_0366_Year_11.jpg
Sear 036619 viewsJustin II (565 – 578 CE) Half-follis, weight 5.9g, diameter 21mm. Variant with θ+C above the large K. Mint of Thessalonica, struck in 575/76 CE (= regnal year 11). Abu Galyon
Sear_0336_Year_5.jpg
Sear 036622 viewsJustin II (565 – 578 CE) Half-follis, weight 5.2g, diameter 20mm. Variant with θKTC above the large K. Mint of Thessalonica, struck in 569/70 CE (ε = regnal year 5). Abu Galyon
Sear_366_Year_4.jpg
Sear 036620 viewsJustin II (565 – 578 CE) Half-follis, weight 6.19g, diameter 20mm. Mint of Thessalonica, struck in 568/69 CE (Δ = regnal year 4).Abu Galyon
TibIIIDO8c.jpg
Sear 1366 - Follis - 698-699 AD (Year 1) - Constantinople mint - 3rd officina56 viewsEmperor: Tiberius III (Apsimar) (r. 698-705 AD)
Date: 698-699 AD (Year 1)
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: - ]
Bust facing, with close beard, wearing cuirass and crown with cross on circlet. In right hand, spear held before body. On left shoulder, shield with horseman device.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, ///; To right, //; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, third officina
DO 8c; Sear 1366
2.60g; 22.2mm; 180°
Pep
IMG_3366.JPG
Septimius Severus10 viewsSeptimius Severus, SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / INDVLGENTIA AVGG, Dea Caelestis in elaborate headress riding right onlion, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; below, water gushing from rocks to left, IN CARTH in exergue. RIC 266; Sear 6285; RSC 222.Molinari
Septimus1.jpg
Septimius Severus Sestertius22 viewsSeptimius Severus Æ Sestertius. 195 AD. L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP V, laureate & cuirassed bust right / PART ARAB PART ADIAB S-C, two Parthian captives seated back to back at foot of a trophy made up of captured arms, COS II P P in ex.

RIC 690b , Cohen 366
Tanit
Septimius_Severus_RIC_432~0.JPG
Septimius Severus, 193 - 211 AD15 viewsObv: IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head of Septimius Severus facing right.

Rev: TRP III IMP V COS II, Captive seated right, left hand supporting head, right hand tied behind his back; in front are shields and arms.

