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Karoly-Robert_(1308_AD)_Denar_U-356_C2-033_H-449_S-C_Q-001_3h_11,5mm_0,38g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-356, #01104 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-356, #01
avers: Emperor faceing, crowned head with curly hair, facing, small circle both side of the crown, mint-mark on each side (S-C), circle of dots.
reverse: Four-part Anjou-Hungarian shield, two dots both side, line border.
exergue, mint mark: S/C//--, diameter: 11,5mm, weight: 0,38g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, Zagreb (by Pohl), date: before 1308 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-356, CNH-2-033, Huszár-449, Pohl-06,
Q-001
quadrans
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
147_P_Hadrian__BMC_23.jpg
2541 PHRYGIA, Ancyra Sabina Ae 18 † 136 AD Cult statue of Artemis26 viewsReference. Rare
RPC III, 2541; BMC 23-24; SGICV 1308; Lindgren 885

Obv. CEBACTH CABEINA
Draped bust of Sabina, r.

Rev. ANKYPANΩN
Cult statue of Artemis Ephesia with supports flanked by two stags

4.76 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
1308_P_Hadrian_RPC3146A.jpg
3146A CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 117-18 AD Club in wreath18 viewsReference.
RPC III 3146A

Issue Year 2

Obv.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ET B
Club in wreath

2.16 gr
13 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
10994q00.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius, DIVO PIO88 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, gF, Rome mint, 162 A.D.
21.172g, 31.88mm, 0°
Obv.: DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right, drapery on left shoulder
Rev.: DIVO PIO, square altar with closed doors, S - C

RIC M. Aur. 1273, S 1308

ex FORVM
areich
ANTOSEh8.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 636, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Salus)15 viewsĆ Sestertius (20,09g, Ř 31mm, 11h). Rome, AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head left.
Rev.: SALVS AVG around, S | C, Salus standing left, feeding snake arising from altar out of patera and holding rudder on globe.
RIC 636 (C); BMC 1308; Cohen 715; Strack 855; Banti 347 (4 spec.)
Ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 20, August, 2015.
Charles S
albrecht i L-93a.jpg
AUSTRIA - ALBRECHT I116 viewsAUSTRIA - ALBRECHT I (1282-1308) AR pfennig. Vienna mint. Obv.: Cross made of 4 Lis. Annulet in each angle. Rev.: Weak strike, 6-pointed star. Reference: Luschin 93a.
dpaul7
MISC_Austria_Frederick_III_L_159.JPG
Austria. Frederich the Handsome, Duke of Austria and Styria (1308-1330). 28 viewsLuschin/Szego 159.

AR Pfennig, Wiener Neustadt mint, 15-16 mm.

Obv: Austrian shield inside six-petalled rose.

Rev: Shield of Austria between two panthers.

“Until the 12th century, coins were needed above all for exports; daily transactions were generally barter transactions. As the economy began to operate increasingly on the principle of the division of labor and as cities began to grow, money started to acquire more and more importance for regional trade. Municipal records show that even in Austria under Babenberg rule, money payments to feudal lords began to replace payments in kind. The growing monetarization of society ushered in a new phase in the history of coins. Monetary systems became regionalized. The denar, formerly used for external trade and exports, was replaced by the regional pfennig. New monetary borders came into existence, within which the rulers with coinage rights tried to enforce the compulsory, exclusive use of their own coins. Under Babenberg rule, the Vienna pfennig was accorded the role of regional money used in Austria. The Vienna pfennig came into its own when the mint was moved from Krems to Vienna at the end of the 12th century. It served as a means of payment for daily monetary transactions and remained a monetary unit even when large foreign coins were used to settle the growing volume of trade transactions – gold coins such as the Venetian or Florentine ducat and large silver coins like the Prague groschen. In the course of the 14th century, it became established as a currency in nearly the entire area covered by modern-day Austria, with the exception of Tyrol and Vorarlberg.” (“Money and Trade during the Era of the Silver Pfennig.” Oesterreichische Nationalbank

“It is assumed that most of the 13th and 14th century reverses are not legible at all. This is entirely normal as the obverses were usually struck after the reverses.” (Szego, at 52).

Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314 (antiking until 1325) as Frederick III until his death.
Stkp
Caria_Kos_SNG-Cop627.jpg
Carian Islands, Kos12 viewsKos 300-190 BC.  AR Tetradrachm (14.55 gm). Head of Herakles r., wearing lionskin headdress / Crab, bow in bow case below. KΩION above, ΛEΩΔAMAΣ (magistrate) below, all within square with dotted border. aEF.  Pegasi Auction VI (2002) #177. SNG Cop. 627; SNG Delepierre 2729; SNG Berry 1116; HGC 6 #1308 (S); Ingvaldsen XIV 284, 52c (same dies); Requier 44a (same reverse die). 1 commentsChristian T
ARM_Oshin_takvorin_Bedoukian_1880_var.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Oshin (1308-1320)12 viewsNercessian 441, Bedoukian 1880 var.

AR takvoran, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 2.46 g., 20.65 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: King on horseback riding right, holding reigns with his left hand, and with his right a mace extending over his shoulder, + ԱՒՇԻՆ ԹԱԳ[ԱՒՈՐ] ՀԱՅՈ (= Avshin Takavor Hay = Oshin King of the Armenians), field mark retrograde Յ behind king, pellet beneath horse.

Rev. Lion walking right and facing right, behind him a cross with one arm, + ՇԻՆԵ[ԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂ]ԱՔՆ ՍԻ [ՍԻ ligate], (= Shineal I Kaghakn Sis = Struck in the City of Sis), pellet behind lion.
Stkp
ARM_Oshin_pogh_Bedoukian_1936aff.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Oshin (1308-1320)9 viewsNercessian 448-449, Bedoukian 1936a ff.

AE pogh, Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint, 1.55 g., 17.74 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: King seated on bench-like thrown, holding cross in right hand and fleur de lis in left hand, [+ ԱՒՇԻՆ ԹԱԳ]Ա[ՒՈՐ Հ]ԱՅ(= Avshin Takavor Hay = Oshin King of the Armenians).

Rev. Ornate cross with spokes between arms, + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱ[Ղ]ԱՔՆ ՍԻՍ] (= Shineal I Kaghakn Sis = Struck in the City of Sis).
Stkp
284482.jpg
Cilician Armenia: Oshin (1308-1320) Takvorin (Nercessian-441, Bedoukian-1863)40 viewsObv: Equestrian king to right, crowned, and holding staff. Letter Յ next to horses head and dot behind king. Armenian Legend around - +ԱՒՇԻՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՑ (Oshin, King of Armenians)
Rev: Lion standing left with cross behind. Armenian Legend around - +ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՆ ՍԻ (Struck in the city of Sis)
SpongeBob
CivilWarRIC12.jpg
Civil Wars RIC 12172 viewsCivil Wars 68-69 CE. AR Denarius (17.50 mm, 3.39 g). Spanish mint, April-June 68 CE.
O: BONI EVENTVS, Female bust right, wearing fillet; hair rolled and looped above neck
R: VICTORIA P R, Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left
- BMCRE I 292 Note + Taf 50.2; P.-H. Martin, the anonymous coins of the year 68 AD (1974) 82 # 99 PL 9; E. P. Nicolas, De Néron ŕ Vespasien (1979) 1308 No. 31; 1435 f 1456 # 107 Taf 14.107 B; RIC I˛ Nr. 12 (Spain, 68 n. Chr.) R5 (Group I). Evidently the second known. The above references are all to one example found in Münzkabinett Berlin.

Likely struck by Galba in Spain between April 6 and early June, 68 AD, that is, between the dates of his acceptance of the offer from Vindex and of his receiving news of his recognition by the Senate.

The civil wars at the end of Nero’s reign began with the revolt of the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gaius Julius Vindex, probably around the beginning of March of AD 68. Vindex had claimed that he had a force of 100,000 men, and a substantial coinage was certainly needed to pay them.

