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Search results - "2003"
Trajan_Denarius.jpg
32 viewsTrajan. 98-117AD. AR Denarius (19.5mm, 2.97g). Rome mint. Struck January 101 AD to December 102 AD. IMP CAESAR NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right. / P M TR P · COS · IIII P P, Hercules standing facing on low base, holding club in right hand and lion skin over left arm. RIC II, pg 247, #49. Good VF, attractive blue iridescent toning toning around the devices. NICE EYE APPEAL !!

Ex. Auktion Numismatica Wendt KG, Wien 12 (1976), 256; Ex. Münzen & Medaillen GmbH (DE) 13, #642. Oct. 9, 2003.
1 commentspaul1888
capricorn.jpg
41 viewsVespasian, 69-79
Denarius 79, AR 3.52 g. Laureate head r. Rev. Capricorn l; below, globe. C 554. RIC 1058.
Ex CNG 42, 1997 lot 860; Triton VI, January 14, 2003 lot 836, Numismatica Ars Classica NAC AG, Auction 92, May 23, 2016 lot 2140, Heritage Auction 3060, 1/16/2018 lot 33400, CNG Web Store (841947); NGC certification 4244139-018
5 commentspaul1888
rjb_car_leg_04_08.jpg
77cf39 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Rev "[LEG VIII A]VG"
Bull standing right
London mint
-/-//ML
RIC - (cf 77)

An obverse and reverse die duplicate of Lyne 23 (Num Chron, 2003)
mauseus
septim_dancers.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Corybantes rev.)23 views193 - 211 AD
AE 27 mm; 10.2 g
O: AY K L CEP - CEYHROS Laureate draped bust right
R: MESAMBR - IA[NWN] Two Corybantes performing Pyrrhic dance, holding shield above their helmeted heads and short swords.
Thrace, Mesembria; cf Karayotov Vol. II, Plate CXXXII 19 and 20
note: Karayotov only lists two example from the same pair of dies:
19) Coll. of Metodi Minchev, Burgas
20) Varna, AM, II 19652; Lazarenko 2003, p. 76 Fig 2. (Lazarenko is a reference in a Bulgarian language numismatic journal)
laney
septim_diony_retrograde_leg_b.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (Retrograde Reverse Legend)25 views193-211 AD
AE 27 mm, 10.41 g
(struck under governor Aurelius Gallus)
O: [AV KL] CEP - CEVHRO[C P] Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: VP AVR GALL - OV NIKOPOLIT / PROC I (retrograde, beginning at 5 o'clock, counterclockwise)
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, standing left, resting with raised left hand on thyrsos, lowered right hand holding kantharos and pouring
wine
ref. a) not in AMNG
obv. AMNG I/1, 1304
rev. legend not in AMNG
AMNG I/1, 1306 (depiction)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2015) No. 8.14.8.8
d) Blancon list 43, 2003
Nikocopolis ad Istrum; very rare
(one of the rare coins with retrograde legend)
laney
Titus_AE-Dup_T-CAES-VESPAS-dot-IMP-dot-P-dot-TRP-COS-II_S-C_ROMA_RIC-xx_C-xx_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_axes-h_27mm_3,28g-2-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !, 514 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !,
avers:- T CAES VESPAS•IMP•P•TRP COS II, Radiate head right.
revers:- Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium, S-C across the field, ROMA in exergo.
exerg: S/C//ROMA, diameter: 27mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 72 A.D., ref: RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), C-Not in !!!,
Q-001

"Titus' coins with obverse legend T CAES VESPAS IMP P TR P COS II were struck in year 72, first issue.No ROMA reverse is listed in RIC for Titus in this issue, so you may have found a new type! "by FlaviusDomitianus. Thank you FlaviusDomitianus.
""Titus' issue of bronze coins with COS II and the abbreviations CAES VESPAS is altogether rare. RIC 411-417 only lists two sestertius types, R2 and R3; one dupondius type, FELICITAS PVBLICA, R2, unfortunately not illustrated, it would be nice to compare the obverse die with your coin; and four As types, all R2.

The same ROMA reverse die of your coin was apparently also used for dupondii with other obverse legends:

RIC 396, pl. 31, Vespasian COS IIII.

RIC 438, pl. 34, Titus CAES VESPASIAN P TR P COS II; also pl. 34, RIC 436 (rev. only), which should have ROMA around edge and SC in exergue, but in fact has ROMA in exergue and S - C in field, so seems to be another example of RIC 438.

Titus CAES VESPASIAN PON TR POT (instead of P TR P) COS II: my collection ex G. Hirsch 229, 2003, lot 2219; not in RIC."" by Curtis Clay, Thank you Curtis.
5 commentsquadrans
III_Andras-(1290-1301)_U---_C1----_H----_PTN-14_-No-101_001_Q-001_4h_9,4mm_0,15g-s.jpg
026. H-422A. András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN 14, No 101, AR-Obolus, RRR!, #01108 views026. H-422A. András III., (Andreas III.), King of Hungary, (1290-11301 A.D.), H--, CNH I.--, U--, PTN 14, No 101, AR-Obolus, RRR!, #01
avers: Two Fish, border of dots.
reverse: Branch of raspberry (?) with leaves and two fruits, a border of dots (Very similar the reverse of the U-334, but smaller).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,1mm, weight: 0,32g, axis:4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár--, CNH I.--, Unger--, First published: 08.11.2003., PTN 14., No 101., Very Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
056_Isaac_II.JPG
056. Isaac II, 1185-1195. BI Trachy.41 viewsObv. Isaac
Rev. Christ
S2003.
LordBest
RI_064ni_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 350D52 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP - SEV PERT AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P III COS II, Mars advancing right, holding spear in right hand, trophy over left shoulder
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 195
Reference:– BMCRE 328 (Same rev die?). RIC 350D (R – B M). RSC 397a.
ex - Barry Murphy collection (sold in 2003).

A rare dated type.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
088p_Valerian-I_(253-260_A_D_),_Mysia,_Kyzikos,_AE-25,_Burning_altar,Q-001_7h_25mm_7,68g-s.jpg
088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1167 views088p Valerian I. (253-260 A.D.), Mysia, Kyzikos, SNG France 858, AE-25, -/-//NEΩKOΡ, Burning altar, #1
avers: AVK ΛIK Λ VAΛEPIANOC, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right .
reverse: CTΡACΩ CTΡATΩY KYZIKEΩN NΩN (retrograde), NEΩKOΡ in ex. Burning altar between two serpent-entwined, burning torches. CΩCTΡATΩY (magistrate).
exergue: -/-//NEΩKOΡ, diameter: 25,0mm, weight: 7,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, date: 253-260 A.D., ref:SNG France 858, CNG e-Auction #68, closed 9 July, 2003, cf. SNG von Aulock 1286 (no altar); cf. SNG Copenhagen (same).
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
22003.jpg
22003 Licinius II/IOVI CONS-ERVATORI19 viewsLicinius II/IOVI CONS-ERVATORI
Obv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C
helmeted, cuirassed bust
left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI
Jupiter standing left, holding Victory
on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath in beak at foot
left, captive at foot right,
X over II MU in right field
SMHA in Exergue
Mint: Heraclea 19.5mm 3.4g
RIC VII Heraclea 54; Sear 15407
1 commentsBlayne W
RIC_952_Dupondio_Antonino_Pio.jpg
31-30 - ANTONINO PIO (138 - 161 D.C.)16 viewsAE Dupondio 25 x 22 mm 10.4 gr.

Anv: "ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II" - Busto radiado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TR POT XIX] COS IIII - S C" - Pax (La Paz) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, sosteniendo rama de olivo en mano derecha extendida y cornucopia en brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 155 - 156 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #952 Pag.144 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #4288 Pag.235 - BMCRE IV #2003 var Pag.336 (Nota + pié de página) - Cohen Vol.II #981 Pag.364
mdelvalle
RIC_953_Dupondio_Antonino_Pio.jpg
31-32 - ANTONINO PIO (138 - 161 D.C.)18 viewsAE Dupondio 25 mm 13.2 gr.

Anv: "ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P [IMP II]" - Busto radiado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TR PO]T XIX COS IIII - S C" - Providencia de pié a izquierda señalando con el dedo índice de la mano derecha un globo en tierra a sus piés y portando largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda.

Acuñada 155 - 156 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #953 Pag.144 - Sear RCTV (Edición 1988) #1285 - Cohen Vol.II #978 Pag.364 - DVM #115 Pag.140 - Strack #1124 - BMCRE IV #2003 Pag.336 (Nota ++ en pie de página)
mdelvalle
1145Hadrian_RIC554.jpg
554 Hadrian Dupondius 118 AD Roma & Hadrian42 viewsReference.
RIC 554. C. 92. BMC 1138. Hill 57

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Radiate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / ADVENTVS AVG SC
Helmeted figure of Roma seated right on cuirass, holding spear and clasping hands with Hadrian, who stands left.

13.80 gr
29 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Lanz 94 lot 505 1999
Ex Lanz 106 lot 391 2001
Ex Lanz 114 lot 362 2003
2 commentsokidoki
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003.jpg
61-05 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)49 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 x 27 mm 4.1 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003_1.jpg
61-06 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)77 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 27 x 29 mm 2.8 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente. " * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DomitianARDenariusHorseman.jpg
712a, Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.157 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 77-78 AD; RIC 242, VF, 18mm, 3.18grams. Obverse: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIA[NVS], laureate head right ; Reverse: COS V below man with hand raised out behind him on horse prancing right. RSC 49a. Scarce. Ex Zuzim Judaea.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Domitianus(A.D. 81-96)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Domitian was born in Rome on 24 October A.D. 51, the youngest son of Vespasian, Roman emperor (A.D. 69-79) and Domitilla I, a treasury clerk's daughter. Little is known about Domitian in the turbulent 18 months of the four (five?) emperors, but in the aftermath of the downfall of Vitellius in A.D. 69 he presented himself to the invading Flavian forces, was hailed as Caesar, and moved into the imperial residence.

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micromanagers, especially concerning the economy. Shortly after taking office, he raised the silver content of the denarius by about 12% (to the earlier level of Augustus), only to devaluate it in A.D. 85, when the imperial income must have proved insufficient to meet military and public expenses.

Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. An ardent supporter of traditional Roman religion, he also closely identified himself with Minerva and Jupiter, publicly linking the latter divinity to his regime through the Ludi Capitolini, the Capitoline Games, begun in A.D.86. Held every four years in the early summer, the Games consisted of chariot races, athletics and gymnastics, and music, oratory and poetry.

Beyond Rome, Domitian taxed provincials rigorously and was not afraid to impose his will on officials of every rank. Consistent with his concern for the details of administration, he also made essential changes in the organization of several provinces and established the office of curator to investigate financial mismanagement in the cities. Other evidence points to a concern with civic improvements of all kinds, from road building in Asia Minor, Sardinia and near the Danube to building and defensive improvements in North Africa.

While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory. Final victory did not really come until A.D. 89. In Britain, similar propaganda masked the withdrawal of Roman forces from the northern borders to positions farther south, a clear sign of Domitian's rejection of expansionist warfare in the province.

Domitian's autocratic tendencies meant that the real seat of power during his reign resided with his court. The features typically associated with later courts - a small band of favored courtiers, a keen interest in the bizarre and the unusual (e.g., wrestlers, jesters, and dwarves), and a highly mannered, if somewhat artificial atmosphere, characterized Domitian's palace too, whether at Rome or at his Alban villa, some 20 kilometers outside of the capital.

On 18 September, A.D. 96, Domitian was assassinated and was succeeded on the very same day by M. Cocceius Nerva, a senator and one of his amici. The sources are unanimous in stressing that this was a palace plot, yet it is difficult to determine the level of culpability among the various potential conspirators.
In many ways, Domitian is still a mystery - a lazy and licentious ruler by some accounts, an ambitious administrator and keeper of traditional Roman religion by others. As many of his economic, provincial, and military policies reveal, he was efficient and practical in much that he undertook, yet he also did nothing to hide the harsher despotic realities of his rule. This fact, combined with his solitary personality and frequent absences from Rome, guaranteed a harsh portrayal of his rule. The ultimate truths of his reign remain difficult to know.

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Perhaps the reverse of this Domitian/Horseman specimen depicts Domitian as he rode a white horse behind his father, Vespasian, and his brother, Titus, during their joint triumph celebrating their victory over Judaea (see: Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin, 2003. 304).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
teg.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Tegea. 88-30 BC. 138 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.49 g, 8h). Laureate head of Zeus right / XA monogram; T-E across field; all within wreath. Clerk 223; BCD 1744; SNG Copenhagen 293; Benner-Tegea-4. Toned.

From Collection C.P.A. Ex Tkalec (24 October 2003), lot 94.

exCNG 78, lot 695.
4 commentsCGPCGP
Kyme_tetradrachm_a.jpg
Aeolis, Kyme, ca. 151-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 57 viewsHead of the Amazon Kyme right, hair bound with tainia.
KYMAIΩN METROΦANHZ Bridled horse standing right, left foreleg raised above an oinochoe (one-handled jug), all within laurel wreath.

Oakley obverse die 1; BMC Aeolis p111, 74, SNG Copenhagen 104 (same obverse die).

(33 mm, 16.77 g, 12h).
Forum Ancient Coins.

Dating to 151-145 BC based on the analysis of recent hoards: Commerce (“Demetrius I” Hoard), 2003 (CH 10.301) by Lorber and Gaziantep Hoard (CH 9.257; 10.308) by Meadows and Houghton date the stenophoric civic issues of Kyme to the interval ca. 151-145 BC.
3 commentsn.igma
Antoninus_Pius_denarius_Marcus.jpg
Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius denarius12 viewsAR Denarius
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 CE
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.18 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III
Laureate head of Antoninus Pius to right.

Reverse: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS
Draped, bear-headed bust of Marcus Aurelius to right.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Issued early in the reign of Antoninus Pius circa 140 to 144 CE.
- The reverse with Marcus Aurelius draped is scarcer than undraped.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals Brisbane, 2003
Pharsalos
AntoSe67.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 579, Sestertius of AD 139 (Aurum Coronarium: Asia)91 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.74g, Ø33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: COS II (around) S C (in field), ASIA (in ex.) Asia, towered headdress, standing left, holding crown and anchor, prow at feet.
RIC 579 (R2); Cohen 64 (fr.40); BMCRE IV 1184; Strack 779 (listed in 6 collections); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 41 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values II) 4150
ex CNG, eAuction 60 (2003)

Part of a series celebrating Antoninus' remission of half of the special tax (aurum coronarium) normally levied on the provinces at the time of the accession of an emperor.
2 commentsCharles S
Antose66-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 598b, Sestertius of AD 140-143 (Apollo)63 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.1g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-143.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate and draped bust of Antoninus Pius facing right, wearing paludamentum.
Rev.: APOLLINI AVGVSTO (around) S C (in field), Apollo, standing left, holding a lyre and a patera.
RIC 598b; Cohen 63; BMCRE IV 1231; Strack 822 (5 coll.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 35 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4149
ex Alex Kalman (Philadelphia, 2003)
Charles S
ANTOSEe7b.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 747a, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Italia)32 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.0g, Ø 31mm, 12h), Rome mint, Struck AD 144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laurate head Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: TR POT COS III (around) ITALIA (below) S C (in field), turreted, draped Italia seated left on globe adorned with stars, holding cornucopiae and long sceptre.
RIC 747; Cohen 470; BMC 1645; Strack 882; Banti 197; Sear 4185; Foss 128/59a

Type belonging to series: Scenes from ancient Roman legends, struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome in 147.

