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Search results - "1964"
sb1964_clipped_18mm_165gjpg.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196416 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
18mm 1.65 gm
wileyc
00087x00.jpg
20 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966
AL Twenty-five Cent Token (24mm, 1.48 g, 11h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 25¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00086x00.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Ten Cent Token (22.5mm, 1.28 g, 2h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 10¢/ IN TRADE
Lipscomb WO 8051; TC 226639

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00085x00.jpg
16 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Five Cent Token (21.5mm, 1.16 g, 8h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 5¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
NCLAUD_RES.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS39 views41 - 54 AD
AE 18 mm 7.46 g
O: Laureate head of Claudius right
R: S C in wreath, star at top, ties at bottom
Antioch, Syria; Cf. Lindgren 1964
laney
053_Manuel_I.JPG
053. Manuel I, 1143-1180. BI Trachy.54 viewsObv. Mary facing
Rev. Manuel standing.
S1964
LordBest
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932050 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
car750.JPG
190 Caracalla153 viewsCaracalla AR Antoninianus.
216 AD. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate draped bust right, seen from behind / P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Serapis, modius on head, standing left, raising right hand & holding sceptre.
Size: 22.5mm Weight: 5.3 grams
RSC 349b. RIC 280b BMC 165. Hill (1964) 1573.



Click to enlarge for best pic.
16 commentsRandygeki(h2)
DSC08695_DSC08701_1964_PCGS_PR68DCAM_10c.JPG
1964 - PROOF Roosevelt Dime - NGC PR 68 DCAM ( Deep Cameo )22 views~
~~
US Roosevelt Dime 1964 - PROOF Roosevelt Dime - Philadelphia Mint.
Graded by PCGS; PCGS PR 68 DCAM ( Deep Cameo )
~~
~
rexesq
uk64.jpg
1964 UK penny7 viewsNORMAN K
Elizabeth_2_50_New_Pence_1976.JPG
1976 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE8 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II D.G.REG.F.D.1976. Draped bust of Elizabeth II, wearing tiara, facing right.
Reverse: NEW PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4223 PROOF

This portrait of Elizabeth II was designed by Arnold Machin (1911 - 1999), although his design was approved in June 1964 it was not used for United Kingdom coinage until 1968, after which his portrait of Elizabeth II was used on all British decimal coins until 1984. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin had been given to her as a wedding present from her grandmother, Queen Mary.
*Alex
grk.jpg
30 Drachma Silver Coin Constantine and Anna Maria - 1964171 viewsObverse: Constantine and Anna Maria looking left.

Reverse: Double-headed eagle, year 1964 above, 30 drachmas below.

Size: 30mm
Wt: 12.0 gms
Dino
pergamum_RPC_2374.jpg
41-60 AD - Semi-Autonomous AE15 of Pergamum - struck under the time of the Claudians75 viewsobv: PEON CYNKLHTON (youthful draped bust of the Roman Senate right)
rev: PEAN PWMHN (turreted and draped bust of Roma right)
ref: RPC 2374, SNG BN Paris 1964
mint: Pergamum, Mysia (40-60 AD)
4.03gms, 15mm
Rare

Pergamum was not conquered by the Romans. In 133 B.C. Attalus III, its last king, bequeathed Pergamum to the Romans and this granted to the city and its inhabitants the continued benevolence of the new rulers (with the only exception being Marcus Antonius who deprived the Library of Pergamum of many of its volumes to replenish that of Alexandria, which had been damaged by Julius Caesar).
berserker
Aspron Trachy Vellón Manuel I SB01964.jpg
58-10 - Manuel I (08/04/1143 - 24/09/1180 D.C.)66 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 32 x 29 mm 5.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando a izquierda.
Rev: " MANγHΛ - ΔεCΠOTHC " Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Chlamys (Manto largo o capa/mandyas, usado como traje de ceremonia imperial). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz patriarcal en izquierda.