Silver Denarius, Emesa mint, 195 AD

3.2 grams, 16.5 mm, 0°

RIC IVi 432, RSC 661, S6366 (var.), VM 146/2
SPQR Coins
6264_6265.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, VIRT AVGG17 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 200AD
20.0 x 19.0mm 3.37gr 7h
O: SEVERVS PIVS PART MAX; Laureate bust, right.
R: VIRT AVGG; Virtus standing left, holding Victory in right hand and spear with shield in left.
Rome Mint
RIC IV-1 171a; Sear (2000) 6387; RSC 761; BMCRE 211.
Aorta: 736: B3, O78, R366, T247, M4.
Slightly worn obverse die in right legend (PART MAX).
Leu Numismatik Web Auction 3, Lot 906.
2/25/18 3/26/18
1 commentsNicholas Z
5829_5830.jpg
Severus Alexander, Denarius, PM TR P VIII COS III PP2 viewsAR Denarius
Severus Alexander
Caesar: 221 - 222AD
Augustus: 222 - 235AD
Issued: 229AD
17.0 x 16.0mm 2.80gr
O: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG; Laureate head/bust, right.
R: PM TR P VIII COS III PP; Mars advancing right, holding spear and trophy.
Rome Mint
Aorta: 182: B4, O10, R75, T52, M2.
RIC 93; RSC 366; BMC 609 note.
Agora Auctions for Holding History Lot 01-107.
1/7/16 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
MACW-1586.jpg
Shahi Kings of Kabul and Ghandara: Sri Samanta Deva (ca. 850-1000 CE) AR Jital (Deyell-45, Tye-14, MACW-1586, Album-A1402)53 viewsObv: Horseman riding right holding banner; Bhi ashara above left, Unknown symbol above right, degraded cursive title in front
Rev: Nandi recumbent left, Tamgha on hindquarters; श्री समानता देवा (Sri Samanta Deva in Nagari script) above
1 commentsSpongeBob
Tye-3.jpg
Shahi Kings of Kabul and Ghandara: Sri Spalapati Deva (750-900 CE) AR Jital (Tye-3; Deyell-17)34 viewsObv: Bull Nandi recumbent left, wearing plain jhula (saddlecloth), trisula (trident) tamgha on hindquarters, श्री स्पलापति देवा (Sri Spalapati Deva) in Nagari script above
Rev: Horseman riding right holding banner, flowing to left, Bactrian legend in arc in front (sri spalabad or sbolobodi) per Deyell, or corrupt Brahmi (shahi deva) per Tye.
SpongeBob
Tye-6.jpg
Shahi Kings of Kabul and Ghandara: Sri Spalapati Deva (ca. 750-900 CE) AR Jital (Tye-6; Deyell-25)36 viewsObv: Bull Nandi recumbent left, wearing plain jhula (saddlecloth), trisula (trident) tamgha on hindquarters, श्री स्पलापति देवा (Sri Spalapati Deva) in Nagari script above
Rev: Horseman riding right holding banner, "ka" akshara left, corrupt symbols right
SpongeBob
Hanuman_gambling_token_Siam_panorama.jpg
Siam, AE Gambling Token: 1760-1821 AD51 viewsSiam, AE Gambling Token: 1760-1821 AD . AE bronze pee, gambling token. 13.8g, 24.7mm; Obverse: Hanuman right, facing up: Reverse: Hanuman left, facing up.

Early gambling tokens were made from bronze, brass and tin. Later porcelain tokens were produced; they were used in commercial transactions as well, and became in effect legal tender. In 1875 AD, the government prohibited their use for commercial purposes.

Hanuman, the mighty ape that aided Lord Rama in his expedition against evil forces, is one of the most popular idols in the Hindu pantheon. Believed to be an avatar of Lord Shiva, Hanuman is worshipped as a symbol of physical strength, perseverance and devotion.

Hanuman's tale in the epic Ramayana — wherein he is assigned the responsibility to locate Rama's wife Sita abducted by Ravana, the demon king of Lanka — is known for its astounding ability to inspire and equip a reader with all the ingredients needed to face ordeals and conquer obstructions in the way of the world.

The character of Hanuman teaches us of the unlimited power that lies unused within each one of us. Hanuman directed all his energies towards the worship of Lord Rama, and his undying devotion made him such that he became free from all physical fatigue. And Hanuman's only desire was to go on serving Rama. Hanuman perfectly exemplifies "Dasyabhava" devotion — one of the nine types of devotions — that bonds the master and the servant. His greatness lies in his complete merger with his Lord, which also formed the base of his genial qualities.
(http://hinduism.about.com/library/weekly/aa052801a.htm)

There have been numerous saints who have claimed to see Hanuman in modern times, notably Madhvacharya ( 13 Century A.D )Tulsidas (16th century), Sri Ramdas Swami (17th century), Raghavendra Swami (17th century)and Sri Sathya Sai Baba (20th century).

Others have also asserted his presence wherever the Ramayana is read: (in Sanskrit, not transliterated)

यत्र यत्र रघुनाथ कीर्तनम् तत्र तत्र क्रित मस्तक अन्जलिं बष्पावरी परीपूर्ण लोचनम् मारुतिं नमश्च राक्षस अंतकम्।

Yatra Yatra Raghunath Kirtanam Tatra Tatra Krita Mastaka anjalim Bashpawari Pari purna lochanam Marutim nammascha rakshas antakam

Which means:

That wherever the deeds of Sri Rama are sung, At all such places does Hanuman cry tears of devotion and joy, At all such places does his presence remove the fear of demons.