Ex cgb.fr auction dec 2014; ex Elsen 76 (2003); ex Prof M. Caselli collection.
Charles S
AntoAs25.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 952(=dup.), As of AD 155-156 (Pax)18 viewsÆ As (9.3g, Ø24.7mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 155-156.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, laurate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TR POT XIX COS IIII (around), S C (in field), Pax standing left holding branch and cornucopiae.
RIC 952(=dupondius)*
ex Forum Ancient Coins
*This type is not listed in RIC, Cohen, BMC nor Strack. These references all list this type as Sestertius and Dupondius only. Another example of this As-issue is listed in this Forum's "Gallery of Unlisted and Unpublished Coins". It was also published by Bakes, James R. (2003): An Apparently Unpublished As of Antoninus Pius, The Journal of the Classical and Medieval Numismatic Society 4.3 (September 2003), pp. 127-128, illus. : (The author describes a new as of Antoninus Pius with Pax reverse and the legends ANTONINVS AVG PI VS PP IMP II and TR POT XIX COS IIII SC. (Oliver D. Hoover))
Charles S
AntoDu10-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 953, Dupondius of AD 155-156 (Providentia)15 viewsÆ Dupondius (10.3g, Ø 26mm, 12h). Rome, AD 155-156.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P IMP II, radiate head right.
Rev.: TR POT XIX COS IIII around, S C in field, Providentia standing left holding scepter and pointing at globe.
RIC 953 (S); BMC 2003 (f); Cohen 978; Strack 1124.
Ex Silenoscoins, 2003
Charles S
AntoSe65-2~1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)47 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia in the centre.
RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti 406.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second temple of Divus Augustus was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identified with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
Charles S
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
Augustus_04.jpg
Asia Minor, Lykia, Masikytes, Augustus, lyres33 viewsAugustus
Asia Minor, Lykia, Masikytes
AR Drachm, 28-19 BC
Obv.: Λ - Y, Bare head right
Rev.: Two Lyres, Aphlaston left, Μ / A right
Ag, 19.5mm, 3.48g
Ref.: RPC 3309, SNG von Aulock 4351, Troxell, LL 150, 116 (same obv.- die)
Ex Auctiones, Auction 12 (12.6.2003), Los 383
Ex Lanz Auction 158, Lot 441
2 commentsshanxi
JCT_B_S_S___N_Z__Home_for_the_Aged.JPG
B & S. Steinhouse/Nachlass Zkainim Home For the Aged (Montreal, Quebec, Canada)198 viewsAE token, 34 mm., 15.78 gr., undated (but probably minted ca. 1927).

Obv: B & S.S & N.Z. HOME FOR THE AGED, and • MONTREAL •, within border around rim, 25¢ to left and right of building in center, SOUVENIR below building.

Rev: KEEP ME and GOOD LUCK within border in upper and lower rim, “תשליכנו / לצת זקנה אל„ [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and DO NOT CAST US / OFF AT OUR OLD AGE, in center, between profiles of elderly man and woman facing left and right, respectively.

Ref: Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 2.

Note: The B & S. Steinhouse Old People’s Home opened in Montreal in 1923 and soon merged with the Nachlass Zkainim Home. In 1927, encouraged by the newly formed Federation of Jewish Philanthropies of Montreal, the combined B & S. Steinhouse/Nachlass Zkainim Home For the Aged amalgamated with the Montreal Hebrew Sheltering Home, a/k/a Moshav Zkainim (which was founded in 1910, and then housed six residents on Evans Street). The institution raised funds for the construction of a larger building on land owned by the Montreal Sheltering Home on Esplanade Street. By 1945, the average age of new residents was over eighty, and increased medical and nursing staff were required. The institution changed its name to Maimonides Hospital and Home for the Aged to reflect this expanded role. The institution still exists, as the Maimonides Geriatric Center of McGill University.

Note: The token was issued sometime between 1923 (when B & S. Steinhouse Old People’s Home opened) and 1945 (when the amalgamated institution changed its name to Maimonides Hospital and Home for the Aged), and probably no later than 1927 (when the combined B & S. Steinhouse/Nachlass Zkainim Home For the Aged) amalgamated with the Montreal Hebrew Sheltering Home, a/k/a Moshav Zkainim). It may even have been issued in connection with the fund drive that was initiated in 1927 to build the larger building on Esplanade Street.
Stkp
Baktria_ApollodotusI_Bop4d.jpg
Baktria, Apollodotus I 13 viewsApollodotus I Soter, 174-165 BC. AR Square Drachm (2.42 gm) on Indian stdd. Elephant stdg r., ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΠΟΛΛOΔOTΟΥ ΣΩTHPOΣ, KP monogram in ex. / Humped bull standing r. Karosthi legend Maharajasa Apaladatasa tradarasa (of Great King Apollodotos the Savior). Ex: C monogram. gVF. Bt. Tom Cederlind 2003. Bopearachchi Série 4D; SNG ANS 9 #217-323; Sear Greek 2591; HGC 12 #119.Christian T
Bactria,_Eukratides_I_Pedigree_Tetradrachm.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I, ca. 171-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 33 viewsΒΑΣΙΛΕYΣ MEΓAΣ EYKPATIΔHΣ Diademed and draped bust of a mature Eukratides right, wearing a crested helmet decorated with ear and horn of a bull.
HΛIOKΛIOΣ KAI ΛAOΔIKHΣ Co-joined busts facing right of Eukratides parents, Heliokles and Laodike, ΦΛΩ monogram to left.

Bopearachchi Series 15 A; SNG ANS 526-527; Mitchiner 182a; Qunduz 245-246; HGC 12, 133; Sear 7572.

(30 mm, 16.16 g, 12h).

Gorny & Mosch Giessener Munzhandlung Auction 126, October 2003, 1534.
The distinctive reddish black remnant patina of this coin is a characteristic of the silver coins from the Mir Zakah deposit. It is probably from this, the largest hoard of coins ever found, that the coin is derived.

This issue may have been inspired by the earlier “pedigree” coinage of Agathokles and Pantaleon, but equally likely given the many apparent anomalies associated with the issue, is that it was issued by the parents of Eukratides as statement of their position and prestige in Baktrian society. Heliokles’ bare head indicates that he was not a king, whereas the diadem on Laodike’s head suggests that she was of royal blood. Tarn identified her as a Seleukid princess, daughter of Seleukos II and sister of Antiochus III. On the other hand, Hollis in Laodike Mother of Eucratides of Baktria makes a plausible case that Laodike was the daughter of Antiochos III. Hollis argues that Eukratides was in this way connected to the Seleukid royal family and was perhaps facilitated by the latter in his endeavor to seize the Baktrian throne.

This coinage has a number of curious characteristics. The legend on this coin names Eukratides is in the nominative case, so that it serves to label his portrait rather than to identify him as the issuing authority of the coinage. The legend naming his parents, on the other hand, is in the genitive, normally used to indicate a filial relationship an argument supported by Hollis. However, it could also imply that Heliokles and Laodike had authorized the coinage. Both sides of the coin have defined filleted borders, unique in the coinage of Eukratides. All other issues bear only an obverse border around the image of the king. The fabric of these coins indicates that Heliokles and Laodike occupy the obverse, anvil struck side of the coin. Nevertheless, they are most frequently described in the opposite manner, in accord with the convention that the ruler occupies the obverse side of the coin.
1 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_I_Tetradrachm_-_youthful_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 21 viewsDiademed head of a relatively youthful Euthydemos right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY Herakles seated left on rock, resting club on pile of rocks, monogram in inner right field, letter A in exergue.

Bopearachchi Series 5C; SNG ANS 9, 137 (same reverse die); Kritt, A8; HGC 12, 40.
Mint “A” - Ai Khanoum ca. 225-220/215 BC.

(29 mm, 16.7 g, 12h).
CNG 782054; ex- Semon Lipcer Coll.; ex- CNG 63, May 2003, 923.
1 commentsn.igma
1889__Hirsch_Auction_352_lot_3066.jpg
bruzos002a1 viewsElagabalus
Bruzos, Phrygia

Obv: AVT KAI MAP AV ΑΝΤΩΝЄINΟС, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right seen from rear.
Rev: BPOYZH-N ЄΠIΠΩ...around, ΩNOC downward, →APYB. Zeus seated left holding scepter and small Nike.
30 mm, 13.96 gms

SNG COP. -. SNG v. Aulock -. SNG München -. SNG Tübingen -. BMC -. Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction 352, Lot 3066 (this coin).

Ex Sammlung R.P. Ex Peus 374, 2003, Los Nr. 884.
Charles M
BYZANTINE_ISAAC_II_ANGELUS_TRACHY_SB2003.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Isaac II Angelus41 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Isaac II Angelus (1185-1195 & 1203-1204) Billon Aspron Trachy, 1st Reign issue. Obv.: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; she holds before her the himbate head of the infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP - Θν (with line above). Rev.: Isaac standing facing, wearing a crown, divitision and loros, and sagion; he holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper right field; to left ΙC / ΑΑ / Κ / Ι / ΟC ; to right ΔΕΣ / Π / Ο / Τ /ΗC Reference: SBC 2003dpaul7
Sear-2003.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Isaac II Angelus, 1st Reign (1185-1195 CE) BI Aspron Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2003; DOC 3b)33 viewsObv: MP - ΘV in upper field; Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon thrown with back; holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast
Rev: ICAAKIOC ΔЄCΠOTHC in two columnar groups; Full-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in right hand scepter cruciger, and in left, anexikakia; Manus Dei in upper right field
Quant.Geek
Zervos-B_2.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1823; DOC B.1-64; Zervos Type B-2) - Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034)18 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, dot in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS ЬAS-ILЄ ЬAS-ILЄ to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
Dim: 27 mm, 8.65 g

An extremely rare variation of the Anonymous Class B Follis. The arms of the nimbus cross has only dots and the book of Gospels has five dots. Using Orestes H. Zervos' classifications of the Class B folles, these types were found during the excavation of Corinth. See the following paper:

Zervos, Orestes H., The Substantive Varieties of Anonymous Folles of Class B, Nomismatika Khronika No. 22/2003
Quant.Geek
098~0.JPG
BYZANTINE, Bulgarian Imitation 1200-1202(?)53 viewsObv: Virgin Enthroned
Rev: Emperor Holding Sceptre and Akakia
DO IV pl XXVI 2
Imitation of Isaac II Angelus, Sear 2003
Laetvs
IsaacIIS2003.JPG
BYZANTINE, Isaac II Angelus 1185-1195 Constantinople75 viewsObv: Virgin Enthroned
Rev: Emperor Holding Scepter and Akakia
Sear 2003
Laetvs
0006.jpg
C. Vibius cf Pansa11 viewsRRC 342/5
90 b.c.

C VIBIUS cf PANSA
Syd 684 / 90BC
From "Münzbörse Berlin" / 2003
Norbert
Vlasto_984.jpg
Calabria, Tarentum. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos54 views3.98gg. (5h). Obv: Naked youth on horseback right, holding reins and carrying filleted palm; ΣΩKAN - NAΣ below. Rx: Taras astride dolphin left, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; eagle standing with wings spread behind; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 984. HN Italy 1082. SNG ANS 1272. Perfectly struck; Mint State.
Ex Philip T. Ashton Collection. Ex Berk 130, 6 January 2003, lot 81.

Hannibal used the region around Tarentum and Metapontum as winter quarters during his occupation of southern Italy. He installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
3 commentsLeo
lg_caligula_thrace.jpg
Caligula (Augustus), Thracian Kings29 viewsCaligula (Augustus)
Reign of Rhoemetalkes III, Thracian Kingdom
AE 6.94g / 22.75mm / -
ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΑΡΙ or ΓΑΙΩΚΑΙΣΑΡ - Bust left
Ρ-Σ; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ - Nike r. with wreath and malm on globe
Mint: (38 - 46 AD)
Ref: RPC 1725; Gorny & Moshc 126, 13-14 Oct 2003 Lot 1659
Further references:
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=59717&AucID=63&Lot=1659
http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=94344&AucID=101&Lot=1637
http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/44602782922868295254468/025000_0004.pdf
Scotvs Capitis
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001678 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
neapolis_campania.jpg
Campania. Neapolis AR Nomos75 viewsCirca 275-250 BC. AR Nomos (21mm, 7.21 g, 11h). Sambon–; HN Italy 586; BMC 87; SNG France–; SNG ANS–. Obverse: Diademed head of nymph left, wearing triple-pendant earring and necklace; to right, Artemis standing right, holding torch in both hands. Reverse: Man-headed bull walking right; above, Nike flying right, placing wreath on bull's head; IΣ below; [N]EOΠOΛITΩN in exergue. Good VF, toned. Scarce symbol for issue.

Ex Gorny & Mosch 125 (13 October 2003), lot 21. Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX No. 2 Summer 2014, lot 979726.

The obverse of early Neapolitan coins represent the siren Parthenope who, according to legend, committed suicide after her failed attempt to seduce Odysseus and his shipmates as they passed the Sorrento peninsula. Her body was washed up on the shore of nearby Megaride, a tiny island in the Bay of Naples. The locals interred her in Mount Echia, now the hill of Pizzofalcone. The Sirens were originally the islands found at the mouth of the river Achelöos in Greece which flowed into the Ionian Sea between Akarnania and Aetolia. The man-headed bull on the reverse of the coins was meant to represent Achelöos, the greatest water god of ancient Greece and father of Parthenope. This coin, however, belongs to a later group known as Class VI (Numismatic Circular, vol. 14, 1906). The latest coins with the obverse head always facing left may well be identified as the head of Dia-Hebe. She is associated with Dionysus Hebon and the Neapolitan bull on the reverse was reinterpreted as the bull with which Dionysus Hebon was always depicted.


3 commentsJason T
Caracalla_131_396.jpg
Caracalla, 198–217 CE86 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 210 CE; 3.69g. BMCRE 105, RIC 231, RSC 632. Obv: ANTONINVS – PIVS AVG BRIT; head laureate right. Rx: VICTO – RIAE BRIT; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.

Notes: Second special issue of the joint reign of Severus, Caracalla, and Geta commemorating victories in Britain. Scarce; fewer than thirty specimens in the hoards studied by P.V. Hill (thirteen in Reka Devnia [nine in Sofia, the four Caracalla VICTORIAE BRIT denarii in Varna seem to have the wrong Cohen numbers]).

Provenance: Ex Berk BBS 131 (April 2003), lot 396; from the Curtis L. Clay Collection, acquired from dealer Mario Ratto, Milan (March 1967); from the Mazzini Collection, Turin.