Acuñada 1143 - 1180 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1964 Pag. 396 - Hendy CMBE pl.15.5-10 - B.M.C.#56/7 - Ratto M.B.#2138-41 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #5-16
mdelvalle
RIC_178_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-13 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CLAVDIV]S CAES AVG", Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha. Visto por detrás.
Rev: "[AE]QVITAS AVG", Aequitas (La Equidad) estante a izq., portando balanza en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión 1ra.Fase Final 268 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off. 1ra.??)

Referencias: RIC Va #178var. (C) (Busto, leyenda y off.) P.226, RIC2 temp #566, DVM #3var. (Ley.) P.255, La Venera #9413, Alföldi 1964 #51553/5 p.16, Cunetio #2270
mdelvalle
93733q00.jpg
AE 18 Pergamum, Mysia, bronze5 views Bronze AE 18, RPC I 2374; SNG BnF 1964; BMC Mysia p. 134, 205; SGICV 4910; SNG Cop -, F, dark green patina, reverse off center, Pergamon (Bergama, Turkey) mint, weight 4.116g, maximum diameter 18.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 40 - 60 A.D.; obverse Θ EON CYN-KΛHTON, draped bust of the Senate right; reverse ΘEAN PWMHN, turreted and draped bust of Roma rightNORMAN K
Algeria.jpg
Algeria234 viewsKm91 - 20 Francs - 1949 (1949-1956)
Km94 - 1 Centime - 1964 (1964)
Km95 - 2 Centime - 1964 (1964)
Km101 - 5 Centimes - 1970 (1970)
Km107.1 - 20 Centimes (1975 - 1975)
Km99 - 50 Centimes - 1964 (1964)
Km102 - 50 centimes - 1971 (1971,1973)
Km100 - 1 Dinar - 1964 (1964)
Km104.2 - 1 Dinar - 1972 (1972)
Daniel F
015BArcadius.jpg
Arcadius4 viewsBronze Half Centenionalis
Roman Imperial - The Eastern Empire

Arcadius

2nd officina, Heraclea Mint. 19 Jan 383 - 25 Aug 383.
Fine, well centered, green patina, scrape on obverse, light corrosion
15.0mm / 1.196 g / 180°

Obverse: "DN ARCADIVS PF AVG", pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "VOT V" in two lines within wreath, SMHB in exergue.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (72470)
Old Note "BB6204" with coin description, "4/02/2012"
Ex WCNCOnline (circa 2012?)
Old Note "34578/579", with description


RIC IX Heraclea 18(b)2, LRBC II 1964, SRCV V 20867

MyID: 015B

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
0790-321.jpg
Arcadius, AE4100 viewsHeraclea mint, 1st officina, c. AD 383
DN ARCADIVS PF AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VOT / V within wreath, SMHA at exergue
1.27g, 14mm, 12h
Ref : RIC IX # 18b, LRBC II # 1964
1 commentsPotator II
Hermione_Triobol___BCD_Peloponnesos_1302_(this_coin).jpg
Argolis, Hermione, ca. 280-250 BC, AR Triobol 24 viewsWreathed head of Demeter Chthonia left.
EP monogram above ΔI, all within wreath of grain.

BCD Peloponnesos 1302 (this coin); HGC 5, 748; Grandjean, Monnayage Group II, Emission 8, D16/R25 (this coin cited).

(15 mm, 2.58 g, 11h)
Auctiones GmbH 47, 24 April 2016, 25; ex- BCD Collection: LHS Numismatics 96, 8-9 May 2006, 1302; ex- GMRH, May 1979, SFr 500 (per BCD ticket); ex- Ashmolean Museum from the E.S.G. Robinson Collection, donated to the Ashmolean, disposed of as a duplicate.