This can be found in many other texts like vinay patrika, by Tulsidas, Mahabharta, by Ved Vyasa, Anand Ramayan and many others with slight variations in language/sentences. Even the places where holy function of Ramayanpath is taking place, there is a special puja and space or asan reserved for Hanuman.
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanuman)
1 commentsCleisthenes
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL•TEMP•RPARATIO_-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_0h_19-21mm_2,56ga-s.jpg
Siscia, RIC VIII 232 var, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS•, FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, legend error!!!61 viewsSiscia, RIC VIII 232 var, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS•, FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, legend error!!!
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP•R(E)PARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//BSIS•, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO_-A-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_6h_17-19mm_2,63ga-s.jpg
Siscia, RIC VIII 232, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS•, FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO, Phoenix, C4!70 viewsSiscia, RIC VIII 232, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS•, FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO, Phoenix, C4!
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP•REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//ΔSIS•, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,63g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366, C4!
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL•TEMP-REPARATIO_-B-SIS-dot-_RIC-VIII-232-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_h_18-20mm_2,48ga-s.jpg
Siscia, RIC VIII 232, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS•, FEL•TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,65 viewsSiscia, RIC VIII 232, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS•, FEL•TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL•TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//BSIS•, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-232-p366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_A-SIS-sign-5_RIC-VIII-241-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_2,38g-s~0.jpg
Siscia, RIC VIII 241, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,65 viewsSiscia, RIC VIII 241, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/-//ASIS Symbol"5", diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-241-p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-3-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_Cn8-D3_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_Gamma-SIS-Symbol3_RIC-VIII-247-p366_Siscia-348-50-AD_Q-001_1h_18,5mm_2,25ga-s.jpg
Siscia, RIC VIII 247, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,76 viewsSiscia, RIC VIII 247, 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Cn8, D3, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO, Phoenix, radiate, standing right on pile of ashes.
exergo: -/Symbol"3"//ΓSIS, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,25g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 348-50 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-247-p-366,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_symbol-1_A-SIS_RIC-VIII-248_p-366_Siscia_348-50-AD_Q-001_0h_17-18,5mm_1,71ga-s~0.jpg
Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, symbol"1"/-//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley,65 viewsSiscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, symbol"1"/-//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , pearl diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. Symbol "1" in the left field.
exe: symbol"1"/-//ASIS, diameter:17-18,5mm, weight: 1,71g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-248 (err. in RIC right field instead of left field), p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG_FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO_symbol-4__A-SIS_RIC-VIII-248_p-366_Siscia_348-50-AD_Q-001_0h_17,5-18,5mm_2,68ga-s.jpg
Siscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, symbol"4"/-//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley, 62 viewsSiscia, RIC VIII 248(err.in RIC), 146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, symbol"4"/-//ASIS, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Galley,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, Draped , pearl diademed, bust right,
revers:- FEL-TEMP-REPAR-ATIO, Emperor military dress stage left on galley, holding phoenix on globe and standard with Chi-Rho on banner, in the stern sits Victory, steering the ship. Symbol "4" in the left field.
exe: symbol"4"/-//ASIS, diameter:17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,68g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-248 (err. in RIC right field instead of left field), p-366,
Q-001
quadrans
MalacaAs.JPG
SPAIN, Malaca42 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC (Provincial Issue), Spain, Malaca. Circa 80-20 BC. Æ 23mm. Head of Hephaistos (Vulcan) right wearing flat cap; tongs behind / Radiate head of Helios facing. CNH pg. 101, 10; SNG BM Spain 366; P.V. LXXXV, 6; Burgos 1152. Molinari
ANTONINUS_PIUS_TETRADRACHM.JPG
Struck A.D.144 - 145. ANTONINUS PIUS. AR (Billon) Tetradrachm of Alexandria14 viewsObverse: ANTωNINOC CEB EVCEB. Laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: No legend. Serapis seated on throne facing left, holding sceptre in left hand and stretching right hand out over Kerberos at his feet. In field, L - H (= regnal year 8 = A.D.144-145).
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.54gms
Milne : 1792 | Geißen: 1440 | Dattari: 2366
1 comments*Alex
Louis_XIV_AE_(Brass)_Jeton~0.JPG
Struck c.1690, Louis XIV (1643 - 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton5 viewsObverse: LVDOVICVS•MAGNVS•REX•. Bare head of Louis XIV facing right; L G L in small letters below bust.
Reverse: PROPRIIS INVICTVS•IN•ARMIS•. Lion walking left, head facing. In exergue, ORDINAIRE•DES•GUERRES.