Literature: Ing. G. Mazzini, Moneta Imperiali Romane, ed. Mario Ratto (Milan, 1957–8), vol. 3, pl. 37 (this specimen illustrated).
5 commentsMichael K5
Chile3.jpg
Chile66 viewsKm218.1 - 10 Pesos - 1986 - (1981-1987)
Km228.2 - 10 pesos - 1995 - (1990-2008)
Km219.1 - 50 pesos - 1981 - (1981-1987)
Km226.2 - 100 Pesos - 1989 - (1988-1999)
Km236 - 100 Pesos - 2006 - (2001-2008)
Km235 - 500 Pesos - 2003 - (2000-2003)
Km197 - 1 Escudo - 1971 - (1971-1972)
Daniel F
ConstanCommRIC63_ConstantinopleMint.jpg
City of Constantinople Commemorative, 330 - 333 A.D.82 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 63, VF, Constantinople, 2.524g, 18.5mm, 0o, 330 - 333 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis' helmeted bust left in imperial cloak and holding scepter across left shoulder; Reverse: Victory standing left, right foot on prow, scepter in right, resting left on grounded shield, CONSZ in exergue; nice style. Ex FORVM.

Constantinople Commemoratives minted by the actual city of Constantinople mint are much scarcer than those minted by other Eastern mints.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedæmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
14106p00.jpg
City of Constantinopolis Commemorative, 330-346 A.D. (Cyzikus)50 viewsConstantinopolis City Commemorative, issued by CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND HIS SONS, of the period AD 330-346, commemorating the transfer of the Seat of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople, AE3/4, aVF, Cyzikus. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle, holding inverted spear, laureate helmet, bust L.; Reverse: No legend; Victory stg. L., right foot on prow, holding scepter and leaning on shield; star?pellet?SMK pellet? in exergue.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedæmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
clippedtrachysb200321mm249g.jpg
Clipped trachy of Issac II SB 20039 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003
21mm, 2.49g
wileyc
clippedtrachysb200320mm136g.jpg
Clipped trachy of Issac II SB 200314 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003
20mm, 1.36g
wileyc
clippedtrachysb2003_21mm1_49g.jpg
Clipped trachy of Issac II SB 200313 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.
Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003
21mm 1.49g
wileyc
Colombia.jpg
Colombia67 viewsKm212.2 - 10 Centavos - 1956
Km226 - 10 Centavos - 1967
Km215.1 - 20 Centavos - 1956
Km246.1 - 20 Centavos - 1971
Km281.1 - 10 Pesos - 1989
Km282.1 - 20 Pesos - 1991
Km272 - 50 Pesos - 1989
Km283.2 - 50 Pesos - 2003
Daniel F
0110-Sol_bal.jpg
Convention - Sol aux balances 1793 AA54 viewsAtelier de Metz (AA) refrappe
REPUBLIQUE FRANCOISE, la table de la loi, avec gravé LES HOMMES SONT EGAUX DEVANT LA LOI en cinq lignes, de part et d'autre une grappe de raisin et des epis de blé, a l'exergue L'AN II
LIBERTE EGALITE, balance surmontée d'un bonnet phrygien, entourée d'une couronne de chêne, au centre I . S a l'exergue AA 1793 en deux lignes
10.89 gr
Ref : Gadoury 2003 # 19
The King is no more present (he's had been executed on jan 21st the same year), and "humans are equals towards Law"
03-305
1 commentsPotator II
Crispus_Ae4_vot_x.jpg
Crispus Ae311 viewsAE 3
Crispus, Caesar 316-326 CE
Diameter: 19 mm, Weight: 3.06 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: IVL CRISPVS NOB C
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM VOT X
Laurel wreath encircling VOT X.

Mint: STR U: Trier, second mint house

Notes:
- The German region of Treveri takes its name from a Celtic tribe who occupied the area.

Ex Boswell Books & Coins Brisbane, 2003
Pharsalos
76935q00.jpg
Crusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, William of Villehardouin, 1245 - 1278 AE denier .38 viewsCrusaders, Frankish Greece, Principality of Achaea, William of Villehardouin, 1245 - 1278 AE denier .
0.683g 18.2mm Corinth mint
G. P. - AC-CA-IE, long cross, extending beyond inner circular border and dividing legend
COR-INT-VOm (clockwise from 2:00, N appearing as H, Om ligate), fortified castle, cross flanked by pellets above
CCS 3 ; Schlumberger pl. XII, 7
ex Varesi auction 42 (17 Nov 2003), lot 1563; Ex Forum .
Vladislav D
D20.jpg
Domitian RIC 20157 viewsAR Denarius, 3.02g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 20 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 707. Acquired from Freeman & Sear in 2009, from the A. Lynn Collection. Ex. Hauck & Aufhauser 17, 18 March 2003, lot 258. Ex G. Hirsch 3, April 1954, lot 323.

This type is quite rare with the legend omitting TR P. Only two specimens are cited by RIC, this coin from the Hauck & Aufhauser 17 auction and another in a private collection.
The reverse type of an Altar with Flame is part of the "pulvinaria" series issued by Titus and Domitian as part of the commemorative issue for the opening games of the Colosseum. It is a carry-over reverse from Domitian as Caesar.

Toned and in excellent condition. An exquisite example of early Domitianic coinage.
11 commentsDavid Atherton
EB1009_scaled.JPG
EB1009 Mary / Isaac II7 viewsIsaac II Angelus, billon aspron trachy, Constantinople mint, 1185-1195 AD.
Obverse: MP-Θ[V] to left and right of Mary, nimbate, seated facing, holding before her the nimbate head of infant Christ facing left.
Reverse: [I CAA KI OC] to left, [ΔEC ΠO TH C] to right, Isaac, standing facing on the left, crowned, wearing divitision, loros and sagion, and holding cross-headed sceptre and akakia, crowned by hand of God in upper right field.
References: SB 2003, BMC 19-31.
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 3.894g.
EB
Emporion.jpg
Emporion - AR drachm8 views241-218 BC
head of Persephone right; 3 dolphins around
pegasus flying right
EMΠOPITΩΝ
Calico 598ff. Villaronga, CNH 20, 15ff. SNG BM Spain 16
4,47g
ex Liste Jacquier 30, Kehl, 2003, Nr. 54.
ex Sammlung Erich Karl
ex Jiří Militký
Johny SYSEL
FA027122-0200302-I462.JPG
FA027122-0200302-I462. Constantine I AE Follis. Londinium Mint. Marti Conservatori.13 viewsObv: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG; bust A; laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MARTI CON - SERVATORI; Mars standing right, leaning on spear and resting hand on shield.
Mint marks: *│PLN
22.9mm; 3.2g; 190 deg.
Minted 312-313 AD.
RIC VI 251; S.
Varangian
FA027122-0200304-I455.JPG
FA027122-0200304-I455. Constantine I AE Follis. Londinium Mint. Marti Conservatori.19 viewsObv: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG; bust B; laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MARTI CON - SERVATORI; Mars standing right, leaning on spear and resting hand on shield.
Mint marks: *│PLN
20.9mm; 3.5g; 180 deg.
Minted 312-313 AD.
RIC VI 253; C.
Varangian
FA027122-0200305-I447.JPG
FA027122-0200305-I447. Constantine I AE Follis. Londinium Mint. Marti Conservatori.27 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG; bust A; laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MARTI CON - SERVATORI; Mars standing right, leaning on spear and resting hand on shield.
Mint marks: *│PLN
22.9mm; 4.3g; 180 deg.
Minted 312-313 AD.
RIC VI 254; C2.
Varangian
FA027122-0200305-I451.JPG
FA027122-0200305-I451. Constantine I AE Follis. Londinium Mint. Marti Conservatori.23 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS P F AVG; bust A; laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MARTI CO - NSERVATORI; Mars standing right, leaning on spear and resting hand on shield.
Mint marks: *│PLN
23.5mm; 4.1g; 180 deg.
Minted 312-313 AD.
RIC VI 254; C2.
Rare O-N reverse legend break noted in RIC.
Varangian
FA027122-0200312-I370.JPG
FA027122-0200312-I370. Constantine I AE Follis. Londinium Mint. Marti Conservatori.12 viewsObv: CONSTANTINVS AVG; bust H; laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: MARTI CON - SERVATORI; Mars standing right, leaning on spear and resting hand on shield.
Mint marks: *│PLN
22.6mm; 4.7g; 180 deg.
Minted 312-313 AD.
RIC VI 261; S.
Ex Andrew Wayne Collection.
Varangian
FDC_Laos_Palm_Leaf_Manuscript_Stamps.jpg
First Day Cover (FDC) Laos Palm Leaf Manuscript Stamps 200317 viewsSpongeBob
France bronze.jpg
France - Centimes104 viewsKm928 - 1 Centime - 1969
Km1282 - 1 Euro Cent - 2003
Km777 - 5 Centimes - 1855 – Napoleon III
Km875 - 5 Centimes - 1927
Km933 - 5 Centimes - 1969
Km815 - 10 Centimes - 1870
Km929 - 10 Centimes - 1963
Km930 - 20 Centimes - 1968
Km894.1 - 50 Centimes - 1933
Daniel F
GalbAs04-2.jpg
Galba, RIC 81, As of Sept-Dec. 68, Spanish mint (Tarraco?), 15 viewsÆ As (9.7g, Ø 18mm, 6h). Spanish mint (Tarraco?). Struck Sept-Dec. 68 AD.
Obv.: SER GALBA IMP [...AVGVSTVS?], laureate head right, globe at point of bust.
Rev.: QVADRAGENS REMISSAE around, S C in ex., triumphal arch with 2 equestrian statues, 3 prisoners followed by officer below.
RIC 81 (R) (in Wildwinds.com as RIC 80 var.)
Ex Walter C. Holt, April 2003

This is apparently an extremely rare coin. The portrait on this coin has suffered some damage, probably as damnatio memoriae following his murder at the hands of the Praetorians.

The reverse legend on this coin refers to the abolition of the 2½% (1/40th of 100) customs duty, a reward to Gaul and Spain for their support. According to Walter Holt, The relationship between captives and the remission of a tax is unclear. The identities of the captives on this type are unknown but they may refer to his predecessor Nero, Clodius Macer, his rival for the purple, and the fallen rebel Vindex, though their depiction as captives (as all are dead by now) causes some problems.
According to Clive Foss ("Roman Historical Coins"), the captives probably represent financial officials of Nero who plundered the province and denounced Galba.
Charles S
Gallienus_RIC_V,_I_285.jpg
Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, RIC V, I 28593 viewsGallienus
As sole Augustus, 260-268 A.D.

Coin: AE Antoninianus, invoking the protection of Sol against the revolt of Aureolus.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust facing right.
Reverse: SOLI CONS AVG, a Bull, standing to the right. XI in exergue.

Weight: 2.34 g, Diameter: 21 x 20 x 1 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, struck between 267 - 268 A.D. Reference: RIC V, I 285, Note: 1 of 25 AE Antoninianii, ranging from Gallienus to Tetricus II, I bought from a seller in 2012. He had 125 for sale in total, and had in turn bought them from the original finder, who is said to have found this Hoard in 2003 near Harlow in the County of Essex.
Masis
GordianIAfr.jpg
Gordian I Africanus / Athena61 viewsGordian I Africanus, Egypt, Alexandria. A.D. 238. BI tetradrachm (22 mm, 12.47 g, 12 h). RY 1.
O: A K M AN ΓOPΔIANOC CЄM AΦ ЄVCЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian I right
R: Athena seated left, holding Nike and spear; in left field, date (L A).
- Köln 2600; cf. Dattari (Savio) 4656 (legend); Kampmann & Ganschow 68.6., Ex Coin Galleries (16 July 2003), 264.

Perhaps the most reluctant of Emperors, Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus) was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus before committing suicide.

According to Edward Gibbon:

"An iniquitous sentence had been pronounced against some opulent youths of [Africa], the execution of which would have stripped them of far the greater part of their patrimony. (…) A respite of three days, obtained with difficulty from the rapacious treasurer, was employed in collecting from their estates a great number of slaves and peasants blindly devoted to the commands of their lords, and armed with the rustic weapons of clubs and axes. The leaders of the conspiracy, as they were admitted to the audience of the procurator, stabbed him with the daggers concealed under their garments, and, by the assistance of their tumultuary train, seized on the little town of Thysdrus, and erected the standard of rebellion against the sovereign of the Roman empire. (...) Gordianus, their proconsul, and the object of their choice [as emperor], refused, with unfeigned reluctance, the dangerous honour, and begged with tears that they should suffer him to terminate in peace a long and innocent life, without staining his feeble age with civil blood. Their menaces compelled him to accept the Imperial purple, his only refuge indeed against the jealous cruelty of Maximin (...)."

Because of the absence of accurate dating in the literary sources, the precise chronology of these events has been the subject of much study. The present consensus among historians assigns the following dates (all in the year 238 A.D.) to these events: March 22nd Gordian I, II were proclaimed Emperors in Africa; April 1st or 2nd they were recognized at Rome; April 12th they were killed (after reigning twenty days); April 22nd Pupienus and Balbinus were proclaimed Emperors; June 24th Maximinus and his son were assassinated outside of Aquileia; July 29th Pupienus and Balbinus were assassinated and Gordian III proclaimed as sole Augustus.
3 commentsNemonater
teg~0.jpg
GREEK, Achaean League, Tegea. 88-30 BC. 110 viewsAR Hemidrachm (2.49 g, 8h). Laureate head of Zeus right / XA monogram; T-E across field; all within wreath. Clerk 223; BCD 1744; SNG Copenhagen 293; Benner-Tegea-4.

From Collection C.P.A. Ex Tkalec (24 October 2003), lot 94.

exCNG 78, lot 695.

1 commentsDino
Vlasto_984~0.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Taras. Time of Hannibal, c. 212-209 BC. Nomos20 views3.98g. (5h). Obv: Naked youth on horseback right, holding reins and carrying filleted palm; ΣΩKAN - NAΣ below. Rx: Taras astride dolphin left, holding aphlaston in extended right hand, cradling trident in left arm; eagle standing with wings spread behind; TAPAΣ below. Vlasto 984. HN Italy 1082. SNG ANS 1272. Perfectly struck; Mint State.
Ex Philip T. Ashton Collection. Ex Berk 130, 6 January 2003, lot 81.
Hannibal used the region around Tarentum and Metapontum as winter quarters during his occupation of southern Italy. He installed his own magistrates and struck coinage based on the Punic half shekel standard.
Leo
adr_alexandria.JPG
Hadrian50 viewsHadrian Denarius. Struck 136 AD. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, bare head right / ALEXANDRIA, Alexandria standing left, holding sistrum & serpent in basket. RSC 154.