Vindex offered the leadership of the revolt to Servius Sulpicius Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who was hailed imperator by the Spanish legions at Carthago Nova in April of the same year. The title was cautiously refused, but Galba did declare himself the legatus of the senate and people of Rome. Just a month later, Galba’s confidence would be shaken by the crushing defeat of Vindex near Besançon by the general Lucius Verginius Rufus, governor of Germania Superior. By 9 June Nero was dead, having taken his own life. Galba began his march to Rome, and his brief reign was underway.

Without an emperor to strike in the name of (save for that in honor of the “model emperor” of Roman history, Augustus) the coinage was struck with messages suiting the political climate. The coinage under Vindex possesses a more aggressive air that underscores the militant nature of his revolt, while Galba’s tends to be more constitutional and optimistic in tone. Originally struck in large numbers, as indicated by the number of types employed, the coins of the civil wars are all rare today, having been recalled after the final victory of Vespasian in 69 AD.
5 commentsNemonater
DUCHY ATHENS 1.jpg
CRUSADER - Duchy of Athens view #170 viewsDuchy of Athens, anonymous; made during reign of William I (1280-1287) or Guy II (1287-1308). Billon Denier.
Obv: Castle Tournois, "+DVX ATENES"
Rev.: Cross, "+THBANE CIVIS"
Thebes mint. Similar to Metcalfe 1040-1048, variety A4

This view is with no lighting effects. The condition is not the best!
Thanks (again!) to Manzikert for identification!
dpaul7
DUCHY ATHENS 2.jpg
CRUSADER - Duchy of Athens view #260 viewsDuchy of Athens, anonymous; made during reign of William I (1280-1287) or Guy II (1287-1308). Billon Denier.
Obv: Castle Tournois, "+DVX ATENES"
Rev.: Cross, "+THBANE CIVIS"
Thebes mint. Similar to Metcalfe 1040-1048, variety A4.

This view is with lighting effects to show the coin better. The condition is not the best!
Thanks (again!) to Manzikert for identification!
dpaul7
Athens_Gui_II_de_la_Roche.jpg
Crusaders, Athens, Frankish Greece, Guy I de La Roche, 1287-1308 Billon denier tournois 46 viewsCrusaders, Athens, Frankish Greece, Guy I de La Roche, 1287-1308 Billon denier tournois
20 mm 0.75 g.
Reverse : + . ThEBAHICIVIS. castle tournois , star below .
Obverse : + GVIDVXATENES , cross pattée
Metcalf 1077 type 2 . CCS 95 .
Ex Jacobowitz
Vladislav D
Crusaders,_Athens,_Guy_II__of_La_Roche_(1287_-_1308),_GVI_DVX_ATENES,_ThEBANI_CIVIS,_Q-001,11h,_17-18,5mm,_0,68g-s.jpg
Crusaders, Athens, Guy II. de la Roche, (1287-1308), AR-denar, Athens, ᵞ✠ᵞThЄBΛNI:CIVIS, Châtel tournois, #1117 viewsCrusaders, Athens, Guy II. de la Roche, (1287-1308), AR-denar, Athens, ᵞ✠ᵞThЄBΛNI:CIVIS, Châtel tournois, #1
avers: :✠:GVI•DVX•ΛTЄNЄS, Cross pattée.
reverse: ᵞ✠ᵞThЄBΛNI:CIVIS, Châtel tournois.
diameter: 17,0-18,5mm, weight: 0,68g, axis: 11h,
mint: Athens, mint mark: ,
date:1287-1308 A.D., ref: Metcalf, Crusades, Malloy CCS 94var.,
Q-001
"Guy II de la Roche (1280 – 5 October 1308) was the Duke of Athens from 1287, the last duke of his family. He succeeded as a
minor on the death of his father, William I, at a time when the duchy of Athens had exceeded the Principality of Achaea in wealth,
power, and importance."
quadrans
crusaders_GuyIIathens_18mm_70g.jpg
Denier - Guy II de La Roche 1294-1308 AD19 viewsObverse
Cross
Lettering: GVI DVX ATENES
Translation: Grand Duke of Athens