This coin has a notable provenance that can be traced back to the collection of Edward Stanley Gotch Robinson (1887-1976) a classical numismatist and the Keeper of the Coin and Medal Department at the British Museum 1949-1952. He endowed the Ashmolean with his coin collection in 1964. Within three years of his death the Ashmolean disposed of this coin from the collection, despite the type being extremely rare. That's gratitude for you!
n.igma
Manuel-I-Comnenus_1143-80-AD_AE-30_trachy_SB-1964-p-396_Q-001_axis-h_30mm_3,80g-s.jpg
B 062 Manuel I. Comnenus (1143-1180 A.D.), SB 1964, AE-Trachy, Constantinopolis,88 viewsB 062 Manuel I. Comnenus (1143-1180 A.D.), SB 1964, AE-Trachy, Constantinopolis,
avers: - ,
revers:- .
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 2,80g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: A.D., ref: SB-1964, p-396,
Q-001
quadrans
Bruttium,_Brettii,_Under_Hannibal_(215-205_BC),_AR-quarter_shekel,_Tanit-Demeter_l_,_Horse_r_,_SNG_Cop_369,_HN_Italy_2020,__Q-001,_0h,_13,5mm,_1,67g-s.jpg
Bruttium, Brettii, Under Hannibal, (215-205 B.C.), AR-Quarter Shekel, SNG Cop 369, -/-//--, Free horse standing right,231 viewsBruttium, Brettii, Under Hannibal, (215-205 B.C.), AR-Quarter Shekel, SNG Cop 369, -/-//--, Free horse standing right,
avers: Head of Tanit-Demeter left, wreathed with grain, in pendant earring and necklace.
reverse: Free horse standing right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,5mm, weight: 1,67g, axes: 0h,
mint: Bruttium, Brettii, date: 215-205 B.C., ref: SNG Cop 369, Robinson, NC 1964, p. 53, 3., HN Italy 2020.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
MANUEL I TRACHY.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - MANUEL I109 viewsManuel I 1143-1180AD Billon trachy "Mother Deum" Billon trachy, 3.68 g., 30 mm. Obv.: The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium. Rev.: Manuel standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriarchal cross. Ref.: D. Sear. Byzantine coins and their values, p. 396, 1964 dpaul7
Sear-1964(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) BI Aspron Trachy (Sear 1964; DOC IV 12b)12 viewsObv: MP - ΘV to left and right of Mary, nimbate, seated facing on throne without back, holding beardless, nimbate head of Christ before her
Rev: ΜAΝϪΗΛ ΔЄCΠΟΤΗ (or similar); Manuel, crowned, wearing chlamys and divitision, standing facing, holding labarum and patriarchal cross on globe
Quant.Geek
Sear-1964.JPG
Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus (1143-1180) BI Aspron Trachy (Sear-1964)49 viewsObv: MP - ΘV to left and right of Mary, nimbate, seated facing on throne without back, holding beardless, nimbate head of Christ before her
Rev: ΜAΝϪΗΛ ΔЄCΠΟΤΗ (or similar); Manuel, crowned, wearing chlamys and divitision, standing facing, holding labarum and patriarchal cross on globe
SpongeBob
Canada2 nickel.jpg
Canada - 5 Cents151 viewsKm2 - Victoria - 1883
Km13 - Edward VII - 1904
Km29 - George V - 1929
Km33 - George VI - 1942
Km40a - George VI - 1944
Km42 - George VI - 1950 modified legend
Km48 - George VI - 1951 factory
Km50a - Elizabeth II - 1962
Km57 - Elizabeth II - 1964
Km66 - Elizabeth II - 1967 Centennial (rabbit)
Km60.1 - Elizabeth II - 1968
Km60.2 - Elizabeth II - 1979
Km60.2a - Elizabeth II - 1989
Km182 - Elizabeth II - 1995
Daniel F
287535629_9a8f426b72.jpg
Carradice Type I AR Siglos - Time of Darius I148 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire.
Time of Darius I. Circa 520-505 BC.
AR Siglos (12mm, 5.31g).
Half-length bust of Persian king right, holding bow and arrows / Incuse punch.
Carradice Type I (pl. XI, 10); BMC Arabia pl. XXVII, 25.
Ex Hesperia 1964. Rare. Fine+