Ex. CNG electronic auction 76, October 2003, 53.
Ex. T.R. McIntosh Collection.
1 commentsrmon
Hadrse39-scan.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 838, Sestertius of AD 132 (Aegyptos)33 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.46g, Ø32mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 132.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVG COS IIII P P, laureate draped bust right.
Rev.: AEGYPTOS around S C in ex., Aegyptos, draped, reclining left, holding sistrum in right hand and resting elbow on basket of fruit; ibis standing right on low column at her feet.
RIC 838; BMCRE 1695; Cohen 112 (8 fr.); Strack 707
Ex Harlan J. Berk, Buy/Bid Sale 132, lot 715 (May 2003).
1 commentsCharles S
HadrSe42-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 849, Sestertius of AD 134-138 (Dacia)20 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.76g, Ø30mm, 6h). Rome, AD 134-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate draped bust right.
Rev.: DACIAin ex., S | C, Dacia seated left on rocks, foot on rock, holding standard and a falx (=curved sword).
RIC 849 (S); BMC 1740; Cohen 528; Banti 237 (14 spec.)
Ex CNG eAuction 65 lot 69, May 2003
1 commentsCharles S
hadrdu12-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 852, Dupondius of AD 13210 viewsÆ Dupondius (13.21g, , 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 132.
Obv.: HADRIANVS - AVG, laureate head right.
Rev.: HISPANIA around, S C in ex., Hispania reclining left holding branch, rabbit to right in front of the rock.
RIC 852 (S); BMC 1754 note; Cohen 841 (5 fr.); Strack 717
Ex Harlan J. Berk, Buy/Bid Sale 132, May 2003
Charles S
Hadrse41b.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 884, Sestertius of AD 134-138 (Adventus - Gaul)22 viewsÆ sestertius (26.67g, Ø 31mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 134-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P bare draped bust right.
Rev.: ADVENTVI AVG GALLIAE (around) S C (in ex.), Hadrian, togate, standing right, raising right hand, greeting Gaul standing left, holding patera over altar; sacrificed calf at her feet.
RIC 884[S]; Cohen 31; Strack 749; Banti 26; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 112:15

Ex CNG eAuction 65 lot 68 (2003)
1 commentsCharles S
HadrQu01.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 1012, Quadrans, undated (extremely rare coin of the mines)14 viewsÆ quadrans (3,4g, Ø 17mm, 6h). PINCVM mint, AD 119-138.
Obv.: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: AELIANA / PINCEN/ SIA, in three lines within oak wreath.
RIC 1012 (R2); Cohen 120; Strack 455a
Ex D. Ruskin, Oxford, March, 2003
Charles S
JCT_Home_of_Old_Israel.JPG
Home of Old Israel (New York, New York)140 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (but probably minted in 1928).

Obv: תשליכני לצת זקנה אל [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and 204 HENRY ST., N.Y.C. along toothed rim, TO PITY/IS HUMAN/TO HELP/IS/GODLIKE/HOME OF/OLD ISRAEL, between busts of woman and bearded man.

Rev: HELP US BUILD OUR NEW HOME and 301-2-3 EAST BWAY., N.Y.C. along toothed rim with rosettes between, CONTRIBUTION.ONE DOLLAR, beneath building.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 146; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 7.

Note: Founded in 1922 by real estate developer Louis Singer as a privately-endowed non-sectarian institution providing free housing, meals, activities and care of the aged, the Home moved from Henry Street to 70 Jefferson Street on March 31, 1929. It relocated to Far Rockaway, Queens in 1965. In the early 1970s the Home merged into the Jewish Association for Services for the Aged.

Note: In 1922, the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (the rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University) was located at 301-303 East Broadway, and only moved to 186th Street and Amsterdam Avenue in 1928/1929. The Home must not have also occupied the East Broadway address, therefore, until 1928/1929. Thus, the token can be tentatively dated to 1928 (while the Home was still located at Henry Street but after it expanded into East Broadway). It was probably issued in connection with the 1928 fund drive for the Jefferson Street property.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_Rec.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)80 viewsAE token, 19 x 44.5 mm. (rectangular), 11.429 gr., undated (but probably issued ca. 1935).

Obv: HOME OF SONS/AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL above building 232 E. 12 ST./NEW YORK, N.Y., below building.

Rev: BUY A BRICK/$1.00/HELP US AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 140; Friedenberg, Jewish Minters [?] 476; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 6; ANS Database 2000.1.261.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: This token was issued after the acquisition of the East Twelfth Street building, in or about 1935.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_C.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)146 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse C); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse C (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR far from rim, woman’s shoulder in low relief, man’s bust retouched).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_B.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)90 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse B); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse B (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR near rim, woman’s shoulder in low relief).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
JCT_Home_of_the_Sons___Daughters_A.JPG
Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel (New York, New York)84 viewsAE token, 32.7 mm., 10.639 gr., undated (but probably issued in 1923 or 1928).

Obv: THE GREAT DRIVE FOR A HOME FOR THE AGED and 232 E. 10 ST., along toothed rim, HELP US/BUILD above building and HOME OF THE/SONS AND DAUGHTERS/OF ISRAEL below building.

Rev: CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR along toothed rim, HELP US/AND/GOD/WILL/HELP YOU between busts of woman and bearded man.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 147; Kenny, So-Called Dollars 229; Leonard, Jr., Robert D. “Home of the Sons and Daughters of Israel: Its History and Contribution Tokens.” The Shekel, XXXVIII No. 6 (Nov. to Dec. 2005). pp. 14-23 (this token is depicted as Obverse A); Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 5; ANS Database 2000.1.511.

Note: Organized in 1909 and incorporated in 1912, the Home acquired 230 East Tenth Street in December 1914. The adjacent 232 East Tenth Street was acquired by April 1915, and in May 1919 plans for a new building, encompassing both addresses, were approved. On June 21, 1925 the Home expanded into yet a third adjacent building on East Tenth Street. On December 22, 1935, it relocated to a larger building at 232-38 East Twelfth Street, where it remained in operation until the mid-1960s.

Note: There was a $400,000 fund drive in 1923 and a $100,000 fund drive in 1928, and this token could have been issued in connection with either of those events.

Note: Leonard noted that these tokens were made in such large numbers that three obverse dies were required (the designation of obverse and reverse on these is arbitrary, and I refer to the side which Leonard termed the obverse as the reverse). The differences noted by Leonard pertain to the distance between the rim and the words CONTRIBUTION and ONE DOLLAR, the relief of the woman, especially at the shoulder, and the man’s bust. But there are also others. This token is Leonard Obverse A (described by Leonard as CONTRIBUTION/ONE DOLLAR far from rim, woman in high relief).

ex Robert J. Leonard, Jr. collection.
Stkp
JNDA-2.jpg
Imperial Japan: Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868) AE 4 mon (Hartill-5.17; JNDA-2)12 viewsObv: 文久永寳 (Bun Kyu ei ho); cast 1863-1868
Rev: 11 waves with broad rim around hole
SpongeBob
miletos_lion_star_res~1.jpg
IONIA, MILETOS14 views377 - 353 BC
AE 12.5 mm; 1.88 g
O: Lion standing left, looking back, jaws open; ΜΙ monogram above.
R: Ornamental sun (or star) with no inscription.
Ionia, Miletos
cf. Deppert-Lippitz (1984: #297–303) and Ashton and Kinns (2003: 5–6, Subtype 4); BMC 188 p. 44ff
laney
Iran.jpg
Iran80 viewsKm1142 - 50 Dinars - 1937 (SH1316)
Km1171a - 1 Rial - 1971 (SH1350)
Km1144 - 2 Rial - 1944 (SH1323)
Km1267 - 100 Rials - 2004 – Imam Reza Shrine
Km1268 - 250 Rials - 2003 (SH1383) - stylized flower
Km1269 - 500 Rials - 2004
Daniel Friedman
trachyisaacii.jpg
Isaac II AE Trachy S-2003 DOC 3b. unlisted var.310 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Chriist on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field. Unlisted Var. Emperor holds a patriarchal cross on shaft instead of hand scepter cruicger. EF
Simon
manu.jpg
Isaac II Angelus (1185-95 A.D.)26 viewsBillon Aspron Trachy
O: MP ThV, The Virgin seated on a throne, facing. She holds a nimbate head of the infant Christ facing.
R: I/CAA/KI/OC DEC/PO/TH/C, Isaac standing facing, holding a cruciform scepter and akakia.
Constantinople mint, 1185 - 1195 A.D.
4.93g
SB 2003, BMC 19-31.
Mat
isaac_II_bulgar_imit.jpg
Isaac II Angelus Billon Aspron Trachy, 'Bulgarian' imitative, SBCV 200330 viewsBulgaria, Imitative of Isaac II Angelus Billon Aspron Trachy, c. 1200 - 1202 A.D. Bronze aspron trachy nomisma, DOC IV, part 1, p. 440, 2 (Type B imitative of Issac II Angelus, SBCV 2003; DOC IV, part 1, 3, 1185 - 1195 A.D.), VF, 3.720g, 24.9mm, 180o, c. 1200 - 1202 A.D.; obverse MP-“Q”V, the Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate, wears pallium and maphorium, holds before Her nimbate head of infant Christ; reverse I/CAA/KI/OC - “De”C/“P”O/TH/C, Isaac standing facing facing, wearing crown, divitision, loros, and sagion, cruciform scepter in left, akakia in right, crowned by hand of God above right. Greek magnates in Thrace probably issued the earliest 'Bulgarian' imitative types in the years immediately following the fall of Constantinople to finance their military operations against the crusaders in northern Greece. When the Bulgarians gained control of Thrace they continued production until sometime between 1215 and 1220, with issues becoming increasingly crude and smaller. Ex FORVMPodiceps
lg_isaac_II_Angelus.jpg
Isaac II Aspron Billon Trachy50 viewsIsaac II
Aspron Billon Trachy 3.41g / - / -
- The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; MP - OV
- Isaac standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and sagion; he holds cruciform scepter and acacia, and is crowned by Manus Dei in upper field tor.; to l., I / CAA / KI / OC; to r., Delta EC / NO/TH/C
Mint:Constantinople (1185-1195)
References: Sear 2003
Scotvs Capitis
a3.jpg
Isaac II Billion Trachy DOC- 3 S-2003 with Stars266 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast. Stars in field.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand sceptre cruciger and in l. anexikakia Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field. Note stars in field! 30mm

Another nice example of of this coin, Almost all of the details from the legend to Manus Dei ( Hands of God) are visable, coin also has traces of silvering..
Simon
trachyisaac2b.jpg
Isaac II Billion Trachy S-2003 DOC Var A286 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Chriist on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand sceptre cruciger and in l. anexikakia Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field. Var A three jewels in collar piece.
Simon
xa5.jpg
Isaac II Billion Trachy S-2003 with Stars255 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast. Stars in field.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand sceptre cruciger and in l. anexikakia Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field.

Messy strike of rev but still has silvering on both sides.
Simon
Isaac_II,_SBCV_2003.JPG
Isaac II, SBCV 200319 viewsNo legend
Facing Virgin enthroned holding icon of infant head of Christ, MV - ΘV to sides
[I/CAA/KI/OS] - ΔEC/ΠT/ [H/C]
Crowned, facing figure of Isaac wearing loros, holding cruciform scepter and akakia, being crowned by manus Dei
Constantinople mint
Billon Trachy, 24mm, 1.90g
novacystis
Isaac_II,_SBCV_2003~0.JPG
Isaac II, SBCV 200315 viewsVirgin enthroned, nimbate, holding nimbate head of infant Christ, MP/ΘV in fields to side
I CAA KI OC / ΔEC ΠT H C in columns
Crowned figure of Isaac facing, wearing loros, holding cruciform scepter and akakia, crowned by Manus Dei
Constantinople
Billon Aspron Trachy, 29mm, 3.64g
novacystis
Israel5.jpg
Israel - Monetary Reform (September 4, 1985)108 viewsKm156 - 1 Agorah - 1986
Km157 - 5 Agorot - 2006
Km158 - 10 Agorot - 2006
Km174 - 1/2 New Sheqel (Hanukkah) - 1991
Km160a - 1 new Sheqel - 2003o
Km207 - 5 new Sheqalim - 1990
Km237 - 5 new Sheqalim (Chaim Weizmann) - 1993
Km270 - 10 New Sheqalim - 1995
Km273 - 10 New Sheqalim - 1995 (Golda Meir)
Daniel F
2011-01-35.jpg
Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200354 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
25mm 2.45 gm silvering intact
wileyc
2003b.jpg
Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200359 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.
Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
25mm 3.02 gm silvering intact
wileyc
2003a.jpg
Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200370 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.
Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (as in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
26mm 3.52 gm silvering intact
wileyc
sb200325mm265g.jpg
Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200346 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
25mm, 2.65g
wileyc
MISC_Italy_Genoa_Republic_denaro.JPG
Italian States. Genoa. Republic.38 viewsBiaggi 835, MIR II Varesi 16, CNI III p3, 1 et seq.;

AR denaro; 81 g., 16.43 mm. max., 180°

The type struck from 1139-1339 in the name of Conrad III (1138-1152). The silver content ranged from a fineness of up to 0.366 gr. in 1441 to up to 0.176 gr. in 1335. This coins is a Baldassarri Group IIIa (=Metcalf IIIc) and was struck ca. 1210-1240.

Obv: + • I A • N V • A •, central castle.

Rev: CVNRADI REX, central cross pattée.

"The symbol in the obverse field of Genoa’s denaro is referred to variously as a castle or gateway, but it was almost certainly a gate rather than a castle . . . In Latin, the term ‘Ianua’ simply means ‘gate’ or ‘gateway,’ and the image was no doubt intended as a symbolic representation of the city’s name." Day, William R. Jr. "The Petty Coinage Of Genoa Under The Early Doges, 1339-1396," XIII Congreso internacional de numismática (Madrid, 15-19 septiembre 2003): Actas – Proceedings – Actes, eds C. Alfaro, C. Marcos & P. Otero, 2 vols (Madrid: Ministerio de cultura, 2005), 1295-1304, at 1296 n.3.

Conrad III, founder of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was never crowned Holy Roman Emperor, and styled himself “King of the Romans.” In 1139 he granted Genoa the right to mint coins.
Stkp
Jamaica.jpg
Jamaica69 views(From right to left - sorry!)

Km33 – 1 Farthing – 1950-1952
Km25 – ½ Penny – 1914-1928
Km31 – ½ Penny – 1938-1947
Km37 – 1 Penny – 1953-1963
Km45 – 1 Cent – 1969-1971
Km64 – 1 Cent – 1975-2002
Km46 – 5 cents – 1969-1989

-----

Km47 – 10 Cents – 1969-1989
Km146.1 – 10 Cents – 1991-1994
Km146.2 – 10 Cents – 1995-2003
Km49 – 25 Cents – 1969-1990
Km147 – 25 Cents – 1991-1994
Km167 – 25 Cents – 1995-2003

-----

Km65 – 50 Cents – 1975-1990
Km57 – 1 Dollar – 1971-1979
Km145 – 1 Dollar – 1990-1994
Km164 – 1 Dollar – 1994-2006
Km163 – 5 Dollars – 1994-1995
Km181 – 10 Dollars – 1999-2005
Km182 – 20 Dollars – 2000-2002
Daniel F
JCT_Jewish_Home_For_Aged_(Portland).JPG
Jewish Home for Aged (Portland, Maine)47 viewsAE token, 35 mm, undated.

