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Search results - "11.07"
11079.jpg
19 viewsIf anything wrong with this, please let me knowjohnwcdc
image01107.jpg
14 views1 commentsSpongeBob
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne-1433v_D-1851v_,_Alexandria,_L_IH_Year-18_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Osiris and Isis,66 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, Egypt, Alexandria, L I H, Osiris and Isis,
avers:- AΥT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L I H, Canopic jars of Osiris and Isis within shrine, uraeus crown in pediment.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: 133-134 A.D., Year (IH)18., ref: Geissen-1107-1108, Dattari-1661-1662, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.590-p-144, BMC -,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
037_Marcus_Aurelius_(139-161_A_D__as_Caesar,_161-180_A_D__as_Augustus),_AE-As,_RIC_III_1106,_Rome,_MARTI_VICTORI_IMP_VI_COS_III,_axis-h_mm_21,xxg-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1107, Rome, AE-As, MARTI VICTORI IMP VI COS III, Mars standing right,314 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1107, Rome, AE-As, MARTI VICTORI IMP VI COS III, Mars standing right,
avers:- M-ANTONINVS-AVG-TR-P-XXVIII, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- MARTI-VICTORI-IMP-VI-COS-III, Mars standing right, helmeted & half draped, resting upon head of a captive left a shield inscribed S C, spear in right hand.
exerg: -/-//S-C, diameter: 24-26mm, weight: 8,96g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date:173-74 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1107, p-301, Cohen 433, Sear-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Leopoldus-I-Denar_a-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #0170 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- LEOPDGRISAGHBREX, Hungarian shield in circle, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- PATRONAHVNGA1683, Madonna seated facing on crescent in sunburst in circle, holding infant Jesus in her left, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, Krmcbnya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1683 A.D., ref: Unger-1107a, CNH-, Huszar-1503/1683,
Q-001
quadrans
053_Geta_(209-211_A_D_),_AE-17,_Markianopolis,_Moesia,_Varbanov_1107,_Eagle_standing_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.22.01.04, AE-17, Eagle standing right, #164 views053p Geta (209-211 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Hristova-Jekov (2014) 06.22.01.04, AE-17, Eagle standing right, #1
avers: Λ;-CEΠ-ΓETAC, Bust of younger Geta, draped and cuirassed(?), bare-headed, right.
reverse: MARKIANOΠOLITΩN, Eagle with closed wings standing right on staff, head with wreath in beaks left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: Geta as Caesar, 198-209 A.D.,
ref: a) AMNG I/1, 697 (1 Ex., Wien)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1105 corr. (cites AMNG 697, but writes head r.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2012) No. 6.22.1.4 (same dies)
d) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201163 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
BOTLAUREL_2014.JPG
201454 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
24g-Constantine-Nic-153.jpg
24g. Constantine: Nicomedia.15 viewsAE3, 328 - 329, Nicomedia mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG / Camp gate with two turrets, star above.
Mint mark: SMNS
2.63 gm., 17.5 mm.
RIC #153; LRBC #1107; Sear #16260.
Callimachus
1297_P_Hadrian_RPC3803_5.jpg
3803 SYRIA Laodicea ad Mare. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Tyche32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3803.5; Prieur 1107; Adra 1555-7

Issue Year 168

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙϹΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟϹ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹΤ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΙΟΥΛΙΕⲰΝ ΤⲰΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕⲰΝ
Turreted and draped bust of Tyche, r.; in field, r., ΗΞΡ

13.55 gr
25.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection, purchased privately from Joselito Eechtout, May 2013.
3 commentsokidoki
769Hadrian_RIC538b.jpg
538 Hadrian Dupondius 117 AD Concordia139 viewsReference.
RIC 538b; C. 260; BMC 1107; Strack 502

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER
Radiate, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front

Rev. DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS P P S C
Concordia enthroned facing left, holding patera in right hand, left elbow resting on small statue of Spes on small column, cornucopiae below throne.