Struck at Nuremburg, Germany
Die engraver: Lazarus Gottlieb Laufer (or Lauffer)
Dimensions: 25.87mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 473

Lazarus Gottlieb Laufer was mint-master at Nuremburg from 1663 until his death in 1709.

In 1366 the French war treasury was divided into permanent (ordinaire) and temporary (extraordinaire) divisions. These treasuries minted jetons, so the inscription “Ordinaire des Guerres” on this jeton refers to the minting authority. The “Ordinaire des Guerres” was the permanent administration that managed the regular costs and expenses incurred by the use of the armed forces. It was different from the “Extraordinaire des Guerres” that only took office for the administration of specific campaigns. This jeton was struck around 1690.
*Alex
SUNGA_2_ELEPHANTS.jpg
Sunga dynasty19 viewsSunga Dynasty 1/4 Karshapana 185-173 BC
Cast Copper approx 14mm diameter 1.6gr
Obverse..Elephant without (top coin) with (bottom coin) rider.
Reverse..Chaitya, with crescent above.
Mitchiner ACW-4366
Paul R3
6176733678_39c532c749_z.jpg
T 005, Shahi, Sri Spalapati Deva55 viewsस्री स्पलापति देव over reclining bull
Horseman carrying a banner, flag, lance?
2 commentscrawforde
CampanoTarentine.JPG
Taras, Calabria55 views281-228 BC
AR Didrachm (20mm, 6.95g)
O: Diademed head of nymph Satyra left, wearing triple-pendant earring.
R: Nude youth on horseback right crowning horse and holding reins; star of eight rays above, dolphin below, TA beneath raised foreleg.
Vlasto 1036-37, Cote 548; McGill II, 131; SNG ANS 1301; HN Italy 1098; Sear 366v
ex Praefectus Coins

These so-called Campano-Tarentine (or sometimes Bruttio-Tarentine) types are a numismatic enigma.
The idea of an alliance was originally put forth in the 19th century due to the apparent similarity of the obverse portraits of this series with the coins of Neapolis and other Campanian cities. However the nymph depicted here is more likely to be the local Satyra rather than Campanian Parthenope, and there is no direct historical evidence of any alliance between Taras and the Campanians during this period.
The heavier standard may mean that this series was intended to circulate outside of Taras as a federal issue, or possibly as a trade unit. Further, no coins of this type have been found within the city itself.
It has also been suggested that these coins were struck as tribute to Rome, and the apparent timeframe is in line with such a theory.
2 commentsEnodia
1336670268_ef89303ac7_b.jpg
The Temple of Divus Romulus on the Via Sacra Adjoining the Basilica Maxentius131 viewsLeft unfinished at the time of the usurper Maxentius' downfall in AD 312, both structures were completed under Constantine, the temple presumably was dedicated to the founder of the city rather than to Maxentius' son. Joe Sermarini
067_Maximus_AE-23_C-IVL-VER-MAXIMVS-CAES_COL-F-L-PAC-DE-VLT_Deultum-Thrace_Mushmov-3660_Jurukova-228_235-237-AD_Q-001_1h_23mm_6,79g-s.jpg
Thrace, Deultum, 067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), AE-23, Mushmov-3660, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,83 viewsThrace, Deultum, 067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), AE-23, Mushmov-3660, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,
avers:- C-IVL-VER-MAXIMVS-CAES,Bare-headed, draped and cuirased bust right.
revers:- COL-F-L-PAC-DE-VLT, River god reclining left, holding reed and cornucopia, resting on urn from which waters flow.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23 mm, weight:6,79g, axis:1h,
mint:Thrace, Deultum, date: 235-237 A.D., ref: Mushmov-3660, Jurukova-228,
Q-001
quadrans
0-00P0_043.JPG
Thrace, Hadrianpolis. Geta AE16. Telesphorus 23 viewsHadrianopolis in Thrace. AE16. L CEPTI - GETA KAI. Bust with laurel wreath, and reinforced Paludament right. Rs: ADPIANO - POLITWN. Telesphorus in hooded cloak standing en face. Varbanov (English) 3702.
Hadrianopolis
Moushmov 2671 Geta AE17 of Hadrianopolis, Thrace. L CEPT GETAC K, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right / ADRIANOPOLITWN, Telesphorus standing facing in hooded cloak. Varbanov 3665 (this coin); Moushmov 2671.
Antonivs Protti
titonept.jpg
TITUS19 viewsAR denarius. Antioch,72 AD. 3,48 g. Laureate head right. T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT / Neptune standing left, right foot on globe, holding aplustre and sceptre. NEP RED.
RIC 366. RSC 122.
benito
titonept~0.jpg
TITUS18 viewsAR denarius. Antioch,72 AD. 3,48 g. Laureate head right. T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT / Neptune standing left, right foot on globe, holding aplustre and sceptre. NEP RED.
RIC 366. RSC 122.