Reverse
Castle Tournois
Lettering: THEBANI CIVIS
Translation: City of Thebes

18mm
.70g

Metcalf 1078
wileyc
CCS-93.jpg
Duchy of Athens: Guy II de la Roche (1287-1308) BI Denier Tournois, Athens (CCS 93)4 viewsObv: ✠ ❜CVI•DVX✿ATNS❜, or various other stop marks; Cross pattée
Rev: ThBANI✿CIVIS, or variation; Castle tournois
Dim: 20 mm, 0.88 g

Requires MUFI-compatible fonts for proper rendering of legends
Quant.Geek
086n.jpg
Eagle190 viewsPHRYGIA. Ancyra. Sabina. Ć 20. A.D. 117-137. Obv: CA(BEINA)-CEBACTH. Draped bust right, elaborate hairdo; countermark on head. Rev: ANKYP-ANΩN.Cult-Statue of Ephesian Artemis facing, flanked by two stags. Ref: BMC 23-24; Sear GIC 1308. Axis: 180°. Weight: 3.18 g. CM: Eagle standing, head left, wings spread, E.C.H between wings and legs, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego -. Collection Automan.Automan
1308.jpg
emmett2952.43 viewsElagabalus
Alexandria, Egypt

Obv: A KAICAP MA AVP ANTWNINOC, laureate head right.
Rev: L-Δ, bust of Serapis right.
22 mm, 11.76 gms

Emmett 2952.4
Charles M
HUN_Karoly_Robert_Huszar_449.jpg
Huszár 449, Pohl 6, Unger 356, Réthy II 33, Frynas H.24.811 viewsHungary. Charles Robert/Károly Róbert (1307-1342).
AR denar (nominal weight .50 g.), .38 g., 11.58 mm. max., 0°.
Obv: Crowned head facing, annulets flanking above, S-C flanking below.

Rev: Shield with Angevin fleur-de-lis and Árpádian stripes, pellets flanking.

Issued in 1301 in Zagreb (per Pohl; after his provisional coronation), or in 1307-1310? (per Huszár and Frynas) or in 1308? (per Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity R1, Unger rarity R, Frynas rarity R.
Stkp
IMGP1308tdr_combo.jpg
Interregnal Issue (Bagasis?), 126 BC,128 viewsAR tdr., 15.88gr, 29,4mm; Sellwood 18.1, Shore --, Sunrise 273 (Artabanos II., 127-126BC);
mint: Seleukia, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, right, w/diadem, knot and 3 ribbons; short hair, longer in neck, long beard; no jewelry visible; reel-and-pellet border 11 to 19h;
rev.: Demeter (?), seated, cornucopia in right arm, on outstretched left arm winged goddess (Nike?) offering diadem, rear leg of seat represented by kneeling winged figure; 2-line legend in 1+1 format: BAΣIΛEΩΣ APΣAKOY; exergual line;

ex: CNG 64
4 commentsSchatz
lverus.jpg
Lucius Verus Sestertius29 views IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare head right.

CONCORD AVGVSTOR TRP II, Verus and Aurelius standing with clasped hands. COS II in ex.

RIC 1308
1 commentsWill Hooton
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrJ(2011)8_14_21_4var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.14.15 (plate coin)13 viewsSeptimius Severus,AD 193-211
AE 28, 10.01g, 28.07mm, 180°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. AV.K.L.CEP. - CEVHROC P (HR ligate)
laureate head r.
rev. VP AV GALL - NIKOPOLI / PROC I
Herakles, nude,lion's skin over l. arm,stg. r.,resting with r. hand on club and holding in extended l. hand apples
ref. a) AMNG I/1,1308 var. (has in l. hand bow)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2595 var. (= AMNG 1308)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.14.15 (plate coin)
S, dark green patina, corroded
Jochen
1308~0.jpg
MPR 175 new photo17 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: I11 = radiate, cuirassed bust left with parazonium lying on left shoulder and Victory in right hand
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: Rζ
WEIGHT 3.60g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 21mm
RIC: 161 VAR.
J.Guillemain, MPR: 175 1 EX. (THIS SPECIMEN)
S.Estiot, Ph.Gysen RN 2006: 3 ex.
Collection no. 1308

Extremely rare and desirable bust type! The most spectacular bust type ever struck in Rome under Probus!