Obv: JEWISH HOME FOR THE AGED, and • PORTLAND - MAINE •, within border around rim, 25¢ to left and right of building in center, SOUVENIR below building.

Rev: KEEP ME and GOOD LUCK within border in upper and lower rim, “תשליכנו / לצת זקנה אל„ [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and DO NOT CAST US / OFF AT OUR OLD AGE, in center, between profiles of elderly man and woman facing left and right, respectively.

Ref: Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 1.

Note: Founded in 1929 and based on North Street, where it remained until 1965. It continues to exist as the Cedars Nursing Care Center.
Stkp
JCT_Jewish_Old_Folks_Home.JPG
Jewish Old Folks Home (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)74 viewsAE token, 34 mm., undated.

Obv: JEWISH OLD FOLKS HOME, and • TORONTO •, within border around rim, 25¢ to left and right of building in center, CONTRIBUTION above building, THE ONLY JEWISH HOME / FOR THE AGE / IN / ONTARIO, in four lines, below building.

Rev: KEEP ME and GOOD LUCK within border in upper and lower rim, UP / AND / YOU / WILL / HAVE, in five rows in center, between profiles of elderly man and woman facing left and right, respectively.

Ref: Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 3.

Note: Founded in 1918 when the women of the Ezras Noshem Society collected money door-to-door and opened an old age home in a semi-detached house on Cecil Street. By 1954, the building had become too crowded and the building was beyond repair. The insitution purchased a 25-acre site on Bathurst Street, in North York, Ontario, and built the Jewish Home for the Aged. The institution still exists as the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care.
Stkp
Domna_130_491.jpg
Julia Domna (wife of Septimius Severus, mother of Caracalla and Geta)
193–217 CE
85 viewsAR antoninianus, Rome, 215 CE; 4.75g. BMCRE 9, C 106, RIC 379a. Obv: IVLIA PIA – FELIX AVG; diademed and draped bust right on crescent. Rx: LVNA LVCIFERA; Luna in biga left.

Notes: Seventh issue of the sole reign of Caracalla. Scarce; fewer than twenty specimens in the hoards studied by P.V. Hill (nine in Reka Devnia).

Provenance: Ex Berk BBS 130 (January 2003), lot 491.
5 commentsMichael K5
Rama 9_comm.jpg
King Rama 9 of Thailand, 60th Anniversary25 viewsKing Rama 9 of Thailand, 60 th Anniversary Celebrations of His Majesty's Accession to the Throne. These coins were issued on 9 June 2006.

His Majesty, King Bhumibol Adulyadej was born December 5, 1927; he is officially styled "the Great" (Thai: มหาราช, Maharaja) and also known as Rama IX. His name, Bhumibol Adulyadej, means "Strength of the Land, Incomparable Power". Having reigned since June 9, 1946, Bhumibol is the world's longest-serving current Head of State and the longest-serving monarch in Thai history.

Although Bhumibol is a constitutional monarch, he has several times made decisive interventions in Thai politics, including the political crisis of 2005-2006. Bhumibol has been widely credited with facilitating Thailand's transition to democracy in the 1990s.

Bhumibol uses his great wealth to fund numerous development projects, particularly in rural areas. He is immensely popular in Thailand, and is revered by all Thais.

In May 2006, UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan, presented the United Nations' first Human Development Lifetime Achievement Award to Bhumibol.

Bhumibol is an accomplished jazz musician and composer. He was awarded honorary membership of the Vienna Institute of Music and Arts at the age of 32. He used to play jazz music on air on the Or Sor radio station. In his travels, he has played with such jazz legends as Benny Goodman, Jack Teagarden, Lionel Hampton and Maynard Ferguson. His songs can often be heard at social gatherings and are performed in concerts.

Bhumibol is also a painter, photographer, author and translator. His book Phra Mahachanok is based on a traditional Jataka story of Buddhist scripture. The Story of Thong Daeng is the story of his dog Thong Daeng. He is also the only Thai monarch—and possibly the only monarch in the world, to hold a patent; holding one in 1993 for a waste water aerator named "Chai Pattana" and several patents on rainmaking since 1955: the "sandwich" rainmaking patent in 1999 and lately the "supersandwich" patent in 2003.

Bhumibol is an accomplished sailor and sailboat designer. He won a gold medal for sailing in the Fourth Southeast Asian Peninsular (SEAP) Games in 1967, together with HRH Princess Ubol Ratana who he tied for points. This accomplishment is all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. Bhumibol has also sailed the Gulf of Thailand from Hua Hin to Toey Harbour in Sattahip, covering 60 nautical miles in a 14-hour journey on the "Vega 1", an OK Class dinghy he built.

Like his father, a former naval engineer, Bhumibol was an avid boat designer and builder. He produced several small sail-boat designs in the International Enterprise, OK, and Moth Classes. His designs in the Moth class include the “Mod”, “Super Mod”, and “Micro Mod”.

Bhumibol was crowned King of Thailand on May 5, 1950 at the Royal Palace in Bangkok where he pronounced his Oath of Succession "I will reign with righteousness for the benefit and happiness of the Siamese people" ("เราจะครองแผ่นดินโดยธรรม เพื่อประโยชน์สุขแห่งมหาชนชาวสยาม").


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhumibol_Adulyadej




Cleisthenes
Paeonia,_Patraos,_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Kings of Paeonia, Patraos, ca. 335-315 BC, AR Tetradrachm 32 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right.
[Π]ATPAOY Warrior on horse rearing right, spearing fallen enemy who defends with shield; ligate [E]M monogram behind horse’s rear leg.

AMNG III 4; Paeonian Hoard 312 & 410 (same reverse die); SNG ANS 1040.
Damastion mint (?).

(23 mm, 12.55 g, 9h)
CNG; ex- Numismatica Ars Classica Auction N, 26 June 2003, 1242.
2 commentsn.igma
Kurdistan.jpg
Kurdistan33 viewsX2.2 - 10 Dinar - 2003Daniel F
0001.jpg
L. Julius Bursio, Denarius11 viewsRRC 352/1a
85 b.c.

My first individually purchased roman coin
ex ebay / AAH in 2003
Norbert
054~0.JPG
Languedoc - Pierre Ier, Evêque de Girone, Co-Seigneur de Carcassonne (1012-1050).- France4 viewsDenier, argent, 1,09 g.
A/ +PETRVS EPIS, croix.
R/ +CARCASONA, +OOO dans le champ.
Réfs : Cahiers Numismatiques de mars 2003, p. 51 (cette monnaie) ; Corpus languedoc, L133 (cette monnaie).
Gabalor
metapont_stater_normal.jpg
Lukania, Metapont, stater61 viewsca. 530-500 BC
27mm, 7.80g
obv: META; ear of barley in dotted border
rev: incuse ear of barley in a border of rays
(Noe 114)
ex. Künker Auction 83, lot 63 (17.06.2003)

NEW PICTURE
6 commentsareich
Metapont_stater.jpg
Lukania, Metapont, stater96 viewsca. 530-500 BC
27mm, 7.80g
obv: META; ear of barley in dotted border
rev: incuse ear of barley in a border of rays
(Noe 114)
ex. Künker Auction 83, lot 63 (17.06.2003)
4 commentsareich
amphipolis_marcus_aurel_AMNG82var.jpg
Macedonia, Amphipolis, Marcus Aurelius, AMNG 82 var.21 viewsMarcus Aurelius, AD 141-160
AE 20, 6.84g
obv. OVHROC - KAICAR
bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. AM - F[I] - P[O]LITWN
Artemis Tauropolos, wearing girdled double chiton and mural crown(?), stg.
facing, head l., holding long torch in r. hand and resting with l. hand on shield set
on ground.
AMNG III, 82 var.; Lindgren 993
rare, about VF, green patina

AMNG writes 'Artemis with torch and branch'. Here it is doubtless a shield like on the coins of Domitian and Trajan (no.77, no.79). But there is a type too at M&M auction 12, 10. Apr. 2003, lot 136, where Artemis holds a branch and the shields stand beside.
Jochen
083g.jpg
Martinian AE Follis60 viewsRIC VII 16 Cyzicus, VAGI 3037
20.5 mm, 2.99 gm
IM C S MAR MARTINIANVS P F AVS
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
IOVI CONSERVATORI
Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand & sceptre in left; to left, eagle standing left, head right with wreath in beak; to right, bound captive seated right.
Rev. R. field: X / IIΓ
Exergue: SMKA
R4

Ex: Mike Vosper Coins (05/2015); Naville Numismatics Live Auction 9 Lot 336 (09/2014); Naville Numismatics Live Auction 2 Lot 167 (09/2013); Harlan J. Berk (2005); FORVM (2003)

Mark Z
147.JPG
Miletos, Ionia29 views375-350 B.C.
Bronze AE13
1.84 gm, 13 mm
Obv.:  Lion standing left on rocky ground, looking back at MI monogram in upper field
Rev.:  Sun/star ornament with no lettering
Sear 4514 var.; BCM Ionia p. 188, 44; RJ Ohara 2c (RJO 21); Deppert-Lippitz 1984: #297–303; Ashton and Kinns 2003: 5–6, Subtype 4
Jaimelai
IMGP1080Mith2_combo.jpg
Mithradates II., 121-91 BC 24 viewsAR dr., 3,81gr, 20mm; Sellwood 24.9, Shore 69, Sunrise 286;
mint: Ekbatana or Rhagai, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and 2 broad ribbons; short cap-like hair, mustache, medium long trimmed beard; earring, multi-turn torque; cuirass; complete dotted border; striking resemblance to portraits on tdrs;
rev.: archer, right, on omphalos, w/bow in right hand; 4-line legend starting on the left side and forming square: BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY APΣAKoY EΠIΦANoYΣ exergual line;

ex: W. Derfler, Germany; ex: B. Peus Auktion 376 (Oct 2003), #616e.
Schatz
0010.jpg
Mn.Aemilius Lepidus, Denarius25 viewsRRC 291/1
114/113 b.c.

Av.:belorb. weibl. Büste (Roma?) n.r., davor R.
Rv.: Drei Bögen eines Aquädukts, darauf Reiterstatuen.r., mit Speer i.d. Rechten.
ex HD Rauch 72, lot ?, 2003
2 commentsNorbert
markianopolis_sev_alex_mamaea_AMNG1058corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 34. Severus Alexander & Julia Mamaea, HrJ (2014) 6.34.36.01 (plate coin)9 viewsSeverus Alexander & Julia Mamaea, AD 222-235
AE 27, 11.72g, 27.11, 0°
struck under governor Fir. Philopappus
obv. AVT KM AVR CEVH ALEZANDROC KAI IOVLIA MAMAIA
confronting busts of Severus Alexander, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r., and Julia
Mamaea, draped and wearing stephane, l.
rev. VP FIR FILOPAPPOV MARKIANOPOLITWN (PP ligate)
Homonoia, diademed, in long garment and mantle, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm
and patera in extended r. hand
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1058 corr. (1 ex., Paris)
Pick ponts to the obv. of no. 1082 which has the obv. legend without KAI. But because
he couldn't see the stephane for sure, I think the obv. legend too was so worn that he
couldn't see the KAI.
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1852 corr. (KAI not mentioned even though it could be seen on the
attached pic)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No. 6.34.36.1 (plate coin)
d) Blancon Liste 41/2003, no. 491 (Curtis Clay)
F+/about VF, flan damage upper left, obv. slightly rough
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_HrJ(2011)8_10_4_2(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.04.05 (plate coin)13 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 16, 2.31g, 16.48mm, 210°
obv. AVT KAI A - VR KOMOD[OC]
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOL - I PROC ICT
Athena, in long girded double chiton and helmeted, stg. l., resting with l. hand on shield
set on ground and holding in r. hand patera over altar
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.4.5 (plate coin)
d) nicht in Blancon Liste 41/2003
F, dark green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_AMNG1306cf_unbekannt.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.08.0840 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 26, 11.25g, 25.77mm, 210°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. [AV KL CEP] - CEVH[ROC P]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP AVR GALL - OV NIKOPOLIT / PROC I
(legend retrograde, beginning at 5 o'clock, counterclockwise)
Dionysos, nude, wearing boots, stg. l., resting with raised l. hand on thyrsos, holding in lowered r. hand kantharos and pouring
wine.
ref. a) not in AMNG
obv. AMNG I/1, 1304
rev. legend not in AMNG
AMNG I/1, 1306 (depiction)
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.8.8 (same dies)
d) Blancon list 43, 2003
very rare, F, dark green patina
From Curtis Clay, thanks!

One of the rare coins with retrograde legend
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2012)8_18_1_23+.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.01.27 (plate coin)30 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 21, 5.34g, 20.52mm, 210°
obv. M AVR KAI AN - TWNEINOC(?)
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKOPO[LITWN P]ROC IC
Eagle with closed wings stg. l. on wreath with fluttering ribbons, head r., wreath in beak
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.1.27 (plate coin)
d) Gilles Blancon, Lagerliste 41/2003, Nr.723
rare, F/about VF, dark green patina, obv. with some roughness

'Eagle stg. on wreath' is a very rare motive.
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrHJ(2012)8_18_3_1corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.03.0115 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 26, 10.75g, 26.40mm, 210°
struck under governor Ovinius Tertullus
obv. AV.K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
Youthful bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VPA OOV TERTVLLOV NIKOPOLIT PROC IC.
Demeter in long garment and veil stg. l., resting with raised l. hand on long
burning torch and holding patera in outstretched r. hand over modius with grain-
ears
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) not in Blancon list 41/2003
d) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.3.1
Very rare (R7), VF, black-green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_caracalla_HrJ(2011)8_18_8_16var(rev).jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.08.19 (plate coin)14 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 16, 2.59g, 16.08mm, 180°
obv. AV KM AV(?) - ANTWNIN
Bust, draped and cuirassed(?), seen from front, laureate, r.
rev. NIKOPOLI - PROC ICTRO
Bunch of grapes at a twig
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1610
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.8.19 (plate coin)
d) not in Blancon Liste 41/2003
about VF, black-green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_geta_Pick 1665.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 22. Geta, HrHJ (2018) 8.22.04.0183 viewsGeta, AD 209-212
AE 28, 11.51g, 28.01mm, 45°
struck under governor Flavius Ulpianus
obv. AVT K P CE - [P] GETAC AV
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. V FL [O ]VLPIAN - NIKOPOLIT / PROC I
Athena, in long garment and mantle, helmeted, standing facing, head r., resting with l. hand
on shield set on short column, holding in r. hand long sceptre entwined by a snake.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1665
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3290 corr. (writes shield set on helmet)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.22.4.1
d) SNG Budapest 379* (not ill.)
good VF/about Vf, portrait!, nice green patina

A specimen from same dies Blancon list 41, 2003, 743 with that obv. legend (Curtis Clay).
2 commentsJochen
nikopolis_elagabal_AMNG2003.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.46.01 (plate coin)75 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 27, 10.84g, 26.74mm, 45°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. [AVT M AVR] - ANTWNINOC
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. VPA NOBIOV ROVFOV NIKOPLITWN(sic!)
in ex. PROC ICT
in l. and r. field R - O / N
City-gate with two towers, high two-winged door, above emperor in quadriga
facing, on top of each tower a horse, standing outwards
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2003 (2 ex., Imhoof, unknown coll.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3987 (R7!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.46.1 (plate coin)
rare, F+/about VF

Perhaps the O in the right field is used for POL and for RON!
2 commentsJochen
088p_Valerian-I_(253-260_A_D_),_Mysia,_Kyzikos,_AE-25,_Burning_altar,Q-001_7h_25mm_7,68g-s~0.jpg
Mysia, Kyzikos, 088p Valerian-I (253-260 A.D.), AE-25, Burning altar,138 viewsMysia, Kyzikos, 088p Valerian-I (253-260 A.D.), AE-25, Burning altar,
avers:- AVK ΛIK Λ VAΛEPIANOC, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right .
revers:- CTΡACΩ CTΡATΩY KYZIKEΩN NΩN (retrograde), NEΩKOΡ in ex. Burning altar between two serpent-entwined, burning torches. CΩCTΡATΩY (magistrate).
exergo: -/-//NEΩKOΡ, diameter: 25,0mm, weight: 7,68g, axis: 7h,
mint: Mysia, Kyzikos, date: 253-260 A.D., ref:SNG France 858, CNG e-Auction #68, closed 9 July, 2003, cf. SNG von Aulock 1286 (no altar); cf. SNG Copenhagen (same).
Q-001
quadrans
Nero_Tet_2.jpg
Nero12 viewsNero
BI Tetradrachm, Alexandria
Year 11 = 64/65 A.D.
NEPΩ ΚΛΑV ΚΑΙ ΣΕΒ ΓΕP, radiate bust r. wearing aegis / AVTOKPA, eagle walking left with palm branch, date LIA to l. NOBLE
Sear 2003, Koln 163, RPC 5283, BMCGr 165 VF
Sosius
Nero_Tetradrachm.jpg
Nero Tetradrachm5 viewsOBV: NERW KLAV KAIS SEB GER AV
Radiate Bust Right.
REV: AVTOKPA
Eagle walking left with palm branch.
LIA (regnal year 11) to the left.
Simpulum to right.