Provenance: Harlan J Berk
Caffaro
64035p00_copy.jpg
Carthage, Second Punic War, c. 216 - 205 B.C.21 views
64035. Silver quarter shekel, Robinson NC 1964, p. 44, group I, 3; SNG Cop 348 -349; Alexandropoulos 78; HN Italy 2015, VF, scratches, 1.733g, 13.6mm, 45o, Carthage mint, c. 216 - 205 B.C.; obverse head of Tanit left, wreathed with grain, wearing necklace and earring, dot border; reverse horse standing right, dot border; ex Ancient Eagles;
MagisterRiggs
214.JPG
Cinquième République - Dupré - 10 francs - 1964 essai4 viewsArgent, 24,98 g
Av./ LIBERTE EGALITE FRATERNITE, Hercule nu avec la léonté debout de face, unissant la Liberté debout à gauche tenant une pique surmontée d'un bonnet phrygien et l'Egalité à droite, tenant le niveau ; signé Dupré cursif à l'exergue .
Rv./ REPUBLIQUE - FRANÇAISE// 10/ FRANCS/ 1964// ESSAI, dans une couronne composite.
Réfs : F-364.2
Gabalor
1481.jpg
CLAUDIUS II (Gothicus)48 viewsAE antoninianus. Rome,268-269 AD. 2nd emission. 3,27 grs. Radiate,draped,and cuirassed bust right. IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG. / Annona standing left,right foot on prow,holding grain ears and cornucopiae. ANNONA AVG.
RIC V (i) :18. Cunetio 1964, Normanby 638.
2 commentsbenito
Comoros.jpg
Comoros36 viewsKm4 - 1 Franc - 1964Daniel Friedman
LarryW2236tag.jpg
Counter tag, B. A. Seaby66 viewsAcquired AR drachm, reduced weight, Peloponnesos, Elis c. after 191 BC. Sent coin along with counter ticket to Mr. Sear.
"The ticket accompanying the Elis drachm was written by Col. Kozolubski of the Seaby Ancient Coin Department whose assitant I was from 1958 until his death in 1964. "The Colonel", as we called him in the Seaby office, undertook my numismatic education in the early days of my career ... He was co-author, with H. A. Seaby, of the 1959 edition of Greek Coins and Their Values..."
Lawrence Woolslayer
EB0862_scaled.JPG
EB0862 Probus / Concordia7 viewsProbus 276-282, AE Antoninianus, Ticinum mint, 276 AD.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: CONCORD AVG, Concordia standing right with two ensigns, facing Sol standing left with raised hand and globe. Mintmark SXXT.
References: RIC 323; Sear 11964.
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 3.365g.
EB
pjimage_(24).jpg
Elagabalus10 viewsAE22, Tripolis, Phoenicia
Dated local year 532, AD 220-221
Obverse: (AYT K M AVR ANTWNINOC), laureate head right.
Reverse: (TRIPOLITWN), Temple of Astarte, consisting of central arch and two wings with four columns; statue of Astarte under arch.
Exergue: [date]
References: BMC 120, Rouvier 1764; Babelon 1964; Mionnet V 456
Justin L
Elagabalus_RIC46.jpg
Elagabalus, 218–22 CE48 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 221 CE; 2.89g. BMCRE 256, RIC 46, RSC 196. Obv: IMP ANTONINVS – PIVS AVG; laureate bust, draped, seen from the front, with horn over forehead, bearded. Rx: PM TR P IIII COS III PP; Elagabalus, standing half-left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar, holding branch (cypress?) upwards in left hand; star or comet in field left.

Notes: Seventh issue (May 221 to end of the reign, March 222) of the reign of Elagabalus. High-relief portrait.