12.31gr
28 mm
12h
.
Note.
CNG Sale 11/09.
From the Estate Collection of Dr. Richard Doty
10 commentsokidoki
ANTOSE91.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 792, Sestertius of AD 158-161 (Vota Soluta)37 views Sestertius (24.43g, 32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 158-161.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: VOTA SOL DEC II (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (across field), Veiled emperor standing with patera and roll before a tripod, bull behind the tripod.
RIC 792 (S); Cohen 1107; Strack 1180; Banti 522 (6 spec.); Foss (RHC) 131:158
ex H.D.Rauch, NY Auction 2009

Issued on the occasion of the twentieth anniversary of the reign, celebrated in AD 158 with vows to celebrate its completion : VOTA SOLVTA
Charles S
Comb11072018114148.jpg
Arcadius, AD 383- 408. AE3. Antioch mint.37 viewsObv: DN ARCADI-VS PF AVG
Helmeted bust facing, spear across shoulder holding shield decorated with cross.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVGG// ANTG
Constantinopolis entrhoned facing, foot on prow, head right, holding scepter and Victory on globe.
Referencez: RIC X 97.
2,23g// 15mm.
1 commentsCanaan
6074_6075.jpg
Arcadius, AE4, SALVS REIPVBLICAE4 viewsAE4
Arcadius
Augustus: 383 - 408AD
9.00mm 1.31gr
O: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE; Victory walking left, trophy over shoulder, dragging captive.
Exergue: Dot, left field; ALEA, below line.
Alexandria Mint
RIC IV Alexandria, 20c, dot.
tina0116g11
121107559547
5/15/13 1/29/17
Nicholas Z
1107_barbar.jpg
Barbarous Hadrian Denarius Venus standing 15 viewsObv. HADIIIVNVZ AVC COZ III P P (sic!)
Laureate head of Hadrian to right, with slight drapery on his left shoulder.

Rev. VENDSO[.] IETVS (sic!)
Venus standing front, head to left, holding apple in her right hand and scepter with her left, and a star behind

3.14 gr
17 mm
12h
okidoki
1107_trachy_2_alexios.jpg
BYZANTINE, Alexius I, Trachy36 viewsFranz-Josef M
20171103_110731.jpg
Caracalla, AR Denarius, 196-198 AD.24 viewsObverse: M AVR ANTON - CAES PONTIF. Bust of Caracalla, bareheaded, draped on the right, seen three quarters behind.
Reverse: PRI-NCIPI - IVVEN- [TVTIS]. Caracalla standing on the left, holding a scepter in the right hand and a baton on the left; behind him, a trophy.
References: RIC 13a, RSC 505. R2.
17mm and 2.63 grams.
1 commentsCanaan
da guan.jpg
CHINA - DA GUAN164 viewsCash coin, Northern Song Dynasty - Emperor Hui Zong - Da Guan Reign (1107-1110). Calligraphy is very admired; it is Slender Gold Script - the Emperor's personal calligraphy. H-16.418. S-629.dpaul7
4526_4527.jpg
Claudius, As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA12 viewsAE As
Claudius
Augustus: 41 - 54AD
Issued: 41 - 50AD
28.0mm 7.43gr
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP; Laureate head, left.
R: LIBERIAS AVGVSTA; Libertas standing, holding pileus and raising hand.
Exergue: S, left field; C, right field.
Rome Mint
RIC 97; Sear 1859; Cohen 47.
Aorta: 109: B1, O23, R7, T15, M5.
tina0611g11 121107890183
5/16/13 4/3/17
Nicholas Z
5477_5478.jpg
Constantine I, Follis, DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG5 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 324AD
19.0mm 2.71gr
O: CONSTANTINVS AVG; Laureate head, right.
R: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG; Wreath, VOT/XX, (Dot), within.
Exergue: (Star), above line; SMHA, below line.
Heraclea Mint
Aorta: 1347: B59, O20, R46, T300, M7.
zurqieh_dubai 391107835729
11/1/15 1/31/17
Nicholas Z
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_Billon-Tetradrachm,_Milne-1433v_D-1851v_,_Alexandria,_L_IH_Year-18_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, 032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662, L I H, Osiris and Isis,61 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, 032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), AE-Drachm, G-1107-1108, D-1661-1662,L I H, Osiris and Isis,
avers:- AΥT KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEB, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- L I H, Canopic jars of Osiris and Isis within shrine, uraeus crown in pediment.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint:Egypt, Alexandria, date: 133-134 A.D., Year (IH)18., ref: Geissen-1107-1108, Dattari-1661-1662, Kapmann-Ganschow-32.590-p-144, BMC -,
Q-001
quadrans
loboargolis2.jpg
GREEK29 viewsAR obol. Argos. (Argolis).260-250 BC. 0,78 grs. Head of wolf left. Θ above / Large A. Δ-E across upper field, thunderbolt below. All within incuse square.
BCD Peloponnesos 1107. BMC 90.
Ex Spink.
1 commentsbenito
20171107_131142.jpg
Herod Archelaus. 6 BC-4 AD. Lead Prutah.30 viewsObv: HPΩΔOY Anchor with long, slender arms.
Rev: EΘN surrounded by wreath.
References:Hendin 507.
13mm and 0.67 grams.
Extremly rare in lead!!!!
1 commentsCanaan
1107c.jpg
hhj8.26.54.225 viewsElagabalus
Nicopolis