benito
TitusNeptuneRome.jpg
Titus / Neptune47 viewsTitus as Caesar AR Denarius, Rome Mint, 72-73 AD, 18mm., 3.13g.
O: T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT; Titus, bearded, laureate, right.
R: NEP RED; Neptune standing left, right foot on globe, with acrostolium and sceptre
- RIC V366 (C), BMC V80, RSC 121

Not the easiest coin to find, only four specimens in Reka Devnia hoard. This type of "Neptune the Returner" refers to the sea voyages of Vespasian and Titus from the East to Rome in 70 and 71 AD respectively .
Researchers have long recognized that many of Vespasian's and Titus' reverse types recall types from earlier reigns, most especially those from the age of Augustus. Attempts have been made to connect his ‘Augustan’ types with the centenaries of the Battle of Actium (ending in 70) and the ‘foundation’ of the empire (ending in 74), but all seem to have failed, as the relevant types are strewn throughout Vespasian’s ten-year reign. It is perhaps better to view his recycling of types as a political strategy favored by Vespasian and Titus, but subsequently abandoned by Domitian. In this case we have a depiction of the sea-god Neptune that certainly is derived from Octavian’s pre-Imperial coinage struck in commemoration of Actium.
4 commentsNemonater
titus as caesar nep red.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC 366454 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Rome Mint, 72-73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT; Titus, bearded, laureate, r.
Rev: NEP RED; Neptune stg l., r. foot on globe, with acrostolium and sceptre
RIC 366 (C). BMC 80. RSC 121. BNC 68.
Acquired from Tom Cederlind, February 2008.

A reverse type that commemorates Titus' return to Rome after his completion of the Jewish War. Neptune, the god of waters, would be an appropriate deity to give thanks to after a safe sea voyage.

This coin is rated as common in RIC, but it's not one you find very often.
Vespasian70
Titus_as_Caesar_RIC_II_V366.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC II V036639 viewsTitus as Caesar. 69-79 A.D. Rome Mint. 72-73 A.D. (3.38g, 19.7mm, 6h). Obv: T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head r. Rev: NEP RED, Neptune stg. l. r. foot on globe with acrostolium and sceptre. RIC II V 366, BMC V80, RSC 121. Ex Harry N. Sneh collection.

A type issued earlier for Vespasian in 71 AD for Rome, and again in Antioch. This is a type that gives thanks to Neptune for a successful return by sea voyage, here probably Titus’ return from the east following his success in the Jewish War. Despite the wear and irregular flan, this example has a nice portrait.
1 commentsLucas H
36624.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC-107887 viewsAR Denarius, 3.30g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT VIII COS VII; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 1078 (C). BMC 255. RSC 332. BNC 223.
Acquired from Münzhandlung Ritter, January 2010.