RCV 2003 A.D. 65
12.37gm 23mm
goldenancients
Nero_billion_tetradrachm.JPG
Nero, tetradrachm, eagle, year 1118 viewsSize/Weight: 24mm, 13.55g
Obverse: NERW KLAV KAIC CEB GER; radiate bust with aegis right
Reverse: AY - TO - KPA / L IA (year 11); eagle with closed wings and palm frond to left. Milne 228, Köln 163, RPC 5283, BMCGr 165, Sear RCV I: 2003. ex areich, photo credit areich.

kaitsuburi
nerose16.jpg
Nero, RIC 160, Sestertius of AD 64-65 (second largesse)117 viewsÆ sestertius (23.34g, Ø34mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 64-65.
Obv.: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Nero right.
Rev.: CONG II DAT POP (around) S C (in ex.), Nero seated l. on curule chair on platform, presiding at second donation.
RIC 160 (S); BMCRE 139, Paris-282 pl. XLV (same rev. die); Cohen 78 (30 Fr.)
ex Harlan J. Berk, Buy/Bid Sale 131 (2003)

Information provided by Harlan J. Berk at the sale: Rx: Nero seated l. on curule chair on platform, presiding at his second distribution of money to the Roman people. An official standing l. on the ground empties coins from a rectangular tablet into the fold of the toga of a citizen standing r. A second official stands on the platform facing Nero. In the background, a statue of Minerva holding owl and spear before a wall or building divided into oblong panels. Rare. Although it was only commemorated on the coins from 64 AD on, Nero had distributed his second largesse some years earlier, in 57 AD. The tablet held by the first official, misnamed a tessera or abacus in the standard catalogues, was actually a board drilled with a determined number of shallow depressions just large enough to hold one denarius each, which could rapidly be filled with coins and then emptied into the toga of the recipient. Slightly irregular surface from the earth it was buried in.
1 commentsCharles S
167.jpg
Nike (x 3) and 6-pointed star128 viewsCILICIA. Ninica-Claudiopolis. Severus Alexander. Æ 35. A.D. 222-235. Obv: IMPCMAVRSEVERALE(XANΔER). Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; 4 countermarks, (1-3) on bust, (4) before bust. Rev: IVLMAMAEAAVGNINICACLAV. Draped bust of Mamaea right. Ref: BMC 6; Sear GIC 3389; SNG France 2:788 (same dies); Ex Künker (Auction 83, No 1128, 20030617, Euro 140). Axis: 210°. Weight: 21.33 g. CM(1-3): Nike right, in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm. Howgego 262 (34 pcs). CM(4): Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point. Howgego 451 (45 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
32mm,_12_0g.jpg
Pautalia Septimius Severus T. Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)37 viewsSeptimius Severus

Pautalia

AE 32 12.00g Fünfer

T. Statilius Barbarus (196-8 AD)

AVT ∙ K ∙ Λ ∙ CEΠ | [CEVHPOC Π
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

H]ΓEM CTA B[APBAPOV
Ex: Π]AVTAΛIA[C

Emperor on horse left with raised spear over crouching lion right

Ruzicka p. 91 #265 (erroneously conjectures OVΛΠIAC); Mionnet- ; BMC- ; Varbanov (E) II 4660 (depicted)

Varbanov cites Numismatik Lanz Auction 114 26 May 2003 München

Reddish hue to metal
Petrus Elmsley
Philippines2.jpg
Philippines (Republic)68 viewsKm208 - 25 Sentimos - 1975
Km241.1 - 25 Sentimos - 1983
Km271 - 25 Sentimos - 2004
Km269 - 1 Piso - 2003
Km272 - 5 Piso - 2005
Km278 - 10 Piso - 2006 - Mobini and Bonifacio
Daniel Friedman
Varb_687_APius_City-goddess_Philippopolis_19_80_gm_AE29.JPG
Philippopolis Antoninus Pius L. Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus (161 AD)34 viewsPhillipopolis

Antoninus Pius

AE 29 19.80g.

Governor L. Pullaienus Gargilius Antiquus (161 AD)

Obv: AVT AI AΔPIA | [AN T]ΩNEIN[OC (faint partial legend)
Laureate head right

Rev: HΓE ΓAPΓIΛI ANTIKOV ΦIΛIΠΠOΠO
Exergue: ΛITΩN
City-goddess as Homonoia enthroned left holding patera and cornucopiae

Varbanov (E) III 687 (depicted p. 94); cf. BMC 6 (scepter instead of cornucopia); idem Mushmov "Les Monnaies Antiques de Philippopolis"(1924) p.216 #35; Mionnet Sup II -.
Varbanov cites CNG XXVII Sept 29 2003 lot 1203. CNG does not appear to have archived auctions that far back on their website.
Petrus Elmsley
GI 089a img.jpg
Phillip I - Kallatis - Cybele - Æ26 (5 Assaria)35 viewsObv:– AVT M IOVΛ ΦIΛIΠΠOC AVΓ, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– KAΛΛATIANΩN/E, Cybele, resting elbow on drum, lions on either side of her throne
Minted in Kallatis
This type is not in AMNG for Philip I-II or Otacilia at Callatis; AMNG 332 has it for Sev. Alex.
Another specimen of this coin from the same dies as this was in Blancon List 41, 2003, 66.
I mus thank Curtis Clay for providing the following information.
This type is not in AMNG for Philip I-II or Otacilia at Callatis; AMNG 332 has it for Sev. Alex.
However another specimen of this coin from the same dies as yours was in Blancon List 41, 2003, 66.
maridvnvm
5959_5960.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, Δ (Dot)12 viewsBI Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 276AD
21.7mm 3.21gr 6h
O: IMP CM AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: CLEMENTIA TEMP; Probus standing right on left, holding eagle-tipped scepter, receiving globe from Jupiter, standing left on right, holding scepter.
Exergue: Δ (Dot), above line; XXI, below line.
Antioch Mint; First Emission.
RIC V, 2 921, Δ(Dot); Sear 11960.
Aorta: 1987: B87, O25, R13, T95, M1.
frascatius/Tom Mann 232626222003
1/21/18 1/24/18
Nicholas Z
RIC_28_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0028 Domitianus46 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P, Minerva advancing right, with spear and shield
AR/Denarius (18.53 mm 3.29 g 6h) Struck in Rome 81 A.D. (3rd group)
RIC 28 (R2), RSC 56a
ex Naville Numismatics Live Auction 15 Lot 422; ex Hirsch sale 226 (2003) lot 1807
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_270_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0270 Domitianus124 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC, laureate head right
Rev: P M TR POT IIII IMP VIII COS XI P P, Eagle standing front on thunderbolt, wings outspread, head left
AR/Denarius (20.08 mm 3.38 g 6 h) Struck in Rome 85 A.D. (1st issue)
RIC 270 (R2), RSC 368, BMCRE 75
ex Nummus et Ars Auction 89 lot 268, ex Asta del Titano 13 (02/2003) lot 167
8 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_V_920_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0920 Domitianus35 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, Laureate head right
Rev: COS IIII (across field), Minerva standing right on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to right, owl
AR/Denarius (21.07 mm 3.252 g 6h) Struck in Rome 76-77 A.D.
RIC 920 (R, Vespasian), RSC 45b, BMCRE-BNF unlisted
purchased on eBay from Juan Rofes in 2003
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
R401_200317_2804078l_AUCT.JPG
RIC 40124 viewsRIC 401, Ticinum. Bust type F, (B). Denomination: Antoninianus.

OBV.: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
REV.: RESTITVT SAEC
Emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre, crowned by Victory holding palm.

Mintmark: // VIXXT

Weight: 4.51 g.
Die axis: ?
Diameter: 21-23 mm.
1 commentsvrtsprb
AntoSe65-2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Antoninus Pius, sestertius, RIC 100467 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (22.23g,30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
ANTONINVS AVG [-] PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head right
TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST [around] COS IIII [in ex.] S C [in field] Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia
ex Triton VI (2003)
The second temple of Divus Augustus, was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identifed with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
2 commentsCharles S
Caracalla_Bimetallic_Sestertius.jpg
Roman Empire, Caracalla Bimetallic Sestertius219 viewsObv. M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. P M TR P XVII IMP III COS IIII P P, emperor, accompanied by two officiers, standing r. on platform, haranguing soldiers behind, standards, in ex. S C.
Mint: Rome, 214 A.D.

32mm 32.71g

RIC 525c var. (draped bust); Banti 59

Before a battle, or on parade, the emperor would address his troops in an event known as an adlocutio cohortium (address to the cohorts). This was an important opportunity for the emperor to be present among his troops and inspire morale and esprit de corps among them. A sestertius of Gaius (Caligula), issued on behalf of a donative for the Praetorian Guard, was the first to employ the adlocutio as a reverse type. Similar subsequent issues were minted to emphasize the emperor's perceived, if not actual, role as military commander. The present specimen commemorates Caracalla's victory against the Germans and his preparations for a Persian war. Caracalla idolized Alexander the Great and, as other emperors before him, wished to recreate his successes in the east. Thus, in 214 AD, after having been proclaimed "Alexander" at Philippopolis in Thrace, he assembled his troops, who had been outfitted as Macedonians, and proceeded into Asia Minor. Caracalla's ambitions were, however, hampered by his own unfit physical and mental state; over the next three years the campaign degeneratged into near-chaos and ended with Caracalla's murder.
(written by CNG, 2003)
7 commentskc
kljn.jpg
Roman Empire, Macrinus AR Denarius RIC IV 6041 viewsMacrinus. AD 217-218. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.28 g, 12h). Rome mint, 1st officina. 2nd emission, AD 217-218. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Felicitas standing left, holding long caduceus and cornucopia. RIC IV 60; Clay Issue 2; RSC 15.

Ex FJ Collection. Ex Paul McIlroy Collection (Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 66, 11 June 2003), lot 103.
2 commentsCurtis H2
CNG_63_lot_1112__Large_(002).jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, AE 28 - Crawford 23/1 - RARE20 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (circa 240 BCE).
AE 28 (17.05g; 28mm).
Sicilian Mint.

Obv: ROMANO; Head of Roma facing left in crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin; cornucopia symbol behind nape of neck.

Rev: ROMA-NO; Eagle standing left on thunderbold, head turned right, sword before.

References: Crawford 23/1; Sydenham 30 (R8); Burnett & McCabe O5/R5:2 (this coin illustrated); Manganaro (1981-82) pl. 16 (this coin illustrated).

Provenance: Ex Tony Hardy Collection [CNG 63 (21 May 2003) Lot 1112].

Burnett and McCabe recently published a paper regarding this issue in which they conclude that it was likely small (only 6 obv and 8 rev dies identified) and minted in Sicily circa 240 BCE. This would have been about the time that the inscription on Roman coins was changing from ROMANO to ROMA. The reverse was based on a Ptolemaic bronze octobol and the obverse likely depicts an early rendering of the goddess Roma (in Corinthian, rather than Attic, helmet). Three obverse symbols have been identified (helmet, plough and cornucopia) and a fourth is uncertain.
Carausius
105791.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Ass Series, AE As - Crawford 195/116 viewsAss Series, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (27.59g; 30mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I (mark of value), above.

Reverse: Galley prow facing right; ass, above; I (mark of value) to right; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 195/1; Sydenham 298; BMCRR I 520-4; RBW 837.

Provenance: Ex RBW Collection duplicates [Triskeles vAuctions 320 (16 Sep 2016), Lot 414]; purchased privately from Kurt Spanier, 17 Jan 2003.

Towards the middle of the second century BCE, the Rome mint produced several series consisting only of bronze coins. The Ass Series is one of them. The demand for bronze coins may have increased as Rome phased-out production of small-change silver coins - victoriati and sestertii. The production of bronze peaked at the middle of this century and then dropped considerably until the Social War in 90 BCE. This drop in bronze production is partly related to the re-tariffing of the denarius in 145 BCE from 10 to 16 asses. As a result these mid-second century asses and the large bronzes that preceded them would circulate for many years.
Carausius
Didrachm31.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Didrachm-Quadrigatus (Crawford 31/1)15 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 225-214 BCE.
AR Didrachm/Quadrigatus (6.81g; 20mm).
Rome Mint (?)

Obv: Janiform head with V neck truncation; pellet beneath neck.

Rev: Jupiter and Victory in quadriga galloping right; beneath, ROMA semi-incuse on raised tablet.

Reference: Crawford 31/1; Sydenham 64c; BMC 100; Gentilhomme Class B, 5th Variety, No. 103 (Plate 3, No 1 and Plate 2, No 9).

Provenance: Ex Freeman and Sear, 2003.

The last few series of Roman silver didrachm coinage, produced from 225-214 BCE, are nicknamed "quadrigati" because of the common reverse type of Jupiter and Victory in a fast quadriga. Crawford's arrangement of quadrigati into distinct series requires a great amount of study to understand. Collectors and dealers alike often misattribute quadrigati among Crawford's series.