Obv: AVT K M AVP ANTΩNEINOC, laureate draped cuirassed bust right.
Rev: NI/KOΠOΛ/ITΩN ΠP/C ICTP/O N, legend in 5 lines within laurel wreath.
27 mm, 10.05 gms

Hristova-Hoeft-Jekov 8.26.54.22
Charles M
A1107LG.jpg
Histiaia, Euboia (340 - 330 B.C.)153 viewsSilver Tetrobol
O: Head of nymph Histiaia right wearing an earring, hair bound in sakkos (sphendone) wreathed with vine
R: Nymph seated upon a stern of galley holding a mast with cross-piece (trophy stand), grapes on vine to left; wing on prow; IΣTIAI-EΩN
14mm
2.4g
BMC Central Greece p.127, 24-25; Sear 2495

Slightly overstruck. Die break on nose.

This type, from which the huge Histiaian issues of the following century are copied, commemorated the expulsion, with Athenian help, of the pro-Macedonian tyrant Philistides in 340 B.C
5 commentsMat
Hartill-19_105a.jpg
Imperial China, Yuan Dynasty: Zhi Zheng (1352) AE 3 wen (Hartill-19.105; Schjth-1107)12 viewsObv: 至正通寶 Zhi Zheng tong bao
Rev: Mongol word on reverse above for the cyclical characters for the year of casting: ꡚꡞꡋ (Shin) for 壬辰 ren-chen (1352)
SpongeBob
3110737.jpg
IONIA, Phokaia36 viewsIONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC. AR Hemihekte (9mm, 1.32 g). Head of nymph left, hair in plain sakkos / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG von Aulock 1815; SNG Copenhagen (Cyprus, etc.) 38993. Good VF, toned. Fine archaic style.

Ex CNG eAuction 311, Lot 737 85/100
ecoli
20150822_110744.jpg
Italy, Herculaneum, College of the Augustales22 viewsThe side walls of the sacellum in the College of the Augustales are painted with doors either side of a central porch which opens onto architectural elements on a white ground. Above the doors and porch are further windows containing bronze chariots driven by winged victories, placed on pedestals. The central fresco on the left wall is of Hercules standing next to Juno and Minerva