Minted during the first half of 79 AD, this reverse carried over to Titus' issues as Augustus after Vespasian's death in June.

This coin features the classic 'small head' portrait. The style carried over to the early issues of Domitian's reign.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
eRW4MY6cm7yDLf85GG8wQ9oAedH3t2.jpg
TITUS CAESAR AR silver denarius. Rome, 72-73 AD. NEP RED, Neptune standing, foot on globe.100 viewsTITUS, as Caesar, AR silver denarius. Rome mint, 72-73 AD. T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head right. Reverse - NEP RED, Neptune standing right, foot on globe, holding acrostolium & scepter. RSC 121, RIC 366. 17mm, 3.0g. Very scarce. _8400

This reverse, alluding to 'Neptune the Returner', gives thanks for the safe return of Titus to Rome, from Antioch, by sea in 71 AD, on what must have been a hazardous voyage. The same type was also issued at Antioch, showing Titus with a draped bust.
4 commentsAntonivs Protti
trajano~0.jpg
TRAJAN34 viewsAR denarius. 103-111 AD. 3,34 grs. Laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP / Ceres veiled,standing left holding ears of corn and long torch. S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI.
RIC 151. C 366.

2 commentsbenito
trajano.jpg
TRAJAN35 viewsAR denarius. 103-111 AD. 3,34 grs. Laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP / Ceres veiled,standing left holding ears of corn and long torch. S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI.
RIC 151. C 366.
1 commentsbenito
00366.jpg
Trajan (RIC 434, Coin #366)18 viewsRIC 434 (C), Copper AS, Rome, 101-102 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M Laureate head right.
Rev: TR POT COS IIII P P Victory flying left, shield inscribed SPQR in right, palm frond over shoulder in left. S C in fields.
Size: 28.0mm 9.68gm
MaynardGee
deciusadventus.JPG
Trajan Decius/Adventus Ar Antoninianus41 viewsObv: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG Rev: ADVENTUS AVG
RIC 11b; Sear5 #4366
O: Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust rt.; R: Emperor riding left, saluting and holding sceptre
daverino
13522843_1736171136671371_7257750193750038430_o.jpg
Trajan Denarius. 98-99 AD. 14 viewsTrajan Denarius. 98-99 AD. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P COS II P P, Victory seated left holding patera and palm. RIC 10, RSC 213, Sear'88 #986Antonivs Protti
1366_Tranquillina_Alexandria.jpg
Tranquillina - Alexandria13 viewsBI tetradrachm
29 Aug 242 - 28 Aug 243 AD
draped bust right wearing stephane
CAB TPANKVIΛΛEINA CEB
Homonoia standing half left, raising right hand, holding double cornucopia
L S
Köln 2688; Dattari (Savio) 4823; K&G 73.20; Emmett 3449.6
ex Rauch
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
gal.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus (251-253 A.D.)35 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: Α Κ Γ ΟVΙΒ ΤΡЄΒ ΓΑΛΛΟϹ ЄVϹЄΒ, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: LΓ (year 3) (252/3), Eagle standing right, with wreath in beak; palm frond over shoulder.
11.4g
23mm
Emmett 3667; Milne 3858.