Crawford 31 series didrachms are generally of weak style, low relief and debased metal. The series is recognizable by the Janiform head with a “V” neck truncation, sideburns forking into four, distinct tendrils, and either with or without a pellet control mark below the neck. Although not catalogued separately by Crawford, I find that there are two distinct varieties of Crawford 31 didrachms: the first with a pellet below the Janiform neck and an incuse or semi-incuse ROMA inscription; the second with no pellet below the neck and ROMA in relief within a linear frame. The above coin is the first variety, showing the pellet and semi-incuse inscription. I believe the two should be recognized as separate and distinct varieties within the same series. The meaning of the obverse pellet is unclear, but it may be a control mark indicating the workshop or source of the silver for the issue. Crawford attributes the series to the Rome Mint; however, given the debased metal, fabric and mediocre style common to the series, it’s also possible that the series was struck by a military mint or Italian satellite mint early in the Second Punic War.
Carausius
411607.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Tiberius Claudius Nero, AR Serrate Denarius24 viewsRome. The Republic.
Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.n. Nero, 79 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (4.13g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Diana facing right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; S.C, before.

Reverse: Victory driving biga galloping right; A.LXXXVIII below; TI CLAVD TI F AP N, in exergue.

References: Crawford 383/1; Sydenham 770a; BMCRR ;Claudia 5.

Provenance: Ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Fall 2015), Lot 411607; CNG Inventory 735603 (August 2003); Numismatica Ars Classica N (26 June 2003), lot 1540; Eton College Collection [Sotheby’s (1 December 1976), lot 195].

The moneyer is Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of Tiberius ("TI F") and grandson of Appius ("AP N"). He served under Pompey in the war against the pirates in 67 BCE, and was the grandfather of the Roman emperor Tiberius. There are two series of control marks for the reverse: one, marked from I to CLXV; the second marked with letter A and I to CLXXXII. Each reverse control mark has only one die. The letters S.C on the obverse mean that this coin was struck by special Senatorial decree, as opposed to routine coinage which was still authorized by the Senate but not specially marked. The reason for the special decree is not certain in this case. The obverse of the coin may refer to the introduction of the worship of Diana by the Sabines from whom the Claudii originated, though Crawford disputes this reading. The reverse may refer to the Second Punic War victories of C. Claudius Nero.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes.
2 commentsCarausius
RPC_II_632_Domitianus.jpg
RPC II 0632 Domitianus39 viewsObv: AYT ΔOMITIANΩΣ KAIΣAP ΣEB ΓEP, Laureate head of Domitian right
Rev: NKA ПP (in monograms, across field); Ares walking right, with trophy and spear
AE36 (36.05 mm 23.96 g 5h) Struck in Nicaea (Bithynia)
RPC 632, SNG Von Aulock 539
From the François Righetti Collection, ex Auctiones eAuction 46 (03/2016) lot 21, ex CNG 64 (09/2003) lot 592
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Peter%20I.jpg
RUSSIA - Peter I17 viewsRUSSIA - Peter I (1689-1725) "The Great" Cu Kopeck., 1712. Obv.: Horse-mounted St. George with spear riding right. Mintmark МД (Kadashevsky Mint) below horse. Legend translates as Tsar Peter Alexeyevich. Reverse: Denomination: КО/ПИЙКА at center, with date АЩВI (1712) below. Legend - Ruler of All Russia. Reference: Bitkin - 2003 Edition, Volume I - #3427-1.A.dpaul7
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sb 2003 Isaac II9 viewsSégusiaves
9789451664_10d3435617_o.jpg
sb 2003 v Isaac II11 viewsSégusiaves
Sear_1823_[5].jpg
Sear 182329 viewsAnonymous Class B Follis, weight 10.72g, diameter 29mm.

Class B folles are usually uniform in ornamentation: behind the head of Christ a nimbus cross with a square in each of the N, W and E positions, plus single dots in the NW and NE sectors; also a gospel book decorated with a five-dot quincunx pattern. Apart from crude imitatives (cf. DOC 3(ii) plate LV and Sommer, p.297, 40.4.4 & 40.4.5), specimens which vary from this decorative pattern are rare, but do exist: an article by O. Zervos (Nomismatika Chronika 22, 2003) noted among the Corinth finds five other patterns of privy marks on coins which the author regarded as official. However, the ornamentation on this example is not recorded by Zervos, and so this specimen appears to be a previously undocumented sub-variety.

The edge of this coin is not perpendicular but angled – you can make this out in the picture – so that the reverse face is perhaps a millimetre smaller than the obverse. I assume this means the coin was set into a pendant or similar piece of jewellery for part of its history.

Abu Galyon
Sear_1823_[6].jpg
Sear 182311 viewsAnonymous Class B Follis. Weight 9.17g, diameter 29mm. An example of a (rare) sub-variety in which the N, W and E limbs of Christ’s nimbus cross are ornamented with a pellet instead of the usual square. O. Zervos (Nomismatika Chronika 22, 2003) designated this as type B-2, noting two examples among the coins from the Corinth excavations. The two specimens Zervos published, plate coins in the article, were too worn for him to determine the ornamentation on the gospel book. But this third specimen shows that the book ornamentation is the usual quincunx. Abu Galyon
Sear_2003.jpg
Sear 200382 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.3g, diameter 26mm. Hendy’s 3rd variety, distinguished by the star below the emperor’s right arm. Abu Galyon
Sear_2003_[2].jpg
Sear 200368 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.5g, diameter 29mm. Noticeable visible silvering. Abu Galyon
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Sear 200329 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.99g, diameter 27mm. Abu Galyon
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Sear 200313 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 2.91g, diameter 27mm.Abu Galyon
Sear_2003_[5].jpg
Sear 200313 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.40g, diameter 25mm.Abu Galyon
rjb_2012_12_16.jpg
Seleucia Sidera24 viewsAE 25mm
AV K MAP AN ΓOPΔIANOC ЄVCЄ
Laureate bust right, countermark on neck
KΛAVΔIO CЄΛЄVKЄΩN
Men on horseback right
von Aulock "Pisidiens" no. 2003, cmk Howgego 777
1 commentsmauseus
Seleucid_Kingdom,_Antiochos_IV_Epiphanes_Tetradrachm_.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Antiochos IV Epiphanes, 175-164 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Ake Ptolemais19 viewsDiademed head of the Antiochos IV r., (ΛB) monogram behind (only truncated r. limb of Λ is visible).

BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY ΘEOY EПiΦANOYΣ NIKHΦOPOY (of King Antiochos God Manifest Bearer of Victory) Zeus enthroned l., holding Nike in extended r. hand and scepter in l., palm branch in outer l. field, HP monogram in exergue

SC 1476.1a; Morkholm 6; HGC 9, 620c; Commerce (“Demetrius I”) Hoard, 2003 (CH10.301) #417 (this coin).
Minted in Ake-Ptolemais ca.168-164 BC.

(32 mm, 17.03 g, 12h).
Freeman & Sear Fixed Price List 10 (Spring 2005) Lot 174; from the Commerce (“Demetrius I”) Hoard, 2003 (CH10.301) #417 (this coin).

The Commerce (“Demetrius I”) Hoard, 2003 (CH10.301) from which this coin originated came to market in Europe during 2003. Consisting of 532 coins, including 450 tetradrachms, it was documented by Catherine Lorber in Coin Hoards X. This coin was one of eleven Antiochos IV tetradrachms from the hoard offered in Freeman & Sear’s Fixed Price List 10 in 2005.
1 commentsn.igma
SeptSevMarkKybAe19.JPG
Septimius Severus, AE 1970 viewsAV L SEPT SEVHROC
Bust laureate, cuirassed, draped, right
MARKIANOPO/LITWN
Kybele seated left, holding patera, leaning on tympanum
Interesting variant, omits lion, similar to Blancon List 41, 2003, 129, an AE 20, but has rev. legend running from 8 to 5 o'cl. and laureate head only on obverse (Courtesy of C. Clay).
Varbanov (Eng.) I, -; H&J -
Unpublished?
Ex. Forum Ancient Coins
1 commentswhitetd49
17862364_10155174534492232_2297293643220031999_n.jpg
Severus Alexander, Caesarea-Eusebia,CAPPADOCIA15 viewsCAPPADOCIA, Caesarea-Eusebia. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235. Æ Dated RY 7 (AD 228). Laureate head right / Three grain ears. Sydenham, Caesarea 587; SNG Copenhagen 301 var. (date); SNG Hunterian 2278.1 commentsecoli
Smast_Cave_Obol_wHorse.JPG
Smast Cave Obol wHorse25 viewsAnonymous bronze obol (AE10) with "Jeya", ca.400-500 AD, Alchon Huns (Hephthalites), Horse galloping right, JeYa (Victory) in Brahmi above / Elaborately decorated tamgha. 10mm, 0.42 grams. Mitchiner ACW -; Gobl -.

In 2003 or 2004 a small hoard of small silver coins was unearthed in (reportedly) Northern Pakistan. They are completely unpublished in any catalogue and were completely unknown until this find.

EXTREMELY RARE
Romanorvm
Smast_Cave_Silver_Obol~0.JPG
Smast Cave Silver Obol22 viewsExtremely Rare "Yashaaditya" silver obol, Hephthalites, 700 AD from Smast Caves
Late silver obol, trident type with "Sri YaShaaDiTya", Hephthalites, 6th-7th century AD, Crowned bust right, no inscriptions / Trident
with curved prongs, five Brahmi characters "Sri YaShaaDiTya" around, beginning at 12 o'clock. 12mm, 0.7 grams. Unpublished.
In 2003 or 2004 a small hoard of small silver coins was unearthed in (reportedly) Northern Pakistan. They are completely unpublished in any
catalogue and were completely unknown until this find.

VERY RARE
Romanorvm
Saint_Helen_and_Ascension.jpg
St. Helena and Ascension 25 viewsKm13a - 1 Penny - 1997-2003Daniel F
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Syria, Seleukeia, tetradrachm25 views110-109 BC
14.97 g
obv.: draped and turreted bust of Tyche right
rev.: ΣEΛEΥKEIAΣ / THΣ IEΡAΣ – KAI / AΥTONOMOΥ; Thunderbolt bound with fillet upon stool, below date AI (=year 11), to right Θ; all in laurel wreath
BMC 271, 18var. (Rev. Γ instead of Θ)
from fixed price list Freeman & Sear, Los Angeles 8 (2003), 197; Hess-Divo, Auction 327(22. October 2014), lot 65.
1 commentsareich
AntoSe65-2~0.jpg
TEMPLE, ANTONINUS PIUS, Temple of Divus Augustus143 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (22.23,30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
ANTONINVS AVG [-] PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head right
TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST [/] COS IIII [in ex.] [/] S C Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia
ex Triton VI (2003)
The second temple of Divus Augustus, was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identifed with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
Charles S
Tibese10-2~0.jpg
TEMPLE, Tiberius, sestertius - temple of Concordia127 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,50g, Ø 35mm, 12h). Rome, AD 36-37.
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXIIX around large S C.
Rev.: Hexastyle temple on podium of five steps with flanking walls to r. and l.; Concordia seated within, holding patera and cornucopiae, flanked by the statues of Hercules and Mercurius; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above empty pediment.
RIC 67 (R); BMC 133; Cohen 70; RCV 1766
Ex Varesi Numismatica Auction 65, 10 Feb. 2015; ex Ex Astarte XII, 12 Sep. 2003, lot 485.

The temple of Concordia in the Roman Forum was restored and embellished under Tiberius. It housed so many antique statues that Pliny the Elder called it a museum of art and Greek sculpture.
1 commentsCharles S
Thailand.jpg
Thailand9 views20 Baht (2003) Wor: P-109a.8Daniel F
Thasos_trihemiobol~0.jpg
Thasos - AR trihemiobol6 viewsc. 411-350
Satyr holding kantharos, kneeling left; grasshopper left
amphora
ΘAΣ_IΩN
Vgl. Lanz: Auktion 82 (24.11.1997) Nr. 110; Auction 114 (26.05.2003) Nr. 80
0,73g
Johny SYSEL
lampsakos_lysimachos_Thompson_47.jpg
Thracia, Lampsakos, Lysimachos, Thompson 47577 viewsLysimachos, 323-281 BC
AR - tetradrachm, 28.8mm, 16.85g
struck in Lampsakos, 286-281 BC
obv. Head of Alexander the Great, wearing taenia and horn of Ammon
rev. BASILEWS - LYSIMAXOY
Athena, wearing Corinthian helmet, in long robe, std. l. on throne, l. arm resting on shield decorated with lion's-head, spear pointing downwards behind her r. shoulder, holding in outstretched r. hand winged Nike who is crowning the name with a wreath.
in l. Field monogram HP (ligate)
in ex. crescent with cavity l.
ref. Thompson 47; Müller 401; SNG Paris 2542
about EF, a small scratch before the crescent, wonderful style, a Hellenistic artwork! For sure one of the 5% most beautiful specimens of this type!
Pedigree:
ex Ancient Auction House (2003)
ex coll. Pete Burbules (2004)
ex coll. AlexB, Hongkong (2007)
ex Forum Ancient Coins (2008), thanks!
Now this gem has its place for some years at my home. Curious where it will go then!

According to Thompson Lampsakos was the biggest mint of Lysimachos in Asia Minor with c. 150 different obv. dies. When Amphipolis began about 288 BC its extensive coinage the issue from Lampsakos decreased.
13 commentsJochen
Tibese10-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 67, Sestertius of AD 36-37 (temple of Concordia)16 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,50g, Ø 35mm, 12h). Rome, AD 36-37.
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXIIX around large S C.
Rev.: No legend, Hexastyle temple on podium of five steps with flanking walls to r. and l.; Concordia seated within, holding patera and cornucopiae, flanked by the statues of Hercules and Mercurius; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above empty pediment.
RIC 67 (R); BMC 133; Cohen 70; RCV 1766
Ex Varesi Numismatica Auction 65, 10 Feb. 2015; ex Ex Astarte XII, 12 Sep. 2003, lot 485.

The temple of Concordia in the Roman Forum was restored and embellished under Tiberius. It housed so many antique statues that Pliny the Elder called it a museum of art and Greek sculpture.
Charles S
V528A.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC 528A99 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT CENS; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: NEP RED; Neptune stg. l., r. foot on globe, with acrostolium and sceptre
RIC 528A. BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 637. Ex Gorny & Mosch 122, 10 March 2003, lot 2043 = 113, 18 October 2001, lot 5729.

An unpublished Neptune type with CENS in the obverse legend. The coin will be 528A (under Vespasian) in the RIC II Addenda. It fits nicely alongside my unpublished V529A Salus from the same series. I think there are still a few other unknown types that will surface for this series - this Neptune reverse for the corresponding Vespasian issue is one that so far is awaiting discovery.

A beautiful denarius in hand with an amazing early portrait. The other two denarii I have from this series also have exemplary portraits. An issue style wise to take note of then.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
V1440Amd.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC-1440A108 viewsAR Denarius, 2.69g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI E (sic); Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1440A. BMC 467 var. RSC 39 var. RPC 843 var. BNC 358 var.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N Sneh Collection, lot 742. Acquired from Ponterio, c. 2003.