ONLY THIRD SPECIMEN OF THIS TYPE KNOWN TO ME ASSUMING THE THREE EXAMPLES CITED BY ESTIOT/GYSEN IN RN 2006 INCLUDE THIS SPECIMEN AS WELL AS THE REMAINING TWO WHICH I KNOW, I.E. TRITON IV LOT 672 AND HELIOS AUCTION 3)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection = Ex Lanz 74 (1995)
Barnaba6
oshin.jpg
Oshin, 1308-1320 AD, Sis44 viewsCoin: AR Takvorin

Obverse: +ԱՒՇԻՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՑ (Oshin King Of The Armenians), Oshin, crowned, on horseback riding right, holding a Sceptre with his right hand. Letter Տ next to horses head and Ա behind king
Reverse: +ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՆ Ս (Minted In The City Of Sis), Royal Lion standing right with Patriarchal Cross, ● in upper left field.

Weight: 2.29 g
Diametre: 20.5 x 19 mm
Die axis: 220°
Mint: Sis

Purchased from an Armenian seller of Armenian coins on eBay, 2007
Masis
MISC_Ottoman_Mehmet_II_akce_Album_1308_3.JPG
Ottoman Empire. Mehmet II el-Fatih (“the Conqueror”) (2nd reign; 855-886 A.H. = 1451-1481 A.D.)76 viewsAlbum 1308.3, Sreckovic III 134, Sultan type 3-180.

AR akche dated 875 A.H. = 1470/71 A.D., Constantinople (Konstantiniye) mint, 11-12 mm.

Obv: Mehmed bin / Murad han / azze nasruhu / 875 (= Mehmed son of / Lord Murad / may his victory be glorious / 875), pellet in field, all within a circle.

Rev: khallada / mulkahu duriba be / Konstantiniye (may his kingdom / flourish, struck in / Constantinople), within a circle.
Stkp
1308_Prokonnesos.JPG
Prokonnesos - AE8 viewsc. 340-330 BC
female head right (Aphrodite?) wearing laurel and sakkos
oinochoe right
ΠPO__KON
SNG v. Aulock 1438; SNG France 2424-9; SNG Copenhagen 558.
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
CassiusTripod.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Cassius, AR Denarius - Crawford 500/133 viewsRome, The Imperators.
C. Cassius Longinus. 44-42 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.38g; 20mm).
Military Mint in Smyrna.

Obverse: C. CASSI – IMP; tripod with cauldron and laurel fillets.

Reverse: LENTVLVS SPINT; jug and lituus.

References: Crawford 500/1; HCRI 219; Sydenham 1308; BMCRR (East) 79; Cassia 14.

Provenance: Nomisma 59 (14 May 2019) Lot 121; P&P Santamaria (4 May 1961) Lot 168.

This coin was struck for Cassius, one of the chief assassins of Julius Caesar, when Brutus and Cassius met in Smyrna, circa early 42 BCE. The tripod obverse type was borrowed from a slightly earlier Aureus produced for Cassius by his legate, M. Aquinus. The tripod may reference Cassius’ membership in one of the sacred colleges. Cassius was elected to the augurate in 57 BCE, to which the implements on the reverse of this coin certainly allude. The coin was produced on Cassius’ behalf by P. Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, who also produced coins for Brutus at the same time. For more information on Spinther, see my example of his Brutus denarius at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-145289