From my visit to Herculaneum in August 2015
maridvnvm
4760_4761.jpg
Licinius I, Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG6 viewsAE Follis
Licinius I
Augustus: 308 - 324AD
Issued: 317 - 320AD
18.0mm 3.73gr
O: IMP LICI-NIVS AVG; Laureate, draped bust, left, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left.
Exergue: Wreath, left field; Δ, right field; SMK, below line.
Cyzicus Mint
Aorta: 1021: B16, O16, R30, T34, M5.
RIC VII Cyzicus 9, Δ.
tina0116g11 121107559558
5/15/13 2/19/17
Nicholas Z
Lucania_Herakleia_SNG-ANS85.jpg
Lucania, Herakleia.18 viewsLucania, Herakleia. 281-278 BC. Time of Pyrrhos ⚔ 280. AR Didrachm (6.16 gm). Head of Athena r., wearing unadorned crested Corinthian helmet. / Herakles stdg., resting on club and holding lionskin over l. arm, crowning himself w/ r. Asplustre, ͰΑ, and ͰHPAKΛHIΩN to l., ΦΙΛΩ r. VF. SNG ANS 85; HN Italy 1398; HGC 1 995; Jameson 252; SNG Cop 1107; cf Van Keuren 100-101. Pyrrhos: "One more such victory and I must return to Epeiros alone!".Christian T
1107_1108.jpg
Marcus Aurelius, Denarius, PM TR P XIX IMP III COS III7 viewsAR Denarius
Marcus Aurelius
Caesar: 140 - 161AD
Augustus: 161 - 180AD
Issued: August - December, 165AD
18.5mm 3.20gr 6h
O: M ANTONINVS AVG ARMENIACVS; Laureate head, right.
R: PM TR P XIX IMP III COS III; Annona standing left, holding grain over modius and cornucopia; galley prow to right.
Rome Mint
RIC 142; RSC 484; BMC 371; Sear 4922; Aorta: 423: B11, O030, R89, T7, M2.
edgars2010 272325148250
8/16/16 1/16/20
Nicholas Z
IMGP1107Mith2combo.jpg
Mithradates II, 121 - 91 BC14 viewsAR dr., 4,09 gr, 21mm; Sellwood 24.15, Shore --, Sunrise --;
mint: Rhagai, axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem and 2 ribbons; short cap like hair, mustache, medium-long beard; cuirass; complete dotted border, in right field monograms AP and ΛP, stacked;
rev.: archer, right, on omphalos, w/bow in right hand; 4-line legend beginning left and forming rectangle: BAΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛo(Y) AI(sic)ΣAK(oY) EΠIΦAN(oYΣ) in guide lines;

ex: B. Kritt
Schatz
markianopolis_gordianIII_AMNG1107~0.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 36. Gordian III, HrJ (2014) 6.36.04.03 (plate coin)23 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 25, 8.09g, 25.22mm, 210
obv. AVT KM ANT GORDIANOC A[VG] (VG ligate)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. MARKIANO - POLITW / [N]
Roma, in long garment and with Corinthian helmet, std. on cuirass l.; holding with
r. hand a parazonium on her r. knee and in her raised l. hand a spear; on the
ground behind her the shield.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1107 (4 ex., Gotha, St.Petersburg, 2 in Sofia)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1888
c) Hristova/Jekov (2014) No.6.36.4.3 (plate coin)
Rare, F, some roughness
Jochen
1107.JPG
PROBUS RIC 348 A2 BUST CONSERVA AVG7 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: CONSERVA AVG
BUST TYPE: A2 = radiate, draped (Paludamentum) and cuirassed bust right, seen from back
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//TXXT
WEIGHT: 4.05g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-22mm
RIC: 348
COLLECTION NO. 1107
Very rare variant (CONSERVA AVG instead of the usual CONSERVAT AVG) of this otherwise popular reverse minted at Ticinum
Barnaba6
R698_110703_WOODS.JPG
RIC 69815 viewsvrtsprb
769Hadrian_RIC538b~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Hadrian Dupondius 117 AD Concordia159 viewsReference.
RIC 538b; C. 260; BMC 1107; Strack 502

Obv. IMP CAES DIVI TRAIAN AVG F TRAIAN HADRIAN OPT AVG GER
Radiate, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, baldric strap over shoulder and across chest, seen from front

Rev. DAC PARTHICO P M TR P COS P P S C
Concordia enthroned facing left, holding patera in right hand, left elbow resting on small statue of Spes on small column, cornucopiae below throne.