This denarius features an engraver's error in the obverse legend. Instead of ending in the normal F the engraver mistakenly engraved an E. It is also an obverse die match to the unique British Museum aureus RIC V1437. A wonderful example of aurei and denarii sharing dies! The coin has been assigned by Carradice as V1440A (obv 2B) in the upcoming RIC II addenda.

Not only is this coin interesting for the engraver's error and die link - it's also in excellent style with an outstanding portrait. Truly a gorgeous coin.


6 commentsDavid Atherton
cc16689a.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC-1459 91 viewsAR Denarius, 2.93g
Ephesus mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: IMP T CAESAR COS III; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: AVG and star in oak wreath
RIC 1459 (R2). BMC plate 17.6. RSC 21. RPC 855 (2 spec.). BNC 369.
Ex Gemini IX, 8 January 2012, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 428. Acquired from Freeman and Sear, 2010 (A. Lynn Collection). Ex Gorny and Mosch 126, 14 October 2003, lot 2353.

According to the Gemini catalog listing of this coin, one of only 5 known specimens, so very rare indeed. Same dies as the BMC plate coin and same obverse die as my V1460.

Another wonderful portrait from the artistically pleasing Ephesus mint. Titus here exhibits a slight heavenward gaze.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
titus elephant reverse.JPG
Titus RIC-115314 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Rome Mint, 80 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M•; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P; Elephant, stg. l.
RIC 115 (C2). BMC 43. RSC 303. BNC 37.
Acquired from Old Roman Coins, May 2003.

A reverse type that records the opening games of the Flavian Amphitheater.

The coin looks much better in hand than the pic shows. Some very nice toning is starting to develop on both the obv and rev.
5 commentsVespasian70
titus throne reverse.JPG
Titus RIC-124c (1)169 viewsAR Denarius, 3.60g
Rome Mint 80 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, triangular frame with nine palmettes
RIC 124c (C2). BMC 62. RSC 313a. BNC 50.
Acquired from Old Roman Coins, December 2003.

A reverse, which according to the BMCRE, may commemorate the pulvinar of Apollo and Diana (and possibly Ceres) for the opening of the Colosseum in 80 AD. This issue was interrupted by the fire in Rome later in the same year and was continued again by Domitian upon the mints reopening in 81.

A denarius that looks quite spectacular in hand, despite the brightness.
3 commentsVespasian70
TRAJAS12-2.jpg
Trajan, RIC 591, As of AD 103-111 (Victory) 10 viewsÆ As (11.4g, Ø 28mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 98-99.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V P P, laureate head of Trajan right; aegis on chest.
Rev.: S P Q R OPTIMO PRICIPI (around), S C (in field), Victory advancing left, with branch and palm.
RIC 591; Cohen 436
ex Künker auction 153 (2003)
Charles S
lg_tranq2_2.jpg
Tranquillina, Pisidia, Sagalassos87 viewsTranquillina (Augusta)
Pisidia, Sagalassos
AE - / 25mm / -
Ob: CAΒΙ ΤΡAΝΚVΛΛΙA - Diademed bust right on crescent
Rv: CΑΓΑΛΑC CЄΩΝ - Nike or warrior (ΛΑΚЄΔΑΙΜΩΝ / Lakedaimon) with spear and phiale
Mint: 244 AD
Ref: Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung Auction 126, October 14th, 2003, Lot 1988/a
Apparently an uncataloged type, Tranquillina's coins are scarce to begin with, but from Sagalassos is even more rare.
Scotvs Capitis
gal.jpg
Trebonianus Gallus (251-253 A.D.)35 viewsEgypt, Alexandria
Billon Tetradrachm
O: Α Κ Γ ΟVΙΒ ΤΡЄΒ ΓΑΛΛΟϹ ЄVϹЄΒ, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: LΓ (year 3) (252/3), Eagle standing right, with wreath in beak; palm frond over shoulder.
11.4g
23mm
Emmett 3667; Milne 3858.

Ex Baldwins, 2003
4 commentsMat
Fr#1991G_Rear.jpg
United States of America: 2003A Cabral-Snow Five Dollars Federal Reserve Note (Fr#1991G ★)11 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#1991G_Front.jpg
United States of America: 2003A Cabral-Snow Five Dollars Federal Reserve Note (Fr#1991G ★) 11 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#2179H_Rear.jpg
United States of America: 2003A Cabral-Snow One Hundred Dollars Federal Reserve Note (Fr#2179H ★)5 viewsSpongeBob
Fr#2179H_Front.jpg
United States of America: 2003A Cabral-Snow One Hundred Dollars Federal Reserve Note (Fr#2179H ★)8 viewsSpongeBob
IMGP3115Unkn1combo.jpg
Unknown King, 80 - 70 BC20 viewsAR dr., 4,20gr, 19,2mm; Sellwood 30.26, Shore 139 (Orodes I. 90-77 BC), Sunrise --;
mint: Ekbatana, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad diadem, knot and 2 ribbons; medium-long hair in 4 waves, short beard; torque w/single pellet finial; cuirass; complete bust; dotted border 11:30 to 13h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in right hand; 5-line legend: BAΣIΛEΩΣ (M)EΓAΛoY MAo retrograde KAΣo oEoΠAToPoΣ EVEPΓEToV; exergual line;

ex: W. Derfler, Germany: ex: B. Peus Auktion 376 (Oct. 2003), #639.
Schatz
1832__Leu_Numismatik,_Auction_9,_#1.jpg
varb1600 xx11 viewsElagabalus
Philippopolis, Thrace

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped and cuirassed bust left, holding shield, spear over right shoulder.
Rev: MHTPOΠOΛEΩC ΦIΛIΠΠOΠOΛEΩC (NE) →ΩKO; in left field, P; in right field, OV. Nude athlete standing front, throwing spear with his right hand and holding discus in his left.
31 mm, 17.27 gms

Varbanov ---; SNG Cop ---; Lanz Auction 117 (2003), lot 999; Leu Numismatik Auction 9, lot 657 (this coin)
1 commentsCharles M
Very_rare!_Late_silver_obol,_trident_type_with_(Sri_YaShaaDiTya),_Hephthalites,_6th-7th_century_AD.jpg
Very rare! Late silver obol, trident type with "Sri YaShaaDiTya", Hephthalites, 6th-7th century AD156 viewsCrowned bust right, no inscriptions / Trident with curved prongs, five Brahmi characters "Sri YaShaaDiTya" around, beginning at 12 o'clock. 12mm, 0.7 grams. Unpublished.

In 2003 or 2004 a small hoard of small silver coins was unearthed in (reportedly) Northern Pakistan. The hoard was dispersed between a number of dealers, and I was lucky enough to get the bulk (reportedly) of the hoard. These fascinating little silver coins were originally sold as "Hephthalite" coins, as per attribution of the Pakistani dealers, but they are completely unpublished in any catalogue and were completely unknown until this find.

Mr.Wilfried Pieper, to whom I am indebted for bringing these coins to my attention, examined a group of 42 pieces and published 15 distinguishable types in a wonderful article in the Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society - 'New types of early medieval silver portrait coins from northern Pakistan' in ONS-NL 181 (2004). Mark Fishman

Antonio Protti
Very_rare!_Late_silver_obol,_trident_type_with_(Sri_YaShaaDiTya),_Hephthalites,_6th-7th_century_AD~0.jpg
Very rare! Late silver obol, trident type with "Sri YaShaaDiTya", Hephthalites, 6th-7th century AD169 viewsCrowned bust right, no inscriptions / Trident with curved prongs, five Brahmi characters "Sri YaShaaDiTya" around, beginning at 12 o'clock. 12mm, 0.7 grams. Unpublished.

In 2003 or 2004 a small hoard of small silver coins was unearthed in (reportedly) Northern Pakistan. The hoard was dispersed between a number of dealers, and I was lucky enough to get the bulk (reportedly) of the hoard. These fascinating little silver coins were originally sold as "Hephthalite" coins, as per attribution of the Pakistani dealers, but they are completely unpublished in any catalogue and were completely unknown until this find.

Mr.Wilfried Pieper, to whom I am indebted for bringing these coins to my attention, examined a group of 42 pieces and published 15 distinguishable types in a wonderful article in the Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society - 'New types of early medieval silver portrait coins from northern Pakistan' in ONS-NL 181 (2004).
Mark Fishman

1 commentsAntonio Protti
Very_rare!_Late_silver_obol,_trident_type_with_(Sri_YaShaaDiTya,_Hephthalites,_6th-7th_century_AD.jpg
Very rare! Late silver obol, trident type with "Sri YaShaaDiTya", Hephthalites, 6th-7th century AD176 viewsCrowned bust right, no inscriptions / Trident with curved prongs, five Brahmi characters "Sri YaShaaDiTya" around, beginning at 12 o'clock. 12mm, 0.7 grams. Unpublished.

In 2003 or 2004 a small hoard of small silver coins was unearthed in (reportedly) Northern Pakistan. The hoard was dispersed between a number of dealers, and I was lucky enough to get the bulk (reportedly) of the hoard. These fascinating little silver coins were originally sold as "Hephthalite" coins, as per attribution of the Pakistani dealers, but they are completely unpublished in any catalogue and were completely unknown until this find.

Mr.Wilfried Pieper, to whom I am indebted for bringing these coins to my attention, examined a group of 42 pieces and published 15 distinguishable types in a wonderful article in the Journal of the Oriental Numismatic Society - 'New types of early medieval silver portrait coins from northern Pakistan' in ONS-NL 181 (2004).
Mark Fishman.

Antonio Protti
Vesp IVDAEA.jpg
Vespasian RIC 02 (1)449 viewsAR Denarius, 3.35g
Rome Mint, 69-70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: IVDAEA in ex.; Jewess (as type of Judaea), draped and veiled, seated r. on ground in attitude of mourning, knees drawn up, head resting on l. hand, which is propped on knees, r. arm on lap; behind, trophy, consisting of helmet, cuirass, oblong and round shield, greaves, and two round shields
RIC 2 (C2). BMC 35. RSC 226. BNC 23.
Acquired from Glenn W. Woods, October 2003.

A reverse which commemorates the Roman victory over the Jews in the Jewish war of 66-70 A.D. Here is what the BMCRE stated about the reverse: "The veil over her head, the head sunk over her hand, her whole posture express utter dejection." One of the most important historical types of the Flavian dynasty. Although listed in RIC as Vespasian's first denarius type, this reverse could not have been struck before August 70 when Jerusalem fell to Titus Caesar and Judaea was truly 'Capta'. Although a very common type, these command premium prices in trade.

A coin that has a wonderful 'soldier-like' portrait and very detailed reverse. Very well centred for the type, most of which were struck on small flans.
Vespasian70
vesp pax75.JPG
Vespasian RIC-772129 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Rome Mint, 75 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VI; Pax, bare to the waist, seated l., holding branch extended in r. hand, l. hand on lap
RIC 772 (C3). BMC 161. RSC 366. BNC 139.
Acquired from Old Roman Coins, March 2003.

Another of Vespasian's Pax types, continuing a major theme in his coinage.

This coin has sentimental value for being the first Flavian denarius I ever purchased. A nice one at that too.
1 commentsVespasian70
V853b.JPG
Vespasian RIC-853190 viewsAR Denarius, 3.41g
Rome mint, 76 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, bare, l.
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VII; Pax, bare to the waist, seated l., holding branch extended in r. hand, l. hand on lap
RIC 853 (R2). BMC p. 34 note. RSC 374. BNC 161.
Ex Private Collection.

An extremely rare denarius from 76. Left facing, bare head, and COS VII combine to make this an exceptional coin. This is the 7th known specimen: Berlin, Paris, Gemini 2013, Curtis Clay 2010, Private collection, and ebay 2003 (RIC plate coin) are the other examples. All have the same obverse die, Clay 2010 and my coin are die pair matches. These bare portraits were struck with the Pax reverse in both 75 (unique) and in 76. Why the engraver chose an unlaureate bust is a mystery. Perhaps struck in error, which would explain why so few were minted.

I haven't seen a photo of the other unique bare head Pax type from 75 (RIC 773, Vecchi 13, lot 757), but Curtis Clay has confirmed it is a different obverse die and may possibly read COS VII! If true, the bare l. portrait was only struck with the COS VII Pax. Only having the coin in hand will solve the mystery for certain. *

A compact and neat portrait emphasising Vespasian's militaristic look.

* See my RIC 773 for confirmation of the bare head portrait in 75, added December 2017.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
vespasian mars.JPG
Vespasian RIC-937108 viewsAR Denarius, 3.50g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: COS VIII; Mars, helmeted, naked except for cloak, fastened with belt(?)round waist, standing l., holding spear slanting upwards l. in r. hand and trophy on l. shoulder in l.
RIC 937 (C2). BMC 200. RSC 125. BNC 177.
Acquired from Old Roman Coins, April 2003.

A 'Mars triumphant' type which again copies a famous reverse from the past, this time that of L. Valerius Flaccus circa 108 B.C.

2 commentsVespasian70
vespasian prow and star.JPG
Vespasian RIC-941191 viewsAR Denarius, 3.39g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: COS VIII; Prow r. : above, star of eight rays
RIC 941 (C). BMC 210. RSC 136. BNC 186.
Acquired from Glenn W. Woods, November 2003. Ex unspecified CNG MBS.

A reverse type which copies one from Marc Antony's coinage.

Obviously a major feature of Vespasian's coinage was his recoining of many past reverse types. I don't think they were chosen at random and many of these must have had some sort of contemporary meaning.

This has always been an intriguing reverse type in my opinion. I'm not quite sure what a star and prow have to do with one another, but they do create an eye appealing reverse design.
5 commentsVespasian70
vesp rostral column.jpg
Vespasian-RIC-1065122 viewsAR denarius, 3.51g
Rome Mint, 79 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: TR POT X COS VIIII; Radiated figure, naked except for slight drapery round thighs, standing r., r. leg bent, resting l. arm bent on column, holding helmet in extended r. hand and transverse spear in l.
RIC 1065 (R). BMC 254. RSC 559. BNC 222.
Acquired from Glenn W. Woods, December 2003.

This denarius is part of the last issue struck for Vespasian in 79. Mattingly speculates the reverse depicts the 120 ft high Colossus erected by Nero for his Golden House (BMCRE p. xlii). According to Dio, the enormous statue was moved by Vespasian in his sixth consulship and set up on the Scared Way. However, it is far more likely to be an imitative design copying a similar type struck for Octavian (BMCRE i, 103, 633).

Fine style. The irregular flan shape is only a minor detraction.
1 commentsVespasian70
divi vesp.JPG
Vespasian-RIC-357(1)170 viewsAR Denarius, 3.40g
Rome mint, 79-80 AD (Titus)
Obv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS•; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: Capricorns, l. and r., back to back, supporting round shield inscribed S C : below, globe
RIC 357 (C2). BMC 129. RSC 497. BNC 101.
Acquired from Old Roman Coins, October 2003.

A posthumous type issued by Titus to commemorate the deification of Vespasian.

I like this coin. Most examples I've seen of this reverse type are worn and don't show the S C inscribed on the shield supported by the capricorns.

Vespasian70
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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