Ex Baldwins, 2003
4 commentsMat
Album-354_2.jpg
Umayyad Caliphate, al-Andalus: Hisham II ibn al-Hakam, 1st reign (366-399 AH / 976-1009 CE) AR Dirhem, Qurtubah Mint (Album-354.2)25 viewsSpongeBob
USA-3cS-1860-036600-frame.jpg
USA: silver three-cent piece, 186024 viewslordmarcovan
Valens.JPG
Valens8 viewsAE3
AD 366-370
TESA
RIC 18b?
JRoME
VALENTINIEN_I-RIC13a4.jpg
VALENTINIEN I - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 13a(4)20 viewsSilique, 365-366, C1
A/D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valentinianus Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Seigneur Valentinien Pieux Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/V//CP•
Votis quinquennalibus, Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne
Légende en 2 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent, Poids : 1.92 gr, Diamètre : 18.3 mm, axe des coins : 12h
RIC IX 13a(4), RSC 69Aa
Siliqua S
VALENTINIEN_I-RIC27d2.jpg
VALENTINIEN I (364-375) - TREVES - RIC 27d(1)16 viewsSilique, 365-366, S
A/D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Valentinianus Pius Felix Augustus
Notre Seigneur Valentinien Pieux Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VRBS-ROMA//TRPS•
Urbs Roma, La ville de Rome
Rome casquée assise à gauche sur un trône, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et un sceptre long de la main gauche.
Argent - 1.42 gr - 17 mm - 0h
RIC IX 27d(1), RSC 81e
Siliqua S
Valerian_I.jpg
Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.33 viewsBillon antoninianus, RIC 293, Fair, Antioch, 3.366g, 20.8mm, 0o, 255 - 256 A.D.;
obverse - IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
reverse - VIRTVS AVGG, two emperors standing face-to-face, on left holds vertical spear in right and globe in left, on right holds Victory in right and transverse spear in left;
b70
IMGP3731Var2tdrcombo.jpg
Vardanes II., 55 - 58 AD41 viewsAR tdr., 14,48gr, 26,68mm; Sellwood 69 type, Shore 382, Sunrise 420var. (year); Sinisi, Sylloge, p. 80, II.3.2.1 and 2;
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad diadem, and loop; medium-long hair in 4 waves, bangs, mustache, short beard; wart on forehead; multi-layer necklace; cuirass/tunic w/ornamental border; dotted border 9 - 13;
rev.: king, right, on throne, facing goddess offering diadem in outstretched right hand while holding staff/sceptre in left arm; between head year Ϛ(Stigma)ΞT ( 366 = 54/5 AD); 6 lines of legend visible: (BAΣIΛEΩΣ) (B)AΣIΛ(EΩN) (APΣAKOV off flan) (EV)EPΓ(ETOV) ΔIKAIOV (the bottom line to be read from the inside), EΠIΦΛNO(VΣ) (ΦIΛ)EΛΛHN(OΣ); exergual line;
this coin is also shown in Parthia.com, 'Vardanes II. Tetradrachms Dated 366' (http://www.parthia.com/vardanes2_366.htm);

ex: G. Clark, VA.
1 commentsSchatz
Vespasian.jpg
VESPASIAN - RIC 772 (RIC [1962] 90)141 viewsSilver Denarius - 75 A.D. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left holding branch. cf. RIC-772, (RIC [1962] 90), RSC-366, BMC-161. RCV-2301 (18mm) (3.40 gm).
(Photo by Tom Cederlind) Purchased 08/17/10
5 commentsBud Stewart
vespasian_2~0.jpg
Vespasian Denarius29 viewsAR Denarius
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG ; laur. hd. r.
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VI ; Pax std. l., holding branch.

RIC 90, C. 366
Tanit
Vesp_den.jpg
Vespasian Denarius17 viewsAR Denarius
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; laur. hd. r.
Rev.: PON MAX TR P COS VI ; Pax std. l., holding branch

RIC90, C.366
Tanit
Vespasian_RIC_772.jpg
Vespasian Denarius A.D. 75 RIC 772, (RIC [1962] 90), RSC 366, BMC 16189 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left holding branch.
Maximum Diameter: 19 mm
Weight: 3.04 g
2 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
Vespasian_Denarius_Pax.jpg
Vespasian Denarius Pax53 viewsObv.

IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laureate head right

Rev.

PON MAX TR P COS VI
Pax seated left holding branch

Minted 75 A.D. Rome

RIC 772 RSC 366
3 commentsancientdave
Vespasian_RIC_II_686.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 068624 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 74 A.D. (3.36g, 19.5mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESP AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Caduceus, winged. RIC II 686 (R), BMC 146, RSC 366.