Provenance: Ex Münzen & Medaillen 37 (23 November 2012), lot 218; ex Münzen und Medaillen AG, Basel – Fixed Price List 243 (May 1964), lot 304.
1 commentsMichael K5
003~2.JPG
France - Gévaudan - Banassac - Monétaire Elafius (620-640)22 viewsTriens, or, 1,26 g.
A/ Tête diadémée à droite, le diadème se termine par deux rubans ; tranche de cou perlée ; un gros point sous le cou ; devant, une croix pâtée prolongée par un point aux deux extrémités, point du bas collé à la croix.
R/ ELAFIVS MONETAT, calice à deux anses surmonté d'une croix ; couronne de feuillage au pourtour.
Réfs : M. D'Amécourt et M. De Moret, p. 57, pl. II, n° 24 ; Belfort n° 672 ; Vente Trampitcsh n°10 ; Stahl, Fond Bourgey, p. 53, n°162 ; Vente Bourgey, 2 décembre 1964, lot n°10 (1,28 g) ; Un exemplaire trouvé à Villeneuve-lès-Magulonne (Hérault, France) ; Cahier E. B., p. 153, n° 34.337.3. ; Mirmand 2006, n° 65.
Gabalor
George_Bancroft_1964_HOF_Medal.JPG
George Bancroft, 1964 NYU Hall of Fame Medal14 viewsMatt Inglima
Indonesia_1_Sen.jpg
Indonesia21 views1 Sen (1964) Wor:P-90aDaniel F
Indonesia_5_Sen.jpg
Indonesia18 views5 Sen (1964) Wor:P-91aDaniel F
Indonesia_Ten_Sen.jpg
Indonesia27 views10 Sen (1964) Wor:P-92aDaniel F
Indonesia_Twenty_Five_Sen.jpg
Indonesia23 views25 Sen (1964) Wor:P-93aDaniel F
Domna_Ceres.JPG
Julia Domna130 viewsJULIA DOMNA, wife of Septimius Severus, 193-217
Sestertius, late 195-early 196. AE 18.89 g. IVLIA - AVGVSTA Draped bust r., the hair in a large bun on the back of the head. Rev. CE-RES / S - C Ceres, wearing long dress and veil, standing facing, head turned l., holding long torch with her l. hand, ears in her lowered r. hand over burning round altar. RIC 848

CERES is a comparatively common type on sestertii, so must fall before the drastic cutback in the production of sestertii early in 198, and indeed even before the preliminary cutback of sestertius production in mid-196.

Its date is beyond question late 195-early 196, since CERES is the type that appeared on Julia's New Year's issue of large bronze medallions and asses for 1 January 196. In the course of 196, after defeating Albinus on 19 Feb. 196 (not 197 as all the books say), Septimius cancelled the annual New Year's issues of medallions and asses, so that none at all were issued for 1 Jan. 197 or 198.

The misdating of Julia's CERES type to 198 that appears in various resources is due to P.V. Hill, whose work on the Severan coinage is largely mere guesswork and therefore often grossly mistaken. It is a shame that Hill's largely erroneous dates have now been taken over as fact and so given wide currency by David Sear in his new Roman Coins and Their Values!

I was able to establish the true chronology of the coinage of 193-8 in my Oxford thesis of 1972, which Hill couldn't of course consult for his first edition of 1964, and didn't consult for his second edition of 1977, though the Coin Room at the BM has a copy.

This CERES sestertius is no. 1761 in my die catalogue, obv. 453, rev. 661, other specimens in BM 764, Glasgow, Paris, and Naples.

Obv. die 453 is interesting, because it was used first with the CERES rev. die 661, like this coin; then with all five recorded MATRI CASTRORVM dies, this type coming from this obv. die only on sestertii; and finally with an early rev. die of the next normal type, HILARITAS.

HILARITAS of 196 was the last comparatively common sestertius rev. type of Julia's early coinage; then came the preliminary cutback, and the next three types, DIANA LVCIFERA, IVNO REGINA, and VESTAE SANCTAE, were considerably scarcer. Thereafter came the drastic cutback early in 198. (Curtis Clay)
3 commentsAuer
Lincoln_Kennedy.jpg
Lincoln Kennedy 196430 viewsU.S. penny stamped with the portrait of
John Kennedy facing Lincoln
18.5mm 3.07gm. Axis:180
v-drome
13654346_1153609411377850_51029221653443507hbbb98_n.jpg
LUXEMBOURG 1946 50 FRANCS SILVER UNC COIN11 viewsGrand Duchy – Charlotte (1919 – 1964)
Obv: PRINZ • JEAN • VU • LETZEBURG / • 50 F •, bare head left of Prince Jean, small arms at lower left and right