12.31gr
28 mm
12h

Note.
CNG Sale 11/09.
From the Estate Collection of Dr. Richard Doty
8 commentsokidoki
9789481334_f57ddc5056_o.jpg
Sb 1107 - Constans II-4 viewsSgusiaves
CsIIDO178.jpg
Sear 1107 - Follis - 650-651 AD (Year 10) - Syracuse mint25 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 650-651 AD (Year 10)
Condition: VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust facing, with long beard, wearing chlamys and crown with cross on circlet. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large "M"; Above,
Exergue: SCL

Syracuse mint
DO 178; Sear 1107
4.98g; 26.4mm; 165

Overstruck on an earlier coin of Constans II.
Pep
IMG_0594.JPG
TROAS, Kebren12 viewsTROAS, Kebren. Circa 387-310 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right / Head of ram right. Lazzarini Series 4; SNG Ashmolean 1107; SNG Copenhagen 263-5 var. (ethnic).ecoli
Philip1.jpg
[1107a] Philip I, 244-249 A.D.46 viewsPhilip I. 244-249 AD. AE Sestertius (33mm, 17.09 gm). Struck 248 AD. RIC IV 164.
Commemorative issue.

Philip I. 244-249 AD. AE Sestertius (33mm, 17.09 gm). Struck 248 AD. Obv.: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev.: Octastyle temple with statue of Roma. RIC IV 164; Banti 52; Cohen 201. aVF. This issue commemorates the millenial anniversary of Rome.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Philip the Arab (244-249 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Marcus Julius Philippus rose from obscure origins to rule for five and one-half years as Rome's emperor. Only sketchy details of his life and reign have survived in the historical record. One of those details -- his ethnicity -- was latched onto by later historians, who called the emperor by the name Philip the Arab.

Background and Early Career
Philip the Arab seems to have been born sometime during the reign of Septimius Severus. He was born in the Roman province of Arabia, in what today is the village of Shahba, roughly 55 miles south-southeast of Damascus. The village was obscure at the time of Philip's birth, though once he became emperor, Philip renamed the community Philippopolis and embarked on a major building campaign. Little is known of Philip's father, save the name Julius Marinus. This name, however, indicates that the family held Roman citizenship and must have been locally prominent. Nothing is known of Philip's mother. At some point, probably in the 230s, Philip married Marcia Otacilia Severa. A son was born by 238 and named Marcus Julius Severus Philippus. Philip's early career is also obscure, though it was undoubtedly helped by that of his brother, Julius Priscus. Priscus was appointed praetorian prefect by Gordian III and had previously served as prefect of the Roman province of Mesopotamia. If a fragmentary inscription from Rome can be connected to Priscus, Philip's brother rose quickly during Gordian III's reign through a variety of equestrian offices, including procurator of Macedonia, vice prefect of Egypt, and judge at Alexandria.

Priscus' appointment as praetorian prefect probably came at the beginning of the Roman campaign to reconquer upper Mesopotamia in the spring of 242. The success of the campaign must have reflected well on Priscus, and when his colleague Timesitheus (who was also Gordian III's father-in-law) died the following year, Priscus' brother Philip joined him as praetorian prefect. The brothers remained the young emperor's most powerful deputies during the disastrous campaign against the Persians in the winter of 243-44. On the retreat back up the Euphrates after the Roman defeat at Misikhe, Gordian was killed sometime during the winter months of 244. Most sources state that Philip was involved in Gordian's death; some claim that Philip engineered a mutiny by diverting the grain that was supposed to feed Gordian's troops.

The Emperor and the Military
Philip was acclaimed the new emperor and was firmly in control by late winter 244. Like his predecessor Macrinus, Philip faced, as his first important task, the problem of ending a war in the East. Philip was more fortunate in his negotiations than Macrinus had been. Philip made a peace treaty with the Persian king Shapur in which Philip agreed to pay the equivalent of 50 million sesterces, and possibly an annual tribute. The treaty enabled the new emperor to travel westward to Rome. It remains unknown why Philip was displayed before the soldiers as their new emperor instead of his more accomplished brother Priscus, but Priscus went on to have extraordinary power in the East during the new regime. Priscus is described in one inscription as rector Orientis, and he exercised supreme authority over armies and provinces from his headquarters in Antioch.