Although undated, this series falls into the dated issues of 74 A.D. (COS V) with the obverse legend used. Although the caduceus is a new type for Vespasian in this year, it was previously used by Augustus. While worn, this specimen has full legends.
1 commentsLucas H
Vespasian_RIC_II_772.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 077229 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 75 A.D. (3.48g, 19.8m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VI, Pax seated left, holding branch. RIC II 772, BMC 161, RSC 366.

While Pax/peace was a continuing theme on Flavian coinage, this type was issued in truly massive quantities in 75 A.D. according to the updated RIC. This may have a connection with Vespasian’s newly built Temple of Peace in Rome.
Lucas H
VESP PON MAX CAD.JPG
Vespasian RIC-686117 viewsAR Denarius, 3.21g
Rome Mint, 74 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESP AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM; Winged Caduceus, up-right
RIC 686 (R). BMC 146. RSC 366. BNC 120.
Ex Harlan J. Berk 148, 29 March 2006, lot 252.

The BMCRE states that this reverse is to be associated with the censorship.

A good example of mid-period Vespasian coinage. A reverse that is hard to find with the PONTIF MAXIM legend.
1 commentsVespasian70
vesp pax75.JPG
Vespasian RIC-772129 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Rome Mint, 75 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VI; Pax, bare to the waist, seated l., holding branch extended in r. hand, l. hand on lap
RIC 772 (C3). BMC 161. RSC 366. BNC 139.
Acquired from Old Roman Coins, March 2003.

Another of Vespasian's Pax types, continuing a major theme in his coinage.

This coin has sentimental value for being the first Flavian denarius I ever purchased. A nice one at that too.
1 commentsVespasian70
Vespasian_RIC_90.JPG
Vespasian, 69 - 79 AD19 viewsObv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate bust of Vespasian facing right.

Rev: PON MAX TRP COS VI, Pax seated left, holding an olive-branch in her right hand, her left hand is as her side.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 75 AD

3.06 grams, 19.5 mm, 180°

RIC II 90, RSC 366, S2301, VM 44/2
SPQR Matt
VESPAS-4-ROMAN.jpg
Vespasian, RIC II-090 Rome14 viewsAR Denarius
Rome mint, 75 A.D.
18mm, 2.84g
RIC II-90, RSCv.2-366

Obverse:
IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laureate head right

Reverse:
PON MAX TR P COS VI
Pax seated left, holding branch.
rubadub
VESPAS-3-ROMAN.jpg
Vespasian, RIC II-090 Rome45 viewsAR Denarius
Rome mint, 75 A.D.
18mm, 2.86g
RIC II-90, RSCv.2-366

Obverse:
IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laureate head right

Reverse:
PON MAX TR P COS VI
Pax seated left, holding branch.
rubadub
_#27704;_#26310;_#32972;_#36628;.jpg
YUNG-LI T'UNG PAO86 viewsReverse: "FU" which is one character in a mandate given over a series of coins
South Ming - PRINCE YUNG-MING
AD 1646-1659
Reign title: Yung-Li, AD 1646-1459
26mm, 5.9g
S1307
Samson L2
HerAgrip1.jpeg
[18H553] Judean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D.19 viewsJudean Kingdom, Herod Agrippa I, 37 - 44 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 553, Fair, Jerusalem, 2.366g, 18.2mm, 0o, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse AGRIPA BACILEWC (King Agrippa), umbrella canopy with fringes; reverse three heads of barley growing between two leaves flanked by date L - V (year 6).

Herod Agrippa I was the son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. Agrippa spent much of his boyhood at the imperial court in Rome. His friend the emperor Caligula bestowed the former territories of his uncle Philip and Herod Antipas. Claudius later bestowed Judaea. It was this Herod that had James, the brother of John, executed (Acts 12:1-2) and imprisoned Peter (Acts 12:3-5). He was a very popular ruler.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue132 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.168 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


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