Rev: • JANG • DE • BLANNEN • mounted armored figure of John The Blind riding right, his sword drawn. Below: 26 – VIII – / 1346-1946, at lower right,
Antonivs Protti
lg_Manuel_I_virg.jpg
Manuel I35 viewsManuel I
Aspron Trachy 3.41g / - / -
- The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium, MP - OV
- Manuel standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriarchal cross
Mint:Constantinople (1160-1180)
References: Sear BCV (1987) No.1964, p.398
Scotvs Capitis
NC1.jpg
Manuel I Billion TrachyS-1964 DOC 12312 viewsVirgin Nimbate seated upon a throne without back holds nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full Length figure of emperor bearded wearing stemma divistion and chalmys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl cr. mounted with patriarchal cross.30mm
Nice example of a lesser seen trachy of Manuel
Simon
lg_trachy06.jpg
Manuel I Billon Aspron Trachy31 viewsManuel I
Billon Aspron Trachy 3.36g / 27.75mm / -
- The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium, MP - OV
- Manuel standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum w/ 3 points on shaft (officina B) and globe surmounted by Patriarchal cross
Mint: (1155-1156)
References: Sear BCV (1987) No.1964, p.398
Scotvs Capitis
sear_1964_varb_2.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus billion aspron trachy SB196456 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
22mm 4.44gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_1964_varb.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus billion aspron trachy SB196428 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
22mm 5.29gm
wileyc
sear_1964_varA.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus billion aspron trachy SB196434 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (variation A, no dots on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation A
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 var A, DO 15.5-10

26mm 4.45gm
wileyc
sear_1964_var_A.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus billion aspron trachy SB196426 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (variation A, no dots on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation A
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
22mm 3.56gm
wileyc
sb_1964b.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus billion aspron trachy SB196417 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
28mm 3.38 gm
wileyc
sb_1964a.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus billion aspron trachy SB196420 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
28mm 4.56 gm
wileyc
Manuel_I,_SBCV_1964.JPG
Manuel I, SBCV 196420 viewsNimbate Virgin enthroned with nimbate head of infant Christ, MHP / ΘV to sides
MANγHΛ ΔECΠOTHC
Crowned figure of Manuel facing, wearing chlamys, holding labarum and globus cruciger
Constantinople
Billon aspron trachy, 34mm, 4.4g
novacystis
Manuel_I_Comnenus,_1143-1180.jpg
Manuel I. 1143-1180 AD, Constantinople. Billon Aspron Trachy.27 viewsMP-QV to left and right of Mary, nimbate, seated facing on throne without back, holding beardless, nimbate head of Christ before her / MANOVHL DECPOTHC (or similar), Manuel, crowned, wearing chlamys and divitision, standing facing, holding labarum and patriarchal cross on globe. SB 1964, BMC 56-57; DO 12b.11.
3,05g., 27mm. Superbe
_2234
Antonivs Protti
11134998883_870c6373e8_o.jpg
Manuel Ier sb 196410 viewsSégusiaves
nikopolis_elagabal_HrHJ(2017)8_26_35_13.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 26. Elagabal, HrHJ (2018) 8.26.35.136 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 26, 11.99g, 26.36mm, 0°
struck under governor Novius Rufus
obv. AVT K M AVRH - ANTWNEINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. VP NOBIOV ROV - FOV NIKOPOLITWN / PROC IC (WN ligate)
Unknown female deity, in long garment and mantle, stg. frontal, looking l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and in
extended r. hand patera; at her feet a wheel
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1964, pl. XVIII, 30 (3 ex., London, München, Paris)
b) Varbanov 3899
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.26.35.13 (same dies)
F+, dark green Patina

Pick writes: A safe denomination of this figure that connects attributes of Concordia with the wheel of Nemesis is not possible.
It is a syncretistic deity. Why not call her Homonoia-Nemesis as we do with Nemesis-Aequitas?
Jochen
216_P_Hadrian__BMC.jpg
MYSIA, Pergamon AE 16 Pseudo-autonomous AD 40-6017 viewsReference.
RPC I, 2377; Cf. SNG France 1964-2000 (no star)