Until the discovery of a large, mint-state, hoard in the early 2000’s, this was one of the rarest types in the Roman Republican series. While recent hoard examples of the type are scarce, old provenanced examples, like this, remain extremely rare.
2 commentsCarausius
LOUIS_XIV_Louvre.JPG
Struck c.1667, Louis XIV and Marie-Thérčse, AE (Copper) Jeton3 viewsObverse: +LVD•XIIII•ET•MAR•THER•D•G•FRA•ET•NAV•REX•ET•REG. Busts of Louis XIV and Marie Therese facing one another. To the left, draped and laureate bust of Louis XVI facing right. To the right, draped bust of Marie Therese facing left, small crown on the back of her head.
Reverse: MAIESTATI•AC•AETERNIT•GALL•IMPERII•SACRVM+. Front view of the new Louvre Palace in Paris.

Struck at indeterminate mint, possibly Lisse, Netherlands
Engraved by Jean Varin or faithfully copied from his dies
Diameter: 27.5mm | Weight: 5.7gms | Die Axis: 6
Ref. Feuardent: 13082

The site of the Louvre was originally a fortress, built in the middle ages by King Philippe-Auguste (1165-1223). Between 1364 and 1380, Charles V (1338-1380) undertook work on this building to transform it into a castle, turning the old fort into a comfortable residence.
François I (1494-1547), known as the sovereign of the Renaissance, demolished the castle begun by Charles V and rebuilt it as the Louvre Palace and Catherine de Medici (1519-1589) had the Tuileries Palace built alongside.
Then King Henri IV (1553-1610), began further modernisations and had a large gallery built between the Louvre Palace and Tuileries Palace to facilitate movement between the seat of power and his apartments. The modernisation work begun by Henri IV was not completed until the reign of Louis XIV, and it is this that is commemorated on this jeton. It was Louis XIV who, before moving on to his work at Versailles, entrusted the development of the gardens to André Le Nôtre. But when the court of the Sun King moved to his new Palace of Versailles the Louvre Palace became somewhat run down and was occupied by a variety of intellectuals and artists who took up residence there.
*Alex
Taras_Diobol_2.JPG
Taras, Calabria64 views325-280 BC
AR Diobol (12mm, 1.02g)
O: Head of Athena right, wearing crested Attic helmet decorated with Skylla.
R: Herakles kneeling right, strangling the Nemean lion; club behind.
cf Vlasto 1308-9; HN Italy 976; Sear 351v
ex Jencek Historical Enterprise



Enodia
20170924_130814.png
Trajan AR Denarius, 101-102 AD.17 viewsObv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right
Rev: P M TRP COS IIII P P, Abundantia seated left, holding sceptre, on chair with crossed cornucopiae as arms, fold of drapery over lap.
References:RIC II, 54 (Cohen 237).
Canaan
VespVictoryDen.jpg
Vespasian / Victory on Globe 63 viewsAR Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint, 69-70 AD
O: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Laureate head left.
R: VICTORIA IMP VESPASIANI; Victory standing left on globe, with wreath and palm
- RIC 1340 (R), BMC 362, RSC 630

A very pleasing dark chocolate patina with bronze highlights. A nice compliment to my Civil Wars denarius with the same Victory on globe reverse. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-130882
3 commentsNemonater
V___obv.JPG
Vespasian-RIC-1312 (?)172 viewsAR Denarius, 2.98g
Tarraco (?) mint, 70 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: COS ITER TR POT; Pax stg. l., with branch and caduceus
RIC 1312 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

A mystery coin if ever there was one. The portrait style suggests a provincial mint. Harry Sneh thinks it could be Tarraco. Ian Carradice believes it is provincial also, but acknowledges Rome had a widely variable portrait style early on and without a die link it remains uncertain where this coin was minted. I too think it is a bit unusual for Rome and so have tentatively assigned it to Tarraco. The obverse style is very much like that on the RIC 1308 plate coin from Tarraco. The Rome example of the type is RIC 29 for comparison.

Admittedly not the prettiest coin but certainly interesting for a Flavian collector!
5 commentsDavid Atherton
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