The following year the Carpi, a people native to the northern bank of the lower Danube, crossed the river and attacked settlements in the Roman province of Moesia (today, northern Bulgaria), where Philip's brother-in-law Severianus had been put in command. Fighting lasted several years and may have spread westward into Pannonia because of incursions by German tribes. Victory was proclaimed in 248, but the legions in Moesia and Pannonia were dissatisfied with the war's results. The armies there revolted, proclaiming Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus as emperor. While Philip could point to some success on the Danube frontier, he could not claim victory in his battles with the Moors. The emperor preferred to pay for an ignominious peace rather than lose an ignominious war. The heavy-handedness of his brother Priscus in collecting taxes in the East caused another revolt, this one led by a man named Iotapianus, who claimed to be a kinsman of Severus Alexander. Coins that may also be from this period show two other men who tried to become emperors, Silbannacus and Sponsianus. Neither is otherwise attested, and each revolt must have been short-lived.

The Millennium and Christianity
Despite growing instability in the provinces, Romans in the year 248 were fascinated by the celebrations of the 1,000th anniversary of their city's foundation. The festivities may have been patterned after the Secular Games (last held under Septimius Severus 44 years earlier) and included magnificent spectacles for the arena. Millennarianism extended into the literary world, with the author Asinius Quadratus honoring the event by writing his Thousand-Year History.

Philip's religious beliefs have garnered the most attention from modern historians. Writing but 75 years after Philip's reign, the Church father Eusebius relayed a report that Philip was a Christian who was once compelled by a church official to confess his sins before being allowed to attend an Easter service. Later sources locate the story in Antioch and connect the tale to Babylas, a bishop later martyred in the persecution mounted by Philip's successor, Decius. The Decian persecution is itself blamed by Eusebius on Decius' personal hatred for Philip. Eusebius also reported that the Christian teacher and apologist Origen wrote one letter to Philip and another to Otacilia Severa. While it is quite likely that Philip was well acquainted with Christianity and may even have been respectful of its teachings and leaders, he could not have been a Christian in any meaningful way. Philip appears indistinguishable from other third-century emperors in his use of pagan symbols and titles. Philip made no improvements in the legal status of Christians or their religion. Moreover, Philip's alleged Christianity was never corroborated by non-Christian authors.

Within six months of the beginning of his reign, Philip had appointed his son as Caesar and heir. Three years later, in the summer of 247, the boy was named Augustus and co-ruler, even though he was probably not yet 10 years old. His mother, Otacilia Severa, is last named on coins in the year 248, leading to speculation that she may have died in that year. Nothing is known of the emperor's brother Priscus after the outbreak of Iotapianus' revolt: and it seems likely that he died either naturally or as a result of the uprising.

Defeat and Death
Iotapianus was eventually defeated and killed in the East, as was Pacatianus along the Danube. To restore discipline among the Danubian troops, Philip sent as the new commander Decius, a native of the region. The appointment proved a dangerous blunder. The disgruntled soldiers, still eager for decisive leadership and decisive victories, revolted yet again in the late spring of 249 and proclaimed Decius emperor. Philip marched out from Rome to face the approaching troops of Decius. In late summer, the two armies met outside Verona. Philip's troops were bested, and the emperor either died in the battle or was assassinated by his troops. When news of Philip's defeat and death reached Rome, the praetorian guard murdered Philip's son and colleague.

Philip the Arabian remains an enigmatic figure because different authors evaluated his reign with wildly divergent interpretations. Christian authors of late antiquity praised the man they regarded as the first Christian emperor. Pagan historians saw Philip as indecisive, treacherous and weak. Our lack of detailed knowledge about the reign makes any analysis highly speculative. Nonetheless, Philip's provincial and administrative background represents continuity with features of Severan government. His career has its closest parallel with that of Macrinus, an equestrian from the provinces who, a quarter of a century earlier, capped an administrative career by moving from the office of praetorian prefect to that of emperor. In the struggle to maintain legitimacy, Philip faced revolts and upheavals in several corners of the empire. He was able to overcome these challenges for half a decade. The empire remained fundamentally sound and stable during his reign. The great disruptions of the third century were yet to come.

Copyright (C) 1999, Michael L. Meckler
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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