Obv. ΘEON CΥN-KΛHTON
draped bust of the Senate right, star in front

Rev. ΘEAN ΡΩ-MHN
turreted and draped bust of Rome right, star in front

3.4 gr
16 mm

extra.
Pergamon, Mysia, c. 1st - early 2nd Century A.D.
Interesting autonomous series which does not bear the name of the issuing city., However a large hoard of these coins was found near Pergamon in 1827.
okidoki
MysiaPergSenateRoma.jpg
Mysia, Pergamum. Pseudo-autonomous issue. Defaced.31 viewsMYSIA, Pergamum. Pseudo-autonomous issue. Circa AD 40-60. Æ 20mm, 3.4g
O: Turreted and draped bust of Roma right; ΘЄAN PΩMHN. / Draped bust of Senate right; ΘЄΩΝ ϹVNKΛHTON
- RPC I 2374; SNG France 1964-71.
Nemonater
1964.jpg
nicaea007a2 viewsElagabalus
Nicaea, Bithynia

Obv: Μ ΑΥΡ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟϹ ΑΥΓ, laureate head right, slight drapery.
Rev: in exergue NIKAIE/ΩN, hexastyle temple seen in perspective, right, with globe in pediment.
22 mm, 5.08 gms

RPC Online 3115; RecGen---
Charles M
4995_4996.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, PROVIDEN DEOR, (Star), KAB27 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 276AD
22.5 x 21.5mm 3.40gr
O: BONO IMP C PROBO PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: PROVIDEN DEOR; Providentia standing right on left, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol to right, raising hand and holding globe.
Exergue: (Star), above line; KAB, below line.
Serdica Mint
RIC V-2, Serdica, 850 var. (mintmark)
Aorta: 1964: B87, O12, R112, T111, M5.
okta2000-2013 272745385924
7/12/17 7/24/17
Featured on Wildwinds, July, 2017.
2 commentsNicholas Z
DSC05477.JPG
Queen Elizabeth II Gold Sovereign1038 views1964
Obv. Right Facing Queen Elizabeth, REGINA:\ F.D.:ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA
Rev. St. George on horseback slaying dragon
CGPCGP
0790-321-2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, ARCADUS AE4, RIC 18b95 viewsHeraclea mint, 1st officina, c. AD 383
DN ARCADIVS PF AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VOT / V within wreath, SMHA at exergue
1.27g, 14mm, 12h
Ref : RIC IX # 18b, LRBC II # 1964
4 commentsPotator II
4303550l.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Sextus Pompey, AR Denarius30 viewsRome, The Imperators.
Sextus Pompey, 42-36 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.49g; 20mm).
Sicilian mint, 42-40 BCE.

Obverse: MAG PIVS IMP ITER; Pharos of Messina with two windows and a balcony, surmounted by statue of Neptune wearing helmet and holding trident and resting foot on prow; galley with aquila passing before.

Rev: PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C; the monster, Scylla, her body terminating in two fish-tails and the foreparts of three dogs, facing left and wielding a rudder with two hands.

References: Crawford 511/4a; HCRI 335; Sydenham 1348; BMCRR (Sicily) 18-19; Banti 8/3 (this coin illustrated); Pompeia 22.

Provenance: Ex Kuenker Auction 312 (8 Oct 2018), Lot 2712; Walter Niggeler (d. 1964) Collection [Leu/Muenzen und Medaillen (21-22 Oct 1966), Lot 964].

Sextus Pompey was younger son of Pompey the Great. After Caesar's assassination, in 43 BCE, he was honored by the Senate with the title "Commander of the Fleet and Sea Coasts" (Praefectus classis et orae maritimae). Shortly following this honor, the Second Triumvirate was formed and placed Sextus' name on their proscription list. Sextus soon occupied Sicily where he provided haven to other Romans proscribed by the Triumvirs. He retained control of Sicily from 42 to 36 BCE. In 42 BCE, Octavian sent Salvidienus Rufus to dislodge Sextus, but Rufus was defeated. It was likely between this defeat of Rufus and the Pact of Misenum with the Triumvirs (39 BCE) that Sextus struck much of his coinage, including this type. The rough seas around Sicily were beneficial to Sextus and particularly rough on his enemies, thus Neptune and the marine monster Scylla, destroyer of ships, are prominently displayed on this coin.
3 commentsCarausius
Saladin (Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub).jpg
Salah ad-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub74 viewsHis name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.

His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Sear_1964.jpg
Sear 196458 viewsManuel I Comnenus (1143 – 1180 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.8g, diameter 27mm. Abu Galyon
Sierra_Leone.jpg
Sierra Leone43 viewsKm16 - 1/2 Cent - 1964
Km17 - 1 Cent - 1964
Km18 - 5 Cents - 1964
Km19 - 10 Cents - 1964
Km20 - 20 Cents - 1964

Sir Milton Margai
Daniel Friedman
Stephen_Foster_HOF_Medal.JPG
Stephen Collins Foster, 1964 NYU Hall of Fame Medal15 viewsObv: STEPHEN COLLINS FOSTER, bust of Stephen Foster, musical notations in field behind, 1826 - 1864.

Rev: Man playing banjo leaning against tree, in the distance are folk dancers on a riverbank, a log cabin, and a paddle-wheel riverboat beyond. THE HALL OF FAME FOR GREAT AMERICANS AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY in field.

Designer: Walker Hancock, Mint: Medallic Art Company

Bronze, 44.5 mm
Matt Inglima
E3B927D1-802B-4D4D-BD54-AAE17F71964A.jpeg
Syria, Coelesyria, Damascus8 views
COELESYRIA, Damascus. Philip II. AD 247-249. Æ. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / Turreted and draped bust of Tyche right within tetrastyle temple; below, ram’s head right. De Saulcy 2;
ecoli
gabala_Lindgren1186.jpg
Syria, Seleukis and Pieria, Gabala, Commodus, Lindgren 1186220 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 25, 12.18g
obv. AYT KAI - [KOMMODOC] (from upper r.)
Head, laureate, l.
rev. [...]AN[...]
City goddess (Tyche), in long garment and wearing kalathos, stg. frontal on piedestal, holding
bipennis in raised r. hand and shield in l. hand; at both side of base protome of a horse looking
outwards; on the r. side Tyche in long garment and with mural crown std. l. on throne, holding
rudder in l. hand.
H. Seyrig 'Cultes de Gabala, in RN (1964), p.22-27' cites 2 ex. in ANS and 2 ex. in Paris; Lindgren 1186
Very rare, VF, sandy brown patina
Pedigree:
ex coll J. Wagner
ex CNG Electronic Auction 201, lot 290

The attribution of the l. figure is difficult. Here are some suggestions:
CNG: deity
ANS: male figure with bipennis and sceptre
HN: Veiled cultus-statue of aSyrian goddess (Astarte or Aphrodite, accompanied by 2 sphinxes)
Imhoof-Blumer: Astarte or Aphrodite
R. Dussaud: Venus
S. Ronzevalle: flanked by 2 lions, Paredros of Jupiter Heliopolitanus (Atargatis)
H. Seyrig: hypothetical Astarte
Because of the horses I tend to Astarte
Jochen
Vietnam.jpg
Viet Nam - South Vietnam40 viewsKM7 - 1 Dong - 1964
KM8 - 10 Dong - 1964
Daniel F
West African States.jpg
West African States46 viewsKm3.1 - 1 Franc - 1967
Km2a - 5 Francs - 1970
Km1 - 10 Francs - 1964
Km4 - 100 Francs - 1971
Daniel F
Yemen.jpg
Yemen45 viewsKm835 - 1 Fils - 1964 (South Arabia)
Km6 - 50 Fils - 1977 (People's Dem. Rep. of Yemen)
Daniel Friedman
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.168